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CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

BLOOD PRESSURE DRUGS


DRUG –
CLASSIFICAT ADVERSE CONTRAINDICATI DRUG
INDICATIONS ACTIONS
ION/DRUG EFFECTS ONS INTERACTIO
NS
HTN, CHF, Blocks production of COUGH, GI, Preg. Class D, renal Allipurinol for
ACE l.ventric, angiotensin II. Renal insuff impairment Hx, RA, Diuretics, +
Inhibitors dysfunction Vasodilation, ↓BP, Hyperkalemia, Caution: CHF-does Lithium, NSAID
Captopril after MI, ↑serum potassium w/ Na hard on not allow *Take 1 hr
(capoten) diabetic + fluid loss kidneys- watch vasoconstriction; before meals.
nephropathy BUN tests. Alert if having
*Not effective w/ surgery, hypotension
African Americans. possible

Angiotensin II HTN, Stroke Blocks the action of Headache, Preg. Class D, Phenobarbitol,
Receptor prevention, angiotensin II. dizziness, Anti-HTN
Blockers HTN w/ renal pts Vasodilation (arteriole), syncope, *Alert if having
(ARB’s) & type 2 Na + water excretion, weakness, surgery, hypotension
Losartan diabetics ret. of potassium. GI, rash, possible
(Cozaar)
Essential HTN in Blocking of calcium Bradycardia, Caution in lactating GRAPEFRUIT
Calcium the ER form. channels in blood vessels Dysrhythmia, women, Heart block JUICE
Channel –vasodilation. ortho or sick sinus Cyclosporine
Blockers (Main use is for ↓contraction+ HR, AV hypotension syndrome for transplant
(CCB) angina) node. CCB’s work on pts.
Diltiazem heart.
Caution w/
Digoxin + Beta
blockers
Severe HTN, Acts directly on vascular Related to Pregnancy, lactation Many
Vasodilators (hospital use smooth muscle to relax, changes in BP, Cyanide toxicity,
Nitroprusside only for crisis) vasodilation, ↓peripheral GI upset Caution: CHF,PVD,
(Nitropress) * Hair growth resistance, ↓ BP, does CAD (blood clots can
(Rogaine) not inhibit cardio reflexes loosen plaque)

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CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

tachycardia.

CARDIOTONIC AGENTS
CLASSIFICAT
ADVERSE CONTRAINDICATI DRUG -
ION/ INDICATIONS ACTIONS
EFFECTS ONS DRUG
DRUG
↑Myocardial contraction, Bradycardia, Electrolyte imbalance Erythromycin,
Cardiac CHF, atrial cardiac output, renal Yellow halos, (K), ventricular tetracycline,
Glycoside fibrillation perfusion, ↓HR, AV node GI, arrhythmia, tachycardia or fib., cyclosporine,
Digoxin conduction velocity headache, heart block, MI, renal quinine,
(Lanoxin) drowsiness, insuff. cholestyramine,
weakness CHECK APICAL *St. John’s wart,
>60. psyllium,
Peds – apical & ginseng,
dose checked by hawthorn,
2nd nurse. licorice

ANTIARRHYTHMIC AGENTS
CLASSIFICAT
ADVERSE CONTRAINDICATI DRUG -
ION/ INDICATIONS ACTIONS
EFFECTS ONS DRUG
DRUG

2
CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

Treatment of Competively blocks beta- Bradycardia, Verapamil,


Class II arrhythmias, esp. adtrenergic receptors in CHF, cardiac Insulin
Antiarrhythmi SVT; induced by the heart & kidney; has a arrhythmias, (hypoglycemia)
cs digitalis or heart blocks,
membrane-stabiizing
Propranolol catecholamines. CVA, pulmonary
(Inderal) HTN, angina, effect, ↓sympathetic edema, NVD,
migraine, influence. ↓exercise
situational tolerance
anxiety
Used to convert Stops heary - fast push, No adverse
Other SVT to sinus 6 second jump, stops effects
Adenosine rhythm when heart only if in SVT. Only
(Adenocard) vagal maneuvers works w/ SVT T ½ - 6 second
have been
ineffective.

ANTIANGINAL AGENTS

CLASSIFICAT ADVERSE CONTRAINDICATI DRUG -


INDICATIONS ACTIONS
ION/ DRUG EFFECTS ONS DRUG
Related to Allergy, Severe Ergot
NITRATES Treatment & Act directly on smooth vasodilation and anemia,Head trauma derivatives
Niroglycerin prevention of muscle to relax and the decrease in and cerebral Heparin
(nitroglycerin) attacks of angina depress muscle tone blood flow CNS: hemorrhage.
pectoris, produce headache, Pregnancy and
controlled dizziness, and lactation CAUTION:
hypotension during weakness, Hepatic or renal
surgery hypotension disease,
Flushing, pallor, Hypotension,
and increased hypovolemia, and
perspiration conditions that limit
cardiac output

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CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

Treats stable Block beta-adrenergic Related to Bradycardia, Heart Clonidine


Beta Blocker angina pectoris and receptors in the heart vasodilation & ↓ block, Cardiogenic
Metaprolol hypertension; and kidneys, decreasing in blood flow shock,
(Topropl, prevents the influence of the SNS Asthma and COPD,
reinfarction in MI on these tissues; Pregnancy and
Toprol XL)
patients; treats decrease cardiac output lactation
stable CHF and the release of renin CAUTION: DM, PVD
Thyrotoxicosis

Calcium Prinzmetal's Hypotension, Vary with drug


Channel angina cardiac
Blocker arrhythmias
Diltiazem
(Cardizem)

LIPID LOWERING AGENTS

CLASSIFICAT ADVERSE CONTRAINDICATI


INDICATIONS ACTIONS DRUG - DRUG
ION/DRUG EFFECTS ONS
↓ elevated serum Bind bile acids in the Headache, Complete billary Malabsorption of
Bile Acid cholesterol in intestine, allow excretion fatigue, GI, obstruction , fat-soluble
Sequestrants patients with in feces instead of ↑bleeding times, pregnancy + vitamins
primary reabsorption, and cause Vit. A + E lactation
Cholestyramine hypercholesterolem cholesterol to be iodized deficiencies
(Questran) ia and pruritus in the liver and serum
assoc w/ partial cholesterol levels to fall
biliary obstruct
Reduce elevated Reduce elevated serum Flatulence, n/v Active liver disease Erythromycin,
HMG-Coa serum cholesterol cholesterol in patients /con, and history of cyclosporine,

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CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

Reductase in patients with with primary abdominal pain, alcoholic liver gemfibrozil, and
Inhibitors primary hypercholesterolemia headache, disease niacin
hypercholesterolem and pruritus associated dizziness, blurred Pregnancy and Digoxin and
Atorvastatin ia and pruritus with partial biliary vision, cataracts, lactation warfarin
(Lipitor) associated with obstruction insomnia, Caution: Impaired estrogen
partial biliary fatigue, liver endocrine function Grapefruit
obstruction failure juice
Rhabdomyolysi
s
Lower serum Work in the brush border Abdominal pain Pregnancy and
Cholesterol cholesterol levels; of the small intestine to and diarrhea lactation if combined
Absorption treat familial inhibit the absorption of Headache,dizzine with a statin
Inhibitor hypercholesterolem cholesterol s, fatigue, URI, Cautions:Pregnancy
ia; treat and back pain and lactation
Ezetimibe homozygous Muscle aches (monotherapy)
(Zetia) sitosterolemia to and pain In elderly patients,
lower sitosterol and Liver disease
campesterol levels
Can cause facial
Niacin flushing. Take
aspirin ½ hr
before.

ANTICOAGULANTS

CLASSIFICAT ADVERSE CONTRAINDICAT


INDICATIONS ACTIONS DRUG - DRUG
ION/DRUG EFFECTS IONS
Prevention and Inhibits thrombus Loss of hair, Pregnancy + Heparin and oral
Anticoagulant treatment of and clot production bruising, chills, lactation anticoagulants,

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CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

s venous by blocking the fever, salicylates,


Heparin thrombosis and conversion of osteoporosis, penicillins,and
Warfarin pulmonary emboli; prothrombin to suppression of cephalosporins
atrial fibrillation thrombin and renal function Heparin and
with embolization; fibrinogen to fibrin (with longterm nitroglycerine
diagnosis use) Warfarin:
number of
documented
interactions
Acute MI, pulmonary Activate Headache, Pregnancy &
Thrombolytic emboli, and ischemic plasminogen to angioneurotic lactation Anticoagulants,
Streptokinase stroke plasmin, which in edema, antiplatelets
turn breaks down hypotension,ras
fibrin threads in a h,
clot to dissolve a bleeding,breath
formed clot ing difficulties,
pain, fever,
anaphylactic
shock
↓ risk of recurrent Inhibits platelet Bleeding, GI
Antiplatelet TIAs or strokes in aggregation by upset, Hepatic Anticoagulants,
Aspirin males with a inhibiting platelet dysfunction
history of TIA,↓ synthesis of Alopecia,
death or MI in MI thromboxane A 2 dermatitis, bone
prophylaxis; also marrow
used for its anti- suppression, and
inflammatory,anal prolonged and
gesic, and painful erection
antipyretic effects

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CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

DRUGS FOR ANEMIA

CLASSIFICAT ADVERSE CONTRAINDICATI DRUG – DRUG


INDICATIONS ACTIONS
ION/DRUG EFFECTS ONS INTERACTIONS
Act like the Act like the natural headache, Uncontrolled
Synthetic natural glycoprotein fatigue, asthenia, hypertension
Erythropoieti glycoprotein erythropoietin to dizziness, and Allergy to
ns erythropoietin stimulate the production seizure, N/V/D, mammalian cell-
Epoetin alfa to stimulate the of RBCs in the bone hypertension, derived products
(Epogen) production of marrow edema, and Allergy to human
RBCs in the possible chest albumin
bone marrow pain Lactation

Treatment of Elevate the serum iron GI irritation and Hemochromatosis Antacids,


Iron iron-deficiency concentration CNS toxicity, Hemolytic anemia tetracycline, and
Prepartions anemias and Parental ron is Normal iron balance cimetidine
Ferrous Sulfate may also be associated with Peptic ulcer, colitis, Ciprofloxacin,
(Feosol) used as severe and regional enteritis norfloxacin, and
adjunctive anaphylactic ofloxacin
therapy in reactions, local Chloramphenicol
patients irritation,
receiving staining of the
epoetin alfa tissues, and
phlebitis