Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

1 The characteristics of living things

Answers to
Cambridge Checkpoint Science
Workbook I
You may award one mark for each answer or part of an answer.

1 The characteristics of living things


Living and never lived
1 a) Never lived; it has come out of the Earth.
b) Once alive; it is the skin of an animal.
c) Living; it shows all the characteristics of life.
d) Once alive; it is formed from wood that is produced by trees.

Signs of life
2 a) 3
b) Feeding rabbit is eating grass; sensitivity ears face a sound and the rabbit stops eating;
movement the rabbit hops away.

Animal life
3 a) Examples could include a crab or lobster.
b) Shed it (moult).
c) It is softer.
d) It takes in water to stretch it.
e) Gills.

Plant life
4 a) Reproduction.
b) Movement and growth.
c) Light, carbon dioxide, water, small amounts of chemicals in the soil.

Eating and feeding


5 a) Use the same mass of clay for each tooth; drop them from the same height.
b) Examples could include a cat or dog.
c) Examples could include a rabbit or sheep.

Respiration
6 glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 1

09/11/12 9:43 AM

2 Major organ systems

Movement
7 a) Muscles.
b) To find food, avoid enemies, find shelter.
c) Pump blood around the body.
d) Churn up food to help it digest.

Irritability
8 Skin touch; eyes sight; ears hearing; nose smell; tongue taste.

Growth and reproduction


9 a) Abena.
b) Chipo.
c) 85cm.
d) Abena 48cm, Bisa 45cm, Chipo 50cm, Doli 45cm.
e) Abena 5cm, Bisa 5cm, Chipo 3cm, Doli 5cm.
f) The elephants grow most in their early years and their growth slows down as they get older and
almost stops by 20 years of age.
g) About 207cm.

Excretion
10 a) Urine, sweat, air we breathe out.
b) inhaled air
breathe
passes through
this tube

in and out
gently here

exhaled air
passes through
this tube

limewater

c) Limewater.
d) Limewater changes from clear to cloudy or milky.
e) Respiration.

2 Major organ systems


Organs of a flowering plant
1 a) Take up water and minerals; hold the plant in the ground.
b) Transport food and water to all parts of the plant; support other parts of the plant.
2

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 2

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:43 AM

2 Major organ systems

c) Make food.
d) The flower.
e) The stem.
f) Help grip other supports to hold up a weak stem.

Organ systems of a human


2 In any order.
a) heart circulatory system.
b) lungs respiratory system.

Skeleton and movement


3 ligament fibres hold bones together; cartilage hard slippery surface lets bones move easily and
reduces wear; synovial fluid liquid lubricant reduces friction.
4 The action of one muscle produces an opposite effect to the other muscle and causes movement in the
opposite direction.

Circulatory system
5 a) 3, 1, 4, 2
b) A throbbing sensation or artery.

Respiratory system
6 a)

b)

Age in years

Breaths per minute

0
3
6
18
24

30
25
20
15
15

30

Breaths per minute

25
20
15
10
5
0

12
Age/years

15

18

21

24

c) 17.7 breaths per minute.


d) 15 breaths per minute, when he was 18.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 3

09/11/12 9:43 AM

3 Cells

Digestive system
7 a) Salivary gland, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.
b) Abdomen.
c) Stomach.

Nervous system
8 a) Brain.
b) Spinal cord.
c) Electrical.

Excretory system
9 a)
kidney

ureter

bladder

b) Either or both kidneys.


c) Urea.

Sensory system
10 a) Nose, ear, skin, eyes.
b) To provide information about your surroundings.

Endocrine system
11 a) Glands.
b) Insulin.
c) Diabetes.
d) By taking extra insulin into the body.

3 Cells
The microscope
1 a) A sunless part of the sky.
b) Directly from the Sun.
c) The lowest power objective lens.
4

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 4

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:43 AM

3 Cells

d) Stage clips.
e) Is in the centre of the hole on the stage.
f) Moves away from the specimen on the slide.
2 Numbers 4, 5, 2, 1, 3.

Looking at cells
3 a)
cell wall
cell membrane
vacuole
chloroplast
cytoplasm

nucleus

b) Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane.


4 a) DNA.
b) In the nucleus.
c) Genetic material.
d) It gives an organism its features.
5 a)
Time in hours

Number of cells

0
1
2
3
4

8
16
32
64
128

b) The number of cells doubles every hour.


c) 256

Adaptations in cells
6 a)


nucleus

phagocyte
Red blood cell

b) Red blood cell.


c) Carries oxygen around the body.
d) Eats harmful microorganisms.
Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 5

09/11/12 9:43 AM

4 Microorganisms

7 a) Smooth muscle cells.


b) In the walls of the oesophagus, stomach or intestines.
c) Nerve cells.
d) Any one from: nerves, spinal cord, brain.
8 a) In the throat lining.
b) Cilia.
c) Wave to and fro and carry dust trapped in mucus away from the lungs.
9 a) On the surface of a plant root.
b) Takes up water from the soil.

Cells, tissues, organs and organisms


10 A group of the same kind of cells that do a special task.
11 a) An organ system is a group of organs that perform a vital task in the survival of the body.
b) An organism is formed from all the organs and organs systems that make up a body.

4 Microorganisms
The fungi kingdom
1 Heat, cold and dry conditions.
2 D, B, C, A
3 a)

50
45
40

Height of froth/mm

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 6

10

20
30
40
Temperature of sample/C

50

60

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:43 AM

5 Living things in their environment

b) Used the same amount of yeast, sugar and water to make each sample.
c) Carbon dioxide.
d) Respiration.
e) The sample at 0C was still alive at that temperature and started respiring when the temperature
rose. The sample at 50C had been killed at that temperature and so could not respire at a lower
temperature.

The Monera kingdom


4 Spherical, spiral or rod-like.
5 a) Any two from: diphtheria, whooping cough, cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis, food poisoning.
b) Examples could include yoghurt or cheese.

The Protoctista kingdom


6 a) They make their own food by photosynthesis like plants.
b) They feed as animals do.
7 Any two from: malaria, sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery.

Viruses
8 Virus sticks to cell 1; virus enters cell 2; protein coat breaks down 3; DNA released 4; DNA
reproduces 5; protein coat forms around DNA 6; cell wall breaks down 7.
9 Any two from: the common cold, influenza, chicken pox, measles, rabies, AIDS.

Decomposer
10 a) Bacteria and fungi.
b) Minerals.
c) The plants take up minerals in the soil water and use them to grow.

5 Living things in their environment


Ecology
1
Factor

Abiotic

temperature
animals eating leaves
trees making shade
wind speed
rainfall
birds using leaves for nesting materials
humans walking through the habitat

Biotic

2 A community of living things and the abiotic factors.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 7

09/11/12 9:43 AM

5 Living things in their environment

Food chains
3 a) Plant snail shrew hawk.
b) The plant.
c) An animal that eats only plants.
d) The snail.
e) No. An omnivore is an animal that eats both plants and animals. The food chain only shows the
animals to be either herbivores or carnivores.

Biodiversity
4 a) The number of individuals of the species of moth in the habitat.
b) Checking the level of the population by comparing the numbers he has counted at the site.
5 a)

wood cover

pebbles

yoghurt pot
ground

leaves and soil

Number of individuals

b) The cover.
c) The smooth walls of the yoghurt pot do not let them climb out.
d) The beetle and centipede have fallen into the trap and the centipede has eaten the beetle.
e)
30
20
10

ts
an

rs
id
e
sp

les
et
be

s
ail
sn

slu

gs

Species

6 a) Rock pool 1.
b) (i) It goes down.
(ii) It goes up.
c) (i) Mussels.
(ii) The numbers are greatly reduced where starfish are found. The numbers of the other animals do
not change.
d) (i) They cannot survive the drier conditions.
(ii) They have eaten all the mussels.
e) Quadrat.

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 8

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:43 AM

6 People and the planet

Adaptations
7 a) (i) A and B
(ii) A and D
(iii) B and C
b) B
c) D
d) C
8 Darkness.
9 Aestivation is when animals rest (sleep) for a time in a hot dry season. Hibernation is when animals rest
(sleep) for a time in cold winter conditions.
10 a) Eggs larva pupa adult in a circle.
b) X marked at egg and pupa.
11 a) Any two from: storing water, thick waxy covering to prevent water loss, spikes to prevent animals
biting in for a drink, long roots to find water.
b) Any three from: can drink large amounts of water, thick foot pads for heat insulation, webbed feet to
stop sinking in sand, holds body on long legs above hot desert surface, can shut nostrils to keep out
sand, long eyelashes keep sand from eye, third eyelid for wiping away sand, strong teeth for grinding
tough desert plants, fat in hump is an energy store.
12 It traps a bubble of air under its wings.
13 a) (i) Strong for grinding up plants.
(ii) On the side of the head to see all around.
(iii) Large to catch sounds and movable to detect sounds from all directions.
b) (i) Conical shape for stabbing.
(ii) Facing forwards so they overlap and allow distances to be judged.

6 People and the planet


Early times to People today
1 Hunter gathering 1; farming 2; invention of water mill 3; invention of windmill 4; invention of
steam engine 5; invention of electrical generator 6.
2 a) Any two from: coal, oil, gas, nuclear fuel.
b) Any two from: wind, water, geothermal, solar energy, biofuels.
3 a) Petrol, diesel, kerosene.
b) Carbon dioxide.

Changes in the environment


4 a) The ground surface is ripped up.
b) Coal, metal ores.
5 Examples could include break in an oil pipe, oil spillage from a tanker that has run aground.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 9

09/11/12 9:43 AM

7 Classification and variation

6 a) It absorbs heat radiated from the Earth.


b) Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas produced when fuels are burnt in transport, in factory work and
in many power stations.
7 a) Oxygen.
b) It screens out harmful rays from the Sun.
c) Over the North and South Poles.
d) CFCs in fridges, air conditioning and aerosol sprays.
e) The governments in 196 countries have agreed to reduce their use.

Time to save the planet?


8 a) (i) Glass.
(ii) Plastic.
(iii) Metal.
(iv) Cardboard.
(v) Paper.
b) (i) 4900kg.
(ii) 2400kg.
c) The campaign has reduced the demand for landfill sites.
d) Paper.
e) Putting out more waste paper bins or a similar solution.

7 Classification and variation


Classifying living things
1
Feature

Plant

Cannot make own food


Has cellulose for support
Has chlorophyll
Can move about

Animal

Dividing up the animal kingdom


2 a) Any three from: A has a shell, B doesnt; A has a head, B doesnt; B has five limbs, A doesnt have any
limbs; A has tentacles, B doesnt.
b)
Group

Jellyfish
Annelid worms
Molluscs
Echinoderms

10

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 10

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:43 AM

8 The states of matter

Vertebrates
3 a) Order, family, genus, species.
b) Species.

The plant kingdom


4 a) Mosses.
b) Ferns.

Variation
5
Continuous variation

Discontinuous variation

A, B, D, E

C, F

6 a)

11

Mass/g

10
9
8
7
6
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun
Jul
Months

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

b) The mass decreases early in the year then builds up in the latter part of autumn then decreases again
through the winter.
c) Small.
d) A bat. It builds up a food store in its body, which it uses up during hibernation.
e) Continuous.
f) The environment.

8 The states of matter


Comparing the states of matter and the particle theory of matter
1 Easy to compress.
2 a) box a should be packed with circles touching or almost touching each other.
box B should contain very few particles with plenty of space between them.
b) They slide over each other.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 11

11

09/11/12 9:43 AM

9 Properties of matter and materials

3 a) Raise its temperature to its melting point.


b) It loses its fixed shape and starts to flow.
c) They receive more energy.
d) The solid particles vibrate to and fro but when melting occurs they slide over each other.
e) Freezing.
4 a) Identical containers were used; the same amount of liquid was put in each one; they were left for the
same length of time.
b) B
c) Warm and windy.
d) C
e) At the surface.
f) High energy.
g) A gas.
5 a) Gas bubbles form inside it and rise to the surface.
b) Boiling point.
c) It boils faster.
6 a) By cooling down a gas.
b) On dust particles in the air.
7 a) Liquid.
b) The solid sulfur inside the volcano sublimes in the heat and becomes a gas. It rises out of the
volcano, cools, sublimes and forms a solid on the side of the volcano.
8 a) A solute is a solid that dissolves in a solvent. A solvent is a liquid that dissolves the solute.
b) In the gaps between the liquid particles.

9 Properties of matter and materials


Introducing elements
1 a) A substance made from just one kind of atom.
b) A group of atoms of one or more elements.

Metals and non-metals


2 a)
Substance

Metal

A
B

Non-metal

b) oxygen, nitrogen.
c) Metals usually have shiny surfaces.
3 Carbon barbecue charcoal; chlorine keeping swimming pools water clean; iodine portable water
purifying kits; phosphorus matches; sulfur car tyres.

12

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 12

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:43 AM

9 Properties of matter and materials

Metal alloys
4 Bronze copper and tin bells; brass copper and zinc ornaments; steel iron and carbon car bodies.

The properties of materials


5 a) A rigid, brittle, transparent. B opaque, absorbent, flexible. C translucent, rigid, heat insulator.
D opaque, flexible, electrical conductor.
b) D
c) A
6 a) A ruler.
b) Drop the ball bearing from the same height above each material and measure the width or depth of
the impression it leaves in the material.

% increase in mass

7 a) 12%, 10%, 20%, 8%.


b) 20
15
10
5
0

Cloths

c) C, A, B, D.
d) He could have used samples of cloth that all had a mass of 100g.

Comparing the properties of materials


8 a) It is malleable can be pressed into a shape; it is a good conductor of heat; it is waterproof.
b) It is a heat insulator; it is soft enough to be carved into shape; it is rigid.
9 a) B
b) C

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 13

13

09/11/12 9:44 AM

10 Acids and alkalis

c)

40

Temperature/C

30

20

10

4
Time/min

d) 7.4 minutes.

10 Acids and alkalis


Early acids and alkalis
1 Acid sour; alkali the ashes.

Acids
2 methanoic nettles; citric lemon; lactic exercising muscles; tartaric grape; hydrochloric mammal
stomach.

Alkalis
3 a) Because they can burn the skin.
b) Alkalis.

Detecting acids and alkalis


4 Boyle.

The pH scale
5 Litmus red blue; Methyl orange pink yellow; phenolphthalein colourless pink.
6 a) X is on 7.
b) The circle is around 02.
c) The circle is around 811.

14

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 14

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:44 AM

11 Rocks and soil

Neutralisation
7 acid + akali salt + water
8 a) nitric acid + sodium hydroxide sodium nitrate + water
b) sulfuric acid + potassium hydroxide potassium sulfate + water
c) hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride + water
9 sodium hydrogen carbonate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + carbon dioxide + water
10 a) Soap, because the sting is acidic and soap is alkaline.
b) Vinegar, because the sting is alkaline and vinegar is a weak acid.
11 a) The stomach makes too much acid as it digests food.
b) It dissolves to make an alkaline solution, which neutralises the acid.
12 a) It contains two solids, which will only react together when they dissolve in water.
b) Carbon dioxide, which makes the texture light.

Acid rain
13 a) East and south east.
b) South west and west.
c) The south west, since all the recordings were 6, which is slightly acid. No other direction had as
many readings of 6.
d) Recording event 4, north east contaminated with acid and recording event 8, north west
contaminated with alkali.

11 Rocks and soil


From Big Bang to the Sun
1 Big Bang hydrogen and helium; Nebula making stars carbon, nitrogen, oxygen; supernovas gold
lead, platinum.

The formation of the Solar System


2 Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars.
3 Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.

The structure of the Earth


4 a) A mantle, B inner core, C crust, D outer core.
b) A mantle.
c) B inner core.
d) C crust.
e) D outer core.
f) Radioactive materials such as uranium.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 15

15

09/11/12 9:44 AM

11 Rocks and soil

The rock cycle


5 a) Molten rock made from some of the rocks in the lower crust and upper mantle.
b) Basalt and granite.

Types of rock
6 a)
Rock
sandstone
granite
limestone
basalt
chalk

Igneous

Sedimentary

Small crystals

Large crystals

Rock fragments

Shells

b) Metamorphic.
c) Limestone.
d) It is heated and squashed in the Earths crust.
7 D, C, A, B, E
8 Crystal shape, colour, luster, hardness and colour of streak.
9 A rock rich in metal compounds.

Soil
10 Weathering.
11
litter layer
topsoil

subsoil
lumps of
bedrock

bedrock

12 a) Humus, clay particles, sand, stones.


b) Clay particles and sand.
c) Loam.
d) The rotting remains of plants and animals.

16

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 16

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:44 AM

12 Finding the age of the Earth

13 a)
water
soil
glass wool

measuring cylinder

water that has drained


through the soil

b) Same amount of soil; allowed to drain for the same amount of time; same amount of glass wool in funnel.
c) A clay, B rocky, C sandy.
14 a)

8.0
7.5

7.0

pH

6.5
C

6.0
5.5
5.0
4.5

P
H

6
Stations

10

b) It increased.
c) It decreased.
d) See graph in answer a.
e) Each plant type grows in a soil of a certain pH.
f) Station 9 wild onion; station 10 lilac.

12 Finding the age of the Earth


How rock layers formed
1 Sedimentary.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 17

17

09/11/12 9:44 AM

12 Finding the age of the Earth

Naming the rock layers


2 Cambrian Wales 542; Permian region in Russia 300; Devonian county in England 416;
Cretaceous chalk rock in Europe 145; Jurassic mountains in Switzerland 200.
3 Sedimentary.

How fossils form in rocks


4 a) It prevents scavengers ripping up the body.
b) It reduces oxygen so decomposers cannot thrive and rot the body.
5 Minerals.
6 a) Cambrian.
b) Quaternary.
c) Carboniferous.
d) Jurassic.
e) Cretaceous.

Fossils and rocks


7 Trilobite.

The fossil record


8 a) Molluscs.
b) Examples could include snail, slug, octopus.
9 a)
Number of groups

20
15
10
5
0

Pc

D
Ca
Time period

b) Silurian and Devonian.


c) No, it remained the same in the Ordovician and Silurian periods and in the Carboniferous and
Devonian periods.
d) (i) Permian.
(ii) The number of groups was one lower in the following period, the Triassic.
e) As time passes the number of groups increases.

The fossil record and the age of the Earth


10 An element whose atoms break down to smaller atoms of other elements and release large amounts
ofenergy.

18

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 18

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:44 AM

13 Measurements

11 a) 250g.
b) 125g.
c) 16 million years old.
12 4.6 billion years

13 Measurements
Fooling our senses
1 Dots appear in the gaps between the squares and seem to move as you move your eyes.

Length, mass and time


2 a) mm
b) km
c) nm
d) m
e) cm
3 a) milligram mg 0. 000001; tonne t 1000; gram g 0.001; kilogram kg 1.
b) Megatonne, Mt.
4

Time taken for four parachutes to fall three metres


10
9
8

Time to fall/seconds

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Parachute

This gives the students a chance to produce their own graph, which should be of a size that fills most of the
paper available. Make sure they have labelled the axes and given the chart a title.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 19

19

09/11/12 9:44 AM

14 Forces and motion

Accuracy of measurements
5 From directly in front.

Heat and temperature


6 a) The hotness or coldness of a substance.
b) Celsius.
c) 273
d) Alcohol, mercury.
e) The bulb.
f) It expands.
g) It contracts.

14 Forces and motion


Forces and their effects
1
Action of a force

Action in the game

Changing direction of a moving object


Stopping a moving object
Changing an objects speed
Changing an objects shape
Starting an object moving

C
D
B
E
A

Different types of forces Contact forces


2 An impact force.
3 Tension.
4 a) Static friction is stronger than sliding friction.
b) Sliding friction.
5 a)
Condition of runners
Rusty
Roughly sanded
Smoothly sanded
waxed

Pulling force in N
40
30
25
20

b) The rusty runners had rough surfaces but sanding and waxing the surface has made them smooth.
c) The frictional force has been reduced.
6 a) Su Lin.
b) Less water will be moved out of the way and the water between the tyre and road will reduce
friction.

20

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 20

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:44 AM

15 Energy

Different types of forces Non-contact forces


7 a) Air resistance.
b) It is pulled out of the backpack.
c) The skydiver slows down.
d) Gravity.
8 a) Making the objects out of the same mass of material and timing them over the same distance.
b) B It was the most streamlined or had the least water resistance acting on it.
c) C It was least streamlined or had the most water resistance acting upon it.
9 The weight is due to the gravitational field strength (pull) of the Earth or the Moon and the gravitational
pull of the Moon is only a sixth of the gravitational pull of the Earth.

How springs stretch


10 a)

40

Extension/cm

30
20
10
0

200

400

600

800
1000
Mass/kg

1200

1400

b) The extension increases in proportion to the increase in mass.


c) 10001200kg.
d) He could increase the mass to 1000kg, then increase the mass 50g at time until the spring no longer
extends in proportion.

15 Energy
What is energy?
1 Energy is a property of something, that can exist in different forms and can make something exert a
force or do work.

Forms of energy
2 a) Chemical energy.
b) Gravitational potential energy.
c) Strain energy.
3 a) Chemical energy.
b) Gravitational potential energy.
c) Strain energy.
d) At the top of the dive when she is highest in the air.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 21

21

09/11/12 9:44 AM

15 Energy

4 a)
Distance travelled by ball/cm

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

2
3
4
5
Distance band pulled back/cm

b) The further the band is pulled back, the further the ball travels.
c) The greater the stored energy in the band, the further the ball travelled. Pulling the band back further
increases its stored energy.
d) They do not seem to be very accurate as they do not show the pattern clearly. The line is wobbly
instead of straight.
e) She could repeat them, taking more care over her measurements.
f) The elastic band broke.
5 It moves.
6 Solids, liquids and gases.
7 Electrical energy is the movement of electrical charges through a conductor. Electromagnetic energy is
electrical energy that travels in the form of electromagnetic waves.
8 Internal energy or thermal energy.

Energy changes
9 It changes from electromagnetic energy in light into stored, chemical energy in the food in the leaf.
10 Heat and sound.

Fuel
11 a) D, C, E, B, A
b) Coal.
c) Oil and methane gas.
d) Tiny plants and animals that lived and died in the upper waters of ancient seas; dead plankton.
12 a) Use the same mass of each fuel, the same mass of water; have the pans the same distance above the
fuels; make sure the air is still around both barbecues; hold the thermometer in the same position in
both pans when taking the temperature.

22

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 22

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:44 AM

16 Energy transfers
100

90

90

80

80

70

70

60

60

Water temperature/C

100

Water temperature/C

b)

50
40
30

50
40
30

Charcoal

20

20

10

10

10

15
Time/min

20

25

30

Briquettes

10

15
Time/min

20

25

30

c) (i) The temperature rises quickly, stays high for a short time then falls quickly.
(ii) The temperature rises slowly and remains high for longer and starts to cool down more slowly.
d) The charcoal releases its energy as heat faster than the briquettes but releases less energy than the
briquettes later in the investigation.

16 Energy transfers
Energy transfers and transformations
1 Examples might include beating heart, movement of intestines, blinking of eye, movement of ribs in
breathing.
2 a) (i) 20 joules.
(ii) 60 joules.
b) (i) 3200 joules.
(ii) 9600 joules.
(iii) 12800 joules.
(iv) 2250000 joules.
(v) 2250kJ.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 23

23

09/11/12 9:44 AM

16 Energy transfers

How energy use has increased


3 a) Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes.
b) Oil, candles, wood fires.
c) Electricity.

Energy transfer diagrams


Miguel
4 a) Stored chemical energy
Miguel
Stored chemical energy
b) Stored chemical energy.
c) Kinetic energy and thermal energy.
d) Miguel.

kinetic energy.
thermal energy.

5 a) C, A, G, B, E, D, F
b) The more strain energy in the balloon the greater the distance the balloon will travel.
c) They match the prediction because the balloon with the greater circumference has the greater strain
energy and it travels the greater distance.
6 a) and b)

a) Car A
Energy in
fuel 200 kJ

Kinetic energy 50 kJ

Waste
heat
energy
150 kJ

b) Car B
Energy in
fuel 200 kJ

Kinetic energy 100 kJ

Waste heat
energy
100 kJ

c) B
7 23% makes water circulate in the water cycle; 47% absorbed by the atmosphere; 0.02% used by
plants in photosynthesis; 30% reflected back into space; less than 1% produces winds and currents.

Plants and energy


8 The seed at depth 4cm used up all its energy trying to grow into the light and did not make it. The other
seeds had enough energy to bring them into the light, then they began to photosynthesise and grow.

Energy and ourselves


9 The table should have two columns headed food and energy in 100g of food in kJ.

Generating electricity
10 a) Kinetic energy of wheel
b) Kinetic energy in steam.
24

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 24

dynamo

electrical energy.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:44 AM

17 The Earth and beyond

Conservation of energy
11 In any energy change some energy is lost as heat. Energy is always conserved.

17 The Earth and beyond


Movements in the sky
1 a) An imaginary line running through the Earth between the North and South Poles.
b) 24 hours.
c) East.
2 a) The path of the Earth around the Sun.
b) 1 year.
c) Yes. We have 365 days in a year and each day and night is the result of a rotation.
3 Summer towards the Sun winter; Spring neither towards or away from Sun autumn; winter
away from the Sun summer.
4 a)

154
153

Distance from Sun/millions of km

152
151
150
149
148
147
146

Ja

Ju
Jy
Month

b) It would be a straight horizontal line.

Lights in the sky


5 Light sources Sun, Arcturus, Milky Way Galaxy, Spica, Andromeda Galaxy. Light reflectors Moon,
Mars, Jupiter, Neptune, Halleys comet.

Measuring with light


6 a) 40.85 million million kilometres.
b) 20.9 million million million kilometres.

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 25

25

09/11/12 9:44 AM

17 The Earth and beyond

Bright stars
7 a) 3000 red; 4000 orange; 6000 yellow; 11000 white; 25000 blue
b) 6000C.

The Moon
8 E, C, B, D, A

The parts of the Solar System


9 F, D, A, G, C, B, E
10 a) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
b) Mercury. It is nearer the Sun where the Suns gravity pulls more strongly on it.

Asteroids
11 a) Asteroid belt, Kuiper Belt, Ort Cloud.
b) Kuiper belt.
c) Ort Cloud.

Planets around other stars


12 Take photographs at regular intervals and look at them. Look for stars that wobble and dim.

26

183467_Science_WB1_answers_BP.indd 26

Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook 1 Hodder & Stoughton Ltd 2012

09/11/12 9:44 AM