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"Peer Group Effects on Academic Achievement"

Of Government Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed

Rawalpindi

By

Aneela Majeed

669-FSS/MAEDU2/FO8

Department Of Education

Faculty of social Science

International Islamic University Islamabad


II

2010

"Peer Group Effects on Academic Achievement"


Of Government Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed

Rawalpindi

By

Aneela Majeed

669-FSS/MAEDU2/FO8

A Project submitted for the partial

Fulfillment of the degree of

Master of Arts in Education

(MA Education)

Department Of Education

Faculty of social Science

International Islamic University Islamabad

2010
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IV

Allah Almighty

I asked for strength…

And Allah gave me difficulties to make me strong

I asked for wisdom…

And Allah gave me problems to solve

I asked for prosperity…

And Allah gave me brain and brawn to work

I asked for courage…

And Allah gave me danger to overcome

I asked for love…

And Allah gave me troubled people to help

I asked for favors…

And Allah gave me opportunities

I received nothing I wanted…

I received everything I need


V

Dedicated To

First of all to Allah and Holy Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be

Upon Him), to my

dearest Grandmother, my beloved Parents, to my loving

siblings and friends.

May Allah’s blessing upon them in this world and hereafter

(Amen)
VI

Acknowledgement

In the name of Allah The Most Beneficent and Most Merciful. I have no words to

express my deepest sense of gratitude to Almighty Allah, the only one who be praised,

without His help and blessings; I was unable to complete this project.

I also pay Darood-o-salam from the core of my heart to His beloved Prophet Mohammad

(Peace Be Upon Him) the ocean of knowledge, guidance and the messenger of peace for

the whole universe.

Upon to complete of this project, I wish to record my highest appreciation to my

respective supervisor Miss Zarina for her diligence and kindness for me to complete this

project. She guided me and supervised my work through every phase of this research

work. Indeed her constructive criticism has been of great value to me in the preparation

of this project.

I’m very thankful to my grandmother who remembered me in her prayers and

motivated and encouraged me in studies.

My thanks also go to my parents for giving me such worth while, motivation,

financial support and love throughout my thick and thin. And who also have been a

source of inspiration. I further extend my thanks to my siblings and friends for their

indirect contribution and helping me in completing this project.

Last but not the least the special thanks to Sir Ikram and my younger brother

Junaid without their generosity it would have been very difficult for me to accomplish

this task. May Allah bless you all .Thank you.


VII

Abstract

The study was designed to measure the effects of peer group on their Academic

Achievement. In order to achieve the objectives of the study survey method was

employed.

For this study population consisted of Government Girls High School Khyaban-e-

Sirsyed Rawalpindi. A sample of 70 students was selected for the study.

The data was collected through questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed

personally from the students. Data collected was analyzed and interpreted. Percentage

was used for this purpose.

The major findings of the research in terms of percentage was; Agree (64%),

Disagree (29.24%) and Undecided (6.74)

In the light of the findings the following conclusions were drawn:

The values of the peer group with whom the high school student spends the most

time are a stronger factor in the student's level of academic success Academic

achievement is closely linked to peer influences. Students in peer groups that do not

value education lack the stimulation and reinforcement needed to encourage personal

learning. Peer group encourages education and learning, and then the individual student

within that group will value learning, because the individual is reinforced, or rewarded,

for behavior that indicates the learning is valued. Students agreed with the questions ask

in research at 64%. They disagreed at 29.24% and undecided percentage was 6.74%.
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At the end researcher made some recommendations on the basis of conclusions.

Following were these major recommendations:

The student should choose the right peers in order to improve their lifestyle,

attitudes, academic achievement and so on. The student are encourage analyze the

attitudes of their friends before they become close. It is because the positive peer can

influenced and motivated them to be good in studies.

Teachers should arrange groups of students in class in such a way that it

should comprise of bright and dull students. In this way dull students will be able

to get benefit from the bright students and it will be add to their academic

acumen.

Parents should interact with their children with love, kindness, respect,

consistency, time, boundaries and encouragement. They should take interest in their

child’s activities. This allows parents to know their child’s friends and to monitor

behavior , which is crucial in keeping children out of trouble.


IX

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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1.2 Statement of the problem:.............................Error: Reference source not found
1.3 Objective:........................................................Error: Reference source not found
1.4 Theoretical frame work:..................................Error: Reference source not found
1.5 Significance of the study:.............................Error: Reference source not found
1.6 Research Question:........................................Error: Reference source not found
1.7 Methodology:..................................................Error: Reference source not found
1.7.1 Population:..............................................Error: Reference source not found
1.7.2 Sample:....................................................Error: Reference source not found
1.7.3 Sample technique:..................................Error: Reference source not found
1.7.4 Research Instruments:............................Error: Reference source not found
1.7.5 Data Collection:.....................................Error: Reference source not found
1.7.6 Data Analysis:........................................Error: Reference source not found
1.7.7 Delimitation:...........................................Error: Reference source not found

Chapter II.................................................................Error: Reference source not found


2 Review of Related Literature:......................Error: Reference source not found
2.1 Definition of Peer:...........................................Error: Reference source not found
2.2 Definition of Peer Group:...............................Error: Reference source not found
2.3 Peer Pressure:.................................................Error: Reference source not found
2.4 Peer group Education:...................................Error: Reference source not found
2.4.1 Definitions...............................................Error: Reference source not found
2.5 Peer Relationships in Education:.................Error: Reference source not found
2.6 Peer Pressure Affect learning and motivation:....Error: Reference source not
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2.7 Positive Effects of Peer Pressure:..............Error: Reference source not found


2.8 Negative Effects of Peer Pressure:...........Error: Reference source not found
2.9 Encourage Healthy and Positive Relationships:....Error: Reference source not
found
2.9.1 Specifically Parents can show support by:...Error: Reference source not
found
2.9.2 When Parents Don’t Approve:................Error: Reference source not found
2.10 Teenage Peer Pressure:.................................Error: Reference source not found
2.10.1 Facts about Friendships, Peers, and Adolescence:. .Error: Reference source
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2.10.2 Facts about the teen-parent relationship during the teen years:...........Error:
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2.11.1 Nurture teens’ abilities and self-esteem so that they are equipped to foster
positive peer relationships and deflect negative pressures......Error: Reference source
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2.11.2 Encourage positive relationships between significant adults and teens.
Error: Reference source not found
2.11.3 Encourage diverse relationships..............Error: Reference source not found
2.11.4 Support parent education programs for families with teenagers..........Error:
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2.11.5 Equip youth with the skills necessary to resist negative behaviors, as well
as to make good decisions.......................................Error: Reference source not found
2.11.6 Teaching youth exit strategies or ways to say ‘no’ to negative pressures.
Error: Reference source not found
2.11.7 Review of Related Research Articles:. .Error: Reference source not found

Chapter III................................................................Error: Reference source not found


3 Methodology and Procedure............................Error: Reference source not found
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3.1 Population of the study:...............................Error: Reference source not found


3.2 Sample of the study:.....................................Error: Reference source not found
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3.4 Data collection:..............................................Error: Reference source not found
3.5 Data Analysis:................................................Error: Reference source not found

Chapter IV................................................................Error: Reference source not found


4 Analysis and Interpretation of Data...........Error: Reference source not found
Summary, Findings, ConclusionError: Reference source not founds and
Recommendations.....................................................Error: Reference source not found
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Findings.......................................................................Error: Reference source not found
Conclusions:................................................................Error: Reference source not found
Recommendations.......................................................Error: Reference source not found
Bibliography................................................................Error: Reference source not found

Appendixes................................................................Error: Reference source not found


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Covering Letter:........................................................Error: Reference source not found9
Respondents List..........................................................................................................100
Survey Questionnaire
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source not found4
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LIST OF TABLES
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Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction:

Children are socialized by the people with whom they associate through

daily interaction over the course of many years, acceptable social customs are

taught and promote. In school, children learn the skills

of interpersonal interaction. They learn to share, to take turns, and to compromise with

their peers.

The peer group exerts a most powerful social influence on the child. The peer

group is composed of status equals; that is, all children within a given peer group are the

same age and come from the same social status. A child must earn his/her social position

within the peer group; this position does not come naturally, as it does in the

family. Interaction with a peer group loosens the child's bonds to the family; it provides

both an alternative model for behavior and new social norms and values.

Peer effects are central to many important issues facing higher and lower

education. Within the educational system school choice, positive action, distance

learning, mainstreaming, selective admissions and the rise of merit scholarships

schools, all acquire the potential to alter the distribution of students. . At the

micro level, these policies can change the composition of one’s classmates along

various dimensions. For example can make them more or less racially, socially,
15

geographically, or intellectually diverse. These changes may effect among other

things, student’s attitudes, values or academic performance. In short, changes in

the distribution of students may produce peer effects. (c.f. Winston (1998)).

Other children as well as adults can have a great impact on a broad range

of issues in the child's life including achievements in school. Student achievement

is effected in many ways by the effects of a peer group. These effects may be

members of a group interaction in learning, helping each other in their studies,

share important information and so on.

Influences on student learning in an academic environment can be

numerous and contradictory. The interactions among peers are normal and essential

part of the learning process that influences the lifelong learning habits of students.

The potential effects of peer relationships are reciprocal. Some students are more

receptive than others. On one extreme, for example is the student who values and

seeks peer input on every decision. On the other is the social isolate who avoids

interaction in and out of the classroom. Students may learn better when in the

company of other strong students. Peer groups have significant impacts on student

achievement, depending on the magnitude of peer influences.

Measuring peer effects is difficult. Student outcomes depend on numerous

factors other than the characteristics of one’s peers, and isolating peer influences

is particularly problematic since people typically choose those with whom they

associate. Indeed, when students select a college to attend, they are importantly
16

choosing the peers with whom they will live and learn for the duration of their

college life.

1.2 Statement of the problem:

The study was designed to measure the effects of peer group on academic

achievement of the students.

1.3 Objective:

The objective of the study was to measure the effects of peer group in

Academic Achievement.

1.4 Theoretical frame work:

Peer grouping and its effects /outcomes variable. Peer grouping is

independent and academic achievement is dependent variable.

There is positive relationship between both variables because if peer

relationship is strong then automatically it effects on the studies are positive.

1.5 Significance of the study:

The study will be helpful in the field of education. It is important for

students, parents, educators and policy makers in understanding the way social

interactions affect academic achievement. In particular academic achievement and


17

the often corresponding level of the educational attainment tend to predict the

average earnings an individual may secure over a lifetime. For this reason,

isolating the peer effects on academic achievement will make a significant

contribution to education reform.

1.6 Research Question:

The research question is given below.

Is there any significant effect of peer group on academic achievement of the

students?

1.7 Methodology:

The following research methodology was used for the study.

1.7.1 Population:

The population of the study was the students of Govt Girls High School

of Khyaban-e-Sir Syed Rawalpindi.

1.7.2 Sample:

Seventy students who were between the age of 14 to 18 years old of

Govt Girls High School of Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi was the sample of the

study.
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1.7.3 Sample technique:

Convenient sampling technique was used to select sample.

1.7.4 Research Instruments:

The instrument used to collect the data was questionnaire. A set of questionnaire

containing 30 questions was developed. The questionnaire was checked by Miss Zarina

to asses its validity before it was distributed.

1.7.5 Data Collection:

Data was collected through personal visit.

1.7.6 Data Analysis:

Data was analyzed in the light of the objective of the study. Percentage was

calculated for this purpose.

1.7.7 Delimitation:

Keeping in view the available resources of the study was delimited to

Govt Girls High School of Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi.


19

Chapter II

2 Review of Related Literature


20

2.1 Definition of Peer:

• A person of the same legal status: a jury of one's peers.

• A person who is equal to another in abilities, qualifications, age,

background, and social status.

• Something of equal worth or quality: a sky-scraper without peer.

• A member of any of the five degrees of the nobility in Great Britain and

Ireland (duke, marquis, earl, viscount, and baron).

• Archaic. A companion.

2.2 Definition of Peer Group:

A social group, consisting of people who are equal in such respects as age,

education, or social class Teenagers usually prefer to spend time with their own

peer group.

2.3 Peer Pressure:

Peers are people who are part of the same social group, so the term "peer

pressure" refers to the influence that peers can have on each other. Although peer
21

pressure does not necessarily have to be negative, the term "pressure" implies that

the process influences people to do things that may be resistant to, or might not

otherwise choose to do. So usually the term peer pressure refers to socially

undesirable behaviors, such as tastes of fashion, music, television and academic

success etc

The level of peer influence generally increases as children grow, and

resistance to peer influence often declines as children gain independence from the

family or caregivers, and before they fully form an adult identity. Pre-school

children tend to be the least aware of peer pressure, and are the least influenced

by the need to conform. However with more social interactions outside the home

and more awareness of others, the influence of peers increases.

Pre-teens and teenagers face many issues related to conformity and peer

pressure. They are pulled between the desire to be seen as individuals of unique

value and the desire to belong to a group where they feel secure and accepted.

The result is that often teens reject family or general society values, while feeling

pressure to conform rigidly to the values of their peer group. An example of this

phenomenon is seen when young people join gangs. In joining the gang they are

rejecting the community's way of dressing and behaving. Yet to belong to the

gang, they must conform to the gang's own style of dress, behavior, and speech.

The changing ways of life of our peers often force us to change our ways of

looking at life and leading it. It’s a human tendency to do what the crowd does.
22

Few have the courage to resist the peer pressure and be their own selves rather

than being one among the lot.

2.4 Peer group Education:

2.4.1 Definitions

Peer group: Technically a peer group is any collectivity in which the members

share some common characteristics, such as age or ethnicity. It most commonly

refers to age groups in general, but more specifically to adolescent groups where

members are closely bound together by youth culture. Adolescent peer groups tend

to have:

• A high degree of social solidarity,

• Hierarchical organization,

• A code which rejects, or contrasts with, adult values and experience.

From an adult perspective, peer groups are often deviant because

delinquency is supported by the rewards of group membership.' (A peer is a

member of a peer group.)

(Abercrombie, 1988)
23

'Peer group education is a method of information transference or role

modeling where a particular type of behavior is promoted or information

transferred. The peer educators closely match the target group in some manner;

whether it is by age, gender, etc.'

(Brammer/Walker 1995)

2.5 Peer Relationships in Education:

With entrance into education, the influence of the family plateaus, if not

decreases, as the importance of peers increases. Adolescence marks the peak of

peer influence. The demands and opinions of friends can overwhelm the needs of

family and, at times, can overwhelm the individuals themselves. As the individual

matures biologically and cognitively, the culture of education also changes, moving

the student through a system marked by a single class in early elementary school

to a system of hour-long classes in middle and high school. Student peer

preferences also change during these years. Friendships of two to three students

give way to larger group networks.

It comes as no surprise, then, that the relative consistency of peers allows

them to take precedence over academics and educators in later education. In

addition to school structure, factors such as biology, home life, and increased

personal responsibilities have also been explanations for students' decreased

academic motivation and increased receptivity to peer influence. Whatever the


24

causes, the subculture of the peer group can be very telling in determining

students' motivation to succeed in academics.

In short, the relative influence of peers or peer groups typically increases

with the age and development of the student. So, too, do the multiple functions

of peers increase. A younger student may be able to find the motivation and

desire to learn apart from classmates and friends, looking instead to values from

home and teacher. Older students are more apt to seek out those who have

similar interests and values.

2.6 Peer Pressure Affect Learning and Motivation:

Age of the student is one consideration in weighing the importance and

application of motivation to learn. Human relationships have varying degrees of

importance in motivational and learning theories. Most approaches tend to agree,

however, that students who surround themselves with peers and influences who

value learning and the educational process will also value their own learning and

strive to enhance their education.

Abraham H. Maslow viewed the need for love and belongingness as a step

toward achievement in his hierarchy of motivation model, which he described in

1954. In this view, the deprivation of more basic needs hinders progress along the

path to achievement. In Maslow's model, people must have love and

belongingness issues satisfied in order to address needs of achievement . For


25

example , a student with deprived relationship concerns will be less able to

participate in classroom learning opportunities . The ability to learn is built on a

foundation of comfortable relationships with others , including peers and family ,

and classroom learning is all about learning with and in the presence of others.

"Expectancy by value " theories define motivation as the product of the

amount of success on a task that an individual expects to earn times the amount

of value the individual places on the task . Thus , a task that the individual values

and expects to be successful at will be motivating compared to a task with lower

expected success or value . Whereas past experience can predict the expectancy

aspect of this model (e.g., the student has done well on prior essay exams ), the

value placed on the task is more mediated by outside factors , such as peers and

family ( e.g., the student's opinions are respected ). Related motivational theories

include the incentive or rewarding aspects of motivation , which may also stem

from relationships with others .

Behaviorism provides one way to explain the association between

motivation to learn and peer interactions. In basic behaviorist theories , relationships

between people affect learning only as much as people reinforce each other ( or

not ) in the academic arena . For example , if the peer group encourages education

and learning , then the individual student within that group will value learning,

because the individual is reinforced, or rewarded, for behavior that indicates that

learning is valued . Students in peer groups that do not value education lack the
26

stimulation and reinforcement needed to encourage personal learning. These peer

groups presumably stimulate and reinforce other values.

Albert Bandura's social learning theory speaks precisely to the human

interactions involved in learning . Observational, or "vicarious" learning is based

upon learning by watching then "modeling" or acting similarly to others . If the

student views and works with people who appreciate learning by engaging in

learning activities, then the student too will engage in learning and might work

harder at learning. Peers with positive attitudes and behaviors toward education will

allow and teach each other to set goals that include opportunities to learn and

achieve. If peer models do not convey positive attitudes toward learning, then the

students observing these models will not prioritize learning in their own lives .

They will learn to prioritize other goals.

In 1978 Lev Vygotsky also presented ideas on the facilitation of learning

through experiences mediated by other people . In his explanations, the learner

cannot reach full potential without the aid of others . The processes of guiding the

learner to higher stages of cognitive functioning rely on interactive human

relationships . Mentors– for example, teachers or more capable peers – can raise the

student's competence through the zone of proximal development (ZPD). ZPD is

defined as the gap between what a student can do alone and what the student

can achieve with assistance. In this view assistance is transitional, a "scaffold"


27

that is removed when it is no longer needed and the student has internalized

another's support.

In sum, varied theories agree that the values and attitudes of the peer

group are essential elements in motivation and learning. Students who surround

themselves with academically focused, goal oriented peers will be more likely to

appreciate, internalize, and exhibit these features themselves.

2.7 Positive Effects of Peer Pressure:

Peer pressure is not always bad. It can help you analyze yourself and

contemplate on your ways of life. You may be able to change yourself for the

better. Looking at what others do, can help you bring about a positive change in

your way of thinking. If you can pick selectively, peer pressure can actually

result in a positive change in your way of life. If you are fortunate to get a

good peer group , your peers can play a vital role in the shaping of your

personality. Their way of looking at life may influence you to change for

betterment. Some of your peers are your close friends, who do not pressurize

you to do things but rather inspire you to change yourself. Your peer group may

actually persuade you to bring about a constructive change in your personality .

Peer pressure can lead you to make the right choices in life. Good peer

pressure is being pushed in to something that you didn't have the courage to do

or just didn't cross your mind to do. Good peer pressure can also be a situation
28

when your friends convince you not to do something you were going to do

because it wasn't in your best interest. Good peer pressure is when you get pushed

in to something that you didn't want to do and it turned out well.

2.8 Negative Effects of Peer Pressure:

When you do not like a particular idea or when you have no inclination

towards a particular field, it is obvious that you won't like to go by it. For sure,

you won't like to go that way . But it is you peer group, which may compel you

on doing something you hate. In such cases, there are chances that you won't do

well in those things. Things you do not enjoy doing cannot fetch you success.

You cannot emerge successful in something you have never liked doing. So , it is

important that you do not lose happiness of your life by succumbing to peer

pressure.

Many a time, it so happens, that we are forced to lead a certain kind of

lifestyle due to peer pressure. You may not like partying on every weekend, using

drugs and smoking, but peer pressure may make you do all that you had never

wished to There are many teenagers who experience great pressure from their

peer group that forces them to take to drinking. You may take to something as

grave as drug use , and that too, only because of peer pressure. In such cases,

being overly pressurized by you peers can be detrimental to your living. Some

teenagers literally spoil their lives by giving in to peer pressure.


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Peer pressure can lead to a loss of individuality. Extreme peer pressure

may lead you to follow what your peers feel right. Their pressure may compel

you to go by everything they think right. You tend to blindly imitate the masses;

you adopt their tastes of fashion, clothing, hair, music and general living . Peer

pressure can actually lead you to lose you tastes of life and force yourself to

begin liking what they like. Peer pressure is the human tendency to join the

bandwagon, in which, the person loses his/her original way of looking at life.

Bad peer pressure is being talked into doing something that you didn't want to do

because your friends said that you should. Bad peer pressure is usually the result

of wanting to be accepted by your peers.

2.9 Encourage Healthy and Positive Relationships:

It is important to encourage friendships among teens. We all want our

children to be with persons who will have a positive influence, and stay away

from persons who will encourage or engage in harmful, destructive, immoral, or

illegal activities.

Parents can support positive peer relationships by giving their teenagers

their love, time, boundaries, and encouragement to think for themselves.


30

2.9.1 Specifically Parents can show support by:

Having a positive relationship with your teen. When parent-teen

interactions are characterized by warmth, kindness, consistency, respect, and love,

the relationship will flourish, as will the teen’s self-esteem, mental health,

spirituality, and social skills.

Being genuinely interested in your teen’s activities. This allows parents to

know their teen’s friends and to monitor behavior, which is crucial in keeping

teens out of trouble. When misbehavior does occur, parents who have involved

their children in setting family rules and consequences can expect less flack from

their children as they calmly enforce the rules. Parents who, together with their

children, set firm boundaries and high expectations may find that their children’s

abilities to live up to those expectations grow.

Encouraging independent thought and expression. In this way, teens can

develop a healthy sense of self and an enhanced ability to resist peer.

2.9.2 When Parents Don’t Approve:

You may not be comfortable about your son or daughter's choice of friends

or peer group. This may be because of their image, negative attitudes, or serious

behaviors (such as alcohol use, drug use, truancy, sexual behaviors).


31

2.10 Teenage Peer Pressure:

Teenage is that phase of life when you are exposed to the world outside.

These are the years when you spend most of your time with your friends.

Teenage is the phase of beginning to become independent in life; the years of

forming your ideals and principles, the years that shape your personality and the

years that introduce you to your own self. Adolescents often spend most of their

daily time with friends and owing to this vulnerable age, they tend to imitate

their friends. The people around you are bound to influence you. However, the

effect of the influences of the masses is greater during your teen years. Parents

have a vital role to play during this phase of a person's life. Parents and teachers

need to be careful while dealing with teenagers, as they are most susceptible to

succumb to peer pressure during these years of their life. Teenage individuals

need to be taught to distinguish between the good and the bad, the right and the

wrong and should be taught to be thoughtful in life.

A strong support from family, an ability to differentiate between the

positive and the negative and a skill to choose friends from the peers - this three

– pronged strategy is the best way to keep away from negative peer pressure.

Friendships are very much an important aspect of the teen years.

Understanding the nature of peer influence can help support youth as they enter

into this period and follow the path towards close friendships that are hallmarks

of adolescence.
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Adolescence is a time when peers play an increasingly important role in

the lives of youth. Teens begin to develop friendships that are more intimate,

exclusive, and more constant than in earlier years. In many ways, these

friendships are an essential component of development. They provide safe venues

where youth can explore their identities, where they can feel accepted and where

they can develop a sense of belongingness. Friendships also allow youth to

practice and foster social skills necessary for future success.

Nonetheless, parents and other adults can become concerned when they see

their teens becoming preoccupied with their friends. Many parents worry that their

teens might fall under negative peer influence or reject their families’ values and

beliefs, as well as be pressured to engage in high-risk and other negative

behaviors.

In actuality, peer influence is more complex than our stereotype of the

negative influences from friends. First, peer influence can be both positive and

negative. While we tend to think that peer influence leads teens to engage in

unhealthy and unsafe behaviors, it can actually motivate youth to study harder in

school, volunteer for community and social services, and participate in sports and

other productive endeavors. In fact, most teens report that their peers pressure

them not to engage in drug use and sexual activity.


33

Second, peer influence is not a simple process where youth are passive

recipients of influence from others. In fact, peers who become friends tend to

already have a lot of things in common. Peers with similar interests, similar

academic standing, and enjoy doing the same things tend to gravitate towards

each other. So while it seems that teens and their friends become very similar to

each other through peer influence, much of that similarity was present to begin

with.

2.10.1 Facts about Friendships, Peers, and Adolescence:

Friendships that emerge during adolescence tend to be more complex, more

exclusive, and more consistent than during earlier childhood. New types (e.g., opposite

sex, romantic ties) and levels (e.g., best friends, cliques, and “crowds”) of relationships

emerge, and teens begin to develop the capacity for very close, intimate, and deep

friendships.

The adult perception of peers as having one culture or a unified front of dangerous

influence is inaccurate. More often than not, peers reinforce family values, but they have

the potential to encourage problem behaviors as well. Although the negative peer

influence is overemphasized, more can be done to help teenagers experience the family

and the peer group as mutually constructive environments.


34

2.10.2 Facts about the teen-parent relationship during the teen

years:

• Parent relationships are not necessarily undermined by peer relationships.

During adolescence, relationships between parents and teens are more often re-

negotiated rather than rejected. During adolescence, teens become increasingly

autonomous and take on more adult roles. They also develop their own ideas and start

mapping their own lives. They begin to spend more time with and value their friends

more than they used to. Thus, it might seem as if they are starting to cut ties with parents

and reject their ideals. In fact, rather than cutting off ties, teens are just renegotiating the

parent-child relationship. What this means is that they are beginning to shift the

relationship to incorporate their increasing independence and maturity. As teens become

more mature, the type of relationship they have with their parents naturally begin to shift

as the teen begins to mature.

• While it seems that teens are influenced by their peers, parents continue to be

the most influential factor in their lives.

Despite fears parents have about their teens rejecting their values and beliefs,

parents continue to be of significant influence. Teens report having political, religious,

and general beliefs similar to their parents, and consider their parents as being highly
35

significant and influential in their lives. Positive relationships between parents and teens

also equip youth to have healthy relationships with friends. Teens who have high quality

relationships with parents also report having a positive relationship with their peers.

• Parent-adolescent conflict increases between childhood and early adolescence;

although in most families, its frequency and intensity remain low.

Typically, conflicts are the result of relationship negotiation and continuing

attempts by parents to socialize their adolescents, and do not signal the breakdown of

parent-adolescent relations. Parents need to include adolescents in decision-making and

rule-setting that affects their lives.

• Parents who continue to communicate with their teens, even when there are

conflicts, actually maintain closer relationships.

While it might seem futile to talk to teens when it leads to conflicts and

disagreements, most teens continue to report having a close relationship with their

parents, and as mentioned earlier, they still report parents as being a significant influence

on their lives. So parents need to continue talking to their teens and maintaining an open

line of communication, rather than simply trying to avoid disagreements.

2.10.3 Facts about peer friendships:

• Teens often have multiple layers and groups of friendships.

Unlike in childhood, when friendships usually meant two or more close friends, teens

often have multiple friends and belong to multiple groups. They might have intimate and

close relationships with one or a handful of individuals, and might also belong to one or
36

more ‘cliques’ or groups of friends that have similar demographics (sex, race,

socioeconomic status), orientation towards school, and other interests.

• Peer friendships are dynamic.

This simply means that peer friendships may change. For instance, while teens can

have friendships that are long term, they often move from one clique to another, and they

might develop new friendships and lose others.

• Peers tend to choose those who are similar to themselves.

Whether it is gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or interests, teens tend to

gravitate towards those who are more similar to them.

• Peer friendships can be a healthy venue for positive youth development.

Peer friendships can be a safe place for youth to explore their identity, learn about

social norms, and practice their autonomy. Healthy friendships provide youth with social

support for dealing with some of the challenges of adolescence, and can also provide

youth with some of the most positive experiences during those years. Many teens report

having some of the happiest and most fun moments with their peers, likely due to shared

interests as well close relationships.


37

2.11 Effective Strategies for Coping with Peer Pressure

While the point has been made here that peer influence and peer pressure do not

necessarily have to be negative, peer pressure can lead youth towards unhealthy and

unsafe behaviors. To minimize the negative effects of peer pressure, youth, parents,

school and community leaders must come together to establish workable and effective

strategies to guide teen behavior and to support their transition from children to mature,

responsible adults. Here are several strategies to consider (partly based on Brown, 1990):

2.11.1Nurture teens’ abilities and self-esteem so that they are equipped

to foster positive peer relationships and deflect negative pressures.

Adolescents with positive self-concept and self-worth will be less likely to be

easily swayed to follow others’ negative influences. It is essential that these aspects of

positive development should be encouraged in youth.

2.11.2 Encourage positive relationships between significant

adults and teens.

Parents, teachers, school counselors, other relatives and professionals should try

to have constructive and positive relationships with teens. These can serve as good

models for healthy relationships, and can be a venue through which the teens can feel

valued and where they can develop positive views about themselves. Youth should know

that they can go to these caring adults for help or advice about their peer relationships.
38

2.11.3 Encourage diverse relationships.

Parents, teachers, community leaders, and clergy can model appreciation for

ethnic, gender, socioeconomic status, religious, and other differences and support cross-

group friendships. Schools and youth organizations can assist by encouraging youth from

diverse backgrounds to work and play together.

2.11.4 Support parent education programs for families with teenagers.

Parents need to be better informed about the dynamics of adolescent peer groups

and the demands and expectations teenagers face in peer relationships. Information is

available through various sources including books, some parenting magazines, and other

publications such as this one. Keep your eye out for programs particularly targeted

towards families and teen issues that might be available. Seeking information is not a

sign of weakness, and showing interest in these issues might actually show your teens

that you are concerned about them.

2.11.5 Equip youth with the skills necessary to resist negative behaviors, as

well as to make good decisions.

Teens will inevitably be confronted with situations where they will have to make

a decision whether or not to engage in certain behaviors, whether to give in to peer

pressure, and also to make other difficult decisions. It is essential that youth are given the

necessary skills to analyze the situation and make the appropriate decision. This includes

helping youth develop the skills for ‘costs vs. benefits’ analysis — teaching them to look

at both the negative and positive sides to making a decision. For instance, if being
39

pressured to smoke, the teen should be able to think about what the possible desired

outcomes are (e.g., peer acceptance, looking “cool,” feeling excitement about trying

something new) with the possible undesirable outcomes (e.g., becoming hooked, the

health issues, smelling bad, the financial costs).

2.11.6 Teaching youth exit strategies or ways to say ‘no’ to negative

pressures.

It is best to try to deal with peer pressure before it even happens. Talk to youth

about potential scenarios, and think through strategies together on how to deal with those

scenarios if they arise. This could be done by discussing hypothetical scenarios or even

role-playing. It is helpful to think about these things ahead of time rather than dealing

with situations as they occur or trying to recover after they happen.

2.11.7 Review of Related Research Articles:

 Epple, Newlon, and Romano (2002) states grouping students in

classrooms by ability can likewise have significant impacts on student

achievement, depending on the magnitude of peer influences.

(Epple, Elizabeth Newlon, and Richard Romano. 2002. “Ability Tracking,

School Competition and the Distribution of Educational Benefits.” 83

Journal of Public Economics, 1-48.)


40

 Figlio (2005) focuses on the effects of peer behaviour on student

outcomes. Employing data from a single large Florida school district, he

estimates the impact of peer disruptive behaviour on individual student

behaviour and test scores. He controls for student heterogeneity via

student fixed effects, but does not include time-varying student covariates

or teacher controls. He employs a novel identification strategy; the

fraction of boys with female-sounding names in a classroom is used as an

instrument for peer behaviour. He finds that peer disruptive behaviour is

associated with both an increased likelihood that a student is suspended

and a reduction in achievement test scores.

(Figlio. 2005. “Boys Named Sue: Disruptive Children and Their Peers.”

NBER working paper no.11277. Cambridge, MA: NBER.)

 Betts and Zau (2004) estimate classroom-level effects on standardized

test-score gains in San Diego, controlling for student fixed effects and for

several observed teacher characteristics, but they do not employ teacher

fixed effects. They also limit their tests to elementary school students, on

the grounds that only elementary students spend most of their time in a

single classroom and therefore, presumably, are more susceptible to the

influence of classroom peers than are students who move across

classrooms throughout the day.


41

(Betts, and Andrew Zau. 2004. “Peer Groups and Academic Achievement:

Panel Evidence from Administrative Data.” unpublished manuscript)

 Stinebrickner and Stinebrickner (2001) found “compelling evidence of

peer effects in first semester grades” for women, but not men, at Berea

College (p. 8). They speculated that women may be more accepting of

roommates with different backgrounds.

(Stinebrickner, R., & Stinebrickner, T. (2001) Peer effects among students

from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mimeo)

 Zimmerman (1999, 2001) found there were somewhat contradictory to

Goethe results but again it proved that students performance depends on

number of different factors, it says that weak peers might reduce the

grades of middling or strong students.

 Sacerdote’s (2000) study with Dartmouth students found that roommates

in the top 25% on academic indices lift one’s own grades, and no gender

differences were reported.


42

(Sacerdote, B. (2000) Peer effects with random room assignment: results

for Dartmouth roommates. NBER working paper no. 7469)

 Devadoss and Foltz (1996) report significant positive effects of class

attendance on student performance from a survey-based analysis of

students, across for US universities.

Kirby, A and B. McElroy (2003), The Effect of Attendance on Grade for

First Year Economics Student in University College Cork, The Economic

and Social Review, 34, 311-326.

(Devadoss, S. and Foltz, J. (1996), “Evaluation of factors influencing

student class attendance and performance”, American Journal of

Agricultural Economics, 78, 499-507)

 Romer (1993) presented quantitative evidence on absenteeism and

performance in economics courses at 3 universities in the US. Romer

reported absenteeism to be ‘rampant’, with an overall absence rate of

about one-third. Romer also reported evidence consistent with the

hypothesis that absence affects student performance adversely, while

acknowledging that no causal effect had been demonstrated given the

endogenous nature of the relationship between attendance and

performance.
43

(Romer, D. (1993) “Do students go to class? Should they?” Journal of

Economic Perspectives, 7,167-174)

 Martins and Walker (2006) find no significant effects of class attendance

on performance for students in the Economics Department at a leading UK

University, and also find no significant effects of smaller classes on

improved performance.

(Martins, P. and Walker, I. (2006) “Student achievement and education

production: a case study of the effect of class attendance”)

 Tony Schwartz (1999) clarifies the strongest correlation that exists to

future success is family income. This should come as no surprise. Children

who grow up in more affluent or highly educated families enjoy

advantages that begin at birth with a more intellectually stimulating

environment. They go on to attend better schools, enjoy more cultural

opportunities and travel more widely. Their parents also have the

educational background and resources to help them along the way and to

expose them to a culture of high expectations and high achievement.

(Tony Schwartz (1990, January 10), What really Mattters, The New York

Times, p.30)
44

 Zajonc (1976) describes family background variables are investment in

human capital. Zajonc found that more educated parents would transfer

some of their skills and knowledge to their children.

(Zajonc, R. B., "Family Configuration and Intelligence," Science, 2 April

1976, 227-236)

 Schmidt (1983) measured the impact of time commitments by students to

various course activities on the students' performance in the given class.

The most valuable and important time commitment in a course was the

time actually spent in the classroom. That time was the most important

determinant of student success and each unit of time in the class itself

provided, among all the class related activities, the greatest improvement

in student performance. The next most important time spent on a class was

any time spent in discussion sections that accompanied the lectures. Third

in importance was any time spent studying outside of class preparing for

the class session itself.

(Robert M. Schmidt, "Who Maximizes What? A Study in Student Time

Allocation" American Economic Review, May, 1983, pp. 23-2)

 Kirby and McElroy (2003) clarifies that attending lectures yields a

positive and significant impact on exam performance. They found that the
45

average effect of absences on performance is modest, but that there are

substantial adverse effects when absence exceeds certain threshold levels.

(Kirby, A and B. McElroy (2003), The Effect of Attendance on Grade for

First Year Economics Student in University College Cork, The Economic

and Social Review, 34, 311-326.)

 Park and Kerr (1990) found the role of class attendance was statistically

significant in explaining student grades in those classes.

(Kang H. Park and Peter M. Kerr, “Determinants of Academic

Performance: A Multinomial Logit Approach” The Journal Of Ecnomic

Education,Spring1990,pp.101-111)

Chapter III

3 Methodology and Procedure

This unit present the method and procedure which was used to conduct the study.
46

3.1 Population of the study:

For this study population consisted of Government Girls High School

Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi.

3.2 Sample of the study:

Keeping in view the resources in terms of time and money available with

the researcher the following were taken as sample;

Seventy students of 9th and 10th class of Government Girls High School

Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi were selected by using convenient sampling

technique..

3.3 Research instrument:

The instrument used to collect the data was questionnaire. A set of

questionnaire containing 30 questions was developed keeping in view the objectives


47

of the study. The questionnaire was checked by Miss Zarina to asses its validity before it

was distributed.

3.4 Data collection:

The researcher personally visited the target area. The questionnaire was filled

by the students in class.

3.5 Data Analysis:

In order to make the study meaningful, the collected data was presented in

the tabular form. Percentage was calculated to analyze the data the whole data

was analyzed and interpreted in the light of the objectives of the study.

Chapter IV

4 Analysis and Interpretation of Data


48

This chapter deals with presentation, analysis and interpretation of data.

4.1 Presentation & Analysis of the Questionnaire for Students:

4.1.1 Table 1: Friendship plays a part in studies

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 65 4 1 70

Percentage 92.857 5.714 1.429 70

Table no 1 shows that most 92.857% students were agreed, 5.714% students

undecided and 1.429% were not agreed that friendship plays a part.

4.1.2 Table 2: Friendship plays a key role in studies


49

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 15 17 38 70

Percentage 21.429 24.286 54.286 70

Table no 2 shows that most 54.286 % students were not agreed, 21.429% were

agreed and 24.286 % students undecided that friendship plays a key role in studies.

4.1.3 Table3: You give value to your friend’s suggestions


50

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 57 3 10 70

Percentage 81.429 4.286 14.286 70

Table no 3 shows that most 81.429 % students give value , 14.286 %

students not give value to their friend’s suggestions and 4.286 % students undecided

that they give value or not.


51

4.1.4 Table 4: You feel that group study is more effective than

individual study

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 48 6 16 70

Percentage 68.571 8.571 22.857 70

Table no 4 shows that most 68.571% students were agreed, 22.857%

students were not agreed and 8.571% students undecided that group study is more

effective than individual study.


52

4.1.5 Table 5: Group projects are more creative than individual work

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 65 3 2 70

Percentage 92.857 4.286 2.857 70

Table no 5 shows that most 92.857 % students were agreed, 2.857 %

students were not agreed and 4.286 % students undecided that group projects are

more creative than individual work or not.


53

4.1.6 Table 6: You Gossip more when you are in group study.

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 58 6 6 70

Percentage 82.857 8.571 8.571 70

Table no 6 shows that most 82.857 % students were agreed, 8.571 %

students were not agreed and 8.571 % students undecided that they gossip more or

not when they are in group study.


54

4.1.7 Table 7: You generate more ideas in group study rather than in

individual study

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 56 8 6 70

Percentage 80 11.429 8.571 70

Table no 7 shows that most 80% students were agreed, 8.571% students

were not agreed and 11.429% students undecided that they generate more ideas in

group study rather than in individual study or not.


55

4.1.8 Table 8: You think problem can solve more easily in group study

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 46 4 20 70

Percentage 65.714 5.714 28.571 70

Table no 8 shows that most 65.714% students were agreed, 28.571%

students were not agreed and 5.714% students undecided that they think problem can

solve more easily in group study or not.


56

4.1.9 Table 9: You get bore during group study

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 29 4 37 70

Percentage 41.429 5.714 52.857 70

Table no 9 shows that most students 52.857 % students were not agreed,

41.429% students were agreed and 5.714 % students undecided that they get bore

during group study or not.


57

4.1.10 Table 10: You believe that problem can solve more easily in

group study

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 50 3 17 70

Percentage 71.429 4.286 24.286 70

Table no 10 shows that most 71.429 % students were agreed, 4.286 %

students were not agreed and 4.286 % students undecided that they believe that

problem can solve more easily in group study or not.


58

4.1.11 Table 11: You believe that your skill set can improve more in

group studies

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 64 1 5 70

Percentage 91.429 1.429 7.143 70

Table no 11 shows that most 91.429 % students were agreed, 7.143 %

students were not agreed and 1.429 % students undecided that skill set can

improve more in group studies or not.


59

4.1.12 Table 12: You believe the consumption of time is less in a

group study is time saving.

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 18 12 40 70

Percentage 25.714 17.143 57.143 70

Table no 12 shows that 25.714% students were agreed, 57.143 % students

were not agreed and 17.143% students undecided that group study is time saving

or not.
60

4.1.13 Table 13: You have the habit of make friends only those

students who are only good in studies.

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 8 8 54 70

Percentage 11.429 11.429 77.143 70

Table no 13 shows that the most 77.143% students were not agreed, 11.429

% students were agreed and 11.429% students undecided that they have the habit

of make friends only those students who are good in studies


61

4.1.14 Table 14: You believe that interest in studies may develop

more on seeing your friend effort on studies

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 58 1 11 70

Percentage 82.857 1.429 15.714 70

Table no 14 shows that most 82.857% students were agreed, 15.714%

students were not agreed that interest may develop more on seeing friend efforts

on studies and 1.429% students undecided that interest may develop or not on

seeing friend effort on studies.


62

4.1.15 Table 15: You are more interested in knowing about your

friend’s completion of work in studies.

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 60 4 6 70

Percentage 85.714 5.714 8.571 70

Table no 15 shows that most 85.741% students were agreed, 8.571 %

students were not agreed that they are more interested in knowing about their

friend’s completion of work in studies and 5.714% students undecided.


63

4.1.16 Table 16: You share your books, ideas and study material

with your friends.

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 51 1 18 70

Percentage 72.857 1.429 25.714 70

Table no 16 shows that most 72.857% students were agreed, 25.714%

students were not agreed that they share books, ideas and study material with their

friends and 1.429% students undecided that they share ideas, books and materials or

not.
64

4.1.17 Table 17: You will help your friend incase if he/she is not

good in studies

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 65 2 3 70

Percentage 92.857 2.857 4.286 70

Table no 17 shows that most 92.857% students were agreed, 4.286%

students were not agreed and 2.857% students were undecided that they will help

their friend incase if they were not good in studies.


65

4.1.18 Table 18: You will help your friend incase if you find your

friend finding difficulty in an examination.

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 56 5 9 70

Percentage 80 7.143 12.857 70

Table no 18 shows that most 80% students were agreed, 12.857% students

were not agreed and 7.143% students were undecided that they will help their friend

incase if they found friend finding difficulty in an examination.


66

4.1.19 Table 19: You will remain quite if you find your friend

bunking the class

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 40 1 29 70

Percentage 57.143 1.429 41.429 70

Table no 19 shows that most 57.143% students were agreed, 141.429%

students were not agreed that they will remain quite if found friend bunking the

class and 1.429 % students were undecided.


67

4.1.20 Table 20: You will forbid your friend incase if he/she bunks the

class

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 46 3 21 70

Percentage 65.714 4.286 30 70

Table no 20 shows that most 65.714% students were agreed, 30 %students

were not agreed that they will forbid their friend incase if he/she bunks the class

and 4.286% students undecided that they will forbid their friend or not.
68

4.1.21 Table 21: You will warn your friends incase if her attitude is not

serious in class (laughing, playing, mischievous etc)

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 33 5 32 70

Percentage 47.143 7.143 45.714 70

Table no 21 shows that most 47.143% students were agreed, 45.714%

students were not agreed that they will warn their friends incase if their attitude is

not and 7.143% students are undecided.


69

Table 22: You believe that helping friends in exams by copying

and passing is good

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 21 6 43 70

Percentage 30 8.571 61.429 70

Table no 22 shows that 30% students were agreed, 61.429% students were

not agreed and 8.571% students undecided that helping friends in exams by

copying and passing is good.


70

4.1.22 Table 23: You feel proud if your friend tops the Rank in

studies

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 57 0 13 70

Percentage 81.429 0 18.571 70

Table no 23 shows that most 81.429% students were agreed, 571%

students were not agreed and 0% students were undecided that they feel proud if

their friend tops the rank in studies


71

4.1.23 Table 24: You will congratulate with heart your best friend

who tried her best to push you back in this exam

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 52 5 13 70

Percentage 74.286 7.143 18.571 70

Table no 24 shows that most 74.286% students were agreed, 18.571%

students were not agreed and 7.143% students are undecided that they will

congratulate with heart their best friend who tried their best to push you back in

this exam.
72

4.1.24 Table 25: You feel selfish and envy at your friend’s success

in studies

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 27 6 37 70

Percentage 38.571 8.571 52.857 70

Table no 25 shows that most 52.857% students were not agreed, 38.571%

students were agreed and 8.571% students undecided that they feel selfish and

envoy at their friend’s success in studies.


73

Table 26: You feel happy at your friend’s success in studies

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 59 1 10 70

Percentage 84.286 1.429 14.286 70

Table no 26 shows that most 84.286% students were agreed, 14.286 %

students were not agreed studies and 1.429% students undecided that they feel

happy at their friend’s success.


74

Table 27: You want someone at your academic level to compete with

you in Class

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 43 7 20 70

Percentage 61.429 10 28.571 70

Table no 27 shows that most 61.429% students were agreed, 28.571%

students were not agreed and 10% students undecided that they want someone at

their academic level to compete them in Class.


75

4.1.25 Table 28: Competition among your friends affects your

personal relationship

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 27 5 38 70

Percentage 38.571 7.143 54.286 70

Table no 28 shows that most 54.286% students were not agreed, 38.571%

students were agreed and 7.143% students undecided that competition among friends

can affect personal relationships.


76

4.1.26 Table 29: You think friends can be a leg pusher in studies

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 29 8 33 70

Percentage 41.429 11.429 47.143 70

Table no 29 shows that most 47.143% students were not agreed, 41.429%

students were agreed and 11.429% students undecided that friends can be a leg

pusher in studies.
77

4.1.27 Table 30: You would like to be have a sole of KING in

your class

Agree Undecided Disagree Total

Responses 41 3 26 70

Percentage 58.571 4.286 37.143 70

Table no 30 shows that most 58.571% students were agreed, 37.143%

students were not agreed and 4.286% students undecided that they would like to be

have a sole of KING in their class.


78

Chapter V

Summary, Findings, Conclusion

&

Recommendations
79

Summary

The study was designed to measure the effects of peer group in their

Academic Achievement. In order to achieve the objectives of the study survey

method was employed.

For this study population consisted of Government Girls High School

Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi. A sample of 70 students was selected for the

study.

The data was collected through questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed

personally from the students.

Data collected was analyzed and interpreted. Percentage was calculated for

this purpose.
80

Findings

• Question no 1 shows that most 92.857% students were agreed and 1.429%

were not agreed that friendship plays a part in studies.

• Question no 2 shows that most 54.286 % students were not agreed and

21.429% were agreed that friendship plays a key role in studies .

• Question no 3 shows that most 81.429 % students give value and 14.286 %

students not give value to their friend’s suggestions.

• Question no 4 shows that most 68.571% students were agreed and 22.857%

students were not agreed that group study is more effective.

• Question no 5 shows that most 92.857 % students were agreed and 2.857 %

students were not agreed that group projects are more creative than individual

work.
81

• Question no 6 shows that most 82.857 % students were agreed and 8.571 %

students were not agreed that they gossip more when they are in group study.

• Question no 7 shows that most 80% students were agreed and 8.571%

students were not agreed that they generate more ideas in group study rather

than in individual study.

• Question no 8 shows that most 65.714% students were agreed and 28.571%

students were not agreed that they think problem can solve more easily in

group study.

• Question no 9 shows that most students 52.857 % students were not agreed

and 41.429% students were agreed that they get bore during group study

• Question no 10 shows that most 71.429 % students were agreed and 4.286 %

students were not agreed that problem can solve more easily in group study.

• Question no 11 shows that most 91.429 % students were agreed and 7.143 %

students were not agreed that skill set can improve more in group studies.
82

• Question no 12 shows that 25.714% students were agreed and 57.143 %

students were not agreed that group study is time saving.

• Question no 13 shows that the most 77.143% students were not agreed and

11.429 % students were agreed that they have the habit of make friends only

those students who are good in studies.

• Question no 14 shows that most 82.857% students were agreed and 15.714%

students were not agreed that interest may develop more on seeing friend

efforts on studies.

• Question no 15 shows that most 85.741% students were agreed and 8.571 %

students were not agreed that they are more interested in knowing about their

friend’s completion of work in studies.

• Question no 16 shows that most 72.857% students were agreed and 25.714%

students were not agreed that they share books, ideas and study material with

their friends.

• Question no 17 shows that most 92.857% students were agreed and 4.286%

students were not agreed that they will help their friend incase if they are not

good in studies.
83

• Question no 18 shows that most 80% students were agreed and 12.857%

students were not agreed that they will help their friend incase if they found

friend finding difficulty in an examination.

• Question no 19 shows that most 57.143% students were agreed and 141.429%

students were not agreed that they will remain quite if found friend bunking

the class .

• Question no 20 shows that most 65.714% students were agreed and 30

%students were not agreed that they will forbid their friend incase if he/she

bunks the class.

• Question no 21 shows that most 47.143% students were agreed and 45.714%

students were not agreed that they will warn their friends incase if their

attitude is not serious in class.

• Question no 22 shows that (30%) students were agreed and 61.429% students

were not agreed that helping friends in exams by copying and passing is good.

• Question no 23 shows that most 81.429% students were agreed and 571%

students were not agreed that they feel proud if their friend tops the rank in

studies.
84

• Question no 24 shows that most 74.286% students were agreed and 18.571%

students were not agreed that they will congratulate with heart their best friend

who tried their best to push you back in this exam.

• Question no 25 shows that most (52.857%) students were not agreed and

38.571% students were agreed that they feel selfish and envoy at their

friend’s success in studies.

• Question no 26 shows that most (84.286%) students were agreed and 14.286 %

students were not agreed that they feel happy at their friend’s success in

studies

• Question no 27 shows that most (61.429%) students were agreed and 28.571%

students were not agreed that they want someone at their academic level to

compete them in Class.

• Question no 28 shows that most 54.286% students were not agreed and

38.571% students were agreed that competition among friends can affect

personal relationships.

• Question no 29 shows that most 47.143% students were not agreed and

41.429% students were agree that friends can be a leg pusher in studies.
85

• Question no 30 shows that most 58.571% students were agreed and 37.143%

students were not agreed that they would like to be have a sole of KING in

their class.
86

Conclusions:

1) The findings show that most of the respondents were agreed that friendship

plays a part in studies but they don’t believe that it plays a key role in

studies.

2) Based on findings, majority of the students give value to their friend’s

suggestions.

3) Majority of the respondents were agreed that group study is more effective

than individual study. Because group projects are more creative and it

generates more ideas. But they think that students gossip more in group

study.

4) The study has shown that most of the students were agreed that problem

can solve more easily in group study and they don’t get bore during group

study.

5) Most of the students were agreed that skill set can improve more in group

studies.
87

6) The findings show that most of the respondents were not agreed that the

consumption of time is less in a group study is time saving.

7) Based on findings, majority of the students don’t have the habit of make

friends only those students who are only good in studies.

8) Most of the students were agreed that interest in studies may develop

more on seeing your friend effort on studies and they take interest in

knowing about their friend’s completion of work in studies.

9) From the finding found that majority of the students share their books,

ideas and study material with their friends. They help their friend if their

friend find any difficulty in studies and examination.

10) Most of the students remain quite when their friend bunking the class but

sometimes students forbid their friend and also warn incase if their

friend’s attitude is not serious during class.

11) Majority of the students was disagreed that helping friends in exam by

copying and passing is good.

12) Most of the students congratulate with heart their best friend who

tried her best to push her back in exam.


88

13) From the finding found that majority of the students feel proud if their

friend tops the rank in studies. They don’t feel envoy and selfish at

their friend success in studies.

14) The study shown that the most of the students want someone compete them

at their academic level.

15) Majority of the students was disagreed that competition among their friends

affect their personal relationship.

16) The findings show that most of the respondents was disagreed that friends

can be a leg pusher in studies.

17) Based on findings, majority of the students like to have a sole king in

their class.
89

Recommendations

Based on the conclusion I recommend the following;

1) The student should choose the right peers in order to improve their

lifestyle, attitudes and so on. The student are encourage analyze the

attitudes of their friends before they become close. The positive peers can

influence them to be better person.

2) Student should choose the right peers. It is because the positive peer can

influenced and motivated them to be a good person

3) Teachers should arrange groups of students in class in such a way that it

should comprise of bright and dull students. In this way dull students will be

able to get benefit from the bright students and it will be add to their

academic acumen.

4) Parents should interact with their children with love, kindness, respect,

consistency, time, boundaries and encouragement. They should take interest

in their child’s activities. This allows parents to know their child’s friends

and to monitor behavior , which is crucial in keeping children out of

trouble.
90

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Appendixes
99

Permission Letter:

The Principal,

Govt Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed

Rawalpindi.

Subject: PERMISSION LETTER for the Administration of Research Questionnaire.

Dear Ma’am,

I have to conduct a study on the “Peer Group Effects on their Academic

Achievement”. This undertaking is part of the requirements for the completion of the

subject on Research Project.

The respondents of this study are the students of your school. I would like to give

the questionnaire to those who will be randomly chosen to be the respondents of the

research.

In connection with this, I would like to request your approval to allow me to

schedule the administration of the research.

Looking forward for your much needed approval on this request.

Sincerely,

Aneela Majeed

The researcher

Date___________ Signature___________
100

Covering Letter:

Dear……………,

I have the honor to request your participation in the study presently conducted by

the researcher in Govt Girls High School Khyaban-e-Sirsyed Rawalpindi.

The study wants to know the effects of your friendship on your academic

performance. Its respondents are the students of your school. Such study is a requirement

for the completion of the subject on Research Project.

I’m therefore requesting you to give this questionnaire your utmost attention. Rest

assured that your responses here will only be used for the study and therefore are

confidential from other persons not related in any way to the study.

Thank you very much.

Sincerely,

Aneela Majeed

The researcher

Date___________ Signature___________
101

Respondents List

Sr # Students Names Classes Age

1) Iqra Majeed 9th 14

2) Nadia Kousar 9th 14

3) Asma khan 9th 15

4) Sajda Ali 9th 14

5) Kainat Majeed 9th 15

6) Iqra ishaq 9th 14

7) Rida Bibi 9th 14

8) Rimsha Sabeen 9th 14

9) Maimona Ijaz 9th 15

10) Sidra Shezadi 9th 15

11) Meehreen 9th 14

12) Maria Parveen 9th 15

13) Fatima Batool 9th 15

14) Hira Naz 9th 15

15) Almas Mirza 9th 15

16) Saima Bibi 9th 14


102

17) Saira Saqeeq 9th 15

18) Sania Zareen 9th 15

19) Rida Asghar 9th 15

20) Habiba 9th 15

21) Ayesha Nazeer 9th 15

22) Saba Niaz 9th 14

23) Sitara Rafeeq 9th 15

24) Asma khan 9th 14

25) Lubna khan 9th 15

26) Aroosa Nasir 9th 17

27) Izat Begum 9th 16

28) Samra Noor 9th 16

29) Shaheen Bibi 9th 15

30) Quratulain 9th 15

31) Ayesha Binarus 9th 16

32) Arooj Ali 9th 14

33) Sana Gull 9th 14

34) Anum Ishaq 9th 14

35) Zaiba Banarus 9th 14

36) Amber Ali khan 9th 15

37) Hasiba Bibi 9th 14

38) Kiran khursheed 9th 14


103

39) Faiza Abbasi 9th 14

40) Murrium butt 9th 15

41) Sapna khan 10th 15

42) Sadaf Sayyab 10th 15

43) Ayesha Ghazal 10th 15

44) Seher khan 10th 15

45) Yusra Saurwar 10th 16

46) Saba Amjad 10th 16

47) Shaista Bibi 10th 16

48) Shabeera Bibi 10th 18

49) Kinza Ehsan 10th 15

50) Maria Ajmal 10th 16

51) Saima khan 10th 18

52) Ambreen Ayub 10th 15

53) Qalsoom Begum 10th 17

54) Mehrunisa 10th 17

55) Mehmoona Rafeeq 10th 17

56) Amina Waqar 10th 16

57) Saba Amjad 10th 16

58) Binesh Sadeeq 10th 16

59) Huma Parvez 10th 17

60) Khansa Tariq 10th 17


104

61) Hina kalsoom 10th 17

62) Maria Sheikh 10th 15

63) Ayesha Arshad 10th 15

64) Iram khan 10th 16

65) Murrium 10th 17

66) Amina Butt 10th 16

67) Ayesha Irshad 10th 16

68) Banish Naseer 10th 16

69) Madiha Saleem 10th 16

70) Fariha khanam 10th 15


105

Survey Questionnaire

Name: ______________ Class: _____________

Age: ______________ Date: _____________

Direction: Please put check ( ) on the space that corresponds to what you are actually

doing, thinking, and feeling regarding the statement. Rest assured that your answers will

be treated in strictest and will be used only for this study.

• Agree
• Undecided
• Disagree

S# Questions Agree Undecided Disagree

1. Friendship plays a part in studies

2. Friendship play a key role in studies

3. You give value to your friends suggestions

4. You feel that group study is more effective


than individual study
5. Group projects are more creative than individual
work
6. You Gossip more when you are in group study

7. You generate more ideas in group study rather


than in individual study
106

8. You think problem can solve more easily in


group study
9. You get bore during group study

10 You believe that problem can solve more easily


. in group study

11 You believe that your skill set can improve


. more in group studies

12 You believe the consumption of time is less in


. a group study is time saving

13 You have the habit of make friends only those


. students who are only good in studies

14 You believe that interest in studies may


. develop more on seeing your friend effort on
studies
15 You are more Interested in knowing about your
. friends completion of work in studies

16 You share your books, ideas and study material


. with your friends.

17 You will help your friend incase if he/she is


. not good in studies

18 You will help your friend incase if you find


. your friend finding difficulty in an examination

19 You will remain quite if you find your friend


. bunking the class

20 You will forbid your friend incase if he/she


. bunks the class

21 You will warn your friends incase if her


. attitude is not serious in class (laughing, playing,
mischievous etc)
22 You believe that helping friends in exams by
. copying and passing is good

23 You feel proud if your friend tops the Rank in


. studies
107

24 You will congratulate with heart your best


. friend who tried her best to push you back in
this exam
25 You feel selfish and envy at your friend’s
. success in studies

26 You feel happy at your friend’s success in


. studies

27 You want someone at your academic level to


. compete with you in Class

28 Competition among your friends affect your


. personal relationship

29 You think friends can be a leg pusher in


. studies

30 You would like to be have a role of KING in


. your class