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Types of Filter Underdrain

and
Filter Arrangements
Virgilio Martinez
International Manager
F. B. Leopold Co., Inc

Presentation Outline
Types of Filter Underdrain
Filter Arrangements for New Systems
Rehabilitation of Existing Filters

Comparison of Single and


Dual Pass Underdrain

False Bottom
Monolithic Pour

Nozzle Floor

Pipe Laterals

Folded Plate

Tri-Lateral

Leopold Underdrains

Evolution of the Dual


Parallel Lateral Underdrain
Underdrain

Installations

Sq. Ft.

Years

Clay Tile

3,500

7,000,000

1926-91

407

1,200,000

1977-99

Plastic Superblock 260

500,000

1990-99

Type S A/W

467

850,000

1996-

Type SL A/W

309

500,000

1998-

Universal A/W

How the Dual Parallel


Lateral Works

Water Recovery Channel

Baffle Reduces Level


Sensitivity

Air-water Interface

Old Type III

New Type SL

Nozzle Air Pattern

Nozzles with Sand/Anthracite

16 Type SL with IMS Cap

Plant Size and Filters


For <2 mgd, at least 2 filters
For >2 mgd but < 12 mgd, 4 filters
For > 12 mgd:
N = 1.2Q0.5
where N = total number of filters and
Q=maximum plant flow rate in mgd

Self-backwash type: minimum of 4


filters, but 6-8 are preferred unless
auxiliary backwash pump supplied

Filter Size
Few larger filters usually most economicalfilter size governed principally by:
reduction of capacity with 1 unit out of service
maximum backwash capacity
uniform distribution of filter backwash water
maximum washwater trough span (~20 feet)
maximum filter cell size is rarely >1500 ft2

Plants >20 mgd are usually composed of


two cells per filter with a central gullet

Filter Size

Width of filter cell: 10-20 ft (16 ft average)


Length to width ratio: 2:1 to 4:1 (3:1 av.)
Area of filter cell 250 - 1,000 ft2 (600 ft2 av.)
Depth of filter cell: 12-20 ft (17 av.)
Depth for self-backwash filter: 18-25 ft (22
ft av.)

Square vs. Rectangular

Front Flume

Air Introduction

Air Introduction

H Flume

Flat Bottom Flume

Center Flume

Air Introduction

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation

Questions!!

F. B. Leopold Co., Inc.


227 S. Division Street
Zelienople, PA 16063
724/452-6300

Lethbridge, Alberta Case Study

From Burgess, Kaup, Barr


Public-Private-Partnership
150 ML/D plant with Leopold clay tile UD
Filter maldistribution 10%-media mixing
Replaced with
Type S with IMS Cap
0.5 mm sand and 1.0 mm anthracite
Converted declining rate to constant rate

Lethbridge, Alberta Case Study


Filter maldistribution reduced to 2.5%
33% reduction in backwash water
300,000 L/ to 200,000 L/

Filter runs extended to 60-80 hours


Which also reduces backwash water

Consistent turbidities <0.1 NTU