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Research Prospectus
Betty Berger, Jettie Dush, Robert Fishel, Nina McCord, and Mitchell Parson
Liberty University Online



This research study will investigate the relationship between coupling the
use of a flipped classroom teaching model and a 1:1 student to mobile tablet
ratio. The study will use Algebra I students between grades 9-12 and ages
13-16, and focus on schools with an enrollment of at least 550 students.
Quantitative methods will be used to determine the correlation between the
use of the flipped classroom with 1:1 device ratio and student academic
success. Qualitative methods will be used to determine student satisfaction
of the course as well as student participation and engagement. Simple
random sampling will be used to maintain validity, as well as teacher training
and student assessments.


Background and Rationale

The use of the flipped classroom model has gained both popularity and
attention in K-12 education, higher education, and the business world.
Flipped classrooms are gaining so much momentum, in fact, that a large
amount of research has been conducted within the past five years regarding
its effect on student success, students perceptions, and how it stacks up
against its traditional classroom counterpart. The practice of inverted
learning has been attributed with freeing class time for collaborative higher
order activities and case studies (Bargagliotti et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2014;
Clark, 2015; Fulton, 2013; Herreid & Schiller, 2013; Milman, 2012; Roehl et
al., 2013; Strayer, 2012). It has also been cited for its flexibility and capacity
for self-paced learning (Fulton, 2013; McLaughlin et al., 2013; Parker, 2012;
Strayer, 2012; Talley & Scherer, 2013; Yapici & Akbayin, 2012). Although
some studies have found a positive correlation between flipped classroom
instruction and student success (Parker, 2012; Tucker, 2012), other studies
have found little to no variation between traditional classroom and flipped
classroom student scores (Clark, 2015; Strayer, 2012).
Students perceptions of the flipped classroom have varied. Many
students reported feeling higher levels of understanding and a deeper
appreciation for the content (Bargagliotti et al., 2012; Herreid & Schiller,
2013; Maloy et al., 2014; Strayer, 2012). Students also found the ability to


review video lectures multiple times just before an exam to be useful

(Milman, 2012; Morgan, 2014; Talley & Scherer, 2013). Of the challenges
mentioned were the feelings of chaos or disorganization during the in-class
activities (Gecer & Dag, 2012; Herreid & Schiller, 2013; Roehl, et al. 2013).
Some students reported that their intrinsic motivation or time management
skills were not strong enough to sustain the style of the course (Ash, 2012;
Siegle, 2013; Strayer, 2012). Another challenge that students and teacher
may experience is the digital divide, that is, the difficulty in only a portion of
students having reliable accessibility to technology and the Internet, while
others may struggle to obtain these resources (Fulton, 2013; Gecer, et al.,
2012; Roehl, et al., 2013; Siegle, 2013; Yapici & Akbayin, 2012). This is the
root question of this research study.
Since bringing technology into education, schools have been searching
for ways to keep up with the latest trends while maintaining fiscal
responsibility. The introduction of the computer lab and media center paved
the way for mobile laptop carts, iPad carts, bring your own device (BYOD)
policies and even school-wide adoptions of tablets. Creating a 1:1student to
technology ratio helps to unify the platforms from which students are
operating; thereby reducing the frequency of technical difficulties. Adopting a
treat it as your own policy has facilitated digital citizenship and operational
fluency. Equipping each student with a uniform hardware and software
platform to use in school and at home has helped to narrow the gap that
exists between students from lower-income and upper-income families.


Outfitting the school building or campus with a wireless network of

appropriate bandwidth is an element that requires sustainability. With proper
planning and implementation, students who do not have access to the
Internet at home can be given USB flash drives and CD-ROMs to fill the gap.
With the potential of being able to nearly eliminate the digital divide, it
stands to reason that a flipped classroom model coupled with a 1:1 ratio
could academically benefit all students in a universal and unbiased manner.
By examining the relationship between this type of learning environment and
student academic success and perceptions, it is hoped that this study will
help educators to make informed decisions about optimizing education
opportunities and resources. It is also hoped that this study will contribute to
the broader understanding of how flipped classrooms are operated and what
can be expected during its implementation.
Research Questions
The research questions for this study are: (a) Does implementing a 1:1
mobile tablet program in multiple sections of Algebra I increase the
effectiveness of the flipped classroom resulting in higher academic results
and increased standardized test scores and (b) Does implementing a 1:1
mobile tablet program increase the effectiveness of the flipped classroom
through higher levels of student engagement?
Research Hypothesis
The hypotheses for this study are:
(H1) Algebra I students participating in a flipped classroom model at a


school with an established 1:1 mobile technology device program will

achieve higher academic results in graded areas, including standardized
tests than students participating in a flipped classroom model where there is
no 1:1 technology program and students use their own personal devices.
(H2) Algebra I students participating in a flipped classroom model at a
school with an established 1:1 mobile technology device program will show
higher levels of engagement in the classroom through higher attendance
rates and overall increased satisfaction with the quality of teaching and
learning than students participating in a flipped classroom model where
there is no 1:1 technology program and students use their own personal
Research Hypothesis in Null Form
Alternately, the following are null hypotheses:
(NH1) Algebra I students participating in a flipped classroom model at
a school with an established 1:1 mobile technology device program will
achieve the same or lower academic results in graded areas, including
standardized tests than students participating in a flipped classroom model
where there is no 1:1 technology program and students use their own
personal devices.
(NH2) Algebra I students participating in a flipped classroom model at
a school with an established 1:1 mobile technology device program will show
the same or lower levels of engagement in the classroom through higher
attendance rates and overall increased satisfaction with the quality of


teaching and learning than students participating in a flipped classroom

model where there is no 1:1 technology program and students use their own
personal devices.
Identification of Variables
The independent variable (IV) is the addition of a 1:1 mobile technology
device to students in Algebra I.
The dependent variables (DV) are academic achievement and student
Increased academic results will be measured through several variables

Higher median test grades

Higher median overall term, semester, and yearly grades

Higher mean scores on standardized tests

Increased engagement results will be measured through several variables


Lower truancy rates

Increased student satisfaction as reported in course surveys

Increased classroom participation by students

Research Design
The design of this study will include both a qualitative and quantitative

data analysis in determining whether the use of a mobile tablet, in a 1:1

environment, of multiple sections of Algebra I, will yield higher academic


results and increase standardized test scores when using a flipped classroom
model. In addition to the previous, the research design will also determine
whether or not, the use of mobile tablets will generate higher levels of
student engagement. The method of the study is referred to as an action
based research design, due to the interaction between students and mobile
tablets. According to Clark (2105), the action based research method has
played a big role in the field of education by strengthening the connection
between research and practice. The real solution to this method will
determine if the flipped classroom model, with the use of mobile tablets, will
either increase or decrease the overall effectiveness of student achievement
The qualitative part of the research will include interviews with
students to determine, according to the research hypothesis, whether or not
the use of 1:1 mobile technology devices increases or decreases academic
results, by first performing student interviews to determine the current
methods of learning. In other words, how many students, if any, have ever
participated in a flipped classroom course. In addition to the previous, the
qualitative part of the study will be used to determine whether the use of
mobile technologies helps to increase student engagement and satisfaction
with the quality of teaching and learning. The quantitative data will include
pre- and post-surveys and the use of teacher created unit tests. According to
Clark (2015), the mixed method approach can provide an opportunity to
explore factors that may help contribute to the impact of flipping a


classroom. The mixed method research design, in education, has the

potential to greatly influence the way we think about problems and practices
in the learning development. Based on the research hypothesis, this
combined form of data acquisition will provide the necessary information to
determine whether or not Algebra I students will show improvement in a
flipped classroom model coupled with a 1:1 mobile technology ratio, over
that of a flipped classroom model without a 1:1 mobile technology ratio.

Participants and Sampling

In order to acquire enough information to substantiate the use of a
flipped classroom model with the use of 1:1 mobile technology in an Algebra
I setting, the participants of this study will be a culmination of high school
students, grades 9-12, with a minimum enrollment of 550 students. The
Algebra I course will be selected because of its meticulous content and
structured core curriculum. In addition to the previous, the Algebra I course
is not only classified as a regular course, but is also essential for student
success in regards to graduation rates. The participants of this study will
range in age of 13 to 16 years, and will be completely voluntary. . The
number of participants in the Algebra I course should be a minimum of ten
percent of the school population. Also, due to the age range, the participants
will be required to have parental permission before beginning the study. The
sampling procedure, with regards to the quantitative part, will be based on
the pre- and post-surveys, as well as the teacher-designed unit tests. The



sampling procedure for the qualitative portion of the study will be based on
simple random sampling of students using a mobile device, which includes a
name selector app that will randomly select students who will participate in
the study. According to Clark (2015), using a simple random method of
sampling will provide reasonable results because the sampling provides an
equal opportunity for the given population.
Standard and honors high school Algebra I classes that have used a
flipped model classroom between one and three years will be used in this
study. Similar content outside of the classroom will be delivered while similar
structure and activities inside the classroom will be facilitated in all
participating classes. All participating teachers will be experienced with
flipped model teaching and have completed at least one full academic year
with the model. The teachers whose classes will be adding the 1:1 mobile
technology program will receive professional development training on the
devices prior to the start of the school year. Likewise, students who receive
the new mobile technology program will also receive digital citizenship
instruction along with training on appropriate use of the device at the
beginning of the school year. The teachers whose classes will not be adding
the 1:1 mobile technology program will begin their school year in the same
fashion they have in the years past. The study will commence in the fall
semester of the 2015-2016 school year and continue through the entire



academic school year. A subsequent academic year might be selected as

Academic achievement and progress will be measured for this study
using biweekly tests, semester and end-of-course grades, and standardized
test scores. At the beginning of the study, all sections of Algebra I that are
participating in the study will take a pretest developed by the researcher. It
will be administered on the first day of class and students who are absent
will take the pretest on their first day of attendance. Both groups of
participants will receive the same biweekly tests which will be developed by
the teachers of both groups being studied. During the course of the school
year, fifteen tests will be given. The biweekly tests will be given on the same
day and under the same conditions as much as possible. Students who are
absent will be able to complete the biweekly test under the same conditions
for both groups. To ensure internal validity, one teacher will grade all the
biweekly tests with the same rubric and the teachers will rotate grading for
each test so that one teacher does not grade all the biweekly tests.
Quarterly standardized tests will also be administered to both groups
and recorded. Four quarterly tests will be given to both groups on the same
day and under the same conditions. The tests will be graded by the
computer and recorded by the researcher. In addition to the biweekly tests
and the quarterly standardized tests, end-of-semester and end-of-course
grades will be recorded using the same weighted scale for all groups



participating. In addition to the quantitative data, all students will be

interviewed to determine the effectiveness of the instruction. A 10-item
questionnaire will be developed by the researcher and given to all the
students participating in the study at the end of the course.
Procedures/Data Collection
All documents will be submitted to the Institutional Review Board (IRB)
for approval on or before May 15, 2015. After receiving approval, the
researchers will proceed with ordering and requisitioning the survey and
developing the biweekly tests. The researchers will work with the class
scheduler for the Algebra I classes and assign the students randomly to the
class sections. All the students who are chosen to participate in the study will
have experienced a flipped classroom model of instruction prior to beginning
this study. The students and parents will be informed of the study by email
during the summer and if they choose not to participate, then they will be
removed from the roster. Other students will be randomly assigned to the
classes until all classes have the same number of students.
All teachers who will be participating in the study for the school year
2015-2016 will attend a professional development meeting at least two
weeks before school starts. The meeting will cover how the flipped
classrooms will be conducted to ensure as much uniformity as possible
between teachers. Also, teachers will be instructed on the various testing
measures and the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor (CAP) Perceived
Learning Scale. To develop the biweekly tests, teachers will be randomly



assigned the sections of content and will develop biweekly tests with one
teacher developing the biweekly test for all classes. The teachers will rotate
this responsibility. Grading procedures will be explained. There will be ongoing professional development meetings biweekly throughout each
semester after school.
All data collected from the pretests, biweekly tests, standardized tests,
end-of-semester and end-of-course grades, attendance records, survey
results and questionnaire results will be collected within two days from when
the instrument was administered. The results will be given to the researcher
in a timely manner to be entered into a secure site on the schools computer
for analysis at the end of the course.
Data Analysis
This research study examines quantitative and qualitative data. In
order to effectively evaluate the chosen variables, the data collected will be
examined using the CAP Perceived Learning Scale and a correlation analysis.
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient will be used to analyze the test results
collected throughout the study to determine if the data is statistically
significant. The correlation analysis will compare the relationship between
the flipped classroom and the 1:1 student to mobile device ratio and how it
affects student achievement and engagement. If the correlation is 1,
students in a flipped classroom that also had a 1:1 mobile device technology
to student ratio are positively correlated and if the correlation is 0, there is
no correlation between these two variables. If the correlation is -1, it shows



they are negatively correlated, meaning the higher one variable is, the lower
the other variable. If the absolute value of the variables is greater than 0.5,
the data is statistically significant.
To measure the engagement of the students and learning effectiveness
in both groups, the CAP Perceived Learning Scale will be used. This is a valid
and reliable quantitative instrument (Kuyatt& Baker, 2014). The learning
scale evaluates perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning by
using three subscales with scores ranging from a low of 0 to a high of 18. The
total scores range from 0 54 with the higher scores showing greater
perception of learning. The students in both groups will be given the CAP
Perceived Learning Scale at the end of the semester and the scores will be
recorded by the researcher.
To provide the researchers with the best results there are specific
elements that are assumed. For example, student interviews as well as preand post-surveys provide researchers with valuable data, but honesty and
integrity of student responses is assumed for this study. Another assumed
component for this study is the professional development each faculty
member has received on the flipped classroom and the mobile devices used
for instruction. Each teacher selected is required to attend professional
development on mobile technology devices. Selected teachers must also
have at least one full year experience with the flipped classroom model.



These factors do not jeopardize the results of this study, but should be
considered when teachers are select and data is collected.
In this research study there are measures that need to be taken to
provide the most accurate results. This study is limited by geographical
location and age group. Education throughout the United States will yield
different results based on geographical location, but this limitation is
neutralized by using Algebra I. This course is a graduation requirement for all
students across the nation, therefore analyzing academic achievement and
engagement with the flipped classroom and 1:1 mobile device technology
ratio can be easily replicated in a different geographical region. The research
study is also affected by geographical location because a rural district will
have different challenges than an urban school district. Researchers will
select similar sized schools with an enrollment of at least 550 students for
this study to prevent the geographical location affecting the data. Age group
is another limitation to this study. Since participants will be in grades 9-12,
and 13-16 years old, it is possible to have students retaking Algebra I after
failing the course the first time. This limitation is neutralized by using
random sampling for student participation, creating authentic results for this
study. Overall there are a few factors that challenge the validity, but
replicating this study in another region and using random sampling will
provide research results that effectively analyze the variables in this study.



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