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Physics revision notes.

(paper6)
Centre of mass experiment (with the lamina): How to minimize
inaccuracy when marking the lines : you view the string directly in
front of card.
Centre of mass of a plane lamina (Very important for
Paper 6)
1. Make a hole in the lamina.
2. Hang it so it can swing freely.
3. Hang a plumb line in the hole and mark the line it passes
through.
4. Repeat the procedure again to get another line
5. Their intersection point is the centre of mass.
Stability of simple objects
The position of the centre of mass affects its stability. If the centre
of mass of an object is
low, it is less likely that will tip over if we tilt it. To increase
stability we should:
1. Increase surface area
2. Making the object shorter.
Why angle i is NOT equale to angle r in ray
experiment:
- thickness of pins
-thickness of mirror
-protractor is not precise
In an experiment to do with the cooling of water,

there are certain things which must be kept the same:


- initial temp.
-thickness of test-tubes ( more heat lost when thinner etc.)
-vol. of water
-thickness of cotton wool
-depth of the thermometer in the water
-avoid droughts

Examples of insulators that you can wrap things with:


-bubble wrap
-fiberglass
Styrofoam is a good insulator , however you cannot wrap it
around things as it breaks easily.
inaccuracy of ray box method: thickness of rays.
inaccuracy of pin method: pins not straight, or too close,
or thickness of lines drawn.
Symbol for extension is 'x' or 'e'.
A ruler is called a 'rule'.
ALWAYS ROUND TO 3.SIG.FIGS.
To improve accuracy, put pins in the light ray experiment
FURTHER APART to avoid parallax error. So, I I I is better than
I I I (where I is the pins)
Precautions for circuit readings of I and V so that
accurate:
For I specifically :

-limit current so that temp. doesn't increase


-use a tapping meter
For I and V: Switch off between readings.
this is the symbol for Celsius temp. (theta)
T this is the symbol for Kelvin temp.
In light ray experiment, lengths are in mm.

Fair test for pendelum experiments:


-length of pendelum
-shape of bob
-no. of swings
-amplitude
If a statement is 'directly proportional', the justification
would always be , ''straight line that goes through the
origin''.
If you're comparing the extensions of springs of
different materials, certain things have to be the
same:
-the cross-section of the springs
-the length of the springs
-the room temperature

How to reduce the heating effect of current:


-Add a variable resistor
-reduce current
-reduce voltage or power

-switch off between readings


Precautions for focal length experiments:
-do it in a darkened room
-clamp ruler to bench
-avoid parallax error when reading the lengths
-make sure that the obejct/lense/screen are all perpendicular
to bench.
-and of course, repeats.
A question one came up and asked to draw a diagram of a
load on a ruler on a pivot. Well, this meant that the ruler was
unbalanced, and so this means that when you draw it, you
must show that the ruler is tilted.
DON'T FORGET TO WRITE DOWN THE UNITS AFTER EACH
ANSWER!!!
An important precaution for spring experiments is to wait for
the spring to stop moving and then record the length
Why the student measures the time taken for twelve
swings of the pendulum rather then just one swing?
Reduce human erros
Give more accurate value of time taken (T)
Gives an average of T

TIPS OF GRAPH WORK

Label the axes (quantity/unit) . what to label on Yaxis and on X-axis is always given in the questions.
Suitable scales Eg: in 2s 5s 10setc
NEVER USE 3s 7s 11s..etc bcuz would be difficult
to plot the graph.

The graph must occupy at least 2/3 grid.. better to


use the whole graph grid to be on the safe side.
Use a FALSE ORIGIN(meaning NOT to start the origin
from 0) if required.
For calculating the gradient:
It must use more than the line.
Must use the points that are on the line.
DO MEMORISE THE UNITS VERY IMPORTANT THEY
MOSTLY ASK IN THE TABLES
IN MOST PAPERS THEY ASK TO DRAW REFLECTION
AND REFRACTION MAKE SURE U KNOW HOW TO
DRAW THAT BEST TIP FOR THE IS TO FOLLOW THE
INSTRUCTION AND APPLY IT IN ORDER THIS WAY U
WONT MESS UP.

GOOOOOOOOOOOOD
LUCKKKKK!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :D
DONT FORGET TO REMEMBER ALLAH,
HE IS ALWAYS THERE FOR YOU.