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Chapter 1 Introduction

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 1
Introduction
1. Recognize interrelationships of
electrical engineering with other fields
of science and engineering.
2. List the major subfields of electrical
engineering.
3. List several important reasons for
studying electrical engineering.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

4. Define current, voltage, and power,


including their units.
5. Calculate power and energy, as well
as determine whether energy is supplied
or absorbed by a circuit element.
6. State and apply basic circuit laws.
7. Solve for currents, voltages, and
powers in simple circuits.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Electrical systems have two


main objectives:
To gather, store, process, transport, and present
information
To distribute and convert energy between various
forms

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Electrical Engineering
Subdivisions

Communication
systems
Computer systems
Control systems
Electromagnetics

Electronics
Photonics
Power systems
Signal processing

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why Study Electrical Engineering?


To pass the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE)
Examination
So you can lead projects in your own field
To be able to operate and maintain electrical
systems
To communicate with electrical engineering
consultants

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Electrical Current
Electrical current is the time rate of flow of
electrical charge through a conductor or
circuit element. The units are amperes (A),
which are equivalent to coulombs per second
(C/s).

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Electrical Current
dq (t )
i (t )
dt
t

q (t ) i (t )dt q (t0 )
t0

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Direct Current
Alternating Current
When a current is constant with time, we
say that we have direct current,
abbreviated as dc. On the other hand, a
current that varies with time, reversing
direction periodically, is called alternating
current, abbreviated as ac.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Voltages
The voltage associated with a circuit
element is the energy transferred per unit of
charge that flows through the element. The
units of voltage are volts (V), which are
equivalent to joules per coulomb (J/C).

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

POWER AND ENERGY

p (t ) v (t )i (t )
t2

w p(t )dt
t1

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

KIRCHHOFFS CURRENT
LAW
The net current entering a node is zero.
Alternatively, the sum of the currents
entering a node equals the sum of the
currents leaving a node.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE
LAW
The algebraic sum of the voltages equals
zero for any closed path (loop) in an
electrical circuit.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Resistors and Ohms Law


a

v iR
vab iab R

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Conductance

1
G
R
i Gv
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Resistance Related to Physical


Parameters

L
R
A

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Using KVL, KCL, and Ohms


Law to Solve a Circuit

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 V
iy
3A
5

ix 0.5ix i y
ix 2 A

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

v x 10ix 20 V
Vs v x 15

Vs 35 V

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.