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KS4 Physical

Education
Principles of Training

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Learning objectives

Learning objectives
What we will learn in this presentation:
That training should be carefully planned and
tailored to the individual
The principles of training (S.P.O.R.T)
How overload is achieved through the F.I.T.T
principle
Using training zones to improve different
energy systems
The importance of moderation and rest.

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Principles of training
Improving performance is not just about training more
competitors need to follow a carefully planned training
programme.
This programme must
be systematic and take
into account the
demands of the activity
and the needs,
preferences and abilities
of the performer.
There are a number of principles that performers and
coaches must follow if they are to fulfil their potential.

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Individual needs
All training programmes must consider the
individual needs of the performer.
Before designing a training programme, you need to ask
the following questions about the individual:
What is their initial level of fitness?
How old are they?
Are they male or female?
Why do they want to train?
What is their aim or motivation?
The answers will help you to tailor the training programme
to the individual needs and abilities of the performer.
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Principles of training
When planning any training, you have to apply the
principles of training. The principles can be easily
memorized using the mnemonic, SPORT.

Specificity
S
Progression
P
Overload
O
Reversibility
R
Tedium
T

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Principles of training

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Specificity
Specificity
You must do specific types of activity to improve specific
parts of the body in specific ways.
Different events can require very different forms of training.
For example, if youre
training for a
weightlifting competition,
its no use going
swimming every day.
You need to concentrate on strength training
for your arms and legs.
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Specificity
You need to train specifically to develop the right
muscles if your sport requires a lot of
running, work mainly on your legs.
type of fitness do you need strength,
speed, stamina or a combination?
skills you need to practice any relevant
skills like kicking, serving and passing.
Remember that:
specific individuals respond differently to the same
exercise. Training may need to be adapted to suit the
needs of different participants.

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Overload
Overload
Fitness can only be improved by training
more than you normally do.
Unless the body is subjected to
increased demands, improvements in
physical fitness will not be made.
If a physical fitness programme is to be
effective, it must place increased and
specific demands on the body. If training
levels remain the same, then the
programme will only be maintaining the
participants level of fitness, not improving it.
Remember though you can train too much!
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Overload: the FITT principle


There are four ways to achieve overload in an
exercise programme. They can easily be remembered
using the mnemonic, FITT.
Frequency how often you train.
Intensity how hard you train.
Time (or duration) how long you
train for.
Type the kind of training you do.

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FITT: frequency
How often you should train depends on what you wish
to achieve.
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
suggests that to maintain health, you should do 30
minutes of moderate exercise 5 times a week.
However, if you wish to become an intermediate or
elite competitor in any sport, you will need to train
much more frequently.
Elite rowers often
train twice a day!
Training is best done
regularly, rather than
at random intervals.
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FITT: intensity energy systems


Aerobic respiration means respiration
with oxygen. When exercise is not too
fast and at a constant, steady rate, the
heart can keep the muscles fully supplied
with oxygen.

Anaerobic respiration means


respiration without oxygen. If the exercise
is fast or intense and done in short bursts,
the heart cannot supply oxygen to the
muscles as fast as the cells are using it.
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FITT: intensity
Intensity refers to how hard you work during your training
sessions.
A good way to measure intensity is to monitor a performers
heart rate. The harder you work, the faster your heart beats.
Heart rate can indicate which energy system is being used.

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FITT: intensity maximum heart rate (MHR)


In order to train the correct energy system, you need to
calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR).
Your maximum heart rate is the fastest that your heart can
beat. It depends on your age and can be estimated using
the following formula:
maximum heart rate = 220 age
Use this formula to calculate the maximum heart rate of:
a) a 16 year old 204

c) a 53 year old 167

b) a 24 year old 196

d) a 67 year old 153

Heart rate is measured in beats per minute.


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FITT: intensity maximum heart rate (MHR)


Maximum heart rates can be shown on a graph.

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FITT: intensity training zones


If a performer wishes to train their aerobic system, they
should train at between 60% and 80% of their maximum.
If a performer wishes to train their anaerobic system, they
should train at between 80% and 90% of their maximum.
The precise percentage level you train at will be based
upon your current level of fitness.
An unfit performer looking to improve
their aerobic fitness would train at
60% of their maximum heart rate.
A fit performer looking to improve their
aerobic fitness would train at more like
80% of their maximum heart rate.
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FITT: intensity training zones

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FITT: intensity training zones


80% to 90% of MHR Training in the anaerobic zone
increases strength and power.
As you approach 90% of the performers maximum heart
rate, training time will have to get shorter and it will take
more time for the performer to recover.
This is because anaerobic exercise produces lactic acid,
which builds up in the muscles. When there is too much
lactic acid, the performer must stop.
60% to 80% of MHR Training between these levels will
improve a performers stamina (or aerobic fitness) levels.
Lactic acid is not produced during aerobic exercise.
Performers can train aerobically for much longer periods.

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FITT: time
Intensity will affect the time (or duration) of each training
session. The length of session required to achieve
improvements depends on how hard a performer is training.
To achieve improvements in aerobic fitness, you should aim
to spend at least 20 minutes per session in the target zone.
However, time will vary greatly depending on the activity the
performer is training for.
If they are training for a marathon, they may need to spend
several hours at a time in the aerobic zone.
A sprinter, on the other hand, will need to spend relatively little
time actually exercising their sessions are likely to consist of
many short, high intensity bursts with lengthy rests in-between.
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FITT: type
If your aim is simple health related fitness, then the type of
exercise you do does not matter very much it just needs to
raises your pulse into the aerobic zone for about 20 minutes.
You could even include activities like gardening, walking the
dog or just dancing round your kitchen!
However, if you are training for a specific
event or competition, then the type of
exercise you do is very important.
Overload can be achieved by changing
the type of exercise for example, you
could lift the same weight but in a
different way and using different muscles.

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FITT

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Reversibility
Unfortunately, most of the adaptations which result from
training are reversible.
This simply means that unless
you keep training, any fitness
gains will be lost.
Fitness will be lost if the
training load is reduced
(meaning overload is not achieved)
or if a performer stops training, for example, if they are injured.
Coaches need to ensure that long periods of inactivity are
avoided when possible.
Endurance can be lost in a third of the time it took to
achieve! Strength declines more slowly, but lack of
exercise will still cause muscles to wither (atrophy).
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Tedium
When planning a training
programme, it is important
to vary the training a bit to
prevent performers
becoming bored.

Training for endurance


events can be particularly
boring. Tedium is less of a
problem in team sports.

If every training session is


the same, a performer can
lose enthusiasm and
motivation for training.
You should include a variety
of different training methods
or vary the type of activity.

Why can it sometimes be difficult to avoid tedium


while obeying the first principle specificity?
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Progression
Progression means gradually increasing the amount of
exercise you do.
When a performer first starts exercising, their levels of
fitness may be poor.
If a coach increases the training too quickly, the body
will not have time to adapt and this may result in injury.
Slow and steady progress is the best way forward.
For example, if you were training for
a 10 km run, you might start by going
for two 30 minute runs a week.
You could then increase the time
you run for by 3 minutes each week.
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Progression
Gradually increasing the frequency, intensity and
duration of fitness sessions is an important factor in
developing an effective training programme.
In terms of type of training, progression should be
based on the principle of moving from easy activities to
difficult ones.
For example, if you were
creating a training
programme for a novice
skier, you would not start
them off on a really steep,
difficult run.

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Moderation
Moderation means
achieving a balance
between not training enough
and overtraining.
Achieving the right balance
is very important.
Without proper rest and recovery time, performers can
become too tired to train effectively and become stressed
and irritable.
Even worse, overtraining can lead to injury. This can
occur through overstressing joints and tissues, or
through poor technique resulting from exhaustion.

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The principles of training

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Exam-style questions
1. Explain what is meant by the term reversibility in
relation to weight training?
2. A rower is planning a training programme to
prepare for a 2000 m race. Explain how the
following principles might affect their programme:
a) specificity
b) progression

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Exam-style questions
3. John has decided to take his cycling more seriously and
is planning a training programme to improve his
performance. As part of his training he goes to the gym.
a) Which of the following cardiovascular machines
would be most appropriate for him to use?
Rowing machine

Treadmill

Exercise bike

b) Which principle of training does this relate to?

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Exam-style questions
4. Katie is 16, and plays hockey to a good standard. Read
the following extract in which she describes her training.

At present, I am training three times a week, every


week, but at first I only went once a week. I use a
couple of different methods of training, but I make
sure that I focus on tasks appropriate for my
activity. At the end of each session, I plan the next
one, gradually increasing the amount of work that
I do when I think its becoming too easy.
a) State four principles of training she applies.
b) For each of the principles you have identified, give
an example from the extract to support your answer.
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