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Carlos Garcia, Zachary Huntsman, Jaren Johnson, Hannah Ramsey

English 2010-94
Annotated Bibliography
Our group selected the Homeless Youth Resource Center as our community partner. The
plight of the homeless youth is multifaceted, reflecting profound complexities and diverse
backgrounds. Despite such complexities, there is a common thread these youth all share: they
are at a severe disadvantage in life, and deficient in the privileges that are available in our day.
Accordingly, the research documented within this bibliography will reflect the wide variety of
this subject matter - which ultimately constructs the fragile framework of a disadvantaged and
underprivileged existence.

Alvi, S., Scott, H., & Stanyon, W. (2010). Were locking the door: Family
histories in a sample of homeless youth. The Qualitative Report, 15(5),
1209-1226. Retrieved from
>. Date accessed 23 Mar. 2015

The authors of this journal report were able to show a variety of familial situations that
contribute to the creation of homeless youth. Through interviews with fifteen homeless
youth, both male and female genders, between the ages of sixteen and twenty-four, in
southern Ontario, Canada. One can start to understand, poor parenting as being a severe
cause of runaway youth, and closed off relationships between the youth and their parents,
which is a major factor to the creation of homelessness amongst youth. In an interview

conducted by the authors, a homeless youth named Brian, explains, that his disrespectful
attitude towards his mother, that got him kicked out of his home at the age of fifteen, was
due to him finding out of his mothers drug dealing business. In another interview with a
boy named Jake, the authors refer to the inversion of responsibility as being strongly
associated with Jakes mother, who would leave him and his brother alone for months at
a time, with no food. This would eventually lead Jake and his brother to become
survivors, causing them to steal whatever they could to be able to survive. These are only
two examples of many bad parenting situations that can often be a route to a young
person becoming homeless.

Beier, SR, WD Rosenfeld, KC Spitalny, SM Zansky, and AN Bontempo. "The

Potential Role of
an Adult Mentor in Influencing High-Risk Behaviors in Adolescents."
National Center
for Biotechnology Information. Web.

Adolescents with mentors were significantly less likely to participate in 4 of the 5

measured risk behaviors: ever carrying a weapon, illicit drug use in the past 30 days,
smoking more than 5 cigarettes per day, and sex with more than 1 partner in the past 6
months. No significant difference was found with alcohol use. A strong, positive

relationship was found between adolescents having an adult mentor and decreased
participation in 4 of the 5 risk behaviors evaluated. (Beier et all)
These types of risk factors are very common among the homeless youth, if they were to
have adult mentors that helped with decreasing participation in these activities, the road
out of homelessness would become a lot smoother.

Breakey, W.R. (2011) It's time for the public health community to declare
war on homelessness. American Journal of Public Health 87:2, 153155. Online publication date: 1-Feb-1997.

This is a short journal introducing the public health needs that come from homelessness.
Another important point this journal introduces is that the sick and disabled are often
those who become homeless. The overall purpose of this journal is to portray
homelessness a national disease effect enough people for this it to be a public health
This is a much older article with outdated statistics; however, the overall general purpose
and ideas portrayed are still prevalent today.

Cochran, Bryan N., Angela J. Stewart, Joshua A. Ginzler, Ana Mari Cauce.
(2011) Challenges Faced by Homeless Sexual Minorities: Comparison
of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Homeless Adolescents With
Their Heterosexual Counterparts. American Journal of Public Health
92:5, 773-777. Online publication date: 1-May-2002.

The purpose of this journal was to identify the challenges faced by homeless, sexual
minorities. A comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents
with their heterosexual counterparts. An equal number of sexual minorities and
heterosexual homeless youth were compared with multiple psychosocial variables.
In conclusion: sexual minorities among the homeless youth experience an increased risk
for abuse and neglect.

Courtney, Mark E., Michael E. Foster, and Wayne D. Osgood, "Vulnerable

Populations And The Transition To Adulthood." The Future of Children
20.1054-8289 (2010): 209-29. Print.

The authors of this journal uncover the difficulties that teenagers have transitioning to
adulthood, after having been in the welfare system for most of their lives. The Fostering
Connections Act of 2008 is an example of services that were extended from the ages of
eighteen to twenty-one. The authors found that lengthening the transition to adult

responsibilities for youth that are troubled with homelessness, mental health disease, and
physical disease, only makes the situation that much harder. A young person is at their
most vulnerable state during their early years of aging, and it is then that they require the
most attention, whether it comes from a familial sense, or from government and
community programs. As a country, it should not be ok to turn a blind eye to a problem
that is affecting the entire nation.

Day, Jayme., Lloyd Pendleton., Michelle Smith., Alex Hartvigsen., Patrick

Frost., Ashley Tolman.,

Tamera Kohler., and Karen Quackenbush.


HOMELESSNESS. Salt Lake City: Utah

Housing and Community Development

Division State Community

Services Office, 2014. PDF.

An extensive report detailing homelessness in Utah. The intent of the 2014 report is to
inform society as to the state of homelessness in Utah. Although the causes of
homelessness are complex, there are solutions. This report highlights statewide efforts to
end both Chronic and Veteran homelessness. I merely referenced this report for specific
reports for Utah homeless statistics.

De La Haye, Kayla., Harold D. Green, Jr., David P. Kennedy., Annie Zhou.,

Daniela Golinelli.,
Suzanne L. Wenzel., and Joan S. Tucker. "Who Is Supporting Homeless
Predictors of Support In Personal Networks."Journal of Research on
Adolescence 22.4
(2012): 604-16. Eric. Web. <

Homeless youth lack the traditional support networks of their housed peers, which
increases their risk for poor health outcomes. Using a multilevel dyadic analytic
approach, this study identified characteristics of social contacts, relationships, and social
networks associated with the provision of physical and emotional support to homeless
youth. Support providers were likely to be family members, sex partners, or non-streetbased contacts. The provision of support was also associated with contacts' employment
and homelessness status, frequency of contact, shared risk behaviors, and the number of
network members that were homeless and employed. The results provide insights into
how homeless youth could be assisted to develop more supportive social networks. (De
La Haye) Adult mentors can also help with creating networks needed to help the
homeless youth get back on their feet.

George, Serena D., and Linda K. O'Neill. "The Northern Experience of StreetInvolved Youth: A Narrative Inquiry Lexprience Nordique De Jeunes
De La Rue : Une Enqute Narrative." Canadian Journal of Counselling
and Psychotherapy / Revue Canadienne De Counseling Et De
Psychothrapie 0826-3893 45.4 (2011): 365-85. Date
accessed 24 Mar. 2015.

The research done by George and ONeill gives a view into the lives of eight different
homeless youth, four female and four male. The youth range between the ages of twenty
to twenty-seven, and live in North Central British Columbia. George and ONeill were
able to conduct the interviews at a homeless youth drop-in center; they found that the
older the individual, the more inclined the individual was to giving an interview, based on
their wanting to create awareness, and seek help for their own situation. Although the
age range in this study ranges from early twenties to late twenties, one can recognize that
these homeless youth, are most likely in this situation because they never had a way out
of the welfare system. One youth explains, I feel safer in the shelter than roaming the
streets. You can get into a lot of trouble saying the wrong thing downtownI dont want
to get into the sex trade because I heard some girls went missing last year and their
bodies were found. This is one of many decisions that homeless youth may have to
make as a means to survival on the streets.

Greene, J.M., S.T. Ennett., and C.L. Ringwalt. Substance use among
runaway and homeless youth in three national samples. American
Journal of Public Health February 1997: Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 229-235.

The American Journal of Public Health (February 1997) is an informational journal

examining substance abuse in homeless youth and runaways, through conducting and
examining surveys. The four surveys established a cross sectional catalog by examining
diverse degrees of homeless youth. As well as determining and focusing on the current
state of homelessness, the surveys examined the youths availability to services and their
experiences with the services. After compiling results of four surveys, sampled across the
United States in three different locations, the authors were able to construct an observable
correlation. The correlation being, homeless youth are in fact much more susceptible to
using illegal substances, however, the youth able to access services (i.e shelters, soup
kitchens, recreation centers) were much less likely to have history in substance use. The
authors conclude by addressing the need for more available services amongst the youth.

Greene, J.M., S.T. Ennett., and C.L. Ringwalt. (2011) Prevalence and
correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth.
American Journal of Public Health 89:9, 1406-1409. Online publication
date: 1-Sep-1999

"Survival sex" refers to the selling of sex to meet subsistence needs. It includes the
exchange of sex for shelter, food, drugs, or money. The dangers inherent in survival sex
make it among the most damaging repercussions of homelessness among youths.
Previous estimates of the proportion of runaway and homeless youths who engage in
survival sex range from 10% to 50%. These estimates, however, were based on relatively
small and geographically limited samples. (J.M. Greene) A sample of homeless street
youths were interviewed, and among them, over 25% reported in having participated in
survival sex. The authors then noted there being a correlation amongst the homeless
youth who received shelter and those who had not. They had found that the youth able to
access shelter were ten times less likely to experience survival sex, verifying the
necessity for youth and additional shelters.

Grineski, Steve. "The Multi-Dimensional Lives of Children Who Are

Homeless." College of
Education - Missouri State University. Web.

It is widely reported that children who are homeless are victimized by overwhelming
challenges like poverty and ill-advised policy decisions, such as underfunding the
McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This act is the only federal legislation
devoted to this marginalized group. Children who are homeless, however, should not be

characterized as single-dimensional and hapless victims solely defined by this unwanted

status...Viewing children who are homeless as multi-dimensional and unfinished, with
hopes, dreams, and aspirationspassions and commitments [and] skills, abilities, and
capacities(1) should be the reality for the more than one million children who are
homeless. This manuscript provides a richer understanding for the multi-dimensional
lives of children who are homeless. Interviews conducted with key stakeholders and
surveys completed by children staying at an emergency homeless shelter located in a
Midwestern mid-size city inform preliminary ethnographic findings presented here.
Generated from a two-year community- and shelter-based activity program these findings
push back against a narrowing social construction of children who are homeless, as do
several studies investigating this idea. A more holistic narrative that illustrates
multidimensional children who act on varied interests, gifts, and talents are suggested.
This article is relevant because many clients at the homeless youth center have children
of their own. It is important to know how to help both the parents and the children and to
not write them off as just being homeless. They are more than that.

Keeshin, Brooks R., and Kristine Campbell. "Screening Homeless Youth for
Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in
Treatment." Child Abuse & Neglect 35.6 (2011): 401-07. Web.
84% of homeless youth interviewed in the Salt Lake area described themselves as being
abused (physically or sexually) prior to the age of eighteen. Abuse is a significant

common factor in most homeless youth. This article discusses the abused, and their
perceptions of the effect that the abuse has had upon them. It also analyzes the youths
likelihood to accept treatment. Even though a majority describes lasting effects from the
abuse, less than half are interested in receiving treatment.
One of the challenges in working with the local resource center for homeless youth is the
fact that so many have come from abusive backgrounds. This limits, to some degree, our
ability to interact with these youth. A background check and a minimum six month
commitment are required in order to mentor. We have been cautioned to be very careful
with our conversations, and expressions that we use, in the minimal interaction that we
may have with the youth.
Mohan, Erica, and Carolyn M. Shields. "The Voices Behind the Numbers:
Understanding the
Experiences of Homeless Students." College of Education - Missouri
State University.
Mohan and Shields uncover the harsh realities of students who are troubled with
homelessness, within the framework of the Mckinney-Vento Act. The Mckinney-Vento
Act was the first federal response to homelessness. It was put into play by president
Ronal Reagan in 1987. The act has been reauthorized several times since its initial
authorization. Mohan and Shields found that 21.5% of homeless children were capable
of doing mathematics, compared to 39.6% of children that were living in homes.
Homeless youth already have plenty to deal with, and the reality that their education

levels are lower than their peers who are housed is simply daunting. How can youth get
out of homelessness if the education they require to escape simply is not there? One
thirteen-year old girl, by the name of Ramona, speaks on how hard it is for her to
concentrate on her studies. On a day to day basis, she is preoccupied with living in a
shelter that is overcrowded, and being separated from her brother (because of his
reaching a certain age and not being able to stay in the same shelter as his younger sister).
It is understandable that many of the issues that come along with homelessness will
make it harder for a child to succeed, but there should be a safe haven for these children
to go to, so that the harshness of the outside world isnt able to completely tear a child
down at such a young age. The fact that the Mckinney-Vento act has been reauthorized
several times is shameful. It is an act that should always stay in play.

Murphy, Joseph F., and Kerri Tobin. "Addressing the Problems of Homeless
Journal of School Leadership 22.3 (2012): 633-63. Eric. Web.
< to help the homeless

Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but

important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention
at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for

educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon

of adolescent homelessness, how it affects students at school, and the various strategies
used to address it, including a broad consideration of the effects of adolescent
homelessness in and beyond the school context. We also review methods that educators
can use to address the problem of homeless youth, including advocating for the needs of
this population in a larger policy context. (Murphy)
The Mckinney-Vento act needs to be better understood and well known. Adult mentors,
such as teachers, need to learn the best way to teach the homeless youth and to strengthen
their education in order for them to be able to make their way out of homelessness.

National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH). "The State of Homelessness

in America 2014." National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH), 27
May 2014. Web. 06 Mar. 2015.

Short PDF containing nationwide statistics covering the epidemic of homeless citizens in
the U.S., and the efforts in 2014 to combat the state of homelessness. The pool of
people at risk of homelessness, those in poverty, those living with friends and family, and
those paying over half of their income for housing, has remained high despite
improvements in unemployment and the overall economy. (NAEH) The statistics show
improvements, but they also show plateauing.

Noll, Elizabeth. "The Impact of Homelessness on Children's Literacy

Experiences." The Reading Teacher57.4(2003):362-71. 2013.pdf. Date
accessed. 24 Mar. 2015.

Nolls research covers an array of issues concerning homelessness. One issue stood out
to me: mental illness. Nolls research shows that, according to the nationwide chart on
Personal Vulnerabilities of the Average Homeless Person, mental illness ranks second
(thirty-three percent had jail or prison experience, which ranked first) Noll states in her
section on mental illness, that, The institute for children and poverty reports that
individuals who were homeless while growing up are twice as likely as the rest of the
homeless population to be diagnosed with mental illness in adulthood. This being the
case, one can start to understand that mental health is a major issue that needs to be
addressed, and specifically amongst homeless youth. If it is possible to stop mental
illness amongst youth, by providing a homelike experience, then serious efforts should be
made, not only by the government, but by the communities we live in.

Page, Allison J., RN, Allan D. Ainsworth, PhD, and Marjorie A. Pett, Mstat, DSW.
"Homeless Families and Their Children's Health Problems A Utah Urban
Experience." The Western Journal of Medicine 158.1 (1993): 30-35.

The majority of information concerning the homeless comes from the East and West
coasts. However, there are a growing number of homeless people within the
Intermountain West. It is estimated that up to 35% of the homeless population represent
families. The health issues that result from homelessness are well-documented; sadly,
children are especially prone to these issues (considering their developing immune
system, and the likelihood of not being immunized). Homeless children are especially
prone to malnutrition, tooth decay, ear and upper respiratory tract infections, intestinal
infections, and tuberculosis. This article was initially written to educate the health
community concerning this growing phenomenon in the region, to allow them to prepare
for this growing need, and to develop programs to better serve homeless families.
Even though this article is dated (1993), the health concerns surrounding the homeless are
still very real in particular young children and adolescents who have only known these
conditions in their lifetime. According to the local resource center for homeless youth,
many homeless adolescents were raised on the streets, or in very destitute circumstances.
Their homeless state is simply a continuation of their childhood. This suggests a lifetime
of distress upon their overall health.
Pecora, Peter J., and Ruth Massinga. "Providing Better Opportunities for Older
Children in the Child Welfare System. Future of 14.10548289 (2004): 151-73. Retrieved from
pdf.>. Date accessed 24 Mar. 2015

In accordance to Massinga and Peccoras research, it becomes very apparent that the
older the child is in the welfare system, the more susceptible the child is to homelessness,
turning to substance abuse, or not having the ability to obtain an education or job.
Massinga and Peccora found that, in 2001 30% of children in foster care were 11 to 15
years old, and another 17% were age 16 or older. This being the case, one can begin to
wonder how hard it must be at these older ages to remain without a family. The guidance
that a child learns from his/her parents in those vital adolescent years is irreplaceable. By
the age of 21, an individual is deemed too old to remain in the foster care system in the
United States. Without the right guidance it can be very difficult to try and maintain a
stable living situation.

Ramstetter, Catherine L., Robert Murray, and Andrew S. Garner. "The Crucial
Role of Recess in Schools." Journal of School Health 80.11 (2010): 51726. Web.
This article tackles the issue of recess in the education system. They discuss the
consequences of allowing a purely cognitive approach in education to push out
unstructured recess periods. They describe unstructured recess periods as necessary in
developing the whole child. The belief is that periods of unstructured recess teach
children to be creative, learn to interact socially, resolve social problems that arise on the
playground, and allow the mind to more vigorously return to cognitive activities.
The rationale behind including this source is that underprivileged youth/homeless youth
are often deprived of the benefits of constructive recreational activities. A young adult on

the street likely has very limited opportunities to develop the whole person. This topic
appears to be somewhat limited, but may offer a multitude of valuable benefits to the
underprivileged youth. A book that would be worthy of future reference, and appears to
address this subject more fully, is: Crime Prevention through Sport and Physical activity,
by Margaret Cameron and Collin MacDougall.

Rhodes, Jean E., and David L. Dubois. "Mentoring Relationships and Programs
for Youth." Current Directions in Psychological Science 17.4 (2008):
254-58. Web.
Rhodes and Dubois describe mentoring as one of the most popular social interventions
in American Society However, according to their research, they have found that
mentoring alone is not a predictor of positive outcomes. A handful of key components
are required in order to hope for the best possible outcomes in the mentoring process.
These components may include: long-term commitments (at least one year), structured
relationship, empathy (by the mentor) along with an emphasis in the youths interests,
and an adult mentor that represents a positive character of being.
In consideration of homeless youth, it is evident that they could gain significant benefits
of a mentoring program. The greatest challenge involved may be finding a sufficient
number of positive adult mentors that are willing to commit to a one year mentor
relationship. In our class group, we have found this to be the case. Most organizations
require a minimum six month commitment with children/youth.

Shields, Carolyn M., and Amy Warke. "The Invisible Crisis: Connecting Schools
with Homeless
Families. "Journal of School Leadership 20.6 (2010): 789-819. Eric.
< to help the homeless

Children and youth represent a growing proportion of the homeless population. Using
the lens of transformative leadership, this multifamily case study explores the realities of
homeless children, the challenges their families face, and the role of school leaders in
ensuring that they receive a quality education. It recommends that leaders (1) recognize
that homelessness is not a homogeneous experience, (2) ensure that all teachers
understand the rights of the homeless according to the terms of the McKinney-Vento
Homeless Assistance Act, and (3) have the moral courage to develop strong relationships
that help teachers address the unique needs of each child and family. (Shields)
It is important for the homeless youth to feel welcome and accepted in their school
environment. It is hard to focus and do your best when you dont feel like you belong.
The fact that someone is homeless shouldnt define them.

Thompson, Nicole L., Dwight Hare, Tracie T. Sempier, and Cathy Grace. "The
Development of a Curriculum Toolkit with American Indian and Alaska
Native Communities." Early Childhood Education Journal 35 (2007):
397-404. Print.
Thompson, et al, evaluate the history of government intervention with Native American
peoples, in particular, concerning their education. They have found that the means for
teaching Native Americans, children specifically, have historically been ineffective, and
often destructive. According to their research, the most effective means to work with and
educate the Native American communities is within the structure of their own homes and
family, in alignment with their culture, language, and even according to their religious
beliefs and symbols.
At first glance, this article may seem as if it does not fit-in with the entirety of the
bibliography. However, I believe that it represents a strong message as to the needs that
we each possess. In other words, Native American children are not the only ones that
learn the best when they have a strong family, community, when they learn according to
their culture, and familiar symbols of life. Homeless children and underprivileged youth
are highly likely to be missing some, or all of these essential elements to successful life
development. The question is, how can these elements still be integrated into the needs
of homeless, or at-risk youth?

United States. National Center for Homeless Education. US Department of

Education. Unaccompanied and Homeless Youth Review of Literature
(1995 - 2005). By Jan Moore. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Web.
A comprehensive analysis of homeless youth; provides a historical perspective, and
intensive discussion on all aspects of the topic. This analysis represents a review of
literature on the topic over a ten year period (1995 2005). The National Center for
Homeless Education is funded by the US Department of Education.
This review provides an invaluable resource to the topic of underprivileged youth, and to
the issues they face. This is something that could be referenced over and over as our
class group interacts with our NPO and the homeless youth that they serve.