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A: Rational

The focus for class 3/4B is to develop Inferential comprehension skills, through the historical
origins of ANZAC day. The first text chosen was a poem; as poems are generally implicit and
provided opportunities for inference to occur. The second text was a video about Gallipoli,
this focused on gaining inference by using semiotic features.
As technology becomes more dominate within society, teaching literacy needs to adapt to a
more holistic approach, thereby including both print based and multi-modal texts for
learning. (Salmon, 2010, p.219) This constant exposure to both mediums of texts, means the
students are able scaffold their knowledge, concepts and structures within literacy, through
a variety of learning contexts. Print-based and digital texts both incorporate decoding,
analysing, collaborating, evaluating, planning and connecting (Salmon, 2010, p.22), but are
interpreted and applied in a different manner. Print-based has a limited range of
applications as it is reliant on only words, narration and images; whereas multi-modal has a
wider range as it can incorporate moving images, music, narration etc.

These applications of comprehension in both print-based and multi-modal can be shown
through the use of Thinking Routines. Thinking routines are a, sequence of actions that
lead to making meaning and at the same time help the student gain intellectual control and
awareness of the thinking process. (Wolberg & Goff, p.1) It provides students with
structure of how to converse, what thinking language to use and strategies to organise and
manage collections of information. (Miller & Calfee, 2004, p.2) Thinking routines can be
closely tied with visual thinkers. Visual thinkers see learning as a consequence of thinking,
that development of thinking is a social endeavour, it is required to be visible and can be

fostered in engaging environment. (Ritchhart & Perkins, 2008, p.4) Thinking Routines are
learning oriented rather than work oriented, (Ritchhart & Perkins, 2008, p.4) this means
that the teacher is able to focus on what processes the students undergoes rather than the
end product. The routines used within the lesson plan were Chalk talk, Claim-Support-
Question, What makes you say that? 3-2-1 bridge, CSI: Colour, symbol, image routine and
See Think Wonder. (Ritchhart, 2011) Although they surrounded the same topic, each routine
provided a different aspect on the intention of what the students were learning.

Chalk talk, asks learners to consider ideas, questions, or problems. (Ritchhart, 2011,
p.78)It provides students time to list and sort through their ideas first, then share,
collaborate and scaffold with the rest of the class afterwards. This routine was used to
highlight the change in the students thinking from the start to the end of the lesson.
Different language choices should have been made; moving from factual inference to

Claim-Support-Question focuses on analysing and questioning information. Students have to
draw on prior knowledge and investigation, to clarify and make claims about a topic.
(Ritchhart, 2011, p.191) What makes you say that? Is a routine that uses Visual thinking
strategies, to locate and elaborate students thinking; this can be achieved through own
ideas or other perspectives portrayed by peers. (Ritchhart, 2011, p.165) Each routine
focused on using inference, when making their claim or statement. Students had to provide
evidence on why, what they inferred was correct and how they came to that conclusion. The
use of peers to scaffold their initial concepts and ideas enabled students to gain a greater
insight into how differently people can interpret words/sentences.

3-2-1 Bridge, is about activating prior knowledge before the learning experience begins.
The bridge helps learners recognise and name their own learning and development.
(Ritchhart, 2011, P.86-87) CSI: Colour, symbol, image routine focuses on thinking about the
big ideas and representing them in non-verbally. Students were encouraged to make
comparisons and connections between texts. (Ritchhart, 2011, p.119) Each task focused on
developing emotive inference. Students had to explain why they choose certain
representations/ideas and what they meant. The 3-2-1 Bridge, was a reference for initial
logical thinking, which would then be changed to emotive after completing the CSI task.

See-think-wonders purpose is for observation and interpretation. Each aspect allows
students to closely and separately analyse, explore and connect features of an image. This
routine was used to focus on semiotic features providing opportunities for inference.
Students were able discuss what they saw, thought and wondered about, using semiotic
features as a basis; which was then assisted in development of inference, by using visual
cues as identifiers. (Ritchhart, 2011, p.55)

These routines structured the students learning and enabled the key focus of gaining
inference to occur. The use of semiotic features enabled fluency of teaching emotive
inference through multimodal texts, whereas the print-based focused on written inference
and using clues to uncover the intended meaning. Both print-based and multimodal texts
provided students with different learning contexts and different ways of interpreting ideas.

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Lesson 2#
TOPIC: History
Year Level: 3/4
Time: 60 minutes

This assessment task addresses the broad AC English: Content Descriptor from the Literacy
SubStrand: Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating. Use comprehension strategies to build
literal and inferred meaning to expand content knowledge, integrating and linking ideas and
analysing and evaluating texts (ACELY1692).
Relevant Elaborations:

making connections between information in print and images

creating mental images

inferring meaning from the ways communication occurs in digital environments including
the interplay between words, images, and sounds
During this lesson students will:
Use visualisation and semiotic features to interpret the text.
The Hook
Play the clip of the last call bugle-
Discuss what they visualise, Have they heard it before? What emotions do they feel and
Literacy learning intentions
We are learning to use semiotic features to infer and create meanings from text.
Learning behaviours
I need to see you creating ideas and using more than one semiotic feature as
Success criteria for whole class
I am doing well if I can explain and produce at least two different colours, symbols
and images to represent my ideas.
Success criteria for focus teaching group
I am doing well if I can discuss at least two things that I saw, thought and wondered
about, with a focus on the semiotic features in the video.
Shared Text for whole class: Captain Falik sees silhouettes
of the ship clip (2 mins)

3-2-1 Bridge;
Students will record at least 3 thoughts/ideas, 2 questions and 1 analogy about ANZACs.
Before the image is on the screen, pause and ask students to discuss the background music,
What affect does it have? Can we tell anything about the time or place that it is occurring?
Whilst watching students will make a list of things that they find interesting, important or
insightful. What emotions are you feeling? Why? What do you think is going to happen
next? How do you know?
Whole class:
CSI (colour, symbol, Image Routine);
In pairs, students will choose at least two items from their list of things they found
interesting, important or insightful. From the selected items, they will choose a colour, a
symbol and an image that represents each idea/concept and share with their partner.
Focussed teaching group-
See, think, and wonder;
In the small group, students will discuss and record, two things that they saw, that they
thought about and made them wonder. The focus will be directed towards the semiotic
features and how it informed the students, in particular with what they saw.
Students will engage in the 3-2-1 Bridge again and explain how their new responses
connected to initial responses. Where there any changes? Did one focus more on what
you have read and the other on what you feel?


APPENDIX 2: Lesson 2
Royal Australian Airforce.(2012) The last post [Video file].Retrieved 20 August, 2012,

ABC.(2009). Gallipoli the first day: An ABC documentary about the WW1 ANZAC. Retrieved