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Where did the Renaissance Start and Why?

The Renaissance is the rebirth of Art, Culture, and Literacy

from the 1300s to the 1500s.

It started in Florence Italy.

Reason it starts in Florence:
1. Wealth
2. Location and contact with the Muslim World.

Leonardo da Vinci- Art work, Renaissance Man

Who was he: da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect,

inventor, and mathematician.

Famous Art Work: Last Supper and the Mona Lisa.

Why is he called the Renaissance Man: He had multiple skills
and was good at all of them.

Shakespeare-Style of plays
Who was he: An English poet and playwright between
1590 and 1613.

What are his Styles of Plays: He wrote comedies,

historical plays, and tragedies.
Example: Romeo and Juliet

The Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century

religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that
splintered Catholic belief in Europe, and led to the
formation of many modern day Christian religions.

Martin Luther
Martin Luther, was a German Monk who is upset about
the selling of indulgence by the Catholic Church and
voices his dissatisfaction in his writings know as the 95
theses. This leads to the Protestant Reformation and
eventually the restructuring of the Catholic Church

John Calvin
John Calvin, trained as a priest and lawyer and was also
unhappy with the Catholic Church. He leaves the Church
and creates his own religion based around his idea of

The Spanish Inquisition-What was the Consequence?

This was a court set up by the Catholic Church to get

people to recant their ideas by torturing them :

It gave the Catholic Church control through fear, not only

in religion, but also in politics. This led to fear and dislike
of the Church.

Columbian Exchange-Impact on Britain, Africa, and the


This is the Global trading network of goods between

Europe and its colonies, named after Christopher
Britain: Wealth and they become a World Power
Africa: Destroyed their economy becomes reliant on
Europe for its survival.
Americas: Gives them slave labor leads to wealth.

Triangular Trade-Impact on Africa and

This was a colonial trade route among Europe and its
colonies, the West Indies, and Africa in which goods were
exchanged for slaves:
Africa: Destroyed their economy becomes reliant on
Europe for its survival, leads to the lost of population,
and destruction of a number of tribes.
Europe: Allows for Colonization of the Americas and

Middle Passage-What is it?

This is when the enslaved Africans were placed on the
boats for transport and packed in like cargo, many did
not survive the sea voyage due to disease or brutal

What was the Scientific Revolution

This was the emergence of modern science during the
early modern period, when developments in
mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including
human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of
society and nature.

Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton was an established physicist and
mathematician, and is credited as one of the great
minds of the 17th century Scientific Revolution. With
discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics, Newton
developed the principles of modern physics. He is most
famous for his law of gravitation.

Natural Law
A body of principles that are considered to be inherent
in nature and have universal application in determining
whether human conduct is right or wrong.

Social Contract
This is an implicit agreement among the members of a
society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by
sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection.
Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th,
17th, and 18th centuries among theorists such as
Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
as a means of explaining the origin of government and
the obligations of subjects.

Which Enlighten Philosophers had the greatest impact on

the development of the U.S. Constitution
Thomas Hobbes-Social Contract
John Locke-Natural Rights, Social Contract
Montesquieu-Separation of Powers (3 Branches of Government)
Voltaire-Bill of Rights

The theory that places the Sun as the center of the
universe, and the planets orbiting around it. The
heliocentric model replaced Geocentrism, which is the
belief that the Earth is the center of the universe.

The Glorious Revolution-William and

What is it: the overthrow of King James II of England by a
union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch leader
William III of Orange William's successful invasion of
England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending
of the English throne.
Who were William and Mary: They overthrow Marys
father James II to become the English Monarchy in the
late 1600s.

Napoleonic Code
The is the French civil code established under Napolon I
in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth,
allowed freedom of religion, and specified that
government jobs should go to the most qualified.

Maximilien Robespierre
He was a lawyer and politician who becomes the leader
of the Committee of Public Safety and become the chief
architect of the Reign of Terror:

Napoleon Bonaparte
He proclaims himself the Emperor of France, he gets
France out of the turmoil that followed the revolution, but
loses the War against his European neighbors and is
forced to abdicate his position:

Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new
manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760
to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

How did the Industrial Revolution impact the cities

(Urbanization) and labor(unions)

As industry grows and factories get larger the majority of

jobs are in cities this leads to Urbanization and
overpopulation. It also leads to harsh working conditions
in the factories. To combat this Labor Unions are
developed to fight for workers rights.

Communism-Karl Marx

Communism is a political theory derived from Karl Marx,

advocating class war and leading to a society in which all
property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid
according to their abilities and needs.

Karl Marx was a German Philosopher who wrote the pamphlet

the Communist Manifesto, which led to the early idea of

Imperialism-Impact on Africa

This is the expansion of European powers and their

conquest and colonization of African and Asian societies,
mainly from the sixteenth through the nineteenth century

Imperialism leads to the domination of Africas political,

economic, and cultural life by many European Nations.

Direct Control-Imperialism
In a direct rule, a colony would be governed by foreign
officials while no self-rule was given to natives. The goal
was assimilation of the colony into an empire.
Government institutions were based on European

Indirect Control-Imperialism
In an indirectly ruled colony, local government officials
might be used, while the native upper-class was given
limited self-rule over the colony. The goal was to
Westernize future leaders of a colony in order to
perpetuate a powers control.

Sphere of Influence-British Empire

(India, China
When a foreign power exercises control over another
countrys trade and economy. China was divided into
various spheres-of -influence by European powers so that
they could obtain exclusive trade rights with Chinese
ports. Often, Europeans would abuse trade with China
because of Extraterritoriality rights granted to Europe.
In India the British tried indirect rule until the Sepoy
Rebellion and them implement a more direct rule.

Political Structure of East Asia-Meiji

The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal
order with a completely new political and social system
and to build a modern industrial economy. They felt that
if they didnt westernize they would be overrun by
western nations like China was.

Open Door Policy

This is a formal agreement among the European powers on the
principle of maintaining an Open Door for trade and commercial activity
under their influence. Proposed by U.S. Secretary of State Hay in the
late 1800s.
Secretary Hay of the U.S. sent the first of the Open Door Notes on September 6,
1899, to the other great powers that had an interest in China, including Great
Britain, France, Russia, Germany, and Japan. These nations maintained
significant physical and commercial presences in China, and were protective of
their various spheres of influence and trading privileges there, and elsewhere in
Hay proposed a free, open market and equal trading opportunity for merchants
of all nationalities operating in China, based in part on the most favored nation
clauses already established

Boxer Rebellion
In 1900, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion
(or the Boxer Uprising), a Chinese secret organization
called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists
led an uprising in northern China against the spread of
Western and Japanese influence there.

Tokugawa Shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the
Tokugawa bakufu and the Edo bakufu, was the last
feudal Japanese military government which existed
between 1603 and 1868.

Causes of World War I(Imperialism,

Nationalism, Militarism, Alliances)
Imperialism: a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military
force. As quality territories start to disappear the Imperial nations compete for those that left,
causes tension.
Nationalism: the policy or doctrine of asserting the interests of one's own nation viewed as
separate from the interests of other nations. As Nations felt that their interest were more important
then others they would do what was best for them and not care if it effected others. In the late
1800s Otto von Bismarck unifies Germany and becomes the first German Chancellor, he wanted to
build a powerful State with a Unified National identity.

Militarism: the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong
military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
Alliance: a union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or
organizations. As tension starts to build by the imperial nations during the late 1800s, groups of
nations signed treaties to protect themselves in case of war. When war between Serbia and
Austria-Hungry breaks out these Alliances draw the major world powers into war.

What event sparks the fighting of

World War I
Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand: On June 28,
1914 the heir to the Austrian-Hungry throw and his wife
was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by a Serbian
Nationalist. This led to Austria-Hungry declaring war on
Serbia and sparks the Frist World War.

Reason for U.S. involvement in WWI (3)

Sinking of the Lusitania: The Germans use unrestricted submarine warfare
to try to stop the Allies from getting supplies. They mistakenly attack a British
Luxury Liner, and kill over a thousand civilians among them are 128 U.S.
citizens. This turns U.S. public opinion against Germany and put pressure on
the President to get in the War.
Giving of Credit to the Allies: U.S. businesses allow Britain and France to
buy goods on credit. As the war drags on they fear that the Allies are going to
lose so they pressure the President to declare War on The Central Powers.
Zimmermann Note: In 1917 a diplomatic proposal from the German Empire
offering a military alliance with Mexico, in the event of the United States
entering World War I against Germany. When the War was won the Germans
would give the land taken from Mexico by the U.S. in the Mexican American
War back to them.

Trench Warfare
This is a strategy used during World War I, in which the
armies attacked each other from fortified ditches. This
style of fighting led to a stalemate and prolonged the

Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in
1920 after the end of World War I which demanded
exorbitant reparations from the Germans, took territory
from the Central Powers, and redrew boundaries.

Russian Revolution-Bolsheviks,
This was a series of revolutions in the Russian Empire
during 1917. The events destroyed the old government,
Tsar Nicholas II was forced to step down and was
replaced with a provisional government.
Bolsheviks: A member of the majority faction of the
Russian Social Democratic Party, which was renamed the
Communist Party after seizing power in the October
Revolution of 1917.

Adolf Hitler
He is the leader of the Nazi Party and becomes
Chancellor of Germany in 1933. He does away with the
Weimar Republic and declares himself as premier leader
of Germany. In 1939 he invades Poland and starts World
War II.

Joseph Stalin
He becomes the Communist leader of the Soviet Union
after the death of Lenin. At the beginning of World War II
he signs a Non-aggression pact with Hitler, but is drawn
into the war when Germany breaks the Non-aggression

Non-aggression Pact
This is an agreement between nations not to fight each
other if a war is declared.

Reasons for U.S. involvement in

World War II
The Bombing of the U.S. Naval Base at Hawaii on
December 7, 1941 forced the U.S. to declare war on the
Axis Powers.

D-Day Invasion: What was it and it takes place where?

This was the Joint Allied attack on June 6, 1944 into
France at Normandy.

Holocaust: What was it and Which groups of people are


This was the systematic murder or genocide of Jews,

Gypsies, Slavs, the disabled, homosexuals and those
deemed enemies of Germany by the Nazis before and
during WWII:

Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and
development project that produced the first atomic
bombs during World War II. Most of the work and testing
of the atomic bomb was done in New Mexico.

Atomic Bomb dropped on which Japanese Islands?

Hiroshima on August 6, 1945
Nagasaki on August 9, 1945

United Nations
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental
organization established 24 October 1945 to promote
international co-operation. The organization was created
following the Second World War to prevent another such

Cold War (Marshall Plan, Division of Germany)

This was the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between
the U.S. and the Soviet Union after World War II:
Marshall Plan: U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall issued a call for a
comprehensive program to rebuild Europe. Fanned by the fear of Communist expansion
and the rapid deterioration of European economies in the winter of 19461947, Congress
passed the Economic Cooperation Act in March 1948 and approved funding that would
eventually rise to over $12 billion for the rebuilding of Western Europe.
Division of Germany: After Germany's defeat in the Second World War, the four main
allies in Europe - the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France - took
part in a joint occupation of the German state. With the original understanding that the
country would eventually be reunified, the Allied Powers agreed to share the
responsibility of administering Germany and its capital, Berlin, and each took
responsibility for a certain portion of the defeated nation. This arrangement ultimately
evolved into the division of Germany into a Western and an Eastern sector, thereby
contributing to the Cold War division of Europe.

Arms Race
The nuclear arms race was central to the Cold War. Many
feared where the Cold War was going with the belief that
the more nuclear weapons you had, the more powerful
you were. Both America and Russia massively built up
their stockpiles of nuclear weapons. This further
increased the tension between the two Superpowers.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization: an organization
formed in Washington, D.C. (1949), comprising the 12
nations of the Atlantic Pact together with Greece, Turkey,
and the Federal Republic of Germany, for the purpose of
collective defense against aggression.

Warsaw Pact
In response to the development of N.A.T.O. the Soviet
Union and it Satellites formed the Warsaw Pact:
organization formed in Warsaw, Poland (1955),
comprising Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., for collective
defense under a joint military command.

Wars in Asia(Chinese Civil War-Mao Zedong Communism, Korean War, Vietnam)

Chinese Civil War: Mao Zedong led the Chinese Communist to Victory in the Chinese Civil War in
the years following World War II. China becomes the second largest Communist Nation in the
during this time period.
Korean War: After WWII, the U.S. and Soviet Union agreed to temporarily divide Korea at the 38 th
parallel. The Soviets see this as a chance to create a new Communist Nation and place Kim IL
Sung in command of North Korea. They then recognize North Korea as a new Nation and refuse to
participate in open elections. In 1950 the North Korea attacks the South, the United Nations led by
the U.S. back South Korea, China backs North Korea and the War is fought for 3 years and becomes
a stalemate. With North Korea remaining a Communist nation and South becoming a Democratic
Vietnam: A war in Southeast Asia, which was waged from 1954 to 1975 between communist North
Vietnam and noncommunist South Vietnam, two parts of what was once the French colony of
Indochina. Vietnamese communists attempted to take over the South, both by invasion from the
North and by guerrilla warfare conducted within the South by the Viet Cong. The U.S. gets involved
because of its policy of Containment and fear of the Domino effect. The U.S. society becomes
dishearten with the war the U.S. pulls out in 1975 and Vietnam becomes a Communist nation.

U.S. Containment policy was the first major policy during
the Cold War and used numerous strategies (Truman
Doctrine, Marshall plan etc.)to prevent the spread of
Communism abroad. The Idea behind this was to treat
Communism like a diseases that there was no cure for,
and quarantine it so it did not spread.

Domino Theory
This was a Theory developed by the U.S. during the Cold
War, the idea behind it was that if one East Asian country
fall to Communism, the nations surrounding it would also
fall to Communism. This theory is why the U.S. gets
involved in Vietnam.

Fall of the Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall was a concrete wall that separated East
Berlin and West Berlin from 1961 to 1989, built by the
Communist East German government to prevent its
citizens from fleeing to the West. Its fall in 1989 is one of
the first major events in the fall of Communism in Europe
and eventfully the end of the Cold War.

Mohandas Gandhis non-violence Movement for Indias


Mohandas Gandhi was an Indian civil rights leader who

used non-violence to fight for the independence of India
from Britain, which he gains in 1948.
He used a number of non-violence strategies in his
struggle, such as boycotts, fasting, and protest marches.
U.S. civil rights leaders, such as Martin Luther King JR.,
and Cesar Chavez used many of Gandhis strategies in
their fight for civil liberties.

Globalization: What is it and give an example

Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among

the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a
process driven by international trade and investment and aided by
information technology.
The European Union is an economic and political union of 28
countries that are located primarily in Europe.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (N.A.F.T.A.) is a trade
bloc in North America.
One shirt sold in the United States could have been made from
Chinese cotton by workers in Thailand. Then it could have been
shipped on a French freighter that had a Spanish crew.
A McDonald's in Japan and other countries shows the growth of
companies over the entire world.


North American Free Trade Agreement

NAFTA is an agreement among the United States, Canada
and Mexico designed to remove tariff barriers between
the three countries. It has been beneficial for the U.S.
and Canada, but has yet to have significant positive
results in Mexico.

Global Threat of Terrorism

Terrorism is the deliberate use of random violence,
especially against civilians, to achieve political goals.
Throughout history smaller and weaker nations have
used terrorism to defend themselves against a more
powerful enemy, but since the 1970s groups not officially
affiliated with nations have increased the use of

Apartheid-South Africa
was a system of racial segregation in South Africa
enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP),
the governing party from 1948 to 1994.