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Homework#2Tutorials46
Due:11:00pmonSunday,May31,2015
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

Activity:TheTreeofLife

Clickheretoviewthisanimation.
Thenanswerthequestions.

PartA
WhichgroupwasnotdescribedinWoese'streeoflifeanalysis?

Hint1.
WhichgroupisnotoneofthethreemajordivisionsoflifeformsdeterminedbyWoese?
ANSWER:
Eukarya
Bacteria
Prokarya
Archaea

Correct
ProkaryawasnotoneofthegroupsdescribedinWoese'streeoflifeanalysis.

PartB
WhatcharacteristicswereusedtoclassifyorganismsbeforeWoese'streeoflifeanalysis?

Hint1.
Whatcharacteristicscanscientistsusetodivideorganismsintogroups?
ANSWER:
Numberofcellsintheorganism
DifferencesinribosomalRNAsequences
Presenceofamembraneboundnucleus
Compositionofthecellwall

Correct
Beforethetreeoflifeanalysis,organismswereclassifiedasprokaryotesiftheylackedamembraneboundnucleusoreukaryotesiftheypossesseda
membraneboundnucleus.

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PartC
Trueorfalse?DatashowingthattheBacteriawerethefirstlineagetodivergefromthecommonancestorofalllivingorganismssuggestthattheArchaea
andEukaryaaremorecloselyrelatedtoeachotherthantheyaretotheBacteria.

Hint1.
Howisthetreeoflifeorganized?
ANSWER:
True
False

Correct

PartD
Whichofthefollowingstatementsaboutphylogenetictreesistrue?

Hint1.
Thinkaboutthedifferencebetweenmonophyleticandparaphyleticgroups.
ANSWER:
Amonophyleticgroupconsistsofacommonancestorandsomeofitsdescendants.
Aparaphyleticgrouphasnotexperiencedlateralgenetransfer.
Aparaphyleticgroupconsistsofacommonancestorandsomeofitsdescendants.
Aparaphyleticgroupconsistsofanancestralpopulationandallofitsdescendants.

Correct
Thisstatementistruethecommoncharacteristicsofaparaphyleticgroupmayhavearisenfromlateralgenetransfertosome,butnotall,lineages.

PartE
WhichmoleculedidCarlWoesestudytoproducehistreeoflife?

Hint1.
Thismoleculeevolvesveryslowlybecauseitiscriticaltothefunctionofacellularstructurethatispresentinalldomainsofthetreeoflife.
ANSWER:
MessengerRNA
DNA
RibosomalRNA
Ribosome

Correct
RibosomalRNAwasthemoleculeusedtoproduceWoese'sphylogenybecauseitevolvesslowlyandiscriticaltothefunctionoftheribosome,which
servesthesamefunctioninallthreedomainsinthetreeoflife.

PartF
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Whatislateralgenetransfer?

Hint1.
Considerhowgeneticinformationcanmoveamongdistantlyrelatedlineages.
ANSWER:
Inheritanceofagenefromaparent
Inheritanceofagenethroughmeiosis
Physicaltransferofagenefromaspeciesinonelineagetoaspeciesinanotherlineage.
Inheritanceofagenethroughmitosis

Correct
Lateralgenetransferisthephysicaltransferofagenebetweendistantlyrelatedlineages.

Chapter27PreTestQuestion2
PartA
Howdoesthelargeamountofgeneticvariationobservedinprokaryotesarise?

Hint1.
Considerhowbacteriareproduce.Isthismodeofreproductionconsistentwithhighgeneticvariation?
ANSWER:
Themutationrateinprokaryotesismuchhigherthanineukaryotes.
Theyhaveextremelyshortgenerationtimesandlargepopulations.
TheycanexchangeDNAwithmanytypesofprokaryotesbywayofhorizontalgenetransfer.
Theyhavearelativelysmallgenome.
Thesecondandthirdanswersarecorrect.

Correct
Theshortgenerationtimesandlargepopulationsizesinmostprokaryoticspecies,coupledwiththeirabilitytoexchangegenes,helpstoincrease
geneticvariabilitybeyondwhatwewouldexpectinasexuallyreproducingorganisms.

MisconceptionQuestion135

PartA
Whichofthefollowingprocessescontributestogeneticrecombinationinprokaryotes?
ANSWER:
Mutation
Meiosis
Transduction

Correct
Intransduction,bacteriophagescarrybacterialgenesfromonehostcelltoanother,producingarecombinantbacterialgenome.Readabouttheother
processesthatcontributetogeneticrecombinationinprokaryotes.

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MakeConnections:BacterialConjugationandBinaryFissionCopy
Geneticvariationiscrucialtonaturalselectionandevolution,andthegreatsuccessofbacteriaisdue,inpart,totheextensivegeneticvariationfoundin
bacterialpopulations.Thisgeneticvariationexistsdespitethefactthatbacteriareproduceasexually.Clickonthefigureonthelefttoreviewhowbacteria
reproducethroughbinaryfission.Clickonthefigureontherighttolearnaboutconjugation,oneofseveralmechanismsthatallowsforgeneticexchangeamong
bacteria.

PartAReviewingbinaryfissioninbacteria
Thefigureshowshowbacteriareproducethroughbinaryfission.

Dragthetermsonthelefttotheappropriateblanksontherighttocompletethesentences.
ANSWER:

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Correct
Bacteriareproducethroughbinaryfission.
Duringbinaryfission,theDNAinthebacterialchromosomeisreplicated,andonecopyispassedtoeachdaughtercell.
Althoughplasmids(small,circularDNAmoleculesseparatefromthemainbacterialchromosome)arenotshowninthefigure,any
plasmidsinabacterialcellarealsoreplicatedandpassedtoeachdaughtercellduringbinaryfission.
MutationsthatariseduringDNAreplicationareonesourceofgeneticvariationinbacterialpopulations.
Therapidreproductionandlargesizesofmanybacterialpopulationscanyieldconsiderablegeneticvariationdespitealowmutationrate.

PartBHowdobinaryfissionandconjugationcontributetothespreadofantibioticresistanceinbacteria?
TheasexualreproductionofbacteriadescribedinthePartAfiguremayseemtosuggestthatallbacterialcellswithinapopulationshouldbethesame.Yet
bacterialpopulationspossessconsiderablegeneticvariation.Youhaveseenthattwosignificantsourcesofgeneticvariationinbacteriaare:
mutationsthatariseduringDNAreplication
geneticexchangeduringbacterialconjugation
Geneticvariationhasallowedmanybacteriatoevolveresistancetoantibiotics,andconjugationplaysaparticularlyimportantroleinthespreadofantibiotic
resistancefromonebacterialspeciestoanother.
LiketheFplasmid,theRplasmid(Rstandsforresistance)mayallowbacteriatoinitiateconjugation.TheRplasmidcontainsgenesforantibiotic
resistance.Duringconjugation,theRplasmidanditsantibioticresistancegenesaretransferredfromthedonorcelltotherecipientcell.
Thegraphbelowshowshowantibioticresistancecandevelopinapatientwithabacterialinfection.Noticethatthebacteriacountdropswhenantibiotic
therapyisstarted,butthenrisesagainasresistancespreadsthroughthepopulation.

Dragthelabelstotheirappropriatelocationsontheconceptmapbelowtoexplorethelinksbetweenantibioticresistance,binaryfission,and

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conjugation.
ANSWER:

Correct
Antibioticresistanceinbacterialpopulationshasfollowedcloseupontheheelsofthewidespreaduseofantibiotics.
Asantibioticresistantbacteriathriveandsensitivebacteriadie,theproportionofresistantcellsinapopulationincreasesdramatically.
Theseresistantcellscontinuetoundergobinaryfission,resultinginaninfectionthatisdifficulttotreat.
Theabilityofbacterialpopulationstoevolveresistancerequiresgeneticvariation.
Mutationisonesourceofgeneticvariation.Thelargepopulationsizesandrapidreproductionofbacterialpopulationsmeansthateven
withalowmutationrate,asignificantnumberofmutationsareseeninbacterialpopulations.Someofthesemutationscontributeto
antibioticresistance.
Processessuchasconjugationallowforgenestobeexchangedamongbacteria.Becauseconjugationcanoccurbetweenbacterialcells
ofthesamespeciesorofdifferentspecies,antibioticresistancesometimesspreadssurprisinglyeasilyfromonespeciesofbacteriato
another.
AsingleRplasmidmayhavegenesthatprovideresistancetotenormoredifferentantibiotics.Thisisespeciallyproblematicwhen
bacteriathatareserioushealththreatsbecomeresistanttomultipleantibiotics.Forexample,methicillinresistantStaphylococcusaureus
(MRSA)infectionsarecausedbybacteriathathaveevolvedresistancetomostoftheantibioticsthatwereonceusedtotreatstaph
infections.MRSAisbecomingincreasinglydifficulttotreat.

DiversityinBacteriaCopy
Bacteriaareextremelydiverseinstructureandinhowtheyobtainenergyandnutrients.Thisdiversityenablesbacteriatoliveinawidevarietyofenvironments.

PartAGramstaining
Classifyeachstatementorpictureasapplyingtogrampositivebacteria,gramnegativebacteria,orboth.TheGramstainingprocedureusesacrystal
violetdye.
Drageachitemtotheappropriatebin.

Hint1.Gramstaining
UsingamethodcalledGramstaining,scientistsclassifybacteriaintotwocategories:grampositivebacteriaandgramnegativebacteria.Gram
staininghasthreesteps:
1. Stainwithcrystalvioletdyeandiodine.
2. Rinseinalcohol.
3. Stainwithareddye,suchassafranin.

Hint2.HowthepeptidoglycanlayeraffectsGramstaining
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Gramstainingreliesondifferencesinthemakeupofouterstructuresinbacteria.
Inbacteriathathaveathickpeptidoglycanlayer,thepeptidoglycantrapsthecrystalvioletdyeinthecytoplasmofthebacteria.The
crystalvioletcannotberinsedawaywithalcoholandmasksthereddyethatisaddedlater.Therefore,thesebacteriaappearpurple.
Inbacteriathathaveathinpeptidoglycanlayer,thecrystalvioletdyeiseasilyrinsedawaywithalcohol,allowingtheaddedreddyeto
stainthebacteriaredorpink.

Hint3.Whataretheouterstructuresofgrampositiveandgramnegativebacteria?
Labeltheouterstructuresofgrampositiveandgramnegativebacteriainthediagrambelow.
Dragthelabelstotheirappropriatelocationsonthediagram.Labelscanbeusedonce,morethanonce,ornotatall.
ANSWER:

ANSWER:

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Correct
Gramstainingisatechniqueforclassifyingbacteriabasedondifferencesinthestructureoftheircellwalls.Gramnegativebacteriaandgrampositive
bacteriabothhaveaplasmamembranesurroundedbyacellwallthatcontainspeptidoglycan.However,thecellwallofgramnegativebacteriais
composedofathinlayerofpeptidoglycanandanoutermembrane,whereasthecellwallofgrampositivebacteriaiscomposedofathicklayerof
peptidoglycan.Gramnegativebacteriaappearredorpinkbecausethealcoholrinsewashesawaythecrystalvioletdye.Grampositivebacteria
appearpurplebecausethealcoholrinsedoesnotwashawaythecrystalvioletdye.

PartBNutritionalmodesofbacteria
Labelthediagrambelowtoshowtherelationshipbetweennutritionalmodesofbacteria.
Dragthelabelstotheirappropriatelocationsonthediagram.

Hint1.Canyoudefinethetermsrelatingtonutritionalmodesofbacteria?
Dragthetermsonthelefttotheappropriateblanksontherighttocompletethesentences.
ANSWER:

Hint2.Whatistherelationshipbetweennutritionalmodesinbacteria?
Identifythetruestatementsaboutthenutritionalmodesinbacteria.
Selectallthatapply.
ANSWER:
Allphototrophsareheterotrophs.
Heterotrophsmaybechemotrophsorphototrophs.
Autotrophsmaybechemotrophsorphototrophs.
Allautotrophsarechemotrophs.
Phototrophsmaybeautotrophsorheterotrophs.
Chemotrophsmaybeautotrophsorheterotrophs.
Allchemotrophsareautotrophs.
Allheterotrophsarephototrophs.

ANSWER:

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Correct
Somebacteriaobtainenergyfromlight(phototrophs),whereasotherbacteriaobtainenergyfromchemicals(chemotrophs).Autotrophs(literally"self
feeders")requireonlyaninorganicsubstance,suchascarbondioxide,astheircarbonsourceheterotrophs(literally"otherfeeders")requireatleast
oneorganicnutrientastheircarbonsource.

PartCCharacteristicsofAzotobacter
Azotobacterisagenusofbacteriathatliveinsoilandhavethefollowingcharacteristics:
Theyarebacilli.
Theyaregramnegative.
Theyareobligateaerobes.
Theycanfixnitrogen.(Unlikesomeothernitrogenfixingbacteria,whichassociatewiththerootsofplants,Azotobacterspeciesarefree
living.)

SelectthefourstatementsthataretrueforbacteriainthegenusAzotobacter.

Hint1.Gramstaining
UsingGramstaining,scientistsclassifybacteriaintotwocategories:grampositivebacteriaandgramnegativebacteria.Thecellwallofgram
positivebacteriacontainsathicklayerofpeptidoglycan,whichretainsthecrystalvioletdyeusedinthefirststepofGramstaining.Thecellwallof
gramnegativebacteriacontainsathinlayerofpeptidoglycan,whichallowsthecrystalviolettobewashedaway,revealingthereddyeusedinthe
thirdstepofGramstaining.

Hint2.Shapesofbacteria
Bacteriamaybespherical(cocci),rodshaped(bacilli),orspiral.Coccimayoccursingly,inpairs,inchains,orinclusters.Bacilligenerallyoccur
singlybutmayalsobefoundaschains.Spiralbacteriacantaketheformoflongcoils,commas,orcorkscrews.

Hint3.Canyoudefinethetermsrelatingtotheroleofoxygeninmetabolism?
Dragthetermsonthelefttotheappropriateblanksontherighttocompletethesentences.Notalltermswillbeused.
ANSWER:

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Hint4.Nitrogenfixation
Inaprocesscallednitrogenfixation,somebacteriacanconvertatmosphericnitrogen(N2)toammonia(NH3).Bacteriacapableofthisprocesscan
thenincorporatethe"fixed"nitrogenintoaminoacidsandotherorganicmolecules.
ANSWER:
TheycancarryoutanaerobicrespirationinanenvironmentthatlacksO2.
Theyareshapedlikerods.
Theyhavetheappearanceofcoilsorcorkscrews.
TheyuseO2.
TheyappearpurpleafterGramstaining.
Theyhavearelativelythinlayerofpeptidoglycanintheircellwall.
Theycanconvertatmosphericnitrogentoammonia.
Theyrequireaminoacidsorotherorganicmoleculesasasourceofnitrogen.
TheyarepoisonedbyO2.

Correct
Azotobacterisagenusofrodshapedbacteria(bacilli).AfterGramstaining,bacteriainthisgenusappearpinkduetothethinpeptidoglycanlayerin
theircellwall.Theyrequireoxygenforcellularrespirationandcanconvertatmosphericnitrogentoammonia,whichtheyincorporateintoaminoacids
andotherorganicmolecules

Chapter27Question22

PartA
Matchthenumberedtermstothedescriptionthatfollows.Chooseallappropriateterms.
1.autotroph
2.heterotroph
3.phototroph
4.chemotroph
aprokaryotethatobtainsbothenergyandcarbonasitdecomposesdeadorganisms
ANSWER:

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2and4
4only
1only
1and3
1,3,and4

Correct

Chapter27Question4

PartA
Thepredatorybacterium,Bdellovibriobacteriophorus,drillsintoapreybacteriumand,onceinside,digestsit.Inanattackuponagramnegativebacterium
thathasaslimycellcovering,whatisthecorrectsequenceofstructurespenetratedbyB.bacteriophorusonitswaytotheprey'scytoplasm?
1.membranecomposedmostlyoflipopolysaccharide
2.membranecomposedmostlyofphospholipids
3.peptidoglycan
4.capsule
ANSWER:
4,3,1,2
1,3,4,2
4,2,3,1
2,4,3,1
1,4,3,2
4,1,3,2

Correct

Chapter27Question34

PartA
Thetermitegutprotist,Mixotrichaparadoxa,hasatleasttwokindsofbacteriaattachedtoitsoutersurface.Onekindisaspirochetethatpropelsitshost
throughthetermitegut.AsecondtypeofbacteriasynthesizesATP,someofwhichisusedbythespirochetes.Thelocomotionprovidedbythespirochetes
introducestheATPproducingbacteriatonewfoodsources.Whichterm(s)is(are)applicabletotherelationshipbetweenthetwokindsofbacteria?
1.mutualism
2.parasitism
3.symbiosis
4.metaboliccooperation
ANSWER:
2,3,and4
1only
2and3
1,3,and4
1and2

Correct

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Chapter27PreTestQuestion5
PartA
Whichstatementistrueaboutobligateanaerobes?

Hint1.
Thinkaboutittheyareobligatedtobeanaerobic.
ANSWER:
TheywilluseO2ifitispresent,butcanobtainenergybyfermentationifneeded.
Theyobtainenergybyoxidizingferrousions.
TheyuseO2forcellularrespirationandcannotgrowwithoutit.
Theyliveexclusivelybycellularrespirationorbyanaerobicrespiration.
TheyarepoisonedbyO2.

Correct
Someobligateanaerobesliveexclusivelybyfermentationothersextractchemicalenergybyanaerobicrespiration,inwhichsubstancesotherthanO2
acceptelectronsatthe"downhill"endofelectrontransportchains.

Chapter27PreTestQuestion10
PartA
Bioremediationis_____.

Hint1.
Whichofourmistakesarewetryingtoremedyusingbioremediation?
ANSWER:
theuseofbiologicalprocessestoremedydiseases
themodificationofprokaryotesforindustrialpurposes
theuseofprokaryotesinproducingtransgenicorganisms
theuseoforganismstoremovepollutantsfromtheenvironment
theuseofprokaryotesinproducingpharmaceuticalproducts

Correct
Thisisthegeneraluseofthetermbioremediation.

Chapter27PreTestQuestion4
PartA
Bacteriathatlivearounddeepsea,hotwaterventsobtainenergybyoxidizinginorganichydrogensulfidebelchedoutbythevents.Theyusethisenergyto
buildorganicmoleculesfromcarbonobtainedfromthecarbondioxideinseawater.Thesebacteriaare_____.

Hint1.
Considerthesourceofenergyfortheconstructionoforganiccompounds.

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ANSWER:
photoautotrophs
chemoautotrophs
photoheterotrophs
chemoheterotrophs

Correct
Theyuseinorganicmolecules(inredoxreactions)forenergy,andcarbondioxideforcarbon.

ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis102%.
Youreceived5.88outofapossibletotalof5.75points.

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