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Frances Mejia

Ms. Lansel
AP World History

Mejia 1

The classical civilizations of Rome and Han China both have political and cultural
similarities and differences. For instance Rome and Han China both had a bureaucracy for a
government. The Roman Republic had a bureaucracy which meant it divided responsibility.
Rome elected citizens to be apart of the government. With the Roman republic government, it
offered citizenship for loyalty. The last thing the Romans wanted were rebellions so to keep
their people happy they held Bread and Circuses to give food and entertainment to their
citizens. Gladiators fought against each other at the Colosseum as a from of entertainment. Just
like Rome, Han China also had a bureaucracy with a similar system that split roles of
government through departments. Like wise Han China also had a form of recruiting citizens
from the university at Changan or recommendations from local officials. They also held a
Chinese civil exam to improve the government officials, which related to the idea of meritocracy.
Rome and Han China each had two different types of religions. The Roman Empire was
monotheistic unlike Han China which was polytheistic. The Roman Empire became
monotheistic under the rule of Constantine who was the first emperor to convert to Christianity.
On the contrary Han China was not monotheistic but polytheistic. Han China continuously
believed in different religions such as Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Not only
was Rome and Han China different in religion, but in achievements. Such achievements were
thought, technology, science, the art and literature that competed with those of Rome. Han
Chinas great area of achievement was astronomy especially because of their calender based
on 365 1/4 days a year.
Rome was overpopulated with a huge amount of people and because of this Rome had
a bureaucracy for a government. In Han China the same situation happened with an overflow of

people. This period in Han China was called the Warring States, which is when states expanded
and formed into three states, later conquered by the state of Chin. The monotheistic religion of
Rome was Christianity and this occurred under their emperor Constantine. For one Constantine
converted to Christianity so years later, the Roman Empire made Christianity the official religion.
At the time Constantine converted, there began to be a decline in persecution. Han China
strongly believed in having a culture based on tradition and because of this they remained
Polytheistic. Also Han China carried a diverse community of people in it borders. Similarities and
differences were seen in the political and cultural aspects of the classical civilizations of Rome
and Han China.