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How To Use HTRI For Shell & Tube Exchanger Design

Frank Shan
May 18, 2005

What Can HTRI Do
General Procedures
Example: Liquid-Liquid Exchanger Design
Result Evaluation

What Can HTRI Do?

Air Cooler

HTRI - Heat Transfer Research Inc.

Fire Heater


S&T Exchanger

HTRI Xchanger Suite

Jacket Pipe Plate-Frame

Exchanger Exchanger

Tube Layout


General Procedure

Data Sheet

Case Mode
Rating, Simulation, Design

Shell & Tube Geometry

Process Inlet/Outlet
Fluid (Cold/Hot) Properties

Result Analysis


Other Input

Liquid-Liquid S&T
Standard Data Sheet

1. Create an empty case: select File > New Shell and Tube Exchanger

1.1 Xist Main Window

Click for help

Input is
in red

Navigation Tree
Click + to expand

2. Setting Unit: select Edit > Data Units, or click button

3. Select Case Mode

Rating (Default)
You define exchanger geometry and enough process
conditions for Xist to calculate the required heat duty.
You define exchanger geometry and fewer process
conditions for Xist to calculate the required heat duty.
You define most exchanger geometry and enough
process conditions for Xist to calculate the required
heat duty.

4. Input Shell Side Geometry

HTRI allows shell diameter up to 1000 in

Shell and Tube


Shell Selection
depends on
available P, the
E-type is the least
expensive shell.

(Courtesy of TEMA)

Shell and Tube


(Courtesy of GPSA)

5. Input Tube Side Geometry

Tube Geometry

Tube Dia.:

3/4 ~ 1 in are more compact and more economical.

1 inch tube are normally used when fouling is
expected, or low P is required.

Tube Length: In general, the greater the ratio of tube length to

shell diameter, the more economical the exchanger.
Practically, 16 ft or 20 ft facilitate reasonable plot
space and maintenance for horizontal exchanger.
Tube Pitch Ratio: 1.25, 1.333 are most common
For kettle reboiler operating at low pressure,
1.5 pitch ratio has been proved effective

Tube layout

A 30-degree layout (default) is most common. Triangular

tube-layouts result in better shellside coefficients and
provide more surface area in a given shell diameter,
whereas square pitch or rotated-square pitch layout are
used when mechanical cleaning of tube outside is required

6. Input Baffles Geometry

Baffle Type

Cut range: 1 49%

Cut range: 5 30%

For TEMA E Shell,
No.Crosspass = No.Baffle+1

Double-segmental Baffle

Cut range: 5 30%

Baffle cut (100*h/D): 17% to 35% of shell diameter
A 22% cut is the optimum (HTRI)
Baffle spacing:

20% to 100% of shell diameter

(HTRI recommends 40% of shell dia. as start point)

7. Input Shellside Nozzle Location

8. Input Optional Data

DT: only for printout

DP: to calculate tubesheet
thickness & bundle-to-shell
clearance for pull-through
floating head bundle

9. Input Process Data

10. Input Hot Fluid Properties. 10.1 Select Physical Property Input Method

The component-by-component option is recommended

for single-phase-only fluids for which the variation in fluid
properties is not large.

10.2 Use User Define Properties

10.3 Input Liquid Properties

11. Input Cold Fluid Properties. (Same Procedure as Hot Fluid)

Alternate Input Methods

(Process condition & properties)

Import Case: (need simulator installed)

File>Import Case>change file type
>select simulation file>select exchanger>
generate properties

Property Generator...
Hot/Cold Fluid Properties>Property Generator>select Property package HYSYS
>simulation file>select exchanger>select fluid>generate properties

HTRIFileGen - developed by Hyprotech to transfer data from simulation

HYSYS extension allow you to develop and run the process simulator while using
the HTRI proprietary methods.

12. Run Case

File>Run Case

incomplete input

Result Drawing

13. Analyze Final Results

Consider the following, and think of the possibility of a better
Program message

Overdesign factor

Main design dimensions


Heat transfer coefficients

Distribution of thermal

Flow regime distribution

Terminal process

Baffle design

EMTD and temp profile

Vibration analysis

13.1 Program Messages

Fatal: Problems lead to incorrect results

Warning: Unusual, limiting need your attention
Informative: Unusual data

13.2 Velocity:

High enough to suppress fouling

Low enough to prevent erosion
higher velocity gives better heat transfer and suppresses fouling,
thus provides a longer run length. But too high a velocity will
cause tube erosion, and/or vibration.
For heavy oil services, consider 4 feet per second on the
tubeside as the design number. Faster is better until you
reach 10-12 fps for water or (density) x velocity^2 of 10,000 to
12,000 (English units).
Shellside velocities are more difficult but anything less than 3
fps will definitely foul when in heavy oil service.
(Advised by Tom Kemp)

13.3 Thermal Resistances

Check thermal resistances for shellside, tubeside, fouling, and tube metal.
Check dominant value.
Shellside Heat Transfer Limited



Watch For

Change shell type


Increase shellside velocity,

MDMT, and heat transfer

Design requirement

Reduce tube pitch

Increase shellside velocity

Bypassing and

Decrease tube dia.

Slight increase in heat

transfer coefficient

Tubeside P

Consider finned

Smaller exchanger

Use sealing strips

Reduce E stream with

decreased baffle-to-shell

Tubeside Heat Transfer Limited



Change tube length

Improve tubeside

Decrease tube dia.

Increase tubeside h, velocity

at given shell size

Switch tube/shell

More efficient design

Increase tube pitch

Increase tubeside velocity at

given shell size because of
fewer tubes

Watch For

Increased tubeside

13.4 Overdesign Factor

Overdesign = (Qcalc Qreqd) / Qreqd x 100
= (Ucalc Ureqd) / Ureqd x 100

13.5 Shellside Flow Distribution

B stream:
C and F stream:

normally at least 60% of total flow for turbulent flow and

40% for laminar flow
Normally should not exceed 10%

13.6 Pressure Drop

It is highly undesirable if the exchanger is limited by P, exchangers are larger than
necessary to accommodate allowable P rather than to satisfy heat transfer demands.
For critical exchangers (condenser, reboiler), try to meet the required P.
For heavy streams, no fouling is the first concern over P.
Shellside P Limited


Watch For

Change shell type

P reduced greatly (TEMA E

to J decrease by up to
factor of 8)

Investigate multisegmental bundles

Double-segmental baffle P
reduced to about 1/3 of that
for segmental baffle with
same central spacing

Tube vibration is

Investigate NTIW

P reduced to 1/4 if window

area large enough

Extreme caution:
inefficient heat
transfer may result

Increase baffle cut

P reduced by large cut

Increase nozzle sizes

P reduced

Tubeside P Limited


Increase tube dia.

P reduced sharply,

Decrease tube pitch

Larger tubeside flow area

(more tubes fit into shell)

Check singletubepass design

P is 1/8 of that of 2tubepass design

Decrease tube

P reduced sharply

Increase nozzle

P reduced

Watch For

Reduces heat transfer

surface and shellside
flow area.

14. Finishing

Re-adjust the parameters if necessary

Re-run the case

Not satisfied




Thanks !