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Assignment 2 Feasibility Study-Amy...........................................................3

3D Printing of food....................................................................................3
Degree of diffusion in society and the economy..............................................3
Existing technologies it might replace, complement or compete with............3
Current government regulation.......................................................................3
Business benefits for Bell St Early Learning....................................................4
Market pull or technology push.......................................................................4
Adoption of 3D printed food in the early childhood education sector..............4

Wearable Technology................................................................................5
Degree of diffusion in society and the economy..............................................5
Existing technologies it might replace, complement or compete with............5
Current government regulation.......................................................................6
Business benefits for Bell St Early Learning....................................................6
Market pull or technology push.......................................................................7
Adoption of wearable technology in the early childhood education sector.....7

Assignment 2 Feasibility Study- Erana......................................................10
Facial recognition in large format retail stores.......................................10
Degree of diffusion in society and the economy............................................10
Existing technologies facial recognition might replace or complement.........11
Other possible competing technologies........................................................11
Current government regulation.....................................................................11
Business benefits.......................................................................................... 11
Market pull or technology push.....................................................................12
Adoption in the retail sector..........................................................................12

RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification)....................................................12

Degree of diffusion in society and the economy............................................12
Existing technologies RFID might replace or complement............................13
Other possible competing technologies........................................................14
Current government regulation.....................................................................15
Business benefits.......................................................................................... 15
Market pull or technology push.....................................................................16
Adoption in the retail sector..........................................................................16

Assignment 2- Feasibility Study -Rob........................................................18

Digital Libraries of the Future and Nerve Centre of the Community.......18

Introducing Screenless Display and Robots to the Christchurch City
Screenless Display..................................................................................19
Screenless Display degree of diffusion in society and the economy.............19
Existing technologies it might replace or complement..................................20
Other possible competing technologies........................................................21
Current Government Legislation....................................................................22
Business Benefits of Screenless Display to Christchurch City Libraries.........22
Market Pull or Technology Push and Market Position.....................................24
Libraries adoption of Screenless Display now and in to the future................25

Robots in Libraries..................................................................................26
Robots degree of diffusion in society and the economy................................27
Existing technologies robots might replace or complement..........................29
Other possible competing technologies........................................................30
Current government regulation.....................................................................30
Business Benefits of Robots to Christchurch City Libraries............................31
Market Pull or Technology Push and Market Position.....................................32
Libraries robot technology adoption now and in to the future.......................33


Assignment 2 Feasibility Study-Amy

3D Printing of food
Degree of diffusion in society and the economy
3D printing has only started to become mainstream with the cost of 3D
printers coming down enough for them to be used to their full potential.
There is even now a 3D printing for Dummies book! Real life applications
of 3D printing are only starting to be investigated now rather than printing
cool sculptures because it can be done. Some of the investigations are
focusing on printing organs and limbs in a medical capacity. Other
applications include making architectural models. But Im going to focus
on the 3D printing of food, in particular in an early childhood education
There are a number of people starting to explore 3D printing of food
NASA are looking at ways to print pizza that cooks as it prints (Hausman &
Horne, 2014). Then there is a rest home in Germany that is printing food
to make the heavily mashed food that is a necessity for some of its
residents more appealing (McFarland, 2015). There are also people
researching how to make steak by growing cells in a lab and them printing
them into a steak shape perfect for vegetarians who are against the
poor treatment of animals on farms!
But at the moment it isnt moving to mainstream technology as good
fresh food is much cheaper and convenient for people to eat.
Existing technologies it might replace, complement or compete with
In an early childhood education setting this technology might replace the
cook in centres with their own centre. It may also replace the regular
cooking implements you would find in a kitchen such as an oven,
microwave etc., especially if the model of printer brought was able to cook
the food as it printed. However, unless 3D printing of food really takes off
and replaces regular food/cooking I cant see these being replaced as they
are probably still useful to use with the children to do group baking.
I can see the use of a 3D printer complementing the increased knowledge
that we have about food and nutrition and the importance of a balanced
Competing technologies to 3D printed food could be the genetic
engineering of food and the growing of cells in a lab that are then used as
foods. However these could also be used as a complementary technology
too but taking the result of these technologies and then feeding it into a
3D printer.
Current government regulation
As far as I can tell there isnt any regulations regarding 3D printers other
than the obvious electrical safety legislation which applies to any device
or appliance that plugs into the wall.

However, as soon as you start talking about 3D printing of food you need
to be aware of food safety legislation. Of the 4 food safety Acts that are
governed by Ministry of Primary Industry the main one would be the Food
Act 1981, and depending on what you are printing it may be necessary to
be aware of the Animal Products Act 1999. (Ministry of Primary Industries,
There is also a proposed Food Act that is worth looking into to ensure that
any proposed changes dont effect this being introduced.
The current Act due to when it was introduced wont have anything in it
about the legality of 3D printing food. However it does refer to food
hygiene which is an important consideration. Research may also need to
be done to prove that printed food is safe for human consumption under
part 11AA of the Act (Parliamentary Counsel Office, 2014).
As with all government legislation it is rather hard reading, therefore it is
probably worth getting a lawyer to investigate this to ensure that it is
legal prior to doing too much more development work on the proposal.
There is also legislation relating to the provision of food in an Early
Childhood education setting, however this legislation is relevant both if
serving normal food or 3D printed food. Under clause 19 of the license
food is served at appropriate times to meet the nutritional needs of each
child while they are attending (Ministry of Education, 2015).
Business benefits for Bell St Early Learning
Once the technology is starting to become mainstream and more socially
accepted Bell St Early Learning could market this new technology as a
point of difference between it and other early childhood education
centres. They could claim that they are the only centre in the Wairarapa
to provide a fully balanced meal for each meal with child-friendly flavours
and textures. They could guarantee that the child will be able to eat their
fill of fresh printed fruit and vegetables, even those that they arent
normally willing to eat. They will be able to more easily cater for different
dietary requirements while still producing food that looks the same or
similar to what the other children are eating so those with
allergies/intolerances dont have to feel that they are missing out.
Obviously at the moment the capital cost to purchase the printer is
prohibitive, however this will come down in time and will at some point
drop down to a level where providing meals in this format may even be
cheaper than producing regular meals for the children.
Market pull or technology push
3D printing of food is a bit of an odd one. I think that generic 3D printing is
a case of market pull. There has been a need to be able to manufacture
items more quickly and often with a large amount of customisation which
3D printing is ideal for. There is even talk of being able to use this
technology to quickly print shelters in an emergency situation. So in this

case it is definitely a case of the technology being developed to solve an

existing problem. However, in the case of printing food I think its more of
a technology push, a way to leverage off the existing technology and use
it in new ways, it hasnt evolved from a wish from people to be able to
print their own food. This is why I think this facet of 3D printing will take
some time to become mainstream.

Adoption of 3D printed food in the early childhood education sector

While I dont feel that the technology has progressed to a point where this
is a practical solution yet I have done a search to see if I could find any
centres in New Zealand that are currently marketing this to its families. I
was unable to find any doing a generic search, and searching websites of
centres that I know of in the Wairarapa none of them state that they are
providing this.

Wearable Technology
Degree of diffusion in society and the economy
Wearable technology is moving from the early adopter phase into more
mainstream adoption. The hype around Apple releasing its new Apple
Watch earlier this year has probably helped this. But I think that there are
multiple uses for this technology and it will evolve in ways we havent
dreamed of yet. At the moment it is in a phase to replace a watch, work
with your phone, track your movements and as a status symbol. As people
become more accustomed to using this I believe that it will move on and
be able to tell us more and more about our bodies and will become
engrained in our lives in a similar manner to our cell phones.
The cost will come down and it will become more palatable to use/give to
your children. At the moment with a Samsung Gear S (Samsungs smart
watch that was released prior to the Apple watch which is not available in
NZ yet) costing $499, and needing to be paired with a rather expensive
Samsung smart phone (Samsung, n.d.), its not something that you would
want to give to your toddler. Neither goes for the $199RRP Fitbit Charge
HR (Noel Leeming, n.d.), but the cost of that makes it a bit more palatable
and it would probably be a bit more robust to strap to a toddler!
Other wearable technologies that may have a place in an early childhood
education setting are wearable goggles for virtual reality based teaching.
Existing technologies it might replace, complement or compete with
Given wearable technology is such a wide ranging area its hard to know
for sure what technologies they could replace, complement or compete
with. Below are a couple of examples based on two technologies that I
think are nearing a point where it would be feasible to investigate
introducing them into an early childhood education centre.
Wearable tech in an early childhood centre would be able to register when
a child arrives and leaves and could be used to either replace the current
login system that some centres use, or to automatically sync with the
existing program to provide an accurate record of when a child is
attending the service.
The idea of a child wearing a device that automatically logs when a child
arrives at a centre and when they depart is also along the ideas of microchipping kids, however a little more palatable as the wearable tech is able

to be removed with ease, unlike a micro-chip. But they both have similar
purposes so could potentially compete in this area.

With current devices being able to track sleep and heart rates they would
be able to accurately record when a child went to sleep and woke up. In
an early childhood centre a staff member needs to check sleeping children
for warmth, breathing and well-being at least every 5-10mins (Ministry of
Education, 2015). They also need to record when a child sleeps and when
the checks were made. With wearable devices this may be able to
automatically sync with the centres records to show when a child slept.
They may also be able to use this monitoring (heart rate, breathing,
temperature) to automatically alert staff to any issues or potential issues
with a sleeping child freeing them up from having to physically be in the
room with the child and therefore able to interact with the awake children
when not needed by the sleeping child. There is a product out there that
does a similar thing, but Im not sure if it is used in ECE centres though it
is the AngelCare monitor and it alerts a parent or caregiver when a child
stops moving (Babycity, n.d.).
The virtual reality goggles enabling children to experience being in a place
outside their centre without leaving could replace a number of current
technologies. Rather than showing the kids a video or interacting with an
app on a tablet or I-pad the teachers could set the children up with the
goggles and they could experience a trip to the sea if that was their
current enquiry subject. Or they could take a trip to another country if
they were studying or talking about another country. This would help
enrich the childrens learning.
Current government regulation
Again, with anything to do with early childhood education there are the
Ministry of Education legislation, guidelines and licensing criteria to take
note of. While rather prescribed there is nothing in there about the specific
use of wearable technology. It is around ensuring that the children are
safe, well looked after and educated appropriately. So the use of
technology is at a centres discretion. However if using the technology in
place of a staff member actively monitoring sleeping children, this would
be best discussed with the Ministry of Education to ensure it complies with
the spirit of the guideline. If it doesnt it could still be used as an
additional piece of mind over the minimum (checks every 10mins).
The other biggie with collecting all this data about a child attending an
early childhood education centre is around privacy. All of a sudden you are
collecting a lot of data about a child, beyond what you normally collect,
you can track their exact location in the building at any given point of the
day, and potentially outside of the centre if it is a device that they wear
outside the centre. You will also have data about their heart rate, even
when its not required to make sure that they are safe while they are
sleeping, their temperature, some devices could even track when and
what a child eats, when they go to the toilet. Under the Privacy Act you
must only collect information that is necessary and advise what is being
collected and get consent for it. This information must be kept secure and

made available for the person concerned (in this case it would probably be
the parent or guardian) to view and correct if needed (Parliamentary
Counsel Office, 2014).

Business benefits for Bell St Early Learning

Having a device that enables the children to sign in and out automatically
on arrival and input the information directly into their computer system
and then into the Ministry of Educations systems and generate invoices
will save a lot of administration time which will be a huge saving on the
overheads for Bell St. Being able to monitor a childs sleep and then
record that information automatically will be another administration
saving. It may also be possible to have a portal or alert parents that want
it automatically so that could be a saving on time there, and it may make
it a bit easier for parents to adjust to having their kids going to daycare by
being able to still know exactly when they slept and for how long without
them having to ask a teacher each day as they pick up their kids.
The virtual reality headsets would also be a good selling point to increase
the number of families wanting to send their kids to your centre. Parents
can know that their children are able to experience some amazing places
while they are working. Bell St can take children on a field-trip to the
beach without having to worry about the extra hazards involved in such a
trip, but the children can still experience it as if they were there. Obviously
this wouldnt be appropriate to replace all field trips with virtual field trips,
but to somewhere like the beach it would be a great substation. While the
price is probably rather expensive to introduce the benefit for Bell St is
that now that you have two centres you can probably get away with
purchasing one set and then sharing them between the two centres.
Market pull or technology push
I dont think any large collection of technology items such as wearable
technology can be ascribed to either market pull or technology push. In
some areas there is an obvious differentiation between the two but in this
case the line is definitely blurred, and in some cases it can be both.
Some of the more out-there ideas are probably a case of technology push.
Like the necklace which can tell what you are eating (Stuff, 2015) I dont
think there is much of a market demand for that yet.
And while I think that a smart watch is more of a case of market pull
people want a watch that can do more and they want to be able to be
more connected and able to see who is calling to decide whether it is
worth pulling their phone out of their bag, I think that it is going to go past
the early adopters with the technology push that is coming out of Apple
with their Apple watch.
Adoption of wearable technology in the early childhood education sector
I have been unable to find any evidence of any other early childhood
education providers in the Wairarapa or NZ adopting wearable technology
yet. However, given that many early childhood education providers readily
embrace new technologies to help the children learn and the curriculum is

fairly flexible I think that as soon as suitable technologies are priced at a

level that makes it feasible that they will be introduced.
There is however some investigation being done into introducing it in
classrooms along with some guesses on what it is going to look like in the
near future. Wideo has done up quite a cool infographic on their blog of
this (Wideo, 2014).

Babycity. (n.d.). Angelcare Sound & Movement Monitor ACS401. Retrieved
April 9, 2015, from Babycity:
Hausman, K. K., & Horne, R. (2014). 3D Printing For Dummies. New Jersey:
John Wiley & Sons.
McFarland, M. (2015, January 29). Five ways 3D-printed food will change
the way we eat. Retrieved April 5, 2015, from Stuff:
Ministry of Education. (2015, March 31). HS19 Food and nutrition.
Retrieved April 9, 2015, from ECE Lead:
Ministry of Education. (2015, March 31). HS9 Sleep monitoring. Retrieved
April 9, 2015, from ECE Lead:
Ministry of Primary Industries. (n.d.). New Zealand food legislation.
Retrieved April 9, 2015, from Food Safety:
Noel Leeming. (n.d.). Fitbit Charge Heart Rate + Activity Wristband Large
Black. Retrieved April 9, 2005, from Noel Leeming:
Parliamentary Counsel Office. (2014, June 24). Food Act 1981. Retrieved
April 9, 2015, from New Zealand Legislation:
Parliamentary Counsel Office. (2014, December 30). Privacy Act 1993.
Retrieved April 9, 2015, from New Zealand Legislation:

Samsung. (n.d.). Gear S - Spark Network. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from

Samsung NZ:
Stuff. (2015, March 8). Would you wear a necklace that stops you
overeating? Retrieved April 10, 2015, from Stuff:
Wideo. (2014, May 14). Imagining Wearable Technology in the Classroom.
Retrieved April 10, 2015, from Wideo blog:

Assignment 2 Feasibility Study- Erana

Facial recognition in large format retail stores
For this section of the assignment, the focus will be on using facial
recognition in a large format retail store - for example The Warehouse (NZ)
or Coles (Australia). There are two key areas where facial recognition may
be used in these environments:

Payment processing
A customised shopping experience

discontinuities. (d) The reference 3D shape transformed to the 2D-aligned crop image-plane. (e) Triangle visibility w.r.t. to the fitted
(Source: )

Degree of diffusion in society and the economy

Facial recognition in its simplest form has been around since the dawn of
time. However having software that is able to tell the difference between
facial features has only emerged in the last few years and has made leaps
and bounds in a relatively short space of time.
Facebooks facial recognition feature was first introduced in 2010. In a
paper released in 2014 (Ranzato, M., Taigman, Y., Wolf, L., Yang, M., 2014)
it was announced that Facebooks facial recognition feature - labelled
DeepFace - had an accuracy rate of 97.35% - which is about the same as a
human. Given that Facebook has (based on its 2013 financial report) 1.23
billion monthly active users (Protalinski, 2014), the degree of diffusion in
society is great, whether the public is aware of it or not.

This type of software is also used in other ways, including:

To unlock computers and other smart devices.

By policing agencies (FBI, etc) to identify criminals and missing persons.
During immigration and airport security processing.
In voting booths to prevent voting fraud.

Facial recognition software has already become a part of everyday life.

The difference is whether you choose to opt-in (e.g. Facebook) to it or not
(e.g. CCTV).
Existing technologies facial recognition might replace or complement
There are many methods already employed as payment options, although
they often still require the more traditional card. These methods include:

PayWave (Visa) and PayPass (Mastercard) - requires card

Tap and pay - requires smart device with NFC (Near Field Communication)

I cannot imagine facial recognition being used independently in this way.

Even if the technology was accurate enough, I believe the public would be
untrusting. So I think it would have to complement something else whether thats the existing card or a smartphone app.
For a customised shopping experience, technologies only play a small part
of this currently. They would mostly be controlled by market surveys.
However using customised advertising could replace traditional
advertising in the form of billboards, adshels, or in-store advertising.
Other possible competing technologies
In terms of facial recognition, there is no direct competition. However as a
payment method there are usually a lot of emerging options on the
horizon, including contactless payments and tap and pay using NFC.
Current government regulation
I was unable to find any specific regulation around the use of facial
recognition in New Zealand or Australia, as our most prominent use of it is
for border control and immigration (SmartGate).
The most relevant current legislation would be the Privacy Act 1993, but
this does not specifically mention anything about facial recognition.
However caution has been urged from several corners including,
significantly, from the New Zealand Law Society (Caution urged regarding
the use of facial recognition technology, 2013), although this is related to
the use of facial recognition in pubs and clubs, not in a retail environment.
Business benefits
The main business benefit would be:
Efficiency and throughput of customers: In a busy retail environment,
saving seconds per transaction can mean improved profits.

Improved sales: Based on personalised recommendations for recognised

customers. It would also lead to repeat sales if the store can be proactive
about advertising products coming to the market that would interest the
customer based on their past purchases.
Market pull or technology push
Pull: If there is a possibility that facial recognition could make
transactions faster, and thus the shopping experience more enjoyable,
then there may be a market pull. There are plenty of alternative methods
of payment and facial recognition still raises privacy concerns and may be
a bit gimmicky for most.
Push: There is little evidence at the moment of enough trials being
undertaken to say that this is a technology push.
Adoption in the retail sector
The first facial recognition payment system developed was by a Finnish
company called Uniqul. According to an article on
dated November 12, 2014 (Mayhew, 2014), the technology was to be
tested in some cafes in Helsinki early this year (2015). I was unable to find
any further information about this trial.
Ant Financial (a subsidiary of Alibaba) in China has developed Smile to
Pay but a launch date has yet to be set (Griffiths, 2015). Considering
Alibaba also operates Alipay which is Chinas largest online and mobile
payments service, it might not be long before this payment method
becomes mainstream, diffusing from China to the rest of the world. Cost
for businesses would be prohibitive and it would be interesting to
see how the rest of the world adopts this technology.

RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification)

An RFID is used in the same way as a barcode or QR code - it is a
unique identifier for a product or object and provides information
about that product. Like the other codes, it needs to be scanned in
order to retrieve the information stored.
The image on the right is probably what you would be used to associating
with RFID, however RFID tags can be incredibly small.
For this section of the assignment, the focus will be on using RFID for
stock/inventory management in a retail environment (although it also
would have other uses here such as contactless card payments at the
point of sale).
Degree of diffusion in society and the economy
RFID has also been around since 1970, but the cost and size was inhibitive
to widespread diffusion. Since the cost of an RFID tag is now between 7

and 20 US cents (How much does an RFID tag cost today?, n.d.), its likely
that diffusion will happen a lot more quickly than in the past.

RFID is now already used in many ways, including (but not limited to):

Asset / Inventory tracking

o Anti-theft/tampering
o Library / Checkout/Check-in systems
Payment systems
o Toll roads
o Public transport ticketing
o Electronic tickets
o Contactless card transactions
o Animal tagging (microchipping)
o Access control
o Baby tagging in nurseries
o Marathon timing tags on shoelaces

Existing technologies RFID might replace or complement

Barcodes (invented in the early 1970s) were the first real breakthrough of
this kind of technology. However, they do have a few disadvantages that
RFID tags dont have: they are read-only, and you have to scan each
individual product. As usual, the cost of change is often too great to move
to the latest, greatest technology. Since many retailers already have
barcode scanners (also known as UPC - Universal Product Code - scanners)
that make billions of transactions every day, changing to a new
technology would not be a simple (or cheap) process. If products were to
have RFID tags instead of barcodes, the products could be accounted for
as soon as they enter your shopping trolley, negating the need to queue
at a checkout.

Here is an eloquently written example from (Bonsor &

Let's look at a real-world scenario of this system:
At the grocery store, you buy a carton of milk. The milk containers will
have an RFID tag that stores the milk's expiration date and price.
When you lift the milk from the shelf, the shelf may display the milk's
specific expiration date, or the information could be wirelessly sent to
your personal digital assistant or cell phone.
As you exit the store, you pass through doors with an embedded tag
reader. This reader tabulates the cost of all the items in your
shopping cart and sends the grocery bill to your bank, which deducts
the amount from your account. Product manufacturers know that
you've bought their product, and the store's computers know exactly
how many of each product need to be reordered.
Once you get home, you put your milk in the refrigerator, which is
also equipped with a tag reader. This smart refrigerator is capable of
tracking all of the groceries stored in it. It can track the foods you use
and how often you restock your refrigerator, and can let you know
when that milk and other foods spoil.
Products are also tracked when they are thrown into a trash can or
recycle bin. At this point, your refrigerator could add milk to your
grocery list, or you could program the fridge to order these items
Based on the products you buy, your grocery store gets to know your
unique preferences. Instead of receiving generic newsletters with
weekly grocery specials, you might receive one created just for you. If
you have two school-age children and a puppy, your grocery store can
use customer-specific marketing by sending you coupons for items
like juice boxes and dog food.
Fenlon, 2007):
Other possible competing technologies
NFC (Near Field Communication) could be considered a competing
technology. However it does not have as wide a range as RFID which could
mean it wouldnt be as keenly adopted. It also has other disadvantages
like the recent controversy involving a smartphones ability to steal
credit card numbers using NFC.

Current government regulation

In New Zealand, there is an EPC/RFID Consumer Protection Code of
Practice (EPC stands for Electronic Product Code) that states (GS1 New
It is intended that the Code should protect retailers from
misunderstandings or suspicions that might otherwise
have an adverse effect on customer relations and sales,
Zealand Inc):
RFID tags can store information and its possible that they may not be
deactivated at the point of sale, despite a customers expectation. The
code aims to protect the privacy of consumers buying goods that contain
RFID codes it does not relate to anything in the supply chain or inventory
management. It allows retailers to self-regulate, and they will still need to
comply with their responsibilities under the Privacy Act 1993, the Fair
Trading Act 1986 and the Consumer Guarantees Act 1993.
The Code of Practice also gives customers an avenue through which to
complain if they see fit.
Business benefits
Increased revenue: Since RFID tracks whenever an item is sold and
leaves the store, there is less chance of out of stock situations arising
from not ordering stock in time.
Loss prevention: RFID is already used in stores as a method to prevent
theft. Security tags communicate with gates at the shop entrance. In an
automated checkout process - all items would be detected, even if they
were in a shoppers pocket.
Improved productivity: Unlike barcodes there is no need to scan each
item one by one so the business can more quickly perform identical tasks.
This includes point of sale (checkouts) - where the RFID on products would
allow the checkout to detect multiples of the item instead of having to
scan each one or enter a quantity manually.
Real time tracking: As soon as a product is taken off the shelf, a
message could be sent to the warehouse/ordering system to order more.

Efficiency: RFID also allows for fast price changes via electronic shelf
labels. Usually this is a manual process - printing labels, identifying

An RFID price label

(Source: )

A worker changing a traditional price tag.

(Source: )

products and updating shelf prices all done by a member of staff.

Market pull or technology push

Push: RFID is most likely a push technology. It has already been around a
long time but cost is a major hurdle for most businesses.
Pull: Inventory management can be a laborious and cumbersome task in
many businesses. Any way to make it easier and less time consuming
would surely be welcomed.
When looking at point of sale, a contactless card transaction (at 15
seconds) is on average 10 seconds faster than a magnetic strip card
transaction (at 25 seconds), and a further 9 seconds faster than a cash
transaction (at 34 seconds) (Contactless Credit Card Advantages, n.d.).
With people leading busy lives, this could also mean there is a slight
market pull for this kind of technology.
Adoption in the retail sector
While most of the uses of RFID in a retail environment have been for
payment processing (contactless cards) and inventory tracking (in antitheft terms), there is a lot more potential for this technology in the future.
It will only gain momentum as the technology gets smaller and cheaper.
Smart appliances may adopt the same technology to complement the use
of RFID in the retail sector.

Bonsor, K., & Fenlon, W. (2007, November 5). How RFID Works. Retrieved
Caution urged regarding the use of facial recognition technology. (2013,
July 9). Retrieved from New Zealand Law Society:
Contactless Credit Card Advantages. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Griffiths, J. (2015, March 15). Pay with a selfie? Alibaba's Jack Ma debuts
face-recognition payment tech. Retrieved from South China Morning
GS1 New Zealand Inc. (n.d.). EPC/RFID Consumer Protection Code of
Practice. Retrieved from
How much does an RFID tag cost today? (n.d.). Retrieved from RFID
Mayhew, S. (2014, November 12). Helsinki cafes test facial recognition
payment system by Uniqul. Retrieved from Biometric Update:
Protalinski, E. (2014). Facebook passes 1.23 billion monthly active users,
945 million mobile users, and 757 million daily users. Retrieved from
The Next Web:
Ranzato, M., Taigman, Y., Wolf, L., Yang, M. (2014, June 24). DeepFace:
Closing the Gap to Human-Level Performance in Face Verification.
Columbus, Ohio, USA: Facebook.

Assignment 2- Feasibility Study -Rob

Digital Libraries of the Future and Nerve Centre of the Community
In our fast paced tech world of today tomorrows technology is yesterdays
newspaper. Innovation in technology is happening so fast it is now a fact
of life that we will engage in life- long learning and as librarians we will be
expected to be at the forefront of interpreting technical wizardry for our
customers and community. New technology offers libraries the
opportunity to save time and money and become more efficient in the use
of resources. For consideration of what are regarded as the most relevant
emerging technologies on the market here is some examples

Emerging Technologies
Source Top Ten most amazing technologies
We propose to look at the feasibility of two emerging trends for
incorporation in to library services of the future. These are Screenless
Display and Robots.

Introducing Screenless Display and Robots to the Christchurch City

Currently Christchurch City Libraries offer classes to customers in
computers, digital photography, Minecraft, digital devices, gaming and
many more (Christchurch City Libraries, 2015). These are adequate and
well populated but there are some exciting technologies that would
change how we interact with our customers and provide us with the
opportunity to be a leader in the field of information technology for
libraries. A bit of fun with the new technology wouldnt go amiss with our
customers either.
As a way of ensuring we remain relevant we must look at technologies
that are emerging and prepare ourselves to engage with and introduce
these applicable products to our systems and service delivery by
investigating their feasibility in inclusion of our services. Christchurch City
Libraries is in a unique position after the earthquakes as it will be building
a new and large central city library(,2015)
ready for opening in 2018. This provides a unique opportunity to look at
the technology going in to this library
Therefore we present the feasibility of the future ability to employ
Screenless Display and Robots/Artificial Intelligence1 in to our customer
service toolbox and enable our colleagues and community to engage with
life- long learning. Now with a new and innovative library being built is the
time to consider the impact of these technologies and set about making
purposeful strides towards our information excellence goals. Lets
continue to innovate and make the library a really cool place to hang out,
learn about new technology and try it out.

Screenless Display
Screenless Display degree of diffusion in society and the economy
Screenless display is an emerging technology that is in the very early
stages of its life cycle

1 Artificial Intelligence as referred to here is a component of Robotics, and

is also a science in its own field. It is hereafter referred to as AI.

Life Cycle
Source Technological change and industry structure

It is seen as one of the top ten emerging technologies worldwide (World

Economic Forum, 2014) It promises to change how we interact from the
fixed use of physical screens to being able to produce a liquid screen
almost out of thin air.

Source American University Screenless display 2014

It has the potential to hit critical mass very quickly at the macro societal
level as it will replace the TV and computer screens we have had for a
long time. This is a portable technology that will work very well within a

virtual changing library landscape. At a macro level to date there is a

basic level of diffusion and probably no effect on the economy nationally
or worldwide, yet. This is because even though there are named devices
using variations of this technology such as Oculus Rift2 and Google Glass3.
The diffusion currently lies more in people knowing about these devices
rather than actually using them.

2 Description at Wikipedia

3Description at Wikipedia

Existing technologies it might replace or complement.

As discussed the screenless display will largely replace our hardware
screens that are used everywhere throughout the world. There will still be
a use for the physical variety of screens as with some industry or business
it would not be practical to have a floating screen. The beauty of
screenless display is that it can be complemented by working in
conjunction with Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Holograms
(Screenless Displays- The emerging computer technology, N.D). All of
these emerging technologies require a visual platform and combined with
the Screenless display will mean that librarians can be totally mobile and
work anywhere within the physical library environment. The libraries have
been using Smart technology RFID ( Radio Frequency Technology, 2015)
and Self-serve Kiosks (Self Service Kiosk, 2015) to move away from being tied
to a desk as a preferred model referred to as roving customer service
which removes the desk as a barrier to service and
communication( Roving reference, 2014).
The screenless display means that any space not in use can be used for
information interactivity with a customer or a group of customers
informally or for an organised group. Queries asked on the trot will be able
to have full blown visual responses where the librarian and customer can
both interact with the screen simultaneously. Depending on the kind of
device or app being used will dictate whether your screenless display uses
Augmented Reality4, VR5, Holograms, or nearby surfaces.
The use of the mouse as we know it will become minimised as we will be
able to interact with the display by using our hands. The good news for
the replacement of mice and LCD screens is that screenless display will
stop a huge amount of plastic, glass and other hard screen components
from going to landfill.

4 Definition of Augmented Reality as at Wikipedia Augmented Reality, 2015
5 Virtual Reality as defined at Wikipedia, Virtual Reality

Other possible competing technologies.

The screenless display market is heating up with google glass as a direct
competing technology. This product uses AR and retinal display that can
show you text and information and is also termed a wearable technology
as you wear the glasses. It isnt known yet how revolutionary wearable
tech may become but as watches get smarter (Apple, 2015) and clothes
have more tech added they could directly compete with screenless
display. There is a lot of work going in to AI and Robots that could
theoretically provide competition with their abilities but may also
converge with screenless display as one of their tools. It can be surmised
that anything that uses a screen will be competing with TV being one and
touchscreen another. The companies that produce TV screens, unless they
get directly involved somehow, will want to protect their share of the
market. With the rise of On Demand TV hard screen use in physically
defined areas such as a lounge is dissipating and there will or should be
many reasons people will still want a TV screen in their home until such
time as the screenless display has a compelling reason for consumers to
ditch their hard screens. Another relatively recent step forward has been
the touch screen display most notably on phones and tablets and
commercial devices. Screenless display has the advantage of needing less
space and with smaller screens on phones, tablets, laptops the touch
screen can be awkward and cumbersome. Screenless offers a great
alternative here.
Current Government Legislation
At this point in the life cycle of the product there does not appear to be
any pre-emptive legislation as this technology is not widely available.
There could be privacy issues that cannot be foreseen with public use and
this could result in retrospective legislation which had to be introduced for
the Internet when illegal downloading, selling and swapping pornographic
images and name suppression breaches were rife locally and
There could be some medical problems from the versions of display for
sufferers of epilepsy or other visual impairment. There are current
guidelines around DSE6 at work with ACC producing a Guidelines for using
computers manual (ACC, 2010) It may be that the products will come with
a warning to viewers.

6 Display equipment users refers to the term used to describe people who
use display screens in their work.

It can be said that thought is being given to the impact of these type of
technologies as Andrew Maynard Professor of Environmental health
Services from the University of Michigan writes in todays complex and
interconnected world, their sustainable development and use also
hinges on understanding how they might harm people and the
environment, and how peoples perceptions and assumptions might affect
their development trajectories. (Maynard A, 2014)

Business Benefits of Screenless Display to Christchurch City Libraries

The library works in a customer service industry catering to a cross
section of society with many varied needs. The rise and rise of online
forms has meant many more customers are coming to libraries to do job
applications and fill out all manner of online forms. Some government
departments (IRD and Work and Income) are known to refer customers to
libraries to complete forms. Privacy is an issue with computers grouped
together physically in the library. Screenless display will allow customers
more privacy with sensitive material. As is stated at use of
Retina Display aims at projecting the image directly onto a persons retina. In this type
of display, light is not deflected, rather it is projected directly onto the retina and thus
only authorized personnel are able to see the information. This display can be extremely
helpful in maintaining the privacy and security of the contents. A person can even
control the intensity of display through his voice. With this technology available in the
market, you can even work in a caf without having to worry about other people around
you. (, 2015)

Screenless display will enable staff to provide services and interact in a

more direct manner as it will not be necessary to take customers to a
fixed in place screen. It will also enhance the provision of gaming, which
not all libraries provide, to the next level and would be a very exciting
offering which can incorporate education within the gaming software.
The technology being proposed can be seen as one that will encourage
users to engage in an interesting, more convenient and fun way
with screenless display in its various forms. The benefits of which are
finding new ways to learn and share knowledge and opening up the
libraries to be seen as early adopters of trending technologies thereby
drawing in and keeping youth, the community and community groups
involved in making the library a dynamic tech savvy environment. As an
example the writer as a staff member has engaged with children in the
use of AR with books (using an app that is downloaded on to a device and
then held over an AR imprinted image in a book) where an image virtually
comes to life and can be held in your hand, think mini Dinosaur
(idonosaur, 2015) This is incredibly engaging technological innovation.
As discussed above AR technology in its current use in libraries has proven
to be enlightening and the prospective benefit of screenless display in

library educational endeavours would provide a way to use physical library

spaces more efficiently where impromptu gatherings can occur using
screenless projected above the floor, or on to surfaces for instant display
of material. For instance you can gather in the library with customers next
to shelves of items if you want to interact with the physical items while
using screenless on a portable device. The technology offers so much in
terms of educational mobility anywhere anytime.

The main driver for public libraries is the community. Libraries worldwide
collaborate to share their successful innovations for their communities
with industry conferences, magazines, blogs and university papers and
data (Surveys). This encourages libraries to provide the best services they
can using relevant and appropriate technology. Screenless display will
prove beneficial to library users as it helps keep the community engaged
by way of services, events, tutorials, and everyday use with seamless
integration with other technologies already in use or coming soon (tablets,
computers, laptops, smart phones, screenless keyboards).

Screenless keyboard
Source Technology review Screenless keyboard

Market Pull or Technology Push and Market Position

Libraries have moved in to the digital age and are discussing and
considering where they need to place themselves in the Information
Industry. Libraries have long been depositories of knowledge and places of
learning passively. One of todays library trends is to offer more targeted
learning programs especially around digital and technological needs. Staff
are specifically employed to deliver programs and quite often have

teaching/education qualifications and backgrounds. This is the libraries

positioning themselves in a way to keep current and relevant to their
communities by providing what the communities want. The possible
provision of screenless display technology from this point of view yields to
market pull.

In terms of what part screenless display would play in the market and
what forces are being exerted on the technology, then libraries strategic
goals of being technology driven while catering to a broad market across
age, gender and socio economic background, would suggest that
screenless display then leans to Technology Push were it to be integrated
in to every day services. This would be demand driven by the community
and library management.
Libraries adoption of Screenless Display now and in to the future
There is a high degree of probability that public libraries will embrace and
incorporate this technology as soon as financially viable when it becomes
a reality on the market. Predictions for its release are projected in the
2020s (, 2015). Users of the library will use it on their devices
and some users may want instruction in its use, as has been the way with
all devices and internet/computer technology on the market. This is what
has driven libraries to offer instruction on technological products (smart
phones, laptops, tablets, e-readers, computers, software) as an add-on to
services. Screenless display is versatile and can come in the forms of
wearable screenless such as Google Glass and Oculus Rift which work on
Retina Display7. The HUD8 display (Heads up Display) can be used on most
surfaces so is very versatile and the hologram version is a projection in to
thin air that uses scattered light. Google defines a hologram as
A hologram captures the interference pattern between two or more
beams of coherent light (i.e. laser light). One beam is shone directly on
the recording medium and acts as a reference to the light scattered from
the illuminated scene. (, 2015)

Screenless display will inevitably become mainstream as the technology

gets to the point of everyday use. This technology makes the mobile user
even more mobile as they are not tied to a physical screen.
As can be seen, in the example, of likely behaviour with the technology
the user ignores the laptop and uses his phone to watch a video instead.

7 Retina display as described at Use of Technology
8 Heads up display as described at Google

Person using a screenless display for viewing images

Source Screenless Display

Christchurch City Libraries recognise that planning and discussion around

technology is important and established a Smart Libraries steering board
that meets regularly to discuss new technologies for future consideration,
of which screenless display in its various forms, will be tabled for
discussion once the feasibility report is complete.

Robots in Libraries
This is a vast area that incorporates mechanical type robots for book
sorting (, 2011)to learning robots that speak different languages
( and then factor in AI with disembodied talking heads
(,2015) and anything is possible. It is a proven technology
in manufacturing so what use might it have in libraries? It does in fact
have huge potential to engage customers across all levels of societies in
education, gaming, information retrieval and for fun.
Robots degree of diffusion in society and the economy
Robots in various forms have been around for a while. The non-exciting
industrial versions have invaded society and to a large degree have taken
over manual labour at the macro level in industry such as car


Car robot manufacturing

Source: Kia Sportage car robot manufacturing

These have impacted globally on economies by bringing down the cost of

manufacturing and in a lot of cases removed the human error factor. Well
in a lot of cases it has removed humans altogether except to keep an eye
on the machines. Robots in the humanoid form have been around for a

while in a very basic way and with limited functions. So in this way they
are at differing stages of their life cycle and this depends on the kind of
robot and what technology field its working in. They have reached critical
mass and are widely accepted in to many countries and cultures.
The real point of difference with robots now is the AI that is being applied
to them and what functions they can perform and how useful they will be
in the future. Some robots can perform basic functions and are able to
provide assistance to people with disabilities.
This video demonstrates how helpful these kind of robots are and this one
can be controlled using a tablet. (Toyota, 2015)

Some are much more sophisticated and can provide teaching abilities that
are quite awesome (Robots teach communication to kids with Autism,

This shows a very adaptable product with huge growth potential that is
yet to become an everyday item in our society yet is viewed with favour
and wonderment due to their mirroring human capabilities.
Existing technologies robots might replace or complement.
Robots are mostly being developed to aid humans in a lot of tasks that do
not require reasoning and this is why the technology is so useful. In this
way robots in the library environment may replace repetitive human
tasks. This has already been implemented in the Chicago Library but is yet
to be incorporated at a Macro level. (
Video sourced from,, Library Robot at University of Chicago, 2013)

Library Robot at University of Chicago

Source: Library Robot

This is acknowledging automated robot technology in libraries. We are

more focused on the humanoid version, which with more humanistic
capabilities, would enable the technology to be used in a complimentary
way to support services already provided and to grow on them. These
machines would be a draw card to any local community library as not only
can they assist with learning and education about libraries, they would be
a point of difference and most likely to garner emotional responses from
customers. Its possible they may be able to be controlled by customers
themselves using tablets with specially designed apps that allow
interaction with the device. Its quite likely that different software can be
loaded to let them be used for several learning programs or for
instructional applications. The screenless display technology will be able
to be used by the robots for visual purposes. Imagine that as a customer
you could use an app on your phone to communicate remotely with the
robot and book a session for a one on one session to learn something that
you have a personal interest in. The technology may replace some tasks
librarians under take but it is likely they will converge with many other
technologies to add to their robot toolbox.
In actual fact many of the current emerging technologies (Wikipedia, 2015) of
Nanotechnology, Information technology, Biotechnology, Education
technology, AI, and Cognitive science all provide opportunities for

convergence with robots. These are all disruptive9 technologies in the

purest sense because their impact on society is largely unknown and
there probably has never been such a time when so many technologies
can overlap and have such a strong relationship with each other.
Other possible competing technologies.
Robots in humanoid form are unique in that they are mimicking humans
so technically speaking they are competing with humans. One emerging
technology they will be directly competing with is AI. While AI can be used
in robots it is also being used in other forms and it may be that AI is more
mobile as it need not be encased in a robot type form. Think of Siri
(, 2015) as a piece of AI on your phone, think of
self-driving cars, these all use AI. So while humanoid robots use AI they
are also in competition with the very same technology. Strictly speaking
software programs that can do the same functions e.g. crunch data, run
teaching programs and are used on handheld devices, can provide better
mobility and use less physical space. One of the more interesting possible
competing technologies might be Brain Computer interfaces as discussed
at RiskScience .edu
Brain-computer interfaces: These already let you type just by
monitoring the electrical activity of your brain. As the technology
advances it could allow people with disabilities to operate wheelchairs
using only their thoughts. (Risk Science, 2015)
This technology could take the place of robots for some peoples
communication and mobility needs within a library context.
Current government regulation.
Robotics in America are being taken very seriously as the next big thing as
stated by the American Government Robotics technology is reaching a
tipping point and is poised for explosive growth because of
improvements in core technologies such as microprocessors, sensors, and
algorithms and Robotics can play an important role in science,
technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education because it
encourages hands-on learning and the integration of science, engineering,
and creative thinking ( Kalil, T. 2011)). New Zealand does not appear to
have anything specific in regulations for robots to date.
Robots in the humanoid form or robots assisting disabled consumers may
need to have electrical safety certificates and should come with
instructions for times when there are safety issues. With respect to
libraries there would most likely be some guidance for Health & Safety
practises around these devices.

9 Definition of Disruptive Technology 2015

Business Benefits of Robots to Christchurch City Libraries

Libraries worldwide are discussing and planning for the introduction of
new technologies (Peters & Bell, 2013) so that libraries service their
market, at a premium level of content, incorporating the most suitable
and likely successful technologies for the library environment. The
services that the robot can provide are only limited by its software
capacity and physical limits. If it can teach and talk and sing and dance
and display images and read out loud and capture data it has so many
applications that will be of immediate benefit to the library. It can provide
content not thought of before as it may have been impractical to apply
such as gathering information librarians dont have the time to. There will
be uses for it that no one will think of until its introduction as various uses
for its technology are adapted to the individual library.
As the access to knowledge has shifted from library depositories to 24hr
online access so libraries worldwide must change how to interpret
customers requirements where the younger generation are
technology/digital natives

A digital native
Source: What digital natives want from their library 2015

and understand their world in a much different way than what has gone
before. An example is the explosion of Social Media10. Libraries are very
sensitive to their communities and so embraced social media by joining
facebook and Twitter and by providing customers the opportunity to add
content to the Libraries with blogs, feedback, book reviews and social
comment. This integration of technology in to libraries shows the benefit
with data gathered at Christchurch City Libraries11 revealing a consistent
increased use of technological services (website, catalogues, apps for ereading and other content services and in house devices). Bringing robots
in to libraries for learning and service purposes is innovating to attract
more customer use of services by providing new and different ways of
delivering them.
The best use of the kind of robot used at Westport Library (Westport
library, 2014) is for customer education and interaction. The robot is
designed to teach technology but could be adapted for other programs as
software becomes available. It could be seen as a fad but I believe it
would encourage people in to the library environment who may not
otherwise have a need to come to the library. This is the kind of
technology that presents a type of human face with the ability to interact
with humans. The robot might be able to encourage non book readers in
to reading or reach out to shy children or customers by its mere presence.
A great way to get customer loyalty is to provide a positive emotive
response so that a thought about an item, service, product or experience
remains in the psyche as something you want to touch, feel or see again.
The library community is made up of many discerning individuals and
many who need the library for basic reasons such as warmth and
The humanoid robot when not on teaching duty could be utilised to
communicate with library visitors and thereby give customers another
reason to visit the library and in turn the library can promote other
services while these customers are engaged with the technology.

10 Social Media as described by Wikipedia is computer-mediated tools

that allow people to create, share or exchange information, ideas, and
pictures/videos invirtual communities and networks
(, Social Media 2015)
11 This data not available for public use at writing of this proposal.

Market Pull or Technology Push and Market Position

Within the market positioning strategy of libraries comes the responsibility
to, if not be early adopters of technology due to financial constraint, then
incorporate applicable technology for practical use when the community
demands it for their personal, shared use and exploration. In a way when
new technologies emerge the public libraries must sit on the fence with
pull and push creating an equal force. Planners for libraries are usually
innovators and prefer to make provision in budgets for fast moving
improvements in technologies so these can be purchased in a timely way
when the need arises. The use of robots could be argued to sit more on
the side of market pull as the attraction of the robots would be a
marketing coup for the libraries. A lot of marketing could be centred
around the new addition. The acquisition of the technology is most likely
to be pushed by the forward thinking technological innovators in the
library management and so can be argued to sit on the side of technology
push. Since the robot is not really solving a problem and its a new product
looking to pull in new customers (a new market) then the argument can
be settled on market pull (Baker, D. The Strategic Management Guide for
Library and Information in Services, p 66, 2004. Chandos Publishing) in this
Libraries robot technology adoption now and in to the future.
There has been much discussion amongst library professionals and
Industry leaders around how emerging technologies (K Varnum, The Top
Technologies Every Librarian needs to know, 2014) can be incorporated in
to Library services(Libraries of the Colegrove T, 2015) as a
way to improve the customer experience, remain relevant in a quickly
changing tech field and embrace and engage staff to be tech
ambassadors in the community. More specifically the American Library
Association in 2013 created The Centre for the Future of Libraries
(Figueroa, M., 2015), whose focus is to identify emerging trends relevant
to Libraries. Libraries in the digital age are highly relevant in the
community as they provide a means for everybody including the lower
socio economic community to have unfettered access to digital systems
including practical use of computers and emerging devices. Libraries have
become more focused on allowing user content and providing learning
opportunities by employing staff to run classes on anything from basic

computers to digital photography and music production using easily

available software and apps. Libraries intention is to integrate

As can be seen at Connecticuts Westport Library (Westport Library, 2015)

Vincent the Robot is being used to teach computer programming and

coding skills. Maxine Bleiweis (executive Director Westport Library) states
that in the past they had welcomed personal computers and We decided
Robotics is the next Disruptive Technology. This Library is the first in the
United States to take a step forward with this technology. Once one library
adopts the technology and proves its worth and ROI12 then other libraries
will follow suit if it fits with their strategic goals, budget and community.

12 Return on investment definition at Google

Baker, D. (2004) The Strategic Management Guide for Library and
Information in Services, p 66, Chandos Publishing
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