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ZìdXmoÎmar H${dVm - ñdê$n Am{U dmñVd

(_mZdg§H$ënZm Vo _ZmoaMZm … H$mhr Adm§Va Zm|Xr)


AmZ§XmMr H$Wm …
am_m`U, _hm^maV hr H$mì`o AmhoV. kmZoída, VwH$mam_ ho H$mì`boIH$ hmoVo. H${dVm hm gd©loð> dmL>_`àH$ma Amho `mV
AmVm H$mhr g§e` Zmhr. H$a_UyH$ hr _mZdmMr AmÚ ‘JaO’ Agbr Var Vr AmÚ ‘àoaUm’ Zmhr. H$mì` hr _mUgmMr EH$
_yb^yV àoaUm Amho. JaO Am{U àoaUm `m XmoZ {^Þ Jmoï>r AmhoV. JaO Am{U àoaUm `mV J„V Pmbr H$s H${dVoda
H$a_UwH$sMr Anojm bmXbr OmVo. Anojm§À`m _mJUrà_mUo H$dr ZmMm`bm bmJbo H$s Ë`mVyZ H$dr Am{U H${dVm bmoH${à`
hmoVmV. nU H${dVm gwQ>Vo, H$a_UyH$ hmVmV amhVo. {Vbm g_mO_mÝ`Vm, amO_mÝ`Vm {_iVo Am{U {bhmdmMUmè`m§Mr EH$
g§nyU© {nT>r YwŠ`mV hadVo.
g§nyU© ^maVr` gm{hË`mMm {dMma H$aVmZm _amR>r H${dVoV OmJ{VH$rH$aUmoÎma {nT>rMr _mZdg§H$ënZm n{hë`m§Xm Am{U VS>H$
C_Q>bobr {XgVo. Ver ^maVmVë`m BVa H$moUË`mhr ^mfoV {XgV Zmhr. qH$~hþZm OJmVë`m BVa H$moUË`mhr ^mfm§VyZ dada
nmhVm AmT>iV Zmhr. qhXrVbo bmoH§$ AmÎmm AmÎmm _amR>rM§ AZwH$aU (àg§Jr CMbo{Jar) H$ê$Z OmJ{VH$rH$aU dJ¡ao~Ôb
~mobm`bm bmJbo AmhoV. Ë`m_wio AmOÀ`m Amnë`m MMm©{df`mbm EH$ Zo_Ho$ Am¡{MË` Amho.
Zm_H$aUmMm Kmoi … ~è`mMXm ‘ ZìdXmoÎmar ’ hm eãX Hw$Ry>Z Ambm Agm àíZ Amnë`mbm nS>Vmo Am{U ‘ ZìdXmoÎmar ’ hm
eãX AmåhrM n{hë`m§Xm AmUbm qH$dm YwS>H$mdbm Ago Xmdo-à{VXmdo Ë`m Ë`m Zdgw^oXmam§H$Sy>Z Ho$bo OmVmV. _amR>rV ‘
ZìdXmoÎmar ’ hr g§km ‘ gmR>moÎmarÀ`m ’ YVuda Oar H$m°B©Z Pmbr Agbr Var _amR>r~mhoÀ`m {M{H$ËgmjoÌmV ‘ ZmB©ÝQ>rO ’ hm
eãX nyU© OrdZmÀ`m {dMmanyd©H$ Aä`mgmbm CÔoeyZ dmnabm OmV AgVmo. Or H${dVm Amnë`mbm AmO g_H$mbrZ Am{U
J§^ranUo {b{hbr OmUmar H${dVm åhUyZ A{^àoV Amho {Vbm ZìdXmoÎmar åhUm`Mo H$m ? Am{U åhUm`Mo Agë`mg H$m
åhUm`Mo? ZìdXmoÎmar H${dVm åhUOo Z¸$s H$m`? ZìdXmoÎmar H$dr H$moUH$moUVo? g_H$mbrZ _amR>r H${dVoMm {dMma H$aVmZm
ZìdXmoÎmar H${dVoMo H$moUVo n[aàoú` {XgVo? Amgmdar H$mH$S>o, Bbmhr O_mXma, àkm bmoI§S>o, AéUm T>oao, Am{XË` R>mH$ao
`m§Zm ZìdXmoÎmar H$dr åhUVm `oB©b H$m? åhUVm `oV Agë`mg H$moUË`m ~ogda åhUVm `oB©b? Zgë`mg H$m Zmhr? ‘
ZìdXmoÎmar ’ hr ‘ goÝgo{~{bQ>r ’ Amho H$m? g_rjH$m§À`m ZOaoZo nm{hbo Va AmYw{ZH$ _amR>r H${dVoÀ`m AZoH$ Ymam
{XgVmV. Ë`mV Vm§~o-~moaH$a-nmS>JmdH$a-_moKo Aer EH$ bmB©Z {XgVo. Xwgar Ho$edgyV-`ed§V-A{Zb-Hw$gw_mJ«O-qdXm
Aer {XgVo. {Vgar bmB©Z aoìha§S> {Q>iH$-~r-Ow{b`Z-_T>}H$a-nw{e Aer {XgVo. `m gJù`m àd¥Îmr-àdmhm§À`m JS>~S>rV
ZìdXmoÎmar H${dVm Hw$R>o ~gVo? H$er {XgVo? g_H$mbrZ _amR>r H${dVoV a§OZdmXmMm dmagm gm§JUmam Am{U H$a_UyH$ ho
EH$_od gm{hË`_yë` _mZUmam Zdlr_§V qH$dm ZdX[aÐr IwembM|‹Sy>§Mm EH$ dJ© Amho. JrVam_m`U, _mPm H$m|~S>m,
Am`wî`mda ~moby H$mhr, {~bm`Mr ZmJrZ {ZKmbr ho, qH$dm Agbo AmMaQ>nUo AË`§V AmdS>Umar Am{U Ë`mda Sw>bUmar
OZVm Ë`m Ë`m dJm©V {Z_m©U hmoV AgVo, Ë`m§Mm {dMma AmnU _amR>r dmMH$/AmñdmXH$ åhUyZ H$am`Mm H$m? ZìdXmoÎmar hm
A{^éMràH$ma Amho H$m? ZìdXmoÎmar H${dVm H$er AmoiImdr? {VMr Q>oñQ> H$moUVr ? Ago AZoH$ àíZ {ZUm©`H$ ñdén
YmaU H$ê$Z {dMmaH$Ë`m©À`m _ZmV C^o amhVmV.

gbrb dmK. ZìdXmoÎmar _amR>r H${dVm - ñdén Am{U dmñVd. {dÚmnrR> AZwXmZ Am`moJ d X{hdS>r H$m°boO. gmVmam. 27 OmZodmar 2009 / 1
Kmoi H$moU gmoS>dUma ? erV`wÕmoÎma H$mimnmgyZ Vo OmJ{VH$sH$aUmoÎma H$mimVë`m gd© _mZdr ~Xbm§Zm,
goÝgo{~{b{Q>OZm H$joV KoUmar EH$ _mZH$ g§ñH¥$Vr åhUOo ZìdXmoÎmar goÝgo{~{bQ>r Ago _mZbo Va H$Xm{MV hm Zm_H$aUmMm
Kmoi gwQy> eHo$b nU Vmo gmoS>dm`Mm H$s Zmhr ho dmMH$m§Zr Am{U g_rjH$m§Zr R>adm`Mo Amho. H$drZr Ë`mV nSy> Z`o. EH$ H$dr
`m ZmË`mZr Vwåhr H$moUVr goÝgo{~{bQ>r ì`º$ qH$dm g~ñH«$mB©~ H$aVm ho \$mago _hËdmMo ZgyZ Vr {H$Vr MmoInUo Am{U
Jm§^r`m©Zo ì`º$ H$aVm ho _hËdmMo Amho. Vw_À`m H${dVoV ^mfoMo AmË_M[aÌ ghOnUo Am{U S>m¡bmV `oVo Amho qH$dm Zmhr, ho
OmñV _hÎdmMo Amho. H${dVm {bhÿZ nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va H$drMo n{hbo H$m_ åhUOo nwT>Mr H${dVm {b{hUo ho Agbo nm{hOo.
H${dVoMr dJ©dmar H$aUo Am{U {VMr àVdmar R>adyZ {Vbm amñV ^md XoUo hr ~mOmag{_Ë`m§Zr ~MVJQ>m§_m\©$V H$amd`mMr
H$m_o AgVmV. H$drZo Zìho. XwX£dmZr ZìdXmoÎmar _amR>rV H$mì`g_rjoMo AmìhmZ nobUmè`m g_rjH$m§Mr _moR>çm à_mUmV
MUMU Agë`mZo H$Yr H$Yr H$drbmM H${dVo~Ôb ~mobmd§ bmJV§; hr A{Ve` bm{OadmUr Am{U IoXmMr Jmoï> Amho.
H${dVoMm g_rjH$ hr EH$ ñdV§Ì hñVr Agm`bm hdr. {Vbm _mZ hdm. gm{hË`mÀ`m g§gXoV H$mì`g_rjH$ ho EH$ H°${~ZoQ>
XOm©M§ nX Agm`bm hd§`. Vo Zgë`mZr Hw$Urhr H$emdahr {b{hVm§Zm gmnS>Vmo. XmoñVrImVa Ho$bobr XmoñVrH|$X«r g_rjm
Am{U gQ>a\$Q>a g\$sªJ H$ê$Z IaS>bobr JwJbH|$Ðr g_rjm `m XmoZ g_rjoV ZìdXmoÎmar H${dVm M|Jabobr {XgVo.
{dgmì`m eVH$mVë`m BOm {~Om {VOm … {dgmì`m eVH$mV OJmÀ`m amOH$s` ZH$memda VrZ _hÎdmÀ`m KQ>Zm KS>ë`m.
n{hbo _hm`wÕ, Xwgao _hm`wÕ Am{U {Vgao _hm`wÕ ({Vgè`m _hm`wÕmbm OmJ{VH$rH$aU Agmhr à{VeãX Amho) `m, Joë`m
eVH$^amV KS>boë`m R>iH$ KQ>Zm. n{hë`m _hm`wÕmZr a{e`Z amÁ`H«$m§Vr Am{U ~moëeo{dH$emhrMo Am§Vaamï´>r`
g~brH$aU Pmbo. ^maVmVhr, J[a~rÀ`m CXmÎmrH$aUmMr nma_m{W©H$m§Mr {eH$dU Agë`mZr, _mŠg©dmXmMm JmOmdmOm
Am{U H$å`w{ZP_Mo Vw\$mZr AmH$f©U n{hë`m _hm`wÕmZ§VaÀ`m H$mimV {Z_m©U Pmbo. {dgmì`m eVH$mÀ`m _Ü`§VamV Xwgè`m
_hm`wÕmZ§Va ^maV Am{U BVa dgmhVr ñdV§Ì Pmë`m Am{U eVH$mÀ`m eodQ>r OmJ{VH$rH$aUm_wio gJù`m OJmbm EH$m
dgmhVrM§ ñdê$n Amb§.
âb°e~°H$ Vo ŠbmoOAn … AW©emókm§À`m X¥ï>rZo OmJ{VH$sH$aU åhUOo OmJ{VH$ ~mOmamMm CX`! Va B{VhmgH$mam§À`m
_Vo OmJ{V{H$H$aU åhUOo Am§Vaamï´>r` ^m§S>bdbemhrZo PmH$moibo `wJ! `m CbQ> g_mOemókm§À`m _Vo gm_m{OH$
_wë`m§Mo, OrdZe¡btMo H$m°nrH$aU åhUOo OmJ{VH$sH$aU! Va amOH$s` {díbofH$m§À`m _Vo OmJ{VH$sH$aU åhUOo
amÁ`gÎmoMr nH$S> {T>br hmoV OmÊ`mMm H$mi ! _mÌ, ì`mnma, AW©MH«o$, g§nH©$V§Ìo Am{U XiUdiU ho OmJ{VH$sH$aUmMo
à_yI g§àoaH$ åhUyZ ~hþVoH$ gdmªZmM _mÝ` AmhoV.1 `mV {ZgJ©{dkmZmMm {dMma _mÌ Ambobm Zmhr H$maU d¡km{ZH$m§À`m
ZOaoVyZ `m KQ>ZoMr \$maer XIb KoVbr Jobobr {XgV Zmhr. H$Xm{MV d¡km{ZH$ gË`m§Mo joÌ OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m
n[a_mUm§n{bH$S>o AgÊ`mMrhr eŠ`Vm Amho.
OmJ{VH$rH$aUmMm {dMma H$aVmZm H$mhr {dMmaH$ ‘ XmoZ O_©ZrMo nwZ{_©bZ ’ hm OmJ{VH$rH$aUmMm _hËdmMm Q>ßnm
_mZVmV.2 H$mhr {dMmaH$m§Zr ‘ a{e`mMo {dKQ>Z ’ hm OmJ{VH$rH$aUmMm àma§^H$mi Yabm Amho.3 H$mhr OU, noaoómo`H$m-
½bmgZmoñVmoÎma H$mimV A\$Jm{UñWmZmVyZ a{e`Z \$m¡Om _mKmar ~mob{dë`m OmUo hr OmJ{VH$rH$aUmMr gwadmV _mZVmV.
A_o[aHo$Mm g_«mQ> n{hbm ~we `mZo BamH$À`m amOmda Ho$boë`m hë`mMm åhUOoM AmImVr `wÕmÀ`m {Xdgm§Mm H$mi hm
OmJ{VH$rH$aUmÀ`m gwédmVrMm H$mi Yabm OmVmo. 1990À`m AJmoXa qgJmnya, _bo{e`m, {\${bnmB©Ýg, hm±JH$m±J ho

gbrb dmK. ZìdXmoÎmar _amR>r H${dVm - ñdén Am{U dmñVd. {dÚmnrR> AZwXmZ Am`moJ d X{hdS>r H$m°boO. gmVmam. 27 OmZodmar 2009 / 2
A{Vnyd}Mo Am{e`mB© Xoe AW©H$maUmVbo ‘ E{e`Z Q>m`Jg© ’ _mZbo OmV. 4 Ë`m doir ^maV, A\$Jm{UñWmZ, ~m§½bmXoe,
^yVmZ, lrb§H$m BË`mXr Xoe _mJmgbonUmÀ`m EH$m g_mZ nmVirda hmoVo. {dH$mgXa (OrS>rnr) Am{U goÝñmoŠgÀ`m
ì`mH$aUmV Am{W©H$ {dH$mgmMr ^mfm gwê$ Pmbr ZìhVr. 5 1990À`m WmoS>ogo AmYr ^maVmVbr amOH$s` n[a{ñW{V
Vmoim_mgmM hmoVr. Jmo~m}Moìh Am{U amOrd Jm§Yr `m§À`m amOdQ>rV g_m§VanUo a{e`m d ^maVmV CXmarH$aUmMr gwédmV
Pmbr. ^maVmVë`m CXmarH$aUmbm Zmo H $aemhrMm Am{U amOH$s` eº$s¨ M m {damo Y hmo V m 6
... Var Z§VaÀ`m H$mimV ZmoH$aemhrVë`mM EH$mÀ`m _XVrZo Zaqghamdm§Zr CXmarH$aUmMo YmoaU am~{dbo. (Vr ZmoH$aehm
ì`º$s nwT>o H$mhr dfmªZr n§VàYmZ Pmbr). Am§Vaamï´>r` Am{W©H$ _mZH$m§Zwgma Xoembm gìhm©Bìh hmoÊ`mgmR>r bmJUmar
YmoaUmË_H$ bd{MH$Vm ^maVmÀ`m gaH$mar nmVirda VÎdV… _mÝ` Pmbr. nmíMmË` Xoem§V CƒnXñW ZmoH$aehm§Mr bm°~r
hmVmiÊ`mgmR>r ~mhoaÀ`m g„mJmam§Mr Hw$_H$ _§Í`m§À`m {X_Vrbm AgVo. 7 Ë`mM YVuda ^maVmVhr Am`.E.Eg. qH$dm
Vgë`m Cƒm{YH$mè`m§À`m Q>moù`m hmVmiÊ`mgmR>r nmíMmË` g„mJmam§Mr Hw$_H$ CƒñVar` amOH$s` dV©wimV
OmJ{VH$rH$aUmÀ`m g_doV à{dï> Pmbr. Ë`mMo Ü`o`YmoaUmÀ`m g§ñH¥$Vrda (nm°{bgr H$ëMada) R>gR>erV n[aUm_ C_Q>bo.
OmJ{VH$rH$aUmMo M[aÌ Am{U {MÌ … AmO OmJ{VH$rH$aUmÀ`m à{H«$`obm gwédmV hmoD$Z, OmJ{VH$rH$aU KSy>Z
Amë`mbm Odinmg drg df}CbQ>br AmhoV. OmJ{VH$sH$aUmMo gdm©{YH$ \$m`Xo AWm©VM A_o[aH$m Am{U AÝ` `wamo{n`
Xoe `m§Zm Pmbobo AmhoV. Ë`m g§nÞVoMm H$mhr ^mJ ^rHo$À`m Am{U amoO§XmarÀ`m ñdê$nmV _Yë`m H$mimV ^maVmVë`m H$mhr
dJm©À`m dmQ>çmbm Ambobm Amho. OmJ{VH$rH$aUmÀ`m H$mimV, ^maV Am{U MrZ `m XoemVë`m OZgm_mÝ`m§À`m emofUmVyZ
nmíMmË` Xoem§Zr Amnbo àJVrna amhmUr_mZ Am{U Eoæ`mfr H$m`_ R>odUo O_dbo Amho. A_o[aH$m hm JhmUdQ> Am{U
gmdH$mar B§S>ñQ´>rMm, nyd©`wamon Am{U nyd©Am{e`m hm goŠg B§S>ñQ´>rMm Am{U MrZ hm _°Ý`w\°$ŠM[a¨J B§S>ñQ´>rMm {R>æ`m ~Zbo
AmhoV. ^maVmVyZ CËnmXZ{^_wI CÚmoJOJVmMo H|$Ð MrZ_Yo gaH$bo. `m CËnmXZH|$Ðm§Mo ñdén N>iN>mdÊ`m§nojm doJio
Zmhr. JwÝhoJmar _Zmod¥ÎmrMo H«y$a ì`dñWmnZ, H$m_Jmam§Zm {Xbr OmUmar `wÕH¡$Úm§gmaIr dmJUyH$ Am{U Ë`m gJù`mbm
gaH$mar amï´>r` ~mÊ`mMr, àJVrÀ`m H$m§MZ_¥JmMr ^wai ho MrZÀ`m ZoÌXmhH$ M_M_mQ>mMo J_H$ Amho. 8 ^maVmV Va Joë`m
drg dfm©V bwQ>mé§MoM amÁ` Amho. ho bwQ>mé amOH$maÊ`m§À`m, ì`mdgm{`H$m§À`m, H$m_JmaZoË`m§À`m qH$dm \$m`ZmÝg
H§$nÝ`m§À`m énmZo Jobr drg df}nmogbo Jobo AmhoV. E_².~r.E., EZ².Or.Amo Am{U Am`.E.Eg² hr {ÌgyÌr åhUOo `m bwQ>mé§Mo
_wIdQ>o AmhoV. n¡emMm dmna n¡gm {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mH$aVm H$aUmè`m Xbmbm§_wio `m AW©MH«$mVyZ Zdr g§nÎmr {Z_m©U hmoV Zmhr.
n¡gm Am{U g§nÎmr `m doJù`m Jmoï>r AmhoV. 9 ‘ [agM© A±S> S>oìhbn_|Q> ’ hm Û§Ûg_mg AmVm \w$Q>bm AgyZ ‘_Zr A±S>
S>oìhbn_|Q>’ Agm g_mg {Z_m©U Pmbm Amho. g§emoYZmVyZ g§nÎmr Am{U g§nÎmrgmR>r g§emoYZ, ho erV`wÕH$mimVbo J{UVhr
AmVm _mJo nS>bobo Amho. “ ZìdXmoÎmar _mZdmÀ`m hmVmV nS>Umè`m AmOÀ`m àË`oH$ àm°S>ŠQ>bm (OwZm eãX -CËnmXZ)
Jwbm_{JarnmgyZ Vo nm`agrn`©VMm, Mmoè`m_mè`m§nmgyZ Vo Anhmamn`ªV Am{U ~moJ{g`VonmgyZ Vo \$gdo{J[an`ªVMm
H$mimHw$Å> B{Vhmg Amho ”. 10 Am¡fY hr EH$ AË`mdeH$ ~m~ AgVo. {Vbm OmJ{VH$rH$aUmZo M¡ZrMr ~m~ ~Zdbo.
dm`J«mgmaIr dmOrH$aUmMr Am¡fYo ~Z{dUmè`m hOmamo \°$ŠQ>è`m OJ^a Cä`m am{hë`m. A{dH${gV Am{U {dH$gZerb
Xoem§_Yo Á`m ~ZmdQ> Am{U A`mo½` Am¡fYdmnamZr Xadfu nÞmg bmI bmoH§$ _¥Ë`y_wIr nS>VmV Ë`m ~ZmdQ> Am¡fYCÚmoJmV
~S>çm Y|S>m§Mm hOmamo H$moQ>tMm Z\$m XS>bobm AgVmo. 11 _mÌ `mM H$mimV A_o[aHo$gma»`m ~hþVoH$ {dH${gV Xoem§Zr ~mhoaÀ`m

gbrb dmK. ZìdXmoÎmar _amR>r H${dVm - ñdén Am{U dmñVd. {dÚmnrR> AZwXmZ Am`moJ d X{hdS>r H$m°boO. gmVmam. 27 OmZodmar 2009 / 3
ñnY}nmgyZ H¥$frjoÌmgmaIr Amnbr AZoH$ _hËdmMr CÚmoJjoÌo àmoQ>oŠQ> H$éZ R>odbr. 12 `m CbQ> ^maVmMr pñW{V AmT>iVo.
^maVmVë`m gd©njr` ZmXmZ amÁ`H$Ë`mªÀ`m XoeÛofm{df`r naH$s`m§Zm nyU© {dídmg Agë`mZo Joë`m drg dfm©V ^maV hr
A_o[aH$mà{UV gwnaH°${nQ>°{bP_Mr n{hbr à`moJemim ~Zbr. `m gJù`m gm_m{OH$-amOH$s` n[adofmV ZìdXmoÎmar
goÝgo{~{b{Q>Mm, H${dVoMm Am{U Z¡{VH$VoMm {dMma ìhm`bm hdm. qdS>mo ~oñS> S>oñH$Q>m°n g§JUH$mMr {Z{_©Vr 90À`m XeH$mV
àW_ A°nbZo Am{U Z§Va Am`~rE_Zo Ho$br. Amnë`mH$S>o 1987gmbr g§JUH$ Ambo. CnJ«hm§_wio XyaÜdZr Am{U
XyaXe©ZMo Omio dmT>bo. erV`wÕmÀ`m A^mdm_wio ^maVr` _mZdmÀ`m eÌy-{_Ì g§H$ënZmM CbQ>çmnmbQ>çm Pmë`m.
1989À`m pìh nr qgJ gma»`m A{ddoH$s Am{U IwiMQ> J¥hñWm_wio Ym{_©H$ g{hîUwVm, Or {Zìdi ZmQ>H$mnwaVr Var hmoVr,
Vr hr, Cabr Zmhr. 1992 gmbÀ`m CXmarH$aU Am{U Ë`mZ§Va bJoMÀ`m Am{W©H$rH$aUm_wio _amR>r qH$dm ^maVr`
_mUgmMm H$m°Ýeg Am{U _mZ{gH$ ñW¡`© AMmZH$ YmoŠ`mV Amb§. Ë`m {XdgmnmgyZ _mUgmM§ bj _yë`m§dê$Z CS>mb§ Vo
H$m`_M§M. _Yë`m H$mimV OmJ{VH$rH$aU `oD$Zhr Job§ nU Ë`mMr H$moUË`mM àH$maM§ Ord§V g_mbmoMZo (AndmX
dJiVm) _amR>rV Pmbr ZmhrV. _amR>r H${dVoV àË`j OmJ{VH$sH$aUmMm Q>ßnm ñH$sn Pmbobm, Ë`mMm bmon Pmbobm {XgVmo.
Ë`m_wio ZìdXmoÎmar gm{hË`mda ~mobUo IynM OmoI_rMo hmoD$Z ~gbo Amho.
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Am{U ZìdXmoÎmar Ago XmoZ nmQ> {ZKmbobo AmT>iVmV. 1960 À`m Amgnmg bKw{Z`VH$m{bH$m§Mr Midi gwê$ Pmbr
Am{U Xhm~mam dfm©V dg§V XÎmmÌo` JwO©am§gmaIo EH$XmoZ _m¡ë`dmZ H$dr XoD$Z Vr Midi Am{U H${dVmhr ~§X nS>br.

gbrb dmK. ZìdXmoÎmar _amR>r H${dVm - ñdén Am{U dmñVd. {dÚmnrR> AZwXmZ Am`moJ d X{hdS>r H$m°boO. gmVmam. 27 OmZodmar 2009 /4
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~m`ë`m eãX~§~miVoV aS>Ho$nUm H$aUmam _mZd, dg§V JwO©am§gmaIm A{Vgm_mÝ` {OÊ`mÀ`m {H$_mZ g_mZ H$m`©H«$_mVyZ
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KoD$Z Vmo {\$ê$ bmJbm. (Hw$Qw>§~mV _moOŠ`mM ^y_rH$m H$aUmam nwéf qH$dm ór hr Hw$Qw>§~mVë`m Hw$Qw>§~mVhr AZoH$ ^y_rH$m H$ê$
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gbrb dmK. ZìdXmoÎmar _amR>r H${dVm - ñdén Am{U dmñVd. {dÚmnrR> AZwXmZ Am`moJ d X{hdS>r H$m°boO. gmVmam. 27 OmZodmar 2009 / 5
ZmJ[aH$ `m ZmË`mZo AZoH$ h¸$ J_dmdo bmJbo. ZmJ[aH$mMo énm§Va J«mhH$mV Pmbo, {dÚmÏ`m©Mohr énm§Va J«mhH$mV Pmbo.
AÜ`mnH$mMo ^y{_H$m§VaU {dH«o$Ë`mV Pmbo. 13
dmñVd {\$ŠeZmB©O hmoD$ bmJbo Am{U {\$ŠeZmB©ÁS²> Pmboë`m dmñVdmM§ H$m` H$am`M§ `mMm àM§S> _moÇ>m g§^«_ {Z_m©U
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OmD$ bmJbo, {\$ŠeZ Cn^moJyhr bmJbo. ^mfoMo gm¡X`© Z H$iVmhr, ^mfoMm AmZ§X ñH$sn/~m`nmg H$ê$Z, WoQ> {\$ŠeZ
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Pmbobm _mUyg Ë`m _yë`m§^modVrMo OrdZ_mJ© Zï> H$aVmo. H${dVoVyZ `m Zï>M`m©Mr XIb C_Q>br Va {ZXmZ ^mfobm Zdm
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Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnma, ì`mOmMo daImbr hmoUmao Xa, H$m°nm}aoQ> gmdH$mar Agë`m Jmoï>tZr AW©ì`dhmamV em°Q>©Q>_©-{_{S>`_Q>_©
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AdñWoMr H$ënZm `oVo. 15

gbrb dmK. ZìdXmoÎmar _amR>r H${dVm - ñdén Am{U dmñVd. {dÚmnrR> AZwXmZ Am`moJ d X{hdS>r H$m°boO. gmVmam. 27 OmZodmar 2009 / 6
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1. Meets chalanges un an era of globalisation by strengthing regional
development corporations - Forward by - Kim Hak -Su. Economic &
Social Commession for Asia and the Pacific. United Nation (2004).
2. Goodbye Lelin ! Director - Wolfgang Becker ({MÌnQ>)
3. Rough Economics : Capatilisum’s New Reality - by Loretta Napoleoni.
Allen & Uniwin / Viva Books, New Delhi 2009.
4. Asian Godfathers - by Joe Studwell.
5. South Asia Development and Cooperation Repoart 2008 - Oxford
University Press 2008.
6. ãbm°J n{hbm - gbrb dmK. Q>mB©_ A±S> ñnog H$å`w{ZHo$eÝg 2007.
7. Total Capatilism - by Colin Leys. Three Essays 2008.
8. The China Price - by Alexandra Harney. Penguine Press, New York
US, 2008.
9. Supercapitalism : The battle for democracy in the age of Big Business -
by Robert Reich. Icon Books Ltd UK. 2008.
10. Rough Economics : Capatilisum’s New Reality - by Loretta Napoleoni.
Allen & Uniwin / Viva Books, New Delhi 2009.
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13. Supercapitalism : The battle for democracy in the age of Big Business -
by Robert Reich. Icon Books Ltd UK. 2008.
14. Total Capatilism - by Colin Leys. Three Essays 2008. (^maVmV 1985 Vo 2005 `m
H$mimV hOmamo Eå~rE \°$ŠQ>è`m Cä`m am{hë`m. Ë`m_wio ZmJdr bwQ>mbwQ> H$aUmè`m ì`dñWmnH$s` Q>moù`m V`ma Pmë`m.
Am`.E.Eg.dmë`m§à_mUo `m bwQ>_marbmhr nXdrMo Am{U n¡emMo ½b°_a {Xbo Joë`mZo AnamYrnUmhr dmQ>oZmgm Pmbm. CbQ> ~hþamï´>r`
C_©Q>nUm Ambm)
15. Microeconomics of post reform India (Vol.I) Money and finance in the
Indian Economy (Vol.II) - by Mihir Rakshit. Oxford University Press
2009.
16. {H«$`mnXmMo ~Xbbo ñWmZ - gbrb dmK. ^mfm Am{U OrdZ Ì¡_m{gH$. {Xdmir A§H$ 2009.
17. Displaced by development - Ed. by Lyla Mehta. Sage Publisher.
(statictics is based on the data dated 2002).
18. Human Development Research Paper 2009/13. Migration and Human Development
in India. By Priya Deshingkar and Shaheen Akter. United Nations Development
Programme Human Development Reports : Research Paper. April 2009. (- ~m§YH$m_,
~m§YH$m_mMm H$ƒm_mb {Z{_©Vr, H$mVS>r, H$mnS> d V`ma H$nS>o, \$ià{H«$`m, ImUH$m_, VgoM KaH$m_, [ajm, T>m~o, Q>nè`m Aer
AZoH$ Ag§K{Q>V joÌo Am{U amï´>r` {dH$mgXamV (OrS>rnr) 60% Q>¸o$ dmQ>m Agboë`m godmjoÌmMmhr g_mdoe Amho.
doí`mCÚmoJmgma»`m joÌmVhr l_mMm Vm¡b{ZH$ _mo~Xbm OmñV Agë`mZo ñWbm§V[aVm§Mo à_mU bjUr` Amho. Am¡Úmo{JH$aU-
amoOJmam~amo~aM JmdH$s-^mdH$sÀ`m OmMmVyZ ~mhoa nS>Ê`mgmR>rhr H$mhr ñWbm§Vao ^maVmgma»`m OmVr`dmXr g_mOmV hmoV
Agë`mMr VwaiH$ nU {ZpíMV CXmhaUohr AmT>ibobr AmhoV.)

gbrb dmK. ZìdXmoÎmar _amR>r H${dVm - ñdén Am{U dmñVd. {dÚmnrR> AZwXmZ Am`moJ d X{hdS>r H$m°boO. gmVmam. 27 OmZodmar 2009 / 8