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• Any operation (other than preparation and coloring) that

improves the appearance and/or usefulness of fabric after it
leaves the loom or knitting machine.

• Finishing is the final series of operations that produces

finished textile fabric from grey goods.
• The word "finish" means all the different treatments applied
to a fabric to change such things as its
• Appearance,
• Feel or hand,
• Wear ability or care requirements.
Classification of Finishes

• Textile Finishes are classified in several ways:

According to function

Aesthetic Functional
Finishes Finishes
Aesthetic Finishes
• Aesthetic Finishes modify the appearance and /or hand or
drape of the fabrics.

• Fulling
• Mercerization
• Napping And Sueding
• Plisse
• Shearing
• Softening
• Stiffening
Functional Finishes
• Functional Finishes improve the performance properties of
the fabric ; like durability, strength etc.

• Antimicrobial/Antiseptic
• Antistatic
• Crease resistant
• Durable Press
• Flame Resistant
• Mothproof
• Shrinkage Control
• Soil Release
• Water Proof/Repellant
• According to the quality

Temporary Permanent

Temporary Finishes
• A finish which is not stable and goes off after the first wash is
known as temporary finish and these finishes disappears
during subsequent washing and usage.

• Calendering
• Embossing
• Starching
• Softening
Permanent Finishes
• If the finishing effect in the fabric does not disappear and
remains unaffected through all the conditions of wear and
washing treatments, then the finish is said to be permanent
• Sanforising
• Resin Finish
• Water Proof
• Flame Proof
Semi permanent Finishes
• A Finishing on the fabric is said to be semi permanent finish if
it is stable to more than 5 to 10 washes and not afterwards.

• Schreiner Calendering
• Buckram Finish
• According to type of machinery

Chemical Mechanical
Finishes Finishes
Chemical Finishes
• Chemical finishes are usually applied to fabric by padding
followed by curing and drying. These are also called as wet

• Stiff and transparent

• Flame Retardant
• Soil Release
• Water Proof
• Crease Resistance
• Softening
Mechanical finishes
• Mechanical Finishes usually involved specific physical
treatment to a fabric surface to cause a change in fabric
appearance. This is also known as dry finish.

• Calendering
• Raising
• Sanforising
• Milling
• Routine finishes
• Special finishes
• Calendering may be defined as the modification of the surface
of a fabric by the action of heat and pressure.

• The finish is obtained by passing the fabric between heated

rotating rollers when both speed of rotation and pressure
applied are variable.

• The surface of rollers can be either smooth or engraved to

provide the appropriate finish to fabric.

• The rollers may be made of various material from hardened

steel to elastic thermoplastic.
Objects of Calendering
• To improve the fabric handle and to impart a smooth silky
touch to the fabric
• To compress the fabric and reduce its thickness
• To reduce the air permeability by closing the threads
• To increase the luster
• To reduce the yarn slippage
• To increase the opacity of the fabric
• Surface patterning by embossing
Types of Calendering
• Swissing or normal gloss or simple calendering
• Chintz or glazing or friction Calendering
• Cire Calendering
• Embossed Calendering
• Moiré Calendering
• Schrenier Calendering
Calendering machines
Types of
Finishes enhancing appearance
 Treatments enhancing appearance include such processes as
 napping and shearing,
 brushing,
 singeing,
 beetling,
 decating,
 tentering,
 calendering or pressing,
 moiréing,
 embossing,
 creping,
 glazing,
 polishing, and
 optical brightening.
Napping and shearing
• Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens, cottons,
spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven and knitted
types, to raise a velvety, soft surface.

• The process involves passing the fabric over revolving

cylinders covered with fine wires that lift the short, loose
fibres, usually from the weft yarns, to the surface, forming a
nap. The process, which increases warmth, is frequently
applied to woollens and worsteds and also to blankets.
• Shearing cuts the raised nap to a uniform height and is
used for the same purpose on pile fabrics.

• Shearing machines operate much like rotary lawn mowers,

and the amount of shearing depends upon the desired height
of the nap or pile, with such fabrics as gabardine receiving
very close shearing.

• Shearing may also be applied to create stripes and other

patterns by varying surface height
• Brushing
• This process, applied to a wide variety of fabrics, is usually
accomplished by bristle-covered rollers.

• The process is used to remove loose threads and short fibre

ends from smooth-surfaced fabrics and is also used to raise a
nap on knits and woven fabrics.

• Brushing is frequently applied to fabrics after shearing,

removing the cut fibres that have fallen into the nap.
• Also called gassing, singeing is a process applied to both
yarns and fabrics to produce an even surface by burning off
projecting fibres, yarn ends, and fuzz.
• This is accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn over a gas
flame or heated copper plates at a speed sufficient to burn
away the protruding material without scorching or burning
the yarn or fabric.
• Singeing is usually followed by passing the treated material
over a wet surface to assure that any smoldering is halted.
• Singeing
• Beetling
• Beetling is a process applied to linen fabrics and to cotton
fabrics made to resemble linen to produce a hard, flat surface
with high lustre and also to make texture less porous.

• In this process, the fabric, dampened and wound around an

iron cylinder, is passed through a machine in which it is
pounded with heavy wooden mallets.
 Decating
 Decating is a process applied to woollens and worsteds, man-
made and blended fibre fabrics, and various types of knits.

 It involves the application of heat and pressure to set or

develop lustre and softer hand and to even the set and grain
of certain fabrics. When applied to double knits it imparts crisp
hand and reduces shrinkage.

 In wet decating, which gives a subtle lustre, or bloom, fabric

under tension is steamed by passing it over perforated
• Tentering,
• These are final processes applied to set the warp and weft of woven
fabrics at right angles to each other, and to stretch and set the fabric to its
final dimensions.
• Tentering stretches width under tension by the use of a tenter frame,
consisting of chains fitted with pins or clips to hold the selvages of the
fabric, and travelling on tracks.

• As the fabric passes through the heated chamber, creases and wrinkles are
removed, the weave is straightened, and the fabric is dried to its final size.
• When the process is applied to wet wools it is called crabbing;
Tentering / stentering
 Creping
 A crepe effect may be achieved by finishing. In one method, which is
not permanent, the cloth is passed, in the presence of steam,
between hot rollers filled with indentations producing waved and
puckered areas.

 In the more permanent caustic soda method, a caustic soda paste is

rolled onto the fabric in a patterned form; or a resist paste may be
applied to areas to remain unpuckered and the entire fabric then
immersed in caustic soda.

 The treated areas shrink, and the untreated areas pucker. If the
pattern is applied in the form of stripes, the effect is called plissé; an
allover design produces blister crepe.

• 1. Napping
Using wire-covered rolls to "dig out" individual fiber ends
to the surface

• 2. Sueding
Using abrasive-covered rolls (sandpaper, emery cloth, etc.)
to produce shorter pile surface - does cause an apparent shade
Special type of raised surface fabric is corduroy
Sueding, sanding- creates softer hand of fabric.

 Use of rotary blade(s) to trim raised surfaces (Surface pile or

nap) to a uniform height.

 Special types of blades and conveyer belts can produce

pattern effects on the surface.

 This reduces the tendency of the fabric surface to mat and

also reduces the pilling tendency.

 For pile fabrics, napped fabrics.

Raised Surface Finishes, add texture

• 􀂄 Shearing- for pile fabrics, surface pile is cut to control the pattern and
• Brushing-
• 􀂄 Embossed fabrics-
• 􀂄 Plisse’- puckered surfaces created by printing fabric with sodium
hydroxide in stripes or designs.
• 􀂄 Flocking
• 􀂄 Glued on short fibers to create fuzzy surface
• 􀂄 Napping/brushing – fiber ends raised by mechanical brushing
• 􀂄 Fulled- wool fabrics are shrunk in a controlled manner,
• 􀂄 Beetled-
• 􀂄 Sueding, sanding- creates softer hand of fabric. Emery paper or
• some other mild abrasion to surface of fabric.
• Mercerisation is a treatment for cotton fabric and thread that gives fabric
a lustrous appearance. The process is applied to materials like cotton or

• The process was devised in 1844 by John Mercer of Great Harwood,

Lancashire, England, who treated cotton fibres with sodium hydroxide.

• Mercerisation alters the chemical structure of the cotton fibre. The

structure of the fibre changes from alpha-cellulose to beta-cellulose.
Mercerising results in the swelling of the cell wall of the cotton fibre. This
causes increases in the surface area and reflectance, and gives the fiber a
softer feel.
• The treatment of cellulosic fabric with caustic to improve dye-ability and

• The treatment of cellulosic textiles in yam or fabric form with a

concentrated solution of caustic alkali whereby the fibres are swollen, the
strength and dye affinity of the materials are increased, and the handle
is modified.

• A treatment of yarns or fabrics with caustic alkali, in which fibres are

swollen and stretched to increase lustre in the finished product.
• Treatment of cotton fabrics
with sulfuric acid.
• The fabric is transparent,
sheer, stiff.

• Burn-out, effects created by

dissolving part of the fibers
in a blend fabric, leaving the
second fiber in place.
Functional Finishes
• All finishes that change a fabric's properties are applied chemically.

• Property-changing functional finishes provide the added qualities desired

for a particular fabric or they may be used to change an undesirable
property to a more desirable one.

• Many such finishes add more than one property to a fabric. The label may
indicate which finishes have been applied to the fabric.

• Examples of functional finishes that change the properties of fabric

• Crease Resistant Finishes are applied to cellulose fibres (cotton, linen
and rayon) that wrinkle easily. Permanent Press fabrics have crease
resistant finishes that resist wrinkling and also help to maintain creases
and pleats throughout wearing and cleaning.

• Stabilization Finishes –
• Sanforized indicates that a fabric has been treated so that it will shrink or
stretch not more than 1 or 2%. Preshrunk fabrics have been preshrunk to a
certain extent but still may shrink considerably
 Anti-pilling finishes:
 Pilling is an unpleasant phenomenon associated with spun
yarn fabrics especially when they contain synthetics.
 Synthetic fibers are more readily brought to the surface of
fabric due to their smooth surface and circular cross section
and due to their higher tensile strength and abrasion
resistance, the pills formed take a long time to be abraded by
 With knit fabric, two more problems occur, viz., "picking"
where the abrasion individual fibers work themselves out of
yarn loops onto the surface when garment catches a pointed
or rough object.
• Permanent Anti-static effects:

• Antistatic finish for synthetic textiles to avoid static charge build up

& give a natural feel.
• Anti-static effective chemicals are largely chemically inert and
require Thermosol or heat treatment for fixing on polyester goods.

• In general Thermsolable anti-static agents also have a good soil

release action which is as permanent as the anti-static effect.

• Anti-static finishes may also be of polyamide type being curable at

moderate temperatures
• Non-Slip finishes:
• Synthetic warp and weft threads in loosely woven fabrics are
particularly prone to slip because of their surface smoothness when
the structure of fabric is disturbed and appearance is no loner
• To avoid this attempts are made to give the filaments a rougher
• Silica-gel dispersions or silicic acid colloidal solutions are quite
useful and they are used with advantage in combination with latex
polymer or acrylates dispersions to get more permanent effect
along with simultaneous improvement in resistance to pilling or
• These polymer finishes are also capable of imparting a soft and
smooth handle to synthetic fabric without imparting water
 Fire Resistant finishes:
 With synthetic fiber which melt on igniting by a flame, the
molten moss is itself quite dangerous and a fire resistant
treatment is desirable for certain end uses.

 Polyester fabrics can be made flame resistant by treatment

with an aqueous emulsion of xylene soluble 2,3-
dibromopropyl phosphate in a pad-cure sequence.

 A semi-permanent effect can be produced by treating with a

mixture of ammonium bromide and brominated phosphoric
acid esters.
• Anti-microbial finishes:

• With the increasing use synthetic fibers for carpets and other
materials in public places, anti-microbial finishes have assumed
• Anti microbial finish Eco-friendly anti microbial finishing agent for
cotton fabrics & Garments.Useful for eliminating bacterial growth
due to sweat.

• Products which are commonly applied are brominated phenols,

quaternary ammonium compounds, organo-silver and tin
compounds which can be applied as solutions or dispersions.

• Mothproofing Finishes protect protein-containing fibres, such as

wool, from being attacked by moths, carpet beetles and other
• Waterproof Finishes -Aallows no water to penetrate, but tend
to be uncomfortable because they trap moisture next to the
body. Recently, fabrics have been developed that are
waterproof, yet are also breathable (e.g. GORE-TEX, Bion II
and Dicrylan).
• Water-Repellent Finishes - Water-repellent finishes resist
wetting. If the fabric becomes very wet, water will eventually
pass through. Applied to fabrics found in raincoats, all-
weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and shower curtains
(e.g. Cravaneete, Huydor-Pruf, Syl-mer, Scotchgard and Zepel).
• Stain and Soil Resistant Finishes - prevent soil and stains from
being attracted to fabrics.
• Such finishes may be resistant to oil-bourne or water-bourne
soil and stains or both.
• Stain and soil resistant finishes can be applied to fabrics used
in clothing and furniture. Scotchgard is a stain and soil
resistant finish commonly applied to carpet and furniture.
• Soil Release Finishes - These finishes attract water to the
surface of fibres during cleaning and help remove soil.
• Flame-Retardant Finishes - In Canada, laws require that
children's sleepwear and certain household furnishings meet
certain standards for flammability resistance.
• Absorbent Finishes increase fibres' moisture holding power.
Such finishes have been applied to towels, cloth diapers,
underwear, sports shirts and other items where moisture
absorption is important
Flame Resistant Finishes
• Flame Resistant, the only performance required by law. Regulates the
flammability of all people’s clothing.

• This removed extremely hazardous materials, such as things that will flash
over quickly with only a small spark.

• Clothing will still burn, however, the amount of flame and combustion is

• Flammability regulations cover children’s sleepwear, carpets,

mattresses,upholstered furniture.

• Children’s sleepwear standard is a vertical flammability test, uses a gas

flame to ignite the lower edge of the fabric.

• Are applied to combustible fabrics used in children's sleepwear, carpets

and curtains and prevent highly flammable textiles from bursting into
Fragrance finish
• Done by Micro encapsulated silicone based aroma finishing agent.

• Microencapsulated skin moisturizers, vitamins and provitamins are applied

in garments and known as cosmeto-textiles, designed for wear in contact with
skin. These are claimed to promote a younger look, counteracting the effects
of skin ageing, e.g. as a result of exposure to UV-radiation. There are also
microencapsulated preparations for skin cooling.
Home Textiles
In other areas, household textiles such as curtains, sofas, cushions, sheets, as
well as apparel items such as gloves, socks and ties may also be treated with
microencapsulated fragrance and deodorizing finishes. The carpets can be
finished with fragrances of different kinds and can be widely used in home
textiles as well as automotive textiles.
• Sport Wears
As the ‘second skin’ of the human body, all types of textile are excellent
media for transferring fragrance compounds, and are essential to people
in sport according to their preference for them. The type of the fragrance
necessary for sports wear may be orange, lemon which will keep them
energized on the ground for longer period.
The scents of lavender, rose, citrus or vanilla were encapsulated into
fabrics, which proved a good way to meet important psychological and
emotional needs, as well as those of a purely physical and sensorial
nature. Thus the fabrics finished with above fragrances can be used in
apparels, leisure wear, daily wears, party wears etc.
• Peach Finish: Subjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic
blends) to emery wheels, makes the surface velvet like. This is a special
finish mostly used in garments.
Finishes for Synthetic fibers

• Heat Setting: Heat setting of synthetic fabrics eliminates the

internal tensions within the fiber generated during manufacture
and the new state can be fixed by rapid cooling.

• This heat setting fixes the fabrics in the relaxed state and thus
avoids subsequent shrinkage or creasing of fabric. Presetting of
goods make it possible to use higher temperature for setting
without considering the sublimation properties of dyes and also has
a favorable effect on dyeing behavior and running properties of

• On the other hand, post setting can be combined with some other
operations such as thermosol dyeing or optical brightening of
polyester, post setting as a final finish is useful to get a high
dimensional stability along with desired handle.
• Enzymatic finishes
• Bio-polishing: This is a process to remove the protruding
fibers of a fabric through the action an enzyme. This enzyme
selectively acts on the protruding fibers and cease to work
after finishing the work by a simple raise in temperature of
the treatment bath.
Shrinkage Control Finishes

• Some shrinkage expected in the

first wash after weaving, the
tensions created by being held
on the loom are relaxed.

• Sanforized, compressive
Cottons are shrunk by
compressing fabric between
two blankets overfed over
heated cylinders.

• Sanfor-set, uses liquid ammonia

to make the compressive
shrinkage more permanent
• Heat setting, for Thermoplastics,
heat fibers above their glass
transition temperature- created a
permanent shape

• Shrinkage Control for Wool

Remove the scales from the surface
of the fiber
Is a halogenation treatment that is
fabric is treated with chlorine
Or coat the scales with a polymer
Coating is usually nylon
Wrinkle Resistant Finishes

• Wrinkle recovery is dependent on the presence of cross links that hold

adjacent molecules together and pull them back into shape when they are

• Other problems of DP finishes- stiffness, weakness, odor, soiling and

affinity for soil, less moisture absorbent.