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Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

CHAPTER 4
Preventing Injuries Through Fitness
Training
OVERVIEW
The prevention of athletic injuries is a primary goal of all individuals working with
athletes. Great strides toward this goal can be made by having all athletes
participate in a total conditioning program that includes training for strength, power,
muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility.
Proper training produces specific and identifiable physiological effects such as an
increase in muscle girth and density, an increase in cardiac output, and an increase
in the athlete's vital capacity. Decreases are seen in the athlete's heart rate and in
his/her percentage of adipose tissue. All of these changes resulting from training
contribute to an overall improvement of the athlete's performance and decrease the
incidence of serious injury.
A well organized and scientifically sound conditioning program should be
developed to aid the athlete in attaining optimal performance levels, using a variety
of strength training methods and a variety of equipment.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After studying Chapter 4, the student will be able to:


Identify the various training seasons and explain the different phases present in
each season. Students should also identify the type of training activities that
takes place in each training season.
Identify and explain the principles of conditioning.
Explain the SAID principle and its relationship to conditioning.
Explain the importance of a proper warm-up and cool-down.
Explain the difference between muscular strength, muscular endurance, and
muscular power.
Describe the different types of skeletal muscle contractions (isometric,
concentric, eccentric).
Identify different techniques for increasing muscular strength including
isometrics, isotonics, isokinetics, circuit training, plyometrics and calisthenic
exercises.
Explain functional strength training and give examples of exercises.
Define the core and give examples of various exercises that are classified as
core.
Explain the difference between dynamic, static, and PNF stretching techniques.
Identify the guidelines and precautions for stretching.
Explain the difference between continuous, interval, and Fartlek training.
Explain how to determine exercise intensity by monitoring heart rate.

KEY TERMINOLOGY
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Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

Active range of motion Portion of the total range of motion through which a
joint can be moved by an active muscle contraction
Aerobic An activity that requires oxygen
Agonist The muscle that is contracting to produce movement
Antagonist The muscle that is being stretched when the agonist contacts
Anaerobic An activity that does not require oxygen
Atrophy A decrease in the size of a muscle
Ballistic stretch Exercise in which body momentum is used to force muscle
groups into as much extensibility as can be tolerated. This may also induce
muscle tears as a result of misjudging the stretch tolerance of the body tissues
or failing to control the force of the body momentum.
Cardiorespiratory endurance The ability to perform whole-body large muscle
activities for extended periods of time
Circuit training Involves the use of a series of exercise stations that consist of
various combinations of weight training, flexibility, calisthenics, and brief aerobic
exercises
Closed kinetic chain exercises Exercises in which the foot or hand is in a weight
bearing position on the ground or some other object
Concentric contraction (Positive resistance) A muscle contraction in which the
muscle is shortened during contraction
Core Made up of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex where the center of gravity is
located and all movement begins.
Eccentric contraction (Negative resistance) The muscle lengthens during a
contraction
Endurance The ability of the body to undergo prolonged activity
Fartlek training Means speed play and involves running for a specific period
of time without specific criteria placed on pace and speed
Flexibility The range of motion (ROM) of a specific joint influenced by bony
structures and the physiological characteristics of muscles, tendons, ligaments,
and other collagenous tissues around the joint
Functional Strength Training The use of integrated exercises to improve
functional movement patterns in terms of both increased strength, as well as
improved neuromuscular control and core stabilization.
Hypertrophy An increase in muscle size
Interval training Involves alternating periods of relatively intense work and
active recovery
Isokinetic contraction A muscle contraction in which the length of the muscle is
changing while the contraction is performed at a constant velocity
Isometric contraction A muscle contraction that generates energy (in the form
of heat) with no change in length of the muscle or in the angle of the joint at
which the contraction takes place. A "static contraction"
Isotonic contraction A "dynamic contraction" that either involves a shortening
(concentric) or a lengthening (eccentric) of the muscle through a complete range
of motion
Muscular endurance The ability to perform repetitive muscular contractions
against some resistance
Muscular strength The ability of a muscle to generate force
Muscular power The ability to generate force rapidly
Open kinetic chain exercise The foot or hand is not in contact with the ground
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2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

or other object while performing exercises


Overload principle Training is performed with a progressively increased load or
resistance at a near-maximal rate
Passive range of motion Portion of the total range of motion through which a
joint can be moved without a muscle contraction
Periodization Conditioning principle that allows athletes to train year round
with less risk of injury
Plyometric exercise A type of exercise that produces an isometric-type
overload using the stretch reflex
Progressive resistance exercises Isotonic exercises that involve strengthening
the muscles through a contraction that overcomes some fixed resistance
produced by equipment such as dumbbells, barbells, tubing, and various weight
machines
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) A type of stretch involving
alternating contractions and stretches
SAID principle Specific adaptation to imposed demands. The body will adapt
over time to the demands that are placed on it.
Slow-twitch oxidative (SO) fibers Fibers that are aerobic in nature and are
present in greater numbers in endurance-sport athletes
Static stretch A position of extreme stretch on a given muscle group is
assumed and held for a period of time

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. Why is year-round conditioning so important for injury prevention?
2. Conference and federation restrictions often hamper or prohibit organized
preseason training, especially in football. What effect does this have on the
athlete's preseason physical fitness?
3. What physiological changes occur in the body during the warm-up period? How
does general warm-up differ from specific event warm-up?
4. How do extreme weather conditions affect the warm-up and cool-down?
5. Why is a cool down just as important as warm up?
6. Why is the static stretch and PNF stretch method better than dynamic
stretching? What implications might this have for the popular aerobic exercise
programs and recreational fitness programs?
7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each strength training method?

CLASS ACTIVITIES
1. It would be worth the trip to visit a large weight training facility if you do not
have one at your school. An instructor from the facility could show proper lifting
techniques using free weights and the separate stations. This could be
particularly helpful if your school does not offer weight training or conditioning
classes.
2. Often students try to lift more weight than they are capable of simply because
they want to impress their peers or coaches. As a result, they may use poor
lifting technique and become injured. Have each student take one weight
training machine or single station and develop do's and don'ts for using this
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manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

station properly so as to avoid injury. When completed, these rules may be


posted close to the machine or station.
3. Have each student select his/her favorite sport and construct a preseason weight
training program using the numerous devices available today to improve
strength, power, muscular endurance, and cardiovascular endurance specific to
their sport. You may also want them to construct a program where the student
will not have access to any of the familiar machines that we have grown
accustomed to using. See how creative they can be.

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2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

WORKSHEET ANSWERS
Matching
1.
2.
3.
4.

k
c
n
m

5.
6.
7.
8.

i
o
d
a

9. b
10. g
11. e

12.
13.
14.
15.

f
h
l
j

Short Answer
16.Specific adaptations to imposed demands. The SAID principle states that when
the body is subjected to stresses and overloads of varying intensities, it will
gradually adapt over time to overcome whatever demands are placed on it and
in doing so minimize the potential of injury.
17.Muscular strength is the maximum force that can be applied by a muscle during
a single maximum contraction, and muscular power is the ability of the muscle
to generate force quickly.
18.Increases the body temperature, stretches ligaments and muscles, increases
flexibility.
19.Isometric contraction involves a contraction of the muscle to produce tension
without a change in muscle length. Hand dynamometer, pushing against an
immovable object.
20.Isotonic contraction involves concentric and eccentric contractions. Concentric
involves a shortening of the muscle to overcome some resistance and an
eccentric contraction involves a lengthening of the muscle while tension is
produced. Free weights, Universal gym, etc.
21.Isokinetic contraction involves a muscle contraction in which the length of the
muscle is changing while a constant velocity is maintained.
22.Continuous training, interval training, and Fartlek training
23.Flexibility can increase the range of motion at a joint or a group of joints and as
such, tends to decrease injuries to those joints. In most instances the increase in
flexibility can also contribute to better athletic performance.
24.Dynamic stretching involves repetitive bouncing movements at or near end
range of motion, and static stretching involves holding the position of stretch at
or near the end range of motion for a period of time.
25.60-85% of maximum
26. Functional strength training is the use of integrated exercises to improve
functional movement patterns in terms of both strength and improved
neuromuscular control and core stabilization. Rotation with a medicine ball in
diagonal patterns, and lunge patterns in the transverse plane.
Listing
27.Amount of weight to be used (resistance)
28.Number of reps
29.Number of sets
30.Duration of recovery period
31.Frequency of training
32.Slow-reversal-hold-relax
33.Contract-relax
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Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

34.Hold-relax
35. Bridge
36. Physioball hip extensions
37. Sidelying hip ups
38. Deadbug exercise
Essay
39-46.

Off-Season
Transition period (unstructured recreational activities, cross training,
recovery)
Preparatory period
Hypertrophy/endurance phase (low intensity, high volume, non-sport
specific)
Strength phase (Moderate intensity, moderate volume, more sport specific)
Preseason
Power phase (High intensity, decreased volume, sport specific)
In-Season
Competition phase (High intensity, low volume, skill training,
maintenance of strength
and power gained during previous seasons)

47-50. Open kinetic chain exercise is one in which the hand or foot is not in contact
with the floor or any other object, and closed kinetic chain exercises involve
contact with an object by the hand or foot. Closed kinetic chain exercises for the
upper extremity include pushups, handstands, press-ups, physioball walkouts
etc., for the lower extremity include squats, step ups, step backs, and balance
activities.

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manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

NAME ______________________________
SECTION__________

CHAPTER 4 WORKSHEET
Preventing Injuries through Fitness Training
MATCHING: Match each item with the appropriate response.
______ 1. Dynamic stretch
______ 2. Anaerobic
activities
______ 3. Aerobic activities
______ 4. Isometric
contraction
______ 5. Flexibility
______ 6.
Core
______ 7. Antagonist
______ 8. Overload
______ 9. Agonist
______ 10. Muscular strength
______ 11. Muscular
endurance
______ 12. Hypertrophy
______ 13. Fartlek training
______ 14. Interval training
______ 15. Atrophy

a. Muscles adapt to imposed demands


b. A muscle that contracts to produce
movement
c. Weight lifting and sprinting
d. A muscle that is stretched in response to a
contraction
e. Ability to perform repetitive muscular
contractions over time.
f. An increase in muscle size
g. Max force applied by a muscle during 1 Rep
max
h. Speed play
i. Range of motion possible about a given joint
j. A decrease in muscle size
k. Technique that uses repetitive bouncing
motions
l. Alternating periods of work with active
recovery
m.
Muscle contracts statically without
changing length
n. Running a 3K or 5K race
o. Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex

SHORT ANSWER: Answer the following questions with a short response.


16.Briefly explain the SAID principle.
17.What is the difference between muscular strength and muscular power?
18.What are two purposes of the warm-up period?
a.
b.
19.Define an isometric contraction and identify an isometric resistance device.
20.Define an isotonic contraction and identify an isotonic resistance device.

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2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

21.Define an isokinetic contraction and identify an isokinetic resistance device.

22.What advanced training methods can be used to improve cardiovascular fitness?


23.Why is flexibility important?
24.What is the difference between dynamic and static stretching?
25. ACSM recommends that young healthy individuals train at what target heart
rate?
26. What is functional strength training? Give two examples of exercises.
LISTING:
List the variables that should be included in a progressive resistance exercise
program.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
List and describe three of the PNF stretching techniques.
32.
33.
34.
List 4 core exercises
35.
36.
37.
38.
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manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Chapter 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training

ESSAY
39-46. Describe the periodization training seasons. Please include the phases within
each season and the type of training that occurs in each.
47-50. Describe the difference between open and closed kinetic chain exercise. Give
an example of a closed kinetic chain exercise for both the upper and lower
extremity.

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2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.