Sie sind auf Seite 1von 126

MAY 2015

` 175

+
ARCHITECTURE DESIGN
A

architecture for divinity


VOLUME 32

ISSUE 5


Lesso

s s

The Lesso Group

74

90

54
60

66

46

72

74
15

ABOUT THE ISSUE

18

REFLECTIONS

20

UPDATES

80

90

ARCHITECTURE FOR DIVINITY


28

36

42

46

Explorations in emotive, engaging and


experiential space making...
Yatin Pandya
Incorporating Curvilinear Forms
Botta Cripta, Bergamo, Italy
Gianluca Gelmini, Bergamo, Italy
Minimalistic Design
Shiv Temple, Pune, Maharashtra
Sameep Padora & Associates, Mumbai
Breaking Rigid Boundaries
Sancaklar Mosque, Buyukekmece, Istanbul
Emre Arolat Architects, Istanbul, Turkey

96

100

Functionally, religious centres have expanded


Narendra Dengle
A Spiritual Setting
Mhasoba Mandir, Kharawade, Pune
Narendra Dengle and Associates, Pune
The White Church
Parish Church of Solace, Cordoba, Spain
Vicens + Ramos, Madrid, Spain
Sacred Space
Universal Prayer Hall, Gurgaon, Haryana
Sikka Associates Architects, New Delhi
A Community Church
Community Church Knarvik, Hordaland, Norway
Reiulf Ramstad Arkitekter, Oslo, Norway
The Meditation Hall
Meditation Hall, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, New Delhi
Design Consortium, New Delhi
Centre for Inner Growth
Dhyanalinga Yogic Temple, Coimbatore
Isha Yoga Centre, Coimbatore
The Role of the Hindu Temple for the North
Indian Community in Surrey, Vancouver
Niranjan Garde

EXPLORING DESIGN
Design in Ceramics

108

RESEARCH
Reclamation of Kunds on Govardhan Hill, Braj
Amita Sinha

116

PRODUCTS

about the issue

A N

I N D I A N

J O U R N A L

O F

A R C H I T E C T U R E

Sancaklar Mosque,
Buyukekmece, Istanbul
(Architects: Emre Arolat
Architects, Istanbul, Turkey)
All drawings and visuals for the
projects and articles, unless
mentioned otherwise, are
courtesy the architects/authors.

Image
of
th e

Month

ll along in the history of human civilization, one observes that religion has
always been one of those strong anchors to combat the fear of the unknown
and provide directions in the art of living. It was thus that architecture for
worship always encapsulated elements of architecture that generate a wow and
inspiring factor in the mind of the worshippers. Whether it be a church, a temple,
gurudwara or then a mosque the scale, artwork, materials, etc., all combined
together to create a grandeur, a spirit of hope and an environment of serenity and
solace. Over the period of time, this typology has undergone a rationalization and
has evolved a newer vocabulary. In the Indian context, when it comes to the
temple, it now has added newer functionalities associated with it, taking it to the
level of a larger complex with greater urban design inputs. There are also more
commercial activities associated. This Issue of the magazine probes the emerging
contemporary design developments in architecture for divinity.
The Community Church in Norway designed by Ramstad Arkitekter stands apart
in its approach with a modern interpretation to the church form with a play of
colour. It is also a venue for gatherings to facilitate art, music and cultural
development. Inspired by the Buddhist architectural form, the Meditation Hall at
the Sri Aurobindo Ashram, New Delhi, sets sensitively in the natural surroundings.
The material choice and the volume of spaces along with a climate controlled
faade all combine together intelligently to set in the devotional mood. The
Sancaklar Mosque in Istanbul is a simple and elegant statement in textured and
layered tones on the outside and inside. As the architects say, it aims to address
the fundamental issues of designing a mosque by distancing itself from the current
architectural discussions based on form and focusing solely on the essence of
religious space. The other published projects too have their own focus in concept
and interpretation of this design typology which evokes reverence.
The dynamics in
modulated
experimentation
further gets projected
in our Exploring
Design section.
Artistic creativity
entwined in ceramic
products finds its place
here with abstractness
in form, texture and
mould becoming a
visual delight.

Suleymaniye Mosque well set in the urban fabric of Istanbul, Turkey

A hundred times have I thought New York is a catastrophe and 50 times: It is a beautiful catastrophe

Le Corbusier

ARCHITECTURE+ DESIGN
A

Architecture is the will of an


epoch translated into space
Mies van der Rohe

Editor-In-Chief SUNEET PAUL

Architectural Assistant ASHNA PURI

Senior Sub Editor POTSHANGBAM JULY


Creative Director BIPIN KUMAR

Assistant Art Director JOHN ROY

Marketing Designer UPPALLI DAVID


Senior Manager RITESH ROY

PRODUCTION

Prepress Executive DINESH MASIH


Business Head SONALI ROY (New Delhi), Tel: 0124-4759691, Mobile: +919810640362
Senior General Manager SUJIT BOSE (Kolkata), Tel: 033-40042815, 033-22805323
Assistant Manager JOY TALAPATRA (Bengaluru), Tel: 080-22219578, Fax: 080-22243428
Regional Manager REKHA BILLAVA (Mumbai), Tel: 022-42467777
Manager GANESH DIXIT (New Delhi), Tel: 0124-4759693, Mobile: +919711419392
Manager NEERAJ RAWAT (New Delhi), Tel: 0124-4759692, Fax: 0124-4759550

SALES AND ACTIVATION

Vice President International Sales SANJIV BISARIA, Tel: 0124-4759626, Mobile: +919811562019

C P SREEDHARAN

MANAGER SCHEDULING
SONYA CAROLINE SHAH

MANAGER HR
ARUN SALHOTRA

SENIOR SYSTEM SPECIALIST IT


EDITORIAL AND ADVERTISING OFFICE

Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd.


Plot No. 323, Udyog Vihar, Phase-4
Gurgaon-122016, Haryana
Ph: 0124-4759500, Fax: 0124-4759550
Editorial email: aplusd@emmindia.com, paul@emmindia.com

ASHISH SAWHNEY(ashish@emmindia.com)
AMIT SAXENA (amit@emmindia.com)

CIRCULATION AND VISIBILITY


SATHYA NARAYANA T S (South)
SOMNATH PRAMANIK (East)
SUBASH MISHRA (West)

FOR SUBSCRIPTION

Call: Gurgaon: 0124-4759616/17


Mobile: 09899414369, Fax: 0124-4759550
Mumbai: 022-42467777
Bengaluru: 080-22219578, Fax: 080-22243428
Chennai: Telefax: 044-28141816
Kolkata: 033-40042815, Telefax: 033-22805323
Email: subscriptionsupport@emmindia.com

ARCHITECTURE+ DESIGN
A

Indias Most Authentic


Architectural Magazine.
D

Repro: Medienpartner International India/Burda Druck India Private Limited

Over 29 Years of Invigorating


Architectural Journalism.
It portrays the modern trends in
planning, building technology,
research and development,
project profiles, conservation and
environmental issues, product
information and much more...

INTERNATIONAL SALES & ADVERTISING

FRANCE/LUXEMBOURG
MARION BADOLLE-FEICK
Tel: +33 1 72 71 25 24,
marion.badolle-feick@burda.com

AUSTRIA/SWITZERLAND
GORAN VUKOTA, Tel: +41 44 81 02 146,
goran.vukota@burda.com
ITALY
MARIOLINA SICLARI
Tel: +39 02. 91 32 34 66,
mariolina.siclari@burda.com

UK/IRELAND
JEANNINE SOELDNER
Tel: +44 20 3440 5832,
jeannine.soeldner@burda.com

GERMANY
VANESSA VON MINCKWITZ
Tel: +49 89 92 50 35 32,
vanessa.vonminckwitz@burda.com
MICHAEL NEUWIRTH
Tel: +49 89 9250 3629,
michael.neuwirth@burda.com

USA/CANADA/MEXICO
SALVATORE ZAMMUTO
Tel: +1 212 884 48 24,
salvatore.zammuto@burda.com

Chief Financial Officer PUNEET NANDA


Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd.
Director PARINEETA SETHI
Publishing Director SIMON CLAYS
EMM IS A COMPANY OF THE BURDA GROUP

Hubert Burda Media India Pvt. Ltd.


Burda Asia COO and India MD MASSIMO MONTI
Hubert Burda Media, Asia
CEO FRIEDRICH SCANZONI

Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd.


To Subscribe,
CALL : +91- 124-4759-616
E-Mail : circulation@emmindia.com,
subscriptionsupport@emmindia.com
To ADVERTISE,
CALL : +91- 124-4759-691

Burda International GmbH


CEO FABRIZIO DANGELO

Entire contents Copyright 2014 Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd., 323 Udyog Vihar, Phase IV, Gurgaon 122016, Haryana, India. All rights reserved
throughout the world. Reproduction or translation in any language in whole or in part without the consent of Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd. is prohibited.
Requests for permission should be directed to Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd. Published by Xavier Collaco from Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd., 323
Udyog Vihar, Phase IV, Gurgaon 122016, Haryana, India. Printed at Galaxy Offset (India) P.Ltd. B-83, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-II New Delhi-110028.
Editor: Suneet Paul. Architecture+Design does not take responsibility for returning unsolicited publication material. All disputes are subject to the exclusive
jurisdiction of competent courts and forums in Delhi/New Delhi only. Opinions expressed in the articles are of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of
the editors or publishers. While the editors do their utmost to verify information published they do not accept responsibility for its absolute accuracy. Unsolicited
material is sent at the owners risk and the publisher accepts no liability for loss or damage. All correspondence regarding advertising or editorial should be
addressed to Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd., 323 Udyog Vihar, Phase IV, Gurgaon 122016, Haryana, India.

Years in India
Showrooms

Tradition meets Emotion.


We meet You.

GROWING STRONGER...

JAIPUR
DELHI
LUDHIANA
AHMEDABAD MUMBAI HYDERABAD BENGALURU
KOCHI
COIMBATORE CHENNAI
9313134488 9815048222 9414058718 9879538977 9322987229 9700058285 9740999350 9895058285 9500210555 9442081111
E-mail: info@hacker-kitchens.com
Website: www.haecker-india.com / www.haecker-kuechen.com

Reflections

Photo credit: Museum of Sacred Art (MOSA)

Celebration of forms
and spirituality

Initiated by Martin Gurvich, director of MOSA, Forms of Devotion:


The Spiritual in Indian Art is an arts project conceptualised around
the notion of the spiritual and devotional in Indian art. The
exhibition showcased 300 works by over 150 artists, selected from
a collection of over 3000 artworks.

18

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

LED pole-top luminaires with asymmetrical flat beam light distribution,


protection class IP 66, 2200 to 5760 lumen. Luminaires with three light
outputs, with efficiency-optimised lighting technology. Reflectors made
of reflection-intensive pure aluminium, polymer-free optical system
components as well as 20 years availability guarantee for LED modules.
Regional Manager Asia Pacific International Projects Andr Ng
10 Raeburn Park #02-08 Singapore 088702 Phone +65 6692 8029
Fax +65 6692 8001 andre.ng@bega.com www.bega.com

Das gute Licht.


For safer paths.

Updates
Fast Track Architecture

outh Florida-based architectural


firm Nichols Brosch Wurst Wolfe &
Associates (NBWW) announced that its
latest project The Hilton West Palm
Beach has topped off. The
transformative new development,
which is connected to the existing Palm
Beach County Convention Center, will serve as a driving
force for downtowns burgeoning urban landscape.
The structure, which boasts 400 spacious guest rooms
and suites and over 24,000 sq ft of contemporary meeting
space, was thoughtfully envisioned by NBWW. The firm
sought to create more than just an expansive resort, but an
urbane, tightly knit neighborhood experience. Instead of
designing a front garden with a grand arrival sequence,
typical of other convention hotels, the firm pushed the
building toward the sites edge to create an impactful street
presence. This approach to the positioning of the property
enabled the firm to design added amenity-rich elements
inclusive of a spacious recreation deck along the back of the
building, adjacent to the ballroom facilities. The 12-storey
building features a three-storey accent overlooking
Okeechobee Boulevard, which called for special detailing
and materials, making this added layer a prevalent element
of the hotel.
The aesthetics of the building were inspired by the
convention centre, a streamlined approach that allowed for
efficient spaces and clear architectural expressions. The hotels
massing is accentuated with deep cantilevering trellises on the
buildings parapets.
For more information, visit: www.nbww.com.

ascending to the sky; culminating in an illuminated beacon that will


define the new Nanning skyline.
The angled geometries of the facades are designed to
reinforce the crystalline form while celebrating the
towers verticality. Entirely encased in floor to ceiling
high performance glass, the skin design features
integrated ceramic shading elements that offer added
solar control while maintaining ample natural light
without obstructing views. Designed to LEED-NC Gold
standards, faade is one of many features holistically
integrated towards reducing the projects
environmental footprint while providing a world class
level of comfort and quality. The NRC Tower will not
only be a symbol for Nannings fast growing economic prosperity
but a bold symbol of its dedication to environmental
responsibility upon its completion in 2019, said Travis Soberg,
AIA, principal at GP.

rtopex, one of Quebecs leading manufacturers of office


furniture, has commissioned a Canada-based architectural
firm Lemay to design its new showroom in the heart of historic
Old Montreal. The project is located in the prestigious former
headquarters of the Royal Bank of Canada. The emblematic
building has been completely revitalized and rethought in order
to give Artopex a space that reflects its image and values.
Starting at the entrance, an uninterrupted ribbon of images
of Quebec landscapes guides visitors through the different zones
of the showroom, spread accross two basement levels. Quebecs
urban, industrial and natural
landscapes translate Artopexs
commitment towards the
community and the environment,
two values at the core of the
companys culture. The pixelated
treatment of the background
images creates a defocused effect that directs the eye toward
the product, making an original contribution to its display
From the outset, the architects faced two major challenges: the
front door is dwarfed by imposing neoclassical columns, and the
showrooms basement location suffers from a shortage of natural
light. In response to the first, an enormous LED-animated
marquee draws the gaze and energises the entrance with a variety
of lighting effects. Addressing the second, a large opening in the
floor leads to oversized wooden stairs serving as a meeting place
as well as a display space, while flooding the lower levels with
natural light. The arrangement of the different zones, linked by
lighting effects, creates several contrasting ambiances that
enhance the visitor experience.
Photo credit: Claude-Simon Langlois

hicago-based Goettsch Partners (GP) has announced the start of


construction on the 445m tall mixed-use Nanning Resources
Centre Tower. Located in Nanning, capital of the Guangxi Province,
the project is sited along Minzu Avenue at the heart
of the burgeoning Fengling District. The 255,000sq
m tower is linked to public transportation through
underground connections at the B1 level, and to
adjacent buildings via indoor and outdoor pedestrian
corridors at the ground and sixth floors respectively.
The design of the tower is derived from its multiple
uses which include 170,000sq m of class A office
space, 5,000sq m of boutique retail, and a 45,000sq
m luxury Shangri-La hotel. The massing of the
building steps and tapers to accommodate the changing floor
plates of the various program types, resulting in a form that is both
efficient and identifiable. Paul De Santis, LEED AP, principal at GP,
said, The overall effect of the tower is of a crystalline form

20

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Updates
Competitions

merican architect Steven Holl Architects has been selected as


the winner for the construction of a new wing for
Dr Bhau Daji Lad Museum recently. Dr Bhau Daji Lad Museum,
one of Indias leading cultural institutions, is in the process of
creating a dynamic new identity for
itself as a cultural hub in Mumbai
through a major expansion plan that
includes a 130,000sq ft new building to
be called the Mumbai Modern Wing.
The new addition to the existing
museum will comprise a new gallery
space, an interpretation centre, a
library, an archive, conservation facilities and a new museum
shop and caf. At the heart of the new wing will be a permanent

he SBID International
Design Awards 2015
has announced a call for
entries. Architects,
interior designers and
manufacturers are invited to submit their
projects and products for the current
edition. The deadline for submitting
entries is July 30, 2015.
This years edition will include two

gallery to showcase contemporary Mumbai, focusing on


important milestones in the citys cultural development and
highlighting its social and artistic achievements as well as
temporary exhibition spaces of international.
The competition was organised by
Malcolm Reading Consultants on behalf of the
Museum. 104 submissions were received
from the world's most renowned architects
from whom 8 were shortlisted. The Municipal
Commissioner of Mumbai and Co-Chairman
of the Museum Trust, Mr Sitaram Kunte,
chaired the eminent eleven member jury,
notable for its array of leading international figures from the
museum world, academia and the business community.

new categories Office Design and


Healthcare Design which will be added
to the existing popular categories
ranging from best Hotel Design, Retail
Design and Intelligent Design to best KBB
Project, Public Space and Visualisation
(3D renderings) to make a total of
14 categories.
The SBID International Design Awards
has come to be regarded as one of the

highest accolades in the interior design


industry. Each category undergoes an
exclusive two-tier judging process by
panels of leading industry experts for
both technical content and aesthetic
creativity and evaluates elements, such
as brief compliance, budget, health &
safety, and fit-for-purpose design.
To know more, visit:
www.sbidawards.com

Exhibition

enewable Energy Asia 2015, the 11th South East


Asia's Renewable Energy Technology Exhibition
and Conference, will be held at BITEC, Bangkok,
from June 3-6, 2015.
The event will feature the latest energy sources and
systems along with cutting edge machinery, equipment
and renewable energy technology. The latest wind &
solar power projects are among the many systems that will be
featured along with thermal, hydro-power, bio-mass and other

green technology. The event will also host the 11th


International Renewable Energy Conference under the
theme "The Future of ASEAN Renewable Energy in the
Light of Energy Price Volatility. The conference will be
attended by representatives from world leading
companies, academics and researchers and share their
views on the future of renewable energy in today's rapidly
changing world.
To know more, visit: www.renewableenergy-asia.com

Trade news

he Partners in Success Meet of Violam Decorative Laminates was held in Chandigarh. Over
150 dealers from Haryana and Punjab took part in the event. The meet was aimed to share
the companys vision, mission and goals to capture more market share in the region and also to
strengthen the relationship of dealers and Violam brand in the state.
Manit Gupta, director of Stylam Industries Limited, said, Our dealers and the distributors
have played a very vital role and have closely been associated with us and also discussed the
way forward for the organisation, formulated forward-looking strategies for the brand.
At the event, the brand discussed about its latest collections and products. Besides, the company also announced the arrival of new
range of products in next three months including UNICOLOR Laminates, DIGITAL Laminates and POST FORMING Laminates.

22

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Updates
Trade news

capes Siolim by Scapes India is a luxury


destination villa property located at Siolim,
Goa. Spread over an area of 5200sq m, the
property is surrounded by the protected forests of
Marna, accessible within 10 minutes from all night
clubs and restaurants of Goa.
Designed by New Delhi-based architect Rajiv
Narain, the property is a self contained unit built
in the tropical villa style with a touch of modern
architecture. Each villa is designed with the
concept of providing destination home that offers
the indulgence of resort living and the exclusivity
of a private villa. It is a blend of luxury and
aesthetics with key emphasis on privacy and space
for every mood. It is furnished with designer
furniture and equipped with modern technology.
Other amenities and facilities include a private
pool, an open airy space and a manicured garden.
Besides, Scapes Siolim has selected buyers with an
ideal mix of corporate clients.
Recently, the company opened a sample villa
of the property showcasing the careful design and
detail that went to the conception for each villa.
To know more, visit: www.scapesindia.com

Awards

arkthal designed by Netherlands-based


architectural firm MVRDV has been
selected for the MIPIM Award 2015 for Best
Shopping Centre. MIPIM, the worlds largest
real estate and property fair, is held in Cannes
in March each year, attracting more than
25.000 people.
The prestigious award is chosen based on an
equal split between the votes of the jury and
the votes of the attendees of the conference.
This years jury included Kengo Kuma and
Dominique Perrault, in addition to nine other industry leaders

eiss Architecture &


Urbanism Limited
has been awarded an
OAA Award in the
Concept Category for
their whimsical, snow
covered Warming Hut in
Winnipeg, Manitoba.
The design was inspired by the 1955 Looney Tunes

24

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

from the fields of property and real estate. The


Markthal beat out three other buildings, in Paris,
Tianjin, and Tangerang in Indonesia, to win the
award. On receiving the award, co-founding
director of MVRDV Winy Maas, said, The MIPIM
award recognises innovation and daring in the
building sector. The developer Provast dared to
realise our vision for a new typology, and the
building is now honoured on the global real estate
stage. That is a fantastic reward for a developer
who dared to think outside the box in that way".
To know more, visit: www.mvrdv.com

animation The Hole Idea in which an eccentric scientist


develops a portable hole. Whereas the original cartoon holes
are black voids, the playful holes created in the Winnipeg snow
are bright orange, yellow, pink, blue, green, and purple. Fitted
with a wooden bench, the large vaulted space of the hut
functions as a refuge from the cold winds howling down the
river. The colourful array of holes on the snows surface
brighten up the cold and wintery landscape.
To know more, visit: www.weissau.com

Architecture for Divinity

explorations in emotive, engaging and


experiential space making

Shantivan Memorial Delhi


Architects: FOOTPRINTS E.A.R.T.H., Ahmedabad

Yatin Pandya
rchitecture is a celebration of life.
Manifestation of an idea, it encodes
messages and emotes feelings. Architecture
communicates through spatial tools, may they be
the space sequences and its organisation, elements
of space making, their scale and form, or the
symbolism of surface articulation. It is this aspect of
encoding and decoding that sets an instantaneous

28

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

dialogue between the user and the architectural


product. The affectivity of the communication
depends on the easy comprehension of the encoded
messages and their appropriate compliances in built
form. This communication takes place at three
levels sensorial, experiential and associational.
Sensorial perception refers primarily to
physiological comforts arising out of physical

their fullest as they went beyond case functions and


physical to inculcate the metaphysical and notional.
They therefore remain good studies to understand
core architectural phenomena of their timelessness,
experientiality and interactivity. Not necessarily as
religious landmarks or destinations of faith but
purely as experientially engaging spaces sacred
architecture deserved to be analysed and inferred
for their core spatial values and architectural syntax,
which can be possibly included and applied in
contemporary architecture.
Temple Architecture Traditions: Worship for the
Hindu is about introspection and therefore
Dadamiyan Masjid, Ahmedabad
Architects: Hiren Patel Architects, Ahmedabad

architectural space sequence response is a gradual


withdrawal from the worldly to intimate. The
sequence of gopurams, series of ascending steps and
platforms, rising volumes of domes and shikharas,
increasing degree of enclosure, decreasing levels of
illumination and the transition from the semi-open,
multi-directional pavilions to the unidirectional dark
sanctum enclosed by solid walls, all heighten the
progression from the corporeal to the spiritual as one
progresses from the gopuram to garbhagriha. This

Plan of Dadamiyan Masjid

conditions essentially in response to environmental


control. This bodily perception is humanly universal.
Also universal is the experiential aspect; however it
deals critically with the mind and cradles emotions.
The process is spontaneous and reactionary to the
nuances of space configuration and its dictates.
While, the associational is the locale specific
perception requiring pre-conditioning, familiarity or
the acquired information base. It creates spiritual
bonds and succeeds through in-depth
understanding of cultural connotations. The
complete communication is through wholesome
balance of all the three. With these, architectural
spaces can potentially nourish emotionally and
spiritually. Religious architecture best illustrates this
phenomenon as these places are more about
emotional engagement than functional
performance. The concept/philosophy of worship
translating into expected performance resolves
architecture accordingly.
Sacred spaces exploited these phenomena to

sense of transcendence from terrestrial to celestial is


further enhanced by the culmination of the horizontal
planes of the platform into a vertical axis through tall
pointed shikharas symbolically pointing towards the
heavens. Even the filigree in terms of sculptures and
motifs evoke associations through their narratives
progressively changing from stories of mortal world to
celestial. All these nuances of space making help the
perceiver transit from the collective, busy,
amorphous, distracting and bright space to quiet,
dark, personal, intimate and cosy space to have
personal dialogue and introspection.
For the temple, the gopuram a tall entrance
gateway provides the visual reference from far
distances. It reminds one of having entered the
religious realm. Guided by gopuram when one
enters the gate, the subsequent layers of walls take
over. The direct path of movement is deflected by
the baffles in the form of wall planes and sculptural
masses guiding one around the structures.
Circumambulation is part of the ritual. Each turn
orients one to the shrines of sub deities. Series of
such foci and sequence of colonnades slowly
withdraws from corporal worlds to enter the
spiritual one. Open colonnades gradually get further
and further enclosed as the sense of enclosure
increases through sabha (nritya) mandapa and
goodha mandapa with increased presence of wall
planes. The intensity of light inversely decreases and
gets nearly dark at the fully enclosed garbhagriha.
The dark space renders the form of idol

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

29

imperceptible and thereby inconsequential. Form of


an idol is what the minds eye conjures. The
personal intimate space allows for concentration of
mind and notions come through.
Motifs and sculptures along the movement
corridor condition the mind while they too transform
with increasing penetration into the precinct through
depictions of royal stories to that of nymphs and
apsaras to gods and goddesses. Each baffle creates a
pause to discover and reorient. Next set of clues get

through the space. The simultaneous process of


concealment and revelation of information brings
about the element of mystery, inviting exploration.
This sense of discovering space is orchestrated by the
shift in visual and physical axis. Movement through
the space is most critical rather than the externalities
of form or the shape of elements. What matters is the
composite resolution of the ensemble and its
multifarious frames from a changing point of view a
time-space continuum.
Architecture for Islamic Faith: Islamic
architecture, contrary to Hindu notion of personalised
praying is about collective worship. Having emerged
from harsh geographic terrain of desert, in Islam
socialising is important for survival. The mosque
therefore is as much a social, nodal and functional
space as much as the spiritual and therefore gets
organised as gathering courtyard rather than an
interiority of the room. The core components of
Islamic architecture therefore are simply a wall with a
niche the Mihrab, to primarily help orient towards

Iskcon Temple, New Delhi


Architects: Achyut P Kanvinde, New Delhi

Plan of Iskcon Temple

unfolded at every subsequent pause creating


sequential unfolding and sense of discovery. The
extended movement adds the element of time over
space while helping conditioning of the mind. Thus
makes the journey physically and mentally engaging
and essentially experiential where predetermined
vignettes are sequentially unfolded as one moves

30

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Mecca. As collective praying is more virtuous, the


minarets get inducted to call on prayer timings as well
as to become the distant visual feature. Open court
Riwak, remains flexible gathering space for collective
prayers and Liwan the cloistered colonnade,
surmounting the court remains the resting place in
harsh climate in between the prayer times. Dome,
contrary to popular conception, is not the
characteristic feature of mosque as it is of the tomb.
Tomb is about emphasising the point where someone
rests. Cardinal directions intersecting at the point,
symmetry in both axis and dome help emphasise that
centrality where someone lies buried underneath.
Today in the zeal of covering collective gathering
space, as the present trend of large mosques overseas
seem to suggest, the dome starts competing with the
directionality of Mihrab wall, creating spatial
confusion and conflict.
Architecture of Churches: Christian faith holds
God on a pedestal. Adam and Eve as a sinner,
defying Gods directive by succumbing to
temptations of the devil, the descendant humankind
shares the guilt and remains way dwarfed compared
to the God. Sermons and preaching are integral
aspects of prayer to remind and explain Gods
words the Gospel; and thereby collective praying
remains the denominator. The majesty of scale,
verticality of internal volume, formality of
organisation through symmetry and elongated
aisles, top-lit naves, larger than life stain glass
dioramas, pervading silence, all of these help
enhance the glory of the God and humility of the
mankind in comparison.

Freshness on a grand scale


Q

The 91 cm-wide freshness centre with three


climate zones

With BioFresh, food retains its healthy


vitamins, fresh appearance and full flavour
for much longer than in an average
refrigerator compartment

Professional quality freezing performance


thanks to NoFrost technology in the freezer
compartment: Never defrost again!

DuoCooling: independently controlled


cooling circuits; prevents odour exchange
and dehydration of the food

Automatic IceMaker

Convenient SoftSystem to cushion


door closure

Customer Helpline: 18001027757


Appliance-india@liebherr.com

biofresh.liebherr.com

the experience profound through plurality ability to


respond to multiple value systems, and identity
internalisation of the experience by the perceiver.
Successful architecture manages to bring these
qualities by basing communication on the most
fundamental tenets of mind and matter. Together,
they mark the complete communication a
wholesome experience integrating the spiritual and
the corporal.
How do architectural endeavours of recent times
explore these dimensions?
Contemporary Iterations in Sacred Architecture
Sacred Architecture as Continuum of the Tradition Vs
Degree of Abstractions and Deviations: On one hand,
Akshardham, as well as many of the contemporarily
built Hindu or Jain shrines, with the patronage of the
religious organisations, have preferred not to deviate
from traditional practices and have maintained the
Lotus Temple, New Delhi

continuum of the classical mould in terms of


geometric compositions, formal expressions, external
appearances, assembly of elements as well as
preference for associable motifs. Some of the shrines
have retained even the traditional stone craft
construction practices while most have combined
contemporary materials like concrete frames and
brick masonry for load-bearing purposes and have
camouflaged them through stone cladding to retain
appeal of the old externally. Many, more recently for
cost savings, have resorted to fibre moulds to cast
traditional motifs and elemental profiles, in mortar
and rendered them like stone.

Plan of Lotus Temple

Thus, the varying interpretations of the


phenomenon of worship have translated respective
conceptions of space and the emerging resolutions
have impacted behavioural responses accordingly.
The elements of a building, its scale, size, volume,
degrees of enclosure, levels of illumination as well as
motifs and decorations instil in the observer ethos
appropriate to the place. The spatial narratives and
the process of visual communication take place
through relative assembly of chosen elements and
their sequencing. Sequencing brings about the
kinaesthetic perception which makes architecture
experiential where being there is what matters.
These aspects of space organisations remain
universally perceptible yet retaining specificity to the
perceivers own pace and mental makeup. This makes

32

Vietnam War Memorial, Washington, D.C


M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Matrimandir, Auroville, Tamil Nadu

temples, while making it congruent to concrete


construction without faking it. Idea of passage of
time, essence of circumambulation and kinaesthetic
movement sequence with unfolding of spaces is also
applied in organising the campus spaces. Movement
route also imbues the spirit and feel of the traditional
temple routes rather than imitating the plan geometry
of the campuses of bygone era.
Sanjay Mohes creation of Sai temple, abstracts it
further to recall suggestive shikhara outcrops and
volumetric modulations built through contemporary
material palette, but largely focuses on light
modulation for spatial definitions.
Matri mandir at Auroville has been an epitome of
contemporary space making for meditative purposes
and spiritual pursuit. This deserves a special mention
as it succeeds in doing so without any icon association,
but largely on the quality of space. It interprets the
ethos of Indian temples without replicating the forms
or elements. The spherical outcrop, freestanding
amidst clear landscape becomes the visual focus and

Plan of Matrimandir

On the other hand, the contemporary shrines,


created through professional interventions have
resorted to degrees of abstractions. For example,
architect Satish Grover created a modern Buddhist
shrine using the assembly of elements of traditional
Stupa architecture but building them in contemporary
materials like steel and concrete with simplification of
detailing as well as filigree, yet retaining simile of
their form and profile.
Architect Achyut Kanvinde abstracted the shikhara
form and chaitya windows in Iskcon temple of Delhi
to the degree of retaining their identity to traditional

Sri Sai Spiritual Temple, Bangalore


Architects: Mindspace, Bangalore

34

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

orienting element. The gold foil fused panels provide


the awe through its glitter and opulence at a little
closer look. Further journey through twelve petals like
structure, also associatively symbolic of Shri
Aurobindo, gradually disengages one from the
surrounding and sucks one to the inner volume. The
inner sphere with self lit membrane panel provides for
the large and singular hollow for the journey within.
The spiral ascent through ramp suspended within
inner hollow gradually disorients from the
conditioned, pre learnt associations and creates
transition for the intuitive journey. The ascent
culminates into mysterious chamber where top lit
crystal provides the central focus for meditation, while
the light radiated through internal reflection of the
crystal pervades magically to offer enough darkness
not to be distracted by anyone elses presence within
the chamber, yet just about bright enough not to trip
on any one. The diffused and dimly lit up space
renders the space limitless and mythical by dissolving
boundaries of the enveloping surface.
Bahai temple in Delhi is a complete deviation from
the traditional frames of reference. It creates its own
concept on the premise of the philosophy of religion.
It relies on symbolism of shape (lotus) and its
associational bonds and yet creates spatial syntax
through varying petal forms, modulated volumes of
curved planes, singular Omni directional space within
circular geometry yet dynamics of lights and shadows
providing accent to different directions over diurnal
or annual sun cycles.
Architect Hiren Patel has had his stint of
abstractions and geometrical references used to

Plan of Sri Sai Spiritual Temple

exposed concrete construction.


Memorial, like shrines, also are apt examples of
space making that goes way beyond function to exalt
physical into metaphysical and nourish mind, body
and soul. Vietnam War Memorial has been one of the
most evocative architecture of modern times with
meagre two walls and ground plane. With minimum
of built, it stands most profoundly interactive in
evoking emotions and engaging perceiver to the
fullest. Each of the design decisions adds value to
make it wholesome architecture with humour, satire,
agitation and consolation. Two wall planes put in
obtuse angle point ironically to Capitol and Lincoln
memorial, where decision to fight war was taken and
charter of freedom was framed respectively. The
angle of the wall creates cornered space and
conscious turn of direction. Diagonally sloping ground
aids in creating sense of volume and enclosure out of
two tapering wall planes. Choice of black granite as
wall material conjures association with Christian
tradition of tomb stone. With soldiers names

Section of Sri Sai Spiritual Temple

conjure domical Islamic structure at Ahmedabad,


while building newer additions of sacred and cultural
places for Islamic faith in newer set of materials.
The MIT chapel at Boston by Eerro Saarinen creates
the psychedelic experiences by the play of lights.
Essentially organised as the cylinder within the
cylinder, it has arched openings at the base of the
drum. The outer cylinder is flanked by the water body.
As a result sunrays bounces off the water body and
gets reflected on the circular wall inside. As the wind
flows, the reflection dangles with the movement of
water. Circular wall of the inner drum further distorts
the shadow forms. Thus, along the route of movement
it creates the sense of turmoil through constantly and
unpredictably moving reflections and ever changing
shadow patterns. The inner space in contrast is serene
and soothing with top lit drum and singular focus.
Architect Tadao Ando achieves the meditative
mood in the nature blessed church site with minimal
wall surfaces or built volumes. Chapel of water,
through movement path defined along water, scale
modulation and view compositions through changing
reflectivity in still water, and play of light through
backdrop of altar wall with cut-out and penetrating
sunlight forming the associable holy cross form and
sense of infinity with unending view of landscape
create serene space conjuring ethos of traditional
churches and yet introducing absolutely
contemporary idioms of modern architecture in

inscribed on stone walls it further establishes


memorial as collective tomb stone of all soldiers that
perished. Names engraved over glossy stone create
amusing graffiti and dynamic compositions with light
and shadows. Gloss of stone reflecting onlookers face
against the backdrop of soldiers name compels one
to question self and agitates to think futility of war.
Names inscribed in non alphabetical manner engage
the perceiver to discover the name one is looking for
and thus involving him in the ritual. It also consoles
the visiting family to know that many soldiers in
addition to their dear ones died for the national
cause. The texture created by engraved names makes
it intensely interactive allowing the relatives to touch,
feel and caress the loved one. Not only that but
putting the paper overlay and rubbing of crayon
generates impression of name as souvenir to carry
back. Cobbled stone strip of floor next to the wall
allows the flower, wreath or personal notes to be
placed in front of the names. The reductively tapering
wall in the exit journey creates reverse transition to
bring one back to present realities and ask one
question what was wars worth and what was I
doing? An amazingly interactive, evocative and
emotionally engaging architecture with only two walls
and a ground plane...
Timeless architecture trades on dualities of time
and space, of mind and matter, of the notions and
reality, of the microcosm and the cosmos, of the
conceptual and perceptual.
Yatin Pandya is the principal architect of FOOTPRINTS
E.A.R.T.H., Ahmedabad, and an ardent writer on various issues
in architecture.

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

35

Architecture for Divinity

Incorporating Curvilinear Forms...


Project: Botta Cripta, Bergamo, Italy
Architects: Gianluca Gelmini, Bergamo, Italy

36

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

he project of the renovation of the crypt is part of a


bigger project for the church of Sacro Cuore e S Egidio
Abate in Sotto il Monte (Bergamo). The project
included the renovation of the church's nave (floor and
presbytery) and the external parts (walls, roof and the new
belfry). This church was built in the 1930 but the original
project was never completed.
The original project included the construction of the church
vestry in the west side of the altar. The project was never
realised, but the need to connect the interior of the church

with the underground crypt led to the creation of a link that


appeared inconsistent with the architecture system, with
spatial and functional limitations .
The project of the new link has been created with the dual
purpose of restoring balance and continuity to the west
elevation of the church and give the right importance to the
stairs connecting the crypt and the nave, using natural light
as the main element of the space.
The use of curvilinear forms has allowed the architects to
circumvent the restricted size, without the perception of the

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

37

38

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

corners. The large window leads a lot of light in the space


and, thanks to white walls, spreads widening perception until
the crypt level.
The work in the crypt concerned in the first place the
reorganisation of the perimeter walls from the damp. Also, in

this space much attention has given to light, in particular the


relationship between natural light and artificial light.
Artificial light has been specially designed to create a light
installation consisting of two rings of six meters in diameter.
This installation understands and measures the curvilinear

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

39

PLAN OF UNDERGROUND CRYPT

space of crypt. The direct and indirect light is dynamic,


becoming a means of communication and expression through
the ability to introduce different lighting scenarios depending
on the activities carried out in the space.

FactFile
Client: Parish of Sacro Cuore E S Egidio Abate,
Botta Di Sotto il Monte Giovanni XXIII, Italy
Design Team: Andrea Mazzucotelli, Andrea Pressiani
Built-up area: 120sq m

Photo credit: Gianluca Gelmini

40

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Year of Completion: 2012

Architecture for Divinity

42

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

SITE PLAN

Minimalistic Design
Project: Shiv Temple, Pune, Maharashtra
Architects: Sameep Padora & Associates, Mumbai

esigned in dialogue with the priest and the people from


surrounding villages, the temple design was a
collaborative effort. Built through Shramdaan (selfbuild) by the villagers, this temple was constructed on a
shoestring budget using local basalt stone as a primary building
block, because of its availability from a quarry within 200m
from the temple site. The stones patina seems to confer age, as
if the temple had always existed before inhabitation.
In realising the temple design in close consultation with
the temple priest and the villagers, the architects attempted
to sieve out thorough discussion and sketched the decorative
components from the symbolic. Adhering to the planning
logic of traditional temple architecture, the form of the
temple chosen evokes in memory, the traditional shikhara
temple silhouette. Only embellishments integral to the
essence of temple architecture in memory, actually appear
in the finished temple.
The heavy foliage of trees along the site edge demarcate an
outdoor room, which become the traditional mandapa
(pillared hall), a room with trees as walls and sky the roof. The

TEMPLE VIEW

1. CORBELED STONE (SHIKHARA)


2. INNER SANCTUM THRESHOLD
3. BASALT STONE WALLS
4. APPROACH

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

43

SECTIONS

1. INNER SANCTUM
(GARBHAGRIHA)
2. ASSEMBLY HALL
(MANDAPA)

GUIDELINES - PLANNING STRUCTURE

path to the temple winds in between white oak trees till two
freestanding basalt stone walls embedded in the landscape that
create pause as well as direct a person onto the east-west axis
on which the garbagriha/inner sanctum lies.
Entry to the sanctum is through an exaggerated threshold
space which in turn frames the outside landscape for the
inside. Stepped seating on the southern edge of the site
negotiates steep contours while transforming the purely
religious space into a socio-cultural one used for festival and
gatherings. Religious iconography in the form of statues of
the holy cow, Nandi etc., become installations in the
landscape, and hence, find their positions in a natural setting
of the metaphoric sky-roofed mandapa.
The ashtadhaatu (eight metal composite) temple kalash
(finial) is held in place by a frame which also anchors a
skylight to allow light to penetrate the inner
sanctum/garbagriha.

ENLARGED DETAIL - SHIKHARA

FactFile
Design team: Sameep Padora, Minal Modak, Vinay Mathias
Documentation: Viresh Mhatre, Anushka Contractor, Maansi Hathiwala,
Prajish Vinayak

Photo credit: Edmund Sumner

Year of completion: 2010

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

45

Architecture for Divinity

46

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Breaking Rigid Boundaries...


Project: Sancaklar Mosque, Buyukekmece, Istanbul
Architects: Emre Arolat Architects, Istanbul, Turkey
by a busy highway. The high walls surrounding the park on
the upper courtyard of the mosque depict a clear boundary
between the chaotic outer world and the serene atmosphere
of the public park. The long canopy stretching out from the
park becomes the only architectural element visible from the
outside. The building is located below this canopy and can be
accessed from a path from the upper courtyard through the

Photo credit: Thomas Mayer

ancaklar Mosque located in Buyukekmece, a suburban


neighbourhood in the outskirts of Istanbul, aims to
address the fundamental issues of designing a mosque by
distancing itself from the current architectural discussions based
on form and focusing solely on the essence of religious space.
The project site is located in a prairie landscape that is
separated from the surrounding suburban gated communities

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

47

SITE PLAN

Photo credit: Thomas Mayer

48

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

SECTIONS

FLOOR PLAN

Interior view of the mosque

Exterior view of the mosque

Photo credit: Cemal Emden

Photo credit: Cemal Emden

Since 1925 the global precast


concrete industry trust on
know-how and expertise from Vollert.
Simply the best technology for the
production of plane and structural
precast elements for residential housing
and industrial buildings.
Debashish Roy
Vollert India Pvt Ltd
Phone +91 844 7731109
debashish.roy@vollert.in

www.vollert.de
www.YouTube.com/VollertPrecast

Photo credit: Thomas Mayer

park. The building blends in completely with the topography


and the outside world is left behind as one moves through
the landscape, down the hill and in between the walls to
enter the mosque.
The interior of the mosque, a simple cave like space,
becomes a dramatic and awe inspiring place to pray and be
alone with God. The slits and fractures along the Qiblah wall
enhances the directionality of the prayer space and allows
daylight to filter into the prayer hall.
The project constantly plays off of the tension between
man-made and natural. The contrast between the natural
stone stairs following the natural slope of the landscape and
the thin reinforced concrete slab spanning over 6m to form
the canopy helps enhance this dual relationship.

Photo credit: Cemal Emdern

FactFile
The project won the best religious building award in the World Architecture

Built-up area: 700.0sq m

Festival held in 2013.

Year of completion: 2012

52

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Architecture for Divinity

Luce Memorial Chapel, Tunghai University, Taiwan, by I M Pei

Photo credit: Narendra Dengle

functionally, religious centres have expanded,


based on their own visions of the utility of
religion in day-to-day life...
By Narendra Dengle

eligious architecture would encompass many


typologies that include buildings for worship,
places of deities, places associated with rituals
from birth to death, even commercial places that sell
material employed during rituals, places of
pilgrimages, dharamshalas, ashrams, monasteries and
nunneries, places for meditation and retreat, and
related residential buildings, treasuries, underground
cellars, water bodies, strong geographical contexts
such as hills, rivers, the oceans, forests et al. There are
individual worshipping places, as well as, campuses
that hold many other facilities like eateries, libraries,

54

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

book shops, craft centres, chanting halls, assemblies,


etc. The scope of the topic is vast; hence this essay
attempts to discuss issues that mark the course of
contemporary architecture related to religious places.
The fact that religious architecture has
contemporised means that there have been
departures in: Concepts of religion and rituals; the
spread of the religion to distant places from that of its
origin and to other social-environmental contexts; and
the methods of perceiving form and constructing them
varying from those in the past.
Departure and deviation from orthodoxy in religion

Distortions and compromises in doctrines due to


the aberrations, religions suffer from invasions,
colonisation, conversions, migrations, diaspora,
economic globalisation and also through the
intercourse with socio-political discourses of other
cultures, alter the form and accent of space of religious
places. This is clearly noticeable in the religious places
conceived and built by migrant populations in cultures
dominated by different faiths. A city like Cologne in
Germany in the heart of Europe with its own
distinguished history witnesses the construction of a
very architectonic mosque after much debate,
undergoing scrutiny by other religious faiths, and
intelligentsia and finally seeing light of the day,
despite the different perceptions and disagreement
among its citizens. On the other hand, if one looks at
the process of building a temple in an Indian village,
one notices that the particular deity for whom the
temple was originally designed has now been
crammed with a number of other deities that come up
because a devotee sees them in a dream telling them
to make a place for worship for it, as the legends
behind many temples inform us. The new construction
that must account for the deitys sanctity and
symbolism hence is faced with a difficult task of
whether and how to put all these different deities
under one roof, or create a format for establishing all
of them by evolving a new form. The lack of
comprehension adds to the imagery that the villagers
groom in their minds, either collectively or
individually, which becomes an adversary of any
logical design synthesis. Ironically, these tendencies are
by no means entirely contemporary, culturally
speaking. Such problems existed in the past as well
and solutions were cleverly devised in formats
acceptable to most diverse groups with a geometry
that was aesthetically pleasing.
Hegemony of the priesthood over the uninitiated
and downtrodden, exploited and oppressed society
resulting into conditioned blind beliefs, perpetuating

Photo credit: Narendra Dengle

occur in the concepts of: deity, mythology thought,


rituals and methods of worship, life and death, life
after death, reincarnation, spirit, iconography
associated with legends and gods, atman, which we
know have spread out in several branches away from
the ancient religions. Often, these branches have been
at loggerheads, uncompromisingly, among themselves,
giving rise to major conflicts and violence within a
religion. Architecture becomes a symbolic narrative of
such deviations because it must discover new ground
for architectural edifice away from tradition without
necessarily claiming religiosity associated with
organised religions.
Incomprehensibility of ancient traditions and texts
too becomes a factor to reckon with. Either the
people who can make sense of the ancient text rare to
find or where available they are steeped into
orthodoxy in that they would simply adhere to the
ancient methods of building the places of worship, as
if the time has come to a stand-still. The question of
lineage of the gurus and the enlightened also matters
and with a break in the lineage the patterns of the
paths followed are different. The beliefs in identifying
the Tulkus or the avatars too have undergone
transformations along with the faith. The Dalai Lama,
declaring that there would be no more Tulkus, has
created a storm of sort even among the communist
China. Tools of interpretation and hermeneutics can
be an interesting way to discover a new logical path
but this is not the option available in most cases due
to lack of intellectual resources or sustained effort.
Architects rarely follow an interdisciplinary approach
in design that combines textual comprehension with
their discipline and are engaged in constructional
processes of the day-to-day matters. Indulging in
form-space modulations with attention to functional
issues, more rigorously than to uncover newer paths
intellectually or historically along with someone who
comprehends the texts has been a hangover from the
modern movement.

Cologne Central Mosque, Germany, 2010


Norbulinga Monastery, Dharamshala

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

55

notices certain carry forward of traditional spaces used


for meditation, lectures/debates and residence. The

Photo credit: Narendra Dengle

Norbulingka Monastery has had contributions from


different architects in its architecture and landscape

Dolma Ling Institute and Nunnery, Sidhpur, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh.

design. Rarely does one find one architect working


continuously on the various phases of development of
such campuses. The devotees are most enthusiastic
and make contributions varying from engineering
knowledge, architecture and landscape as also going
into technical matters of illumination, acoustics and
other areas. The nunnery, which has been under
construction for some years, has addressed issues with
regard to rituals and traditions of the monastic
community by using a system of courtyards effectively.
Ashrams and retreats for meditation often become like
secure niches for communities that offer libraries and
different cuisines being served during meals. No more

East London Mosque on


Whitechapel Road, London

Water Temple by Tadao Ando

psychological, physical insecurities leading to over


dependence on religious ritualism, contribute to
certain ceremonial features of spatial hierarchy in
places of worship. Politically ensuring that economic
disparity in society continues relentlessly has been an
ancient ploy of domination assuring formal status quo
in the designs of places of worship. Self-promoting
religious teachers, who have managed marketing their
brand of religiosity successfully, exhibit a mockery of
architectural expression promoting far more fantastic
film-sets like palace-temples, rarely based on any
historical strata. Larger gatherings demand larger
assembly spaces and have become challenging
architectural-structural issues.
One should be able to classify the various aspects
of religious architecture mentioned in the beginning of
this article so as to comprehend an architects
approach to campus design for such places. Places
which are not necessarily places of worship but for
training in meditational practices try to ensure certain
sanctity in the campus, which is usually not associated
with noisy, busy, ritualistic places of worship. Both
encourage congregational activities and have similar
demands on structures and volumes for scale but the
ambiance and quality differ considerably as can be
noticed in Vipasanna centres, Zen monasteries and so
forth. Norbulingka Monastery and the nunnery at
Dharamshala are contemporary interventions where
the critical approach of the architects involved is
encouraging and evident. In those campuses one

56

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

the ashrams are frugal and austere in outlook as a rule.


Histories associated with spiritual leaders have
inspired meticulously planned museums that hold
clothes, utilitarian objects used by them, and of
course, the visual and textual information. The most
meticulously planned collection is to be found at
Meherabad near Ahmednagar where the objects used
by Sri Meherbaba have been collected from all over
the world and preserved in a mortuary like
atmosphere where no natural light is allowed to enter,
and the temperature within the building is closely
monitored for the fear of deterioration of the objects.
The objects would further be examined for
authenticity before eventually displaying in the
proposed museum.
The effect of the demands on space has led to
multi deity multi-storeyed worshipping places
although a traditional approach especially becomes
prominent in their endeavour to find urban inserts
where land cost becomes a major factor. Inter
community tensions and rivalries also become
responsible for their growth or suppression in cities.
Newly built urban inserts are to be seen invariably in
comparison with ancient and old existing religious
places that continue to be popular and witness an
increased following. Comparisons between the
contemporary and the ancient are inevitable so far as
the non-negotiable elements of architecture how
these evoke the proper atmosphere and how these,
therefore, manifest anew. In some of the meditational
places, the traditional Buddhist or Hindu manner of
sitting in sukhasan have given way to sitting in chairs
as if in an auditorium even wearing shoes. This
adaptation to new demand for convenience has
naturally altered the form of traditional meditational
space. Together, these various types would constitute
the idea of contemporary religious architecture.

Factors compelling the religious outlook and


rituals often are critically edited to reduce the
duration and for easy comprehension by laypersons

scale and features which require skilful negotiations


by the architect.

in cities, especially in a foreign country, or in a


country, where a particular religion may not have

based on their own visions of the utility of religion in


day-to-day life of the common citizen. The functions

the same following as in the country of its origin,


which also become major contemporary issues

extend into number of fields such as education, social


work, service to the poor, developmental work, health

assuming political importance.


Practical limitations in construction systems and

and medical facilities and even participation in


political activity. Intervention in education,

methodologies are highlighted by non-availability of


appropriate land, locations as per the traditional

encompasses teaching philosophies, religious studies,


ancient languages and dialects, and the campuses

rules and financial resources, provisions under the


local law for raising resources legitimately from

provide for functions such as language laboratories


and conservation, translation of scriptures,

private and public funds, political and social


patronage and their resulting compromising effect on

documenting varied data, archiving philosophical and


spiritual studies and scriptures, museology, large

architectural expression, unsteady and unaccounted


cash and its flow commensurate with the pace of

libraries, research laboratories, etc, all of which


reframe the brief logically, scientifically going beyond

construction together decide the course of


architecture, time it must take, and even departures it
must allow in the original plan.
The qualitative aspect takes a beating when the

the mere worshipping and religious rituals. In such


cases, the campuses become more like educational
institutes or even small scale universities with
residential facility for scholars. The impact of such
functional activities on the architecture of religious
places opens an entirely different, perhaps a secular,
space for studying and researching, albeit with the
atmosphere that has spiritual aura about it.
The departure from methods of construction of
the past is owed to all the above mentioned reasons
and also the market forces that dump newer
materials enticing the user to employ them in
construction. Non availability of certain key building
materials and induction of newer materials leads to
importing crafted pieces, idols, fountains, symbols,
murals, drapery, metal and woodwork, considered
invaluable and indispensable to the basic tenets of
religious practices. The process often manifests in
distortions in traditional elements in their scale,
importance and construction, as the same elements
have to be built using local materials and labour.
Here, one also may note that a complete thrust
towards the so called authentic look or style is often
attempted despite the adverse social or cultural ethos
especially from the perspective of the diaspora. So,
one may have two extreme conditions- one that is
coming to terms with the local syntax and the other
trying to go back to its original aestheticism and in
the process may appear to be fundamentally alien to
the context, climate and environmental concerns.
Architects have a tough time in entering the territory
of history and take a call on what is meant by visual
conformation with traditional elements and what is
liberating from them. A lot of post-modern issues
come into consideration in examining the contexts
for new expression. There have been examples of
Christian church structures being adopted skilfully for

patron, the architect and the builder agency do not


work as a team. But when they do, the result is highly
pleasing spatially, functionally and aesthetically. The
procedural hold-ups are due to interference in design
both conceptually and methodologically. Patronarchitect is an extremely delicate association, which
enhances with their partnership, sharing the vision,
concept and devotion, and can contribute most
fruitfully to the execution of the project. While the
devotees can contribute financially, as well as
technologically, their over-enthusiasm can be of
hindrance if the decision making process is obscure.
Higher security concerns resulting from the threat of
terrorist activity, infighting within trusts, varied
visions and the polemic aspirations of devotees can
tear the fabric of architectural language into shreds.
Most religious places need approvals from the local
administrative and police authorities to ensure safety.
Barrier free strategies and provisions thereof to enable
all kinds of disable devotees and visitors to use the
campus also have brought in a different dimension of

Hurva Synagogue Project, after Louis I Kahn, phase 1, 1968

Functionally, religious centres have expanded,

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

57

sanitation. To address these, the state governments


energise to form strategies. The cities inflate as it were
like balloons and deflate after the melas but in the

Islamic mosques, as seen in Turkey, and the same


becoming accepted trendsetters for further mosques
to be built.
Trained architects being disconnected from the
traditional methods of construction, as well as,
philosophies behind them, see it as a form making
exercise. The expression of architecture in such cases is

meanwhile these cities suffer extraordinary stresses


testing the elasticity of their infrastructure. On the
other hand there have been some mosques, which
have been built in harmony with the townscape and
the terrace housing that precede it and appear like
part of the precinct with minor variations created by a
dome or a minaret.
Exploring light, air, water, texture and scale to
transcend rigid traditions of spatial organisation and
onto logically looking at pure elements is what has
been achieved wonderfully in his temple designs by
Tadao Ando because they are capable of bringing
one to ones inner self experiencing meditative
silence. The Water Temple is the residence of Ninnaji
Shingon, the oldest sect of Tantric Buddhism in

an attempt to reconcile with many other types of

Japan, founded in 815. The building, (90-91) at

buildings the architect may be engaged in designing

Awaji, Hygo, Japan, offers a sensory experience of

and hence carrying imagery unsuited in the syntax. An

light and sound that is radically different from the

architect, who is not the so called temple architect,


and yet is called upon to design it, has his/her own
way of entering the process.
Inevitable hybridisation of imagery happens with
architects wanting to be innovative through
collaborations with newer forms of religious

tradition of building temples in Japan. One is also


reminded of the majestic synagogue designed by
Louis Kahn in Israel with the stunning sense of light
and space, which could not be built in his life time.
The Ismaili Centre designed by Charles Correa in
Toronto (2014) brings light in two layers of
translucent roofing in a dynamic way deviating from
how it was done in the past and yet bringing forth
the spiritual aspect of space most effectively.
Religious places which can be called
contemporary in their functional resolve show
sanitised needs, maintenance becoming an
aggressively uncompromising feature, often using
imported materials as if the devotees are possessed
by the memories of the places of their origin.
Architecture becomes a symbol of power and wealth
through the awe that it creates in its monumental
form. The effect of the sublime being considered as
the only major aesthetic charge can both be an
effective tool or a disastrous one. This tendency can
sway between display of gross wealth and opulence
cramming a lot of irrelevant crafted iconography and
decorations on one hand, while on the other
exploring the monumental sublime form minimally
and sensitively. The former variety of examples is
termed antisocial and filthily opulent in some
developing countries where large populations suffer
from malnutrition and hunger leading to protests
and social tensions. Examples such as the Crystal
Mosque in the Islamic Heritage Park in Malaysia
where basically the traditional form comprising of
domes and minarets but executed in glass also
indicates a craze for novelty and power.

Ismaili Centre Toronto by Charles Correa

Crystal Mosque, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

tendencies and rethinking philosophies together for


the basis of space-form relationship, as well as, visual
influences through media. But time alone can tell
whether this type of space making can be of lasting
value. Religious places that become hi-tech have the
aspirations to show off the so called latest technologies
for the awe inspiring effect in their public areas.
Mosques in the Middle East boast of capacities
going beyond tens of lakhs of devotees. In such cases
technology does come as a boon to ensure safety,
economy of infrastructural work, energy conservation,
easy entrance-exit situation and emergencies.
Religious places in India such as Allahabad, or Nasik
during the Mahakumbh celebrations assume
unmanageable scale and become huge problems of

58

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Continuation of traditions is very much a contemporary


way of building religious places. With the historical context
withering away this type of architecture becomes kitsch in that
it becomes obsessed with the past, blind to the present. Along
with the above mentioned departures from the tradition one
has also to recognise those traditional aspects, which have
fundamentally remained unaltered. Faith and devotion is a
force, which cannot be logically analysed and will continue
despite the enlightenment and rationality associated with
modernism, scientific and technological innovations, theories
on origin of life and genetic engineering. This is also evident
from a host of scientists, doctors, politicians, industrialists, etc,
who appear to be rational and pragmatic but continue to be
devotional or ritualistic in their private lives to the extent of
being superstitious. The congregational issues have been
entirely based on devotion and faith. Larger number of
devotees flock the major centres of religions all over the world
not withstanding socialist revolution as is witnessed after the
disintegration of the erstwhile Soviet Union. The architecture
of the open space and covered space that accommodate huge
populations needs close consideration in the aesthetics of
contemporary religious places.
Symbolism associated with particular deities, their vehicles
and their weaponry and other visual attributes, iconography,
without which the deity cannot be recognised becomes an
aspect of design and craft traditions that continues in Hindu
architecture. Similarly the Buddhist, Confucian and Tao temples
in China, Japan, where symbolism plays a major role in
defining entrances, spaces, numerology, where columns and
beams are not just columns, beams, roofing rafters, patterns in
the jaalis, alone, but have deeper symbolic presence in the
local consciousness. Depiction of animals, trees, flowers and
mountains, waterfalls, fish, is suggestive of how many elements
can make a particular architectural feature, all of which have
remained unchanged in most cases. However one finds that
designers have taken liberty from adhering to the subtlety of
text that clarify and identify all the attributes of a deity either
out of ignorance, or interpretations, which are part of
contemporary sensibility.
The above categories may be useful to identify the types of
religious places in different countries and faiths. It would be
important to note that in the developing world, where the
word contemporary would mean coexistence of the tribal, the
rural, the folk, the popular, the urban, and the orthodox, and
whose respective worshipping tendencies vary considerably
and edifices for them may have to be examined on
considerably different footings; not applying the same criteria
for any critical approach.
All photographs courtesy: Narendra Dengle

Narendra Dengle is the principal architect at Narendra Dengle and


Associates, Pune.
(With research assistance by Minal Sagare)

Architecture for Divinity

A Spiritual Setting
Project: Mhasoba Mandir, Kharawade, Pune (under construction)
Architects: Narendra Dengle and Associates, Pune

hasoba is a pastoral deity worshipped in southern


rural Maharashtra. It is known to be fearsome
sometimes associated with black magic, and also a
guardian for the forests. Supposedly wandering through the
forests, the deity did not, traditionally, have a formal temple.
The earlier shrines used to be located under trees as humble
thatched huts. The trustees of the devasthan approached us
some five years ago. They had seen the Ramakrishna Mandir
we designed in Pune (2000) and wanted us to design the
Mhasoba Mandir, where the original temple existed in the
village Kharawade, on the way to Lavasa. The region is
wonderful in its natural pristine beauty with lush green
landscape, local trees and farms going down to the river

SECTION

surrounded by hills. The region is breathtakingly scenic in


monsoon. In the summer months it gets very hot and one
desperately looks for shade. We tried to reason saying that the
deity does not need a temple, but the villagers, who had
already built one in stone some years before, were very keen
to have the entire campus well designed. We agreed. On every
Amavasya, besides the major Hindu festivals, the devotees
throng the temple in large numbers. All sacrificial practices
followed previously have been totally stopped by the villagers,
who are concerned about the sanctity of the place.
The existing campus, spread over about 1.8-acres, was on a
site that sloped down from the hill top which was part of the
forest area. The trustees had built three structures at the site

besides the shrine one that was called the Bhakta Niwas, the
other a prasadalaya - used for serving prasad, and the third, a
Samadhi for a sadhu who lived there years ago. A double
storeyed building that housed several shops selling pooja
material, flowers and snacks also existed. The shrine itself was
a structure in stone attached with a garbhagriha in wood and
masonry. This would all be demolished keeping the idol which
was a natural eruption of rock around which the geometry of
the new campus would be planned. The shops would be
demolished while all other structures would be retained.

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

61

We conceptualised a campus with three large courtyards


or angans, the entrance court would be the bazaar court
selling pooja articles leading to another court- lagnamandapa
or the wedding court that would hold large-scale functions
including the mass wedding ceremonies for over 100 couples
simultaneously. This would further lead to the sabhamadapa
court. The main temple now consists of the garbhagriha,
sambhamandapa and the natyamandapa perpendicular to
the access of the temple these are surrounded by the
osaries which are really like resting verandas for the devotees
who may want to spend some time in the campus, have their
meals, etc. The osaries help define the angan. The 6m high
retaining wall at the back of the garbhagriha has been
provided with niches for more images that the devotees want
to place associated with the deity and the myth. Surrounding
the garbhagriha are two more shrines of folk deities locally
worshipped. The geometry of the courts and the proportion
system of various roofs has been given careful consideration.
The court surrounding the garbhagriha and sabhamandapa
has ample space for ritualistic processions of the palakhi on
certain days. The natyamanadpa which has been designed
like an amphitheatre would have kirtans, devotional music
and other forms of performing arts. The form of the canopy
over the natyamandapa provides a reflecting surface for the
sound emitting from the performing area of the stage and
has been designed so that the sound reaches the audience
without much artificial acoustic aid; a provision of sound
system too has been put in place. The canopys form reflects
that of the sabhamandapa roof by inverting it. The master
plan respects the natural terrain in the step-down form
culminating into the natyamandapa.
Natural light and ventilation demanded attention because
of the large number of devotees visiting the temple. They

62

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

11
1
2

10

SITE PLAN

would reach the garbhagriha for the darshan, by walking


throughout the darshabari, or the queuing vestibule that
forked out into a stepped one and the one with a ramp
respectively. It was important that everyone walked and
queued up under shade in the summer months. The
darshanbari is ventilated through two kinds of jaalis designed
by us. One is made of granite slabs in a grid form and the
other in ceramic pipes sloping down outward at lower and
higher levels that allow filtered light and ventilation. There
are no electric fans in the darshabari whatsoever.

ELEVATION

12

1. GARBHAGRIHA
2. SABHAMANDAPA
3. NATYAMANDAPA
4. COURTYARD 3
5. KUND
6. GATEWAY TO COURT 3

7. COURTYARD 2 : LAGNAMANDAPA
8. COURTYARD 1 : BAZAR COURT
9. OWRI
10. EXISTING PRASADALAYA
11. EXISTING BHAKTA NIWAS
12. EXISTING SAMADHI

We proposed to use the natural and local materials namely


the deccan trap stone for the principal masonry for the base
structure and exposed brick work for higher walls evoking
traditional architecture of Pune region. Since Mhasoba did not
have any temples and this was going to be the first large-scale
temple we resolved the thematic issues to address the manner
in which the temple has come to be used over the years and
the imagery that befitted the regional context. The brick has
been obtained from Godhra, Gujarat, since the local brick is no
more of the desired quality.

The construction of the shikhara has been done in


ferrocement precast ribs and cast in situ verticals. This needed
precision in casting, as well as, placing in position. The
garbhagriha roof too is done in ferrocement designed to be
80mm thick sandwiching a layer of thermocol in the two layers
of ferrocement. The courts would all be paved in Vidhishastone obtained from Madhya Pradesh. The rainwater and
surface water harvesting is planned by creating trenches in the
courts and leading to the kund built on south-west end of the
property. Sub-soil filtering arrangement of water has been
planned by means of sand-gravel filters so that the kund retains
clean water.
Finding an agency that would execute the work by reading
details comprehensively and plan out strategies for every
stage for such works is a huge problem. Civil contractors are
very happy these days pouring huge amounts of concrete
and are concerned about time involvement. Resourcing funds
from devotees, the government and other private sources
was done by the trustees very efficiently and resourcefully,
however, the same takes a long time. No urban contractor,
who has the right infrastructure, can afford to wait and move
slowly commensurate with the uncertainty of cash flow. This
led to hiring local civil contractors, who are not habituated to
reading drawings but are familiar with general and gross
nature of civil construction. We had therefore to deal with at
least three different contractors, explain the scheme, read out

64

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

the drawings over and again to them and supervise the works
as closely as possible all of which demanded endless patience
both in communicating and correcting/amending works and
errors, and getting over negligence, but without crossing
these hurdles the work would never have seen the light of
the day. At the moment except for the baazar-entrance court,
the construction has reached a reasonable level to be
occupied and used. In another four months or so we expect
the work in hand to complete.
Text by Narendra Dengle

FactFile
Client: Mhasoba Devasthan Trust
Design team: Narendra Dengle, Shekhar Garud, Minal Sagare, Yashashree
Lambay, Dhanashree Ghaisas, Radhika Murthy, Ruchika Lodha
Consultants: B V Bhedasgaokar Consulting Engineers, Pune (Structural),
MEP Systems Solutions, Pune (Services)
Contractors: Jaihind Saakar, Kalbhor, T S Pawar, The Creation (Civil Work);
Ferrocrete work - Ashok R Godbole (Shikhara), Kuhera Construction
(Sabhamandapa roof); Yash Construction, Mr Krishna (Stone work); Mannu
Sharma (Woodwork); Bhalachandra Kadu (Kalasha)
Proposed Built-up area: 900sq m
Cost of project: Rs 5.00 crore
Year of completion: Under Construction

Architecture for Divinity

66

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

The White Church


Project: Parish Church of Solace, Cordoba, Spain
Architects: Vicens + Ramos, Madrid, Spain

he parish centre is located on a corner plot in a


residential area between Historiador Dozy and
Francisco Azorn streets. The extended side is situated
in front of a green zone and the lateral side faces residential
buildings. The rest of the surroundings are still undeveloped.
To the north and west of the plot the structure is set back four
metres off the boundaries. On the north side, the entire
surface which coincides with the length of the structure is
occupied by an English style garden at the height of the
basement, to allow light and ventilation and give a courtyard
that can be accessible by the public.

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

67

FLOOR LEVEL -1

68

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

FLOOR LEVEL 0

FLOOR LEVEL 1

SECTION

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

69

The complete parish is enclosed by a single prism with the


peculiarity that the short facade on the corner rises to seek
the utmost possible light, fusing three concepts that are
historically separate the bell-tower, singular facade and light
entrance or skylight. The prism is white prefabricated concrete
with a fluted base able to introduce horizontal light.

70

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

The prism consists of the vestibule on the opposite end of


the front wall of the presbytery, from where one enters the
temple, the local parish basement and the first floor dwellings.
The entrance of the church has access to the sacristy, the chorus,
the main hall and the chapel of the Blessed.
The interior space is unified by a cloud with a convex plain

form locked in by the structure. The cloud circulates around


the space until it is lost in the heights of the skylight. The light
fades on the curved plane while dripping the headwall of the
presbytery. This diffused light illuminates the entire temple.
In the chapel of the Blessed a similar cloud forms the ceiling,
like in the main hall, but instead it rises and bends down to
accommodate the altar. The unity of the composition like the
unit to which sacred architecture aspires allows the
integration on the idea of a temple a sacred art inside. Many
artists have added their work to the final configuration of the
sacred space.
The contributing artists are: Fernando Pagola the altar,
ambo and the seat of the temple, Cesar Barrio the altar of
the Blessed Sacrament, Jose Antonio the Viacrusis, Javier
Martinez made Our Lady of Consolation of Javier Martinez,
Javier Margarit did both the Christ in the nave and the Christ
in chapel of the Blessed and the roof paintings are by Pablo
and Jaime Ramos.

FactFile
Contributors: Fernando Gil, Pablo Gutierrez, Joaquin Esperon, Desire Gonzlez,
Romina Barbieri, Raul Rodriguez, Tibor Martin, Patricia Elena, Javier Margarit.

Author: Ignacio Vicens and Hualde, Jos Antonio Ramos Abengzar

Year of completion: 2011

Architecture for Divinity

Sacred Space
Project: Universal Prayer Hall, Gurgaon, Haryana
Architects: Sikka Associates Architects, New Delhi

amaste a spiritual gesture, not a mere word, has


a deep spiritual significance. The divine in me
honours the divine in you. It recognises that the
Almighty resides in each one of us. This unifying essence or
oneness is acknowledged by folded hands. This forms the
basis of the Universal Prayer Hall.
The prayer hall is infused with a subtle colour palette of
white and grey. The folded hands are built with a

72

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

combination of serene white marble and Glass Reinforced


Concrete (GRC) jaali. The two wings encase the glass with
aluminium fins, radiating light. A soothing sensation is
provided by the water body around the building. The hall is
elevated 16ft above the ground.
The pristine white is complemented by the lush greens
around providing a buffer from the heavy traffic. The hall
provides a respite from the monotonous and busy lives of the

people. Placed at a central axis to the road, the building


makes itself worthy of the attention providing a chance to
peep into our own self.
The entrance is through a flight of steps adding to the
grandeur of the building, and is flanked by greenery. When
we enter the prayer hall, we experience our essence being
flooded with light.

1
4

FIRST FLOOR PLAN (WITH PARTITION CLOSED)

4
5

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

floor offers a break from the outer world with senior citizens
lounge accompanied by a library, an office and a shop.
The white reflects purity and completeness and the hands
suggest that there is no piece of creation built without the
hands of the creatorthe Almighty. The water body signifies
the act of purification when we link ourselves to the
Almighty. The elevated built form marks the aspect that we

1. ENTRY
2. EXIT
3. HALL 1 (PRAYER)
4. HALL 2 (YOGA)
5. AREA FOR SERVICES

1
3

1. ENTRY
2. EXIT
3. HALL BELOW
4. OFFICE

5. SENIOR CITIZENS LOUNGE


6. SHOP
7. LIBRARY
8. AREA FOR SERVICES

Built on a site of 0.4 acres, the built form stands 70ft high.
The plan is circular with a radius of 44ft. The core consists of
two lifts and a staircase. The first floor is flexible enough to be
used as a prayer hall solely or to be used as a prayer hall and
a yoga hall separated by a vertical partition. The hall has a
capacity of over 400 people without the partition. The second

FIRST FLOOR PLAN (WITH PARTITION OPEN)

1. ENTRY
2. EXIT
3. HALL
4. AREA FOR SERVICES

must look up to the Almighty. It evokes a sense of respect


and sacredness to the form. The light in the interior makes us
feel enlightened delving into our inner soul. Based on the
concept Namaste, the hall creates a tranquil environment
that negates our egos and prejudices and alludes to
awakening of the soul.
The two wings of the building are folded together like
hands greeting the city, symbolising welcome as seen in the
cultural context of India. There is a diversity of religions in
Indian society giving rise to various religious buildings but
this halll acts as a unifying entity bringing the concept of
universal religion. The hall exemplifies contemporary
interpretation of spiritual architecture.
Text by Medha Sobti

FactFile
Client: DLF
Design team: Mr Raman Sikka, Mr Sarfaraz Patel, Ms Medha Sobti
Consultants: M/s Mehro Consultants (Structural)
Built-up area: 21,000sq ft
Cost of project: Rs 110 Lakh
Status: Competition Entry

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

73

Architecture for Divinity

A Community
Church
Project: Community Church Knarvik, Hordaland, Norway
Architects: Reiulf Ramstad Arkitekter, Oslo, Norway

he new Community Church in Knarvik, located on the


scenic west-coast of Norway north of Bergen, is built
on a privileged site overlooking the cultural landscape
and local town centre. The building is carefully adapted to an
existing hillside between built and natural environment,
providing the church with an inspiring context of the
surrounding heath landscape. Its distinctive and innovative
character and central location makes it a landmark in the
community, to be inviting and inclusive for all people to
cultivate their faith throughout the week.
The church signals its function with a sacral dignity and
recognisable form, where the church spire, sanctuary and
chapel are emphasised by ascending roof planes. Inspired by
the local tradition of Norwegian stave churches, the building
utilises clear and elemental geometries, materials and
constructions. The compact building volume is split into two
stories on a rectangular plan, separating the sacred spaces
above from the cultural and administrative functions below. An
internal church square connects the two levels with an atrium
stair into a continuous space, and may be joined or separated
from the sanctuary with sliding glass walls to accommodate
more than 500 people.

74

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

75

SITE PLAN

76

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

77

UPPER LEVEL PLAN

LOWER LEVEL PLAN

SECTION

SECTION

Wood is the key material of the project, expressed in the


homogeneous cladding of pre-weathered pine heartwood and
mirrored by the light-coloured pine finish on all interior
surfaces. The building permits daylight into its volume through
lancet-reminiscent tall and narrow windows, splayed in plan to
maximise admittance and reduce glare. At night, the warm
glow of the interior reveals the activities of its religious and
cultural events.
The church aspires to provide a platform for a safe
upbringing for children and youth, to become a local venue
for gatherings and faith, and to facilitate art, music and
cultural development. The Community Church Knarvik has
an architectural expression, spatial solutions and materiality
which unites religion, culture and the site-specific context
into a whole.
Photo credits: Reiulf Ramstad Arkitekter/Hundven-Clements Photography

FactFile
Client: Linds Church Council
Design team: Reiulf Ramstad, Christian Skram Fuglset, Anders Tjnneland
Consultants: Norconsult AS (Technical), Reinertsen AS (Acoustic)
Contractors: 7Fjell Entreprenr As
Built-up area: 2,250sq m (building), 15,000sq m (total planning area)
Cost of project: 80 million NOK
Year of completion: 2014

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

79

Architecture for Divinity

The Meditation Hall


Project: Meditation Hall, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, New Delhi
Architects: Design Consortium, New Delhi

80

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

editation is a mental discipline aimed at


transcending the limitations of the thinking mind to
plunge into a deeper state of awareness, a state in
which, in the words of Sri Aurobindo, Our spirit sits alone and
speaks to its gulfs.
Inspired by the Buddhist architectural form, the project is
the outcome of a sensitive design developed from the twin
ideas of connecting with the spirit and reaching the almighty.

An attempt has been made to create an interactive interface


with the external environment and has evolved from a
rectangular plan with a vaulted roof, as conceived from the
Buddhist Chaitya hall.
The design attempts a seamless integration of the play of
light, form and the surrounding greenery, with the Samadhi
as the focal point. Portrayed as an extended altar, the
Samadhi has been treated as a symbol of imagery and

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

81

iconography. The front elevation on the north, facing the


Samadhi, silhouettes the hands rising in prayer, which
symbolises aspiration and devotion.
Along the diagonal axis, the building touts open corners
while remaining contained within the structural framework.
The services of the building are kept isolated in the four
corners. Slit windows for diffused light were inculcated in the
elevation. These breakup the large mass of the building and
lend a sense of height to the structure.
The material selection criteria also reflects the harmonious
interaction of the locally available materials. The constraints
of performance specifications in relation to surfaces also had to
be kept in mind. Thus, the conscious choice was made towards
stone, marble and wooden flooring.
The pitched roof rises up in a pyramidal configuration
symptomatic of power whereas the vaulted roof depicts the
cosmos. A deliberate attempt to create an uneven roof to
reduce the harsh effects of the projected sunlight, led to the
evolution of the combined roof. This helped in conserving the
genesis of the project which is also reflected in the elevation
representing silhouettes of hands rising in prayer.

82

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

1. ENTRANCE
2. MEDITATION HALL
3. VIEW TOWARDS SAMADHI

3
1

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

1. BALCONY
2. MEDITATION HALL BELOW
3. SEATING

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

83

SITE PLAN

1. MEDITATION HALL
2. SAMADHI

SECTION

The idea was to minimise the effects of mid-summer sun.


This has thus been achieved by reducing the fenestrations to
slits in the eastern and western facades. Openings in the north
and south sections were maximised to imbibe an experience
of seasons and minimise the heat transfer. An amalgam
consisting of east and west oriented vaulted roof and north and
south oriented pitched roof is evocative of the buildings
symbolic intentions.

84

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

The contrast of diffused lighting in the interior and warm


lighting in the exterior reflects the harmony in design and at
the same time contributes to the creation of a meditative
ambience. The various levels created with the vaulted and
pitched roof are highlighted by the subtle lighting scheme
which in total enhances the spiritual experience of the
interior space.
The project is a representation of the various symbolic

Are you interested


Op p ort un i t i e s to ava i l t e c h n ic a l
s up p ort of top s w i s s c on s ulta n t s
f or de si g n i ng en er g y - effic i en t
c o m m er c i a l & r e si den t i a l b ui l di ng s
The ,QGR6ZLVV %XLOGLQJ (QHUJ\ (IFLHQF\ 3URMHFW %((3 1 LV SURYLGLQJ WHFKQLFDO VXSSRUW WR
,QGLDQ EXLOGHUV DQG GHYHORSHUV WR GHVLJQ FOLPDWHUHVSRQVLYH ORZ HQHUJ\ DQG KLJK SHUIRUPDQFH
FRPPHUFLDO DQG UHVLGHQWLDO EXLOGLQJV %((3 LQYLWHV SURMHFW SURSRVDOV IURP EXLOGHUV GHYHORSHUV
RZQHUV RI ODUJH FRPPHUFLDO DQG UHVLGHQWLDO SURMHFWV ZKLFK DUH LQ WKHLU HDUO\ GHVLJQ VWDJH

The technical assistance to the selected projects will be provided free of cost and will be
borne under the BEEP project.

&

or


7KH ,QGR6ZLVV %XLOGLQJ (QHUJ\ (IFLHQF\ 3URMHFW %((3 LV D ELODWHUDO FRRSHUDWLRQ SURMHFW EHWZHHQ WKH 0LQLVWU\ RI 3RZHU 0R3 
*RYHUQPHQW RI ,QGLD DQG WKH )HGHUDO 'HSDUWPHQW RI )RUHLJQ $IIDLUV )')$ RI WKH 6ZLVV )HGHUDWLRQ

MAXIMUM OPENINGS ON NORTH


AND SOUTH DIRECTION TO
ACHIEVE MAXIMUM LIGHTING
USING ACC BLOCKS INSTEAD OF
BRICKS FOR GOOD INSULATION

TO REDUCE THE INCIDENT RADIATION,


AN AMALGAM OF E-W ORIENTED
VAULTED ROOF AND N-S ORIENTED
PITCHED ROOF ARE PREFERRED

MORE VEGETATION ON EAST AND WEST SIDE


TO REDUCE DIRECT HEAT

considerations that graciously blend with both the interior and


the exteriors. The building uses design metaphors and synthesis
principles of energy conservation with architectural
manifestation. The achieved environment is thus ideal for
meditative purposes and spiritual pursuits.

86

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Roof vault receives around 35% less energy and provides


greater ceiling height, illumination possibilities and structural
stability. The light coloured roof reflects solar radiation and
conduction potential. East and west sides have minimal glazing
and double skin corner facilitates natural ventilation. Double

ELEVATION

glazed windows as well as roof and wall insulation reduces


noise and heat insulation. LED lights have been used
throughout the interiors and exteriors. As low as 200W lighting
load has been achieved by the use of LED lights for the entire
7000sq ft space. Rainwater harvesting has been incorporated
in the design of the structure. Water collected from the roof is
directed directly to three separate underground tanks placed
strategically around the structure.
The Earth Air Tunnel (EAT) system has been installed in the
meditation hall with the concept that the year round
temperature two meter below the surface remains almost
constant (20-24C). That makes it potentially useful in
providing buildings with ambient temperature. Depending on
the ambient temperature of the location, the EAT system can be
used to provide both cooling during the summer and heating
during winter. The architects have provided three vaults of

88

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

1.5m depth, and fans of 10,000cfm capacity have been


installed to transport air from vault to meditation hall through
pipes of 3ft diameter (hume pipe to masonry plenum and
further branches out in meditation hall using ducts). The system
is well functioning and completely efficient in maintaining the
optimum temperature in the building.

FactFile
Client: Sri Aurobindo Society
Design team: Nilanjan Bhowal, Kaushik Kundu, Tanushree Dey
Consultants: Ishaan Design (Structural)
Contractors: WBG Consulting Engineers (Electrical); Sandeep Sethi (HVAC)
Built-up area: 750sq m
Cost of project: Rs 2 crore
Year of completion: 2009

Architecture for Divinity

7
9

13

10
13

1. OFFICE
2. STORE
3. VIDEO PRESENTATION/GALLERY
4. PORTICO
5. WAY TO ASHRAM
6. SADHANA HALL
7. OPEN TO SKY
8. MANDAPAM
9. THIRUMURTHY PANEL
10. DHYANALINGA MEDITATION HALL
11. COVERED MANDAPAM
12. ENTRANCE CORRIDOOR
13. TOILET
14. AC ROOM/STORE
15. STALL
16. VERANDAH
17. CHAPPAL STAND

11

11

17

14

15 16

12

12

FLOOR PLAN

Centre for Inner Growth


Project: Dhyanalinga Yogic Temple Complex at the Isha Yoga Centre, Coimbatore
Architects: Isha Yoga Centre, Velliangiri foothills, Coimbatore

he project founded under the aegis of Isha Foundation,


is set at the foothills of the Velliangiri Mountains in
southern India. Created as a powerful sthana (a centre
for inner growth), this destination attracts people from all parts
of the world and is unique in its offering of all the four major
paths of yoga gnana (knowledge), karma (action), kriya
(energy) and bhakthi (devotion).

90

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

91

The centre houses the architecturally distinctive Spanda


Hall and garden, a 64,000sq ft meditation hall and
programme facility that is the venue for many residential
programmes catering to various groups. Visually striking,
with an expansive white marble floor and a free-standing
pitched roof, the dominating feature of this space is the
exquisite wall mural, painted using only natural vegetable
dyes and earth extracts, depicting the life of a yogi.
Measuring 140x12ft, this masterpiece of art is the largest-ofits-kind in the world.
The Yoga Centre contains the Dhyanalinga, a unique and
powerful energy-form sitting under a pillarless 250,000-brick
dome structure as well as Theerthakund, a sacred
underground water body. Every week, thousands of people

SECTION

ELEVATION

92

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

converge at this meditation centre to seek out inner peace


and wellbeing. Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev, from the Isha
Foundation, asked the Auroville Earth Institute to build the
dome to shelter the 14ft high Dhyanalinga a mercury based
ling, and the dome was essential to lock the energy of the
Dhyanalinga. The Dhyanalinga is a multi-religious meditation
shrine created exclusively for the purpose of meditation.
The Auroville Earth Institute designed the dome, studied
its stability, trained local and unskilled labour and supervised
the works with its team. A tight schedule was set from the
beginning by Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev. Therefore, the use of
CSEB had been eliminated from the beginning. Thus, the
choice went for fired bricks, which were laid with a stabilised
earth mortar. The foundations and walls were built in

random rubble masonry with granite stones in lime mortar.


They organised the site in such a way so that this dome of
22.16m diameter and about 570 tonnes was built in nine
weeks without support and with more than 200 workers. The
large amount of fired bricks required could not be supplied
by the same brick factory. Therefore, the fired bricks came
from about 20 different kilns. As a result, they had different
sizes and most of the time they had odd shapes (belly, cracks
and other irregularities). Therefore, nearly 200,000 bricks
had to be checked one by one. No reinforce concrete had
been used in any part of the building: neither for the
foundations, plinth nor tie for the dome. Sadhguru Jaggi
wanted the dome to last 1,000 years and reinforced concrete
has not yet proved to be able to last so long.

The dome features include Section: segmental ellipse of


22.16m diameter and 7.90m rise; Thickness: 4 courses from
the springer to the apex: 53cm, 42cm, 36.5cm and 21cm at the
top; Weight: around 570 tonnes (brick dome = 420 tonnes
+ granite stone to load the haunches = 150 tonnes).
Single resonator absorbers (Helmholtz resonators) were
installed in three layers, so as to absorb 12 frequencies
between 120Hz and 1.50kHz. The result was a dome without
echo but still with a certain reverberation, which
was normal because of its volume. This gave a certain
sound quality.
Theerthakund is a deep immersion pool housing a live
linga - an energy source capable of enhancing one's spiritual
receptivity as well as overall health and wellbeing. A dip in
its waters serves as a preparatory tool to receive the energies
of the Dhyanalinga, before entering the Yogic Temple. Built
from gigantic granite blocks, this extraordinary structure

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

93

leads the visitor 30ft deep into the earth to a copper tank
vaulted by an artistic mural of the Maha Kumbh Mela.
Also located at the Yoga Center are the Isha Rejuvenation
Center and Isha Home School. The Vanaprastha
accommodation on the premises was designed3 to give
people with families the opportunity to come and be
involved with the centre.
An architecturally appealing residential facility designed
in the shape of a triangle, a yantra (yogic symbol) which
represents ultimate perception, houses an active international
community of brahmacharies, full-time volunteers, guests
and visitors, making it a vibrant hub of activity and an
optimal environment to pursue ones growth.
Carved out of three 50 tonne granite blocks, the Trimurthi
panel is an impressive outcome of the art of stone sculpting
cultivated in India over millennia. Symbolising the three

94

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

different dimensions of Shiva Hara, Rudra and Sadashiva,


the tripartite panel is an expression of the three chief gunas
or qualities of every living being, in ancient vedic sciences
referred to as tamas, rajas and sattva.

FactFile
Client: Self
Design team: Sadhguru along with Isha design team
Consultants: Auroville Earth Institute (AVEI) (Structural (dome)), Isha design team
Contractors: Self
Built-up area: 18954.33sq ft (Dhyanalinga Temple)
Cost of project: Rs 50 lakh approx
Year of completion: 1999

Architecture for Divinity

Vedic Hindu Cultural Society (Lakshmi Narayan Temple), City of Surrey

The Role of the Hindu Templefor the North Indian Community in Surrey,
A Case Study
Vancouver
By Niranjan Garde

his is a case study of Laxmi Narayan Temple


situated in the City of Surrey, Vancouver and
registered under Vedic Hindu Cultural Society.
This research study is centred on understanding the
meaning of the Hindu temple for the north Indian
community in Surrey, Vancouver. Broadly speaking,
what is the importance of this Hindu temple in a
diaspora context? I start with giving a brief background
of diaspora of Hindus and subsequently move to the
region of Vancouver. This is followed by brief history of
this temple and subsequently the main themes
highlighted from this case study.

96

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Background: The global diaspora of Hindus in the


19th and early 20th centuries under the colonial rule
has been mainly in the form of indentured labours
working on sugarcane plantations, lumber industry and
labour for infrastructural works (Jacobson K. A., 2004);
(Rukmani, 2001). Subsequent migration cycles include
Indians that were recruited for construction, as
businessmen and entrepreneurs. Overall, the Hindu
diaspora, as it formed over the decades, demonstrates
a diversity in religious practices, class, linguistic and
cultural attitudes. Temples in new diasporic settings
were a result of this interplay of inherent religious,

social and cultural diversity of Indian ethnicity and


their response to each unique situation prevalent in the
host societies. The migration of Hindus in this period
comprises South Africa, East Africa, Mauritius,
Malaysia, Trinidad, Guyana, parts of Australia, British
Columbia (Canada) and California (USA) in the time
period of 1818 to 1947. Indian Independence in
1947, and changes in immigration policies in the USA
and Canada from 1965 to 1969, resulted in the
migration of highly educated and skilled professionals
coming from all parts of India. Immigration of Indians
to Vancouver since the beginning has predominantly
been from the Doaba province of Punjab followed by
surrounding districts in Punjab. This geographical
region is reflected in the composition of the IndoCanadian community today (Roberts, 2003). The
majority of people who form the community base of
this temple are Punjabi Hindus followed by Punjabi

Slowly, with the growth of the Punjabi Hindu


community, specific deities of the Hindu pantheon
were included in this premise. As the community base
grew, the most prominent festivals of India such as
Diwali and Dussehra also began to be celebrated here
and other cultural functions started to take place. A
demand for Hindi and Sanskrit classes increased
leading to their inception. In 1998 with the
procurement of a grant from the provincial government
and the capital generated by donation of funds, it was
finally decided to plan, design and construct a new
temple on the piece of land received from the City of
Surrey, Vancouver, and a suitable architect was
appointed for the same. The main temple structure was
built and made operational from 2002 and other
additions happen as the needs of the community grow.
At present, popular festivals can draw crowds to a
capacity of 10,000. The list of members has grown, the

Sikhs. Thus, the majority of the activities that take place

community base is now predominantly comprised

in this temple respond to the concerns of this group,

Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs, but one can see Indians

although other parameters appear to be universal


across pan-Indian population of Vancouver.
History of the Temple: The founding members of
the temple under study were registered as Vedic Hindu
Society and were able to purchase an appropriate 10
acres for the construction of the temple. Initially, the
land was farmland with an existing chicken coup, a
small farm shed and a septic tank. The chicken coup
was fumigated and used for the purpose of religious
activity, which consisted of rituals and recitation of
devotional songs every Sunday for two hours. The
format of religious practice adopted was Vedic.

coming from the states of Gujarat, West Bengal, Tamil


Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and
other diaspora locations such as Fiji, Mauritius,
E Africa, Sri Lanka and other Canadian cities. This has
turned into a biggest Hindu temple in the state of
British Columbia.
Themes: The question is what role this temple
plays for Indians staying in Vancouver? What kinds of
issues are addressed through the establishment of this
temple? I will now state only the most prominent of
issues voiced through several interviews taken with
the community participants:

Prayer Hall

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

97

Typical cultural event in Prayer Hall

Identity conflict: Things that used to be taken for


granted in India and that may mean religious, social

following of the Hindu calendar are felt as an


opportunity to bond with the Indian community and

and cultural attitudes can no longer be taken as a given

get help in all aspects of settlement.

in a new context. Unless one consciously strives to


routinely involve oneself in thinking about India, what it
means to follow religious practices, what it means to be
a Hindu, or to speak in ones mother tongue, listen to
music, or follow customs, one faces the eventuality of
completely getting transformed into new belief systems
cherished by the new context. At the heart of the matter
is the selective rejection of ones previous value system
in terms of faith, community, gender relations and
selectively accepting new value systems. The perceived
loss of identity or reinterpretation of being Hindu or
following Hindu religion is expressed consciously in the
temple. The architectural vocabulary of this temple,
imagery of idols, the ritual format practiced, the dress
code during times of religious events, the participation
in festivals and cultural events assist in this constant
exercise of reinterpreting who we are and how we
understand ourselves and the larger context surrounding
us. In this respect, the prayer hall or mandap, functions
as a gathering place to perform religious functions,
celebrate festivals and organise cultural events such as
dramas, music, dance, discourses and so on. The
external form of the temple thus deliberately is chosen
to resemble a traditional temple not so much for
imitating but more for reminding who we are as a
community and what values this temple represents.
Defining ones identity becomes a conscious process.
The architecture of the temple also needs to address
the local bye-laws and building safety regulations in
terms of fire (since panel construction incorporates
wood based technology) and weather protection, since
Vancouver experiences cold and wet climate for nearly
7-8 months of the year. Also, privacy concerns of
neighbouring residences have to be taken into account
and therefore noise generated during chanting,

98

recitation have to be contained in the temple itself. This


necessitates an enclosed volume having all provisions of
MEP and HVAC, audio-visual and CCTV services. The
distinction between the outside environment and the
inside environment of the temple becomes pronounced
and is not gradual as may be evident in countless
temples present on Indian landscape.
Networking: This temple is also a place of social
networking. Indian immigrants require help on all
fronts in the initial years of their settlement.
Disbursement of information about housing, bye-laws,
rents, study, job prospects happens naturally during all
temple events which invite community participation.
On all other days, interactions with fellow Indians are
fleeting and rare and therefore weekly temple events
in the form of gatherings, prasad, prayers and faithful

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Concerns of Elders: This temple also hosts special


activities for the elderly responding to their specific
issues of health and heightened sense of loneliness due
to mobility restrictions, inability to communicate with
their grandchildren on account of language barriers and
huge generation gap experienced between them and
their family members. Temple is their place to feel at
home and vent their concerns. Ancillary spaces are
constructed where the elders can do group exercises,
come for talks, see movies, celebrate birthdays and
socially bond with one another. Such spaces are also
used as Hindi language coaching classes for students, or
where academic cultural knowledge of India is shared
with the younger generation.
Prasad: The Sunday Prasad (or the dining space
catering to 500 people) also becomes a community
gathering place. Apart from the practical function to
support catering requirements for marriages, festivals
and other cultural events taking place in the temple, the
dining space connects members of the community
amongst themselves.

Food pendals installed at the time of Dassehra in the temple premises

Discussion: The temple becomes a place expressing


the religious, social and cultural values of this

Generation Gap: The generation gap is a point of


concern that is felt between parents who have
migrated from India and their young children born
and raised in new Vancouver. Ideas about marriage,
dating, money spending, lifestyle choices, faith
systems are in conflict between children and their
parents. The difference in these value systems is

community as they respond to the context of Vancouver.


Provision of spaces need to respond to these
parameters. It is not only for prayers that one comes to
a temple such as this, but something more than that.
We need to understand firstly, the basic difference in
the context of Vancouver (as felt as a foreign land)
versus any Indian city (as felt as home) and what it
feels like to stay abroad as a minority in the midst of a
totally different culture. The underlying theme that
comes to challenge is the notion of identity or what
we think of ourselves as Indians or Hindus or
individuals since it becomes clear that we are a product
of the context around us. By context I mean the land,
people, religious, social, cultural values and all things
that become a part of our psyche as we grow up in
India. Some of the generalised factors that define the

Independence Day celebration

because no formal religious education or faith based

context of India which were voiced by my interviewees,

education takes place in public schools in Vancouver.

included intense day-to-day social interactions and

This means the onus of religious and cultural


education of India falls on the parents and this temple,
where religious, social and cultural dimensions are
expressed through the events taking place in the

cultural exposure to social customs which develop the


sense of community and how one starts to acquire
values and certain thought patterns about life; the
relative cohesiveness in the religious attitudes of parents
and children; the culture of joint family systems;
meaning of religion as ingrained through religious
customs, rituals and the interdependence of social
network throughout different phases of life. Language,
clothes, food, music virtually everything in India starts
to influence our identity as Hindus or Indians. We carry
this sense of India or Hindu wherever we go.
Vancouver represents a total change of this connection
with the surrounding context and the process of
adaptation of our value systems begins. And one of the
prominent places where such adaptation of values is
practised is the Hindu temple. It becomes their place to
redefine these values. Thus, every community derives its
own meaning from its Hindu Temple built abroad.
Authors note: All images used are with permission from the

Marriage function in the multipurpose prayer hall of the temple

temple. Parents thus consciously bring their children as


often as they can, so that children learn to appreciate
certain value systems which parents believe to be
important for their children to follow. These value
systems are hoped to be learnt by observing, watching
rituals, volunteering for temples events, participating
in religious dramas, reading books kept in temple
library and by other such means.
Finally, lifecycle events such as celebration of a
childs birth, thread ceremony, marriage and rituals
following important purchases also require support of
temple priests. All these happen in the temple premises.

Vedic Hindu Cultural Society

Niranjan Garde did his post graduation in Advanced Studies


in Architecture from the University of British Columbia,
Vancouver and is currently associated with Mitimitra Consultants
Pvt Ltd, Pune.

References:
Jacobson, K A (2004). South Asians in Diaspora: Histories and
Religious Traditions. Brill.
Rukmani, T S (Ed.). (2001). Hindu Diaspora. New Delhi:
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Roberts, M W (2003). Transnational Geographies: Indian
Immigration to Canada. The Canadian Geographer, 47(3), 235-250.

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

99

Exploring Design

Design in Ceramics
Delhi Blue Pottery Trust recently presented the International Ceramic
Conclave comprising the artworks of several international ceramists and the
potter community of India. The exhibition was held at the India Habitat
Centre, New Delhi. Architecture+Design brings across a few creative
works that were showcased in the conclave...

Designer:
Late Sardar Gurcharan Singh,
New Delhi

100

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Designer: Melanie Ferguson, US

Designer: Seungho Yang,


Korea
The ceramic process is the recycling
of the earth from its origin

Designer: Jane Jermyn,


Ireland

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

101

Designer: Harkishan Prajapati,


New Delhi

Designer: Olga Ravinskaya, Russia

A variety of forms, a
variety of colours
The endless process of
trials and error
Development and creation,
realisation of a dream
This is ceramic for me.

102

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Designer: Devi Prasad,


Uttar Pradesh

Designer: Ted Secombe,


Australia

Designer: Shozo Michikawa,


Japan

104

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Facades and Roofs in

Corporate Office, Bhopal

Umicore India Pvt. Ltd.


102, Naman Centre, C 31&32,
Bandra-Kurla Complex, Bandra (East),
Mumbai 400 051, India.
Tel. +91 22 6627 5656
www.vmzinc.in
Email at: vmzinc.india@ap.umicore.com

Commercial Building, Surat

Corporate Office, Noida

Designer: Ann Van Hoey,


Belgium

Designer: Steven Low Thia Kwang,


Singapore

Designer: Svetlana
Pasechnaya, Ukraine

Research

Reclamation of Kunds on Govardhan Hill, Braj


By Amita Sinha

ovardhan Hill in Braj is highly


revered, as it is believed to be the

low ridge, rising no more than 100ft


above the surrounding plain.

brother Balaram spent many hours


grazing their cows on the tender grass of

metonymic form of Krishna and


embodiment of his divinity. Its visual

Govardhan meaning increaser of cattle


was likely a site of animistic worship by

Govardhan Hill. Its shady groves and


ponds were ideal places for Radha and

imagery alludes to many myths, of which

primitive tribes who worshipped it as a


yaksha capable of assuming any form
bull, peacock or serpent. This primitive
animism was co-opted in the Puranic lore

Krishnas play and its hidden caves for

the most popular one is Krishna holding


it up like an umbrella on his little finger
to protect his community from the floods

their intimacy. Here natures bounties


were abundant pure water from its
waterfalls, many varieties of herbs, fruits

Rudra Kund
Apsara Kund

Surabhi Kund

Manasi Ganga

Hariji Kund

Brahma Kund
Naval Kund
Jugal Kund

Shankal Kund
Narad Kund

Kunds of Govardhan Hill

sent by the wrathful god Indra. Other


representations include the mountainriver dyad of Govardhan Hill and Yamuna
River flowing at its foot, the Hill Annakut
as a mountain of food, Krishna filling the
hollow of a cave in the hill, and the hill
as a peacock and a bull (Entwistle 1987,
Toomey 1994, Vaudeville 1980).
However, quite unlike its conical
representations, Govardhan Hill is a long,

108

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Rat

Charnamrit Kund

Govind Kund

of boy Krishna lifting the hill, a defining


episode in establishing his prowess. Over
time Govardhan, also known as giriraj the
king of hills and Krishna began to be
perceived as one and the same illustrating
the conceptualisation of natural archetypes
as metonymic forms wherein the hill, river
or tree can evoke the entire natural world
as a form of divinity (Sinha 1996).
It is believed that Krishna and his

and flowers, and minerals and gems


(Brahmacari 1997). The idealised
depictions of Govardhan Hill are that of a
lush landscape with abundant water
bodies and diverse flora and fauna.
Individual sites on the hill were visualised
with imagery drawn from Krishna
sporting with Radha and other gopis in
verdant, Eden-like setting of kunj (bower)
and nikunj (arbor). Medieval paintings

show them in a green, rolling landscape


with the River Yamuna or a pond in the
foreground, occasionally a settlement on
the horizon. They show an intimate space
framed by trees and creepers where
Radha and Krishna are dancing or locked
in an embrace, often surrounded by a
circle of gopis (Isacco and Dallapiccola.
1992, Randhawa 1972, Ohri and Craven
Jr 1998). The imagined landscape is
based upon actual places and in turn
guides their making revealing the
reciprocity between representation and
physical reality (Hays 2007).
Kusum Sarovar

Place Archetype
The picturesque water bodies situated
in the midst of vans (forests) were not only
settings of amorous play of Krishna and
gopis but also sites of his propitiation by

Udhhav Kund
Shiva Khari

tna Kund
Kusum Sarovar

Radha Kund
Shyam Kund

Lalita
Kund

Kunds
Water Bodies
Wells
Tube Well
Canal

other gods. Although their actual number


on Govardhan Hill is far less than the
imagined 108, it is large enough for them
to be an important presence in the hilly
landscape. They are a source of water to
the cattle and for irrigation of farms and
orchards. Some are ponds with an irregular
edge, others are built up as square and
rectangular kunds (tanks) with ghats (steps)
and ornately carved pavilions. Some are

fed by natural springs, others are rain-fed

practice of ban yatra or journey into the

and replenished by surface flow. Those at


the foothill collect runoff from the hill
through the gravity-fed water conveyance
system. A few kunds are built in pairs, with
one catching the overflow of the other.
Settlements are centred on the kunds
Govardhan is built around Manasi Ganga,
Jatipura round Hariju Kund, Aniyor has
Govind Kund, and Apsara and Naval kunds
are foci of Punchari village. Their street
network is oriented around the kunds, the
only public open space within the
settlements. Radha-Shyam kunds and
Manasi Gangaare social spaces used for
kirtans, bhajans, festivals, rituals, bathing
and places to meet others. Sacred and
secular activities interweave creating a rich
fabric of vibrant public life. A few kunds at
the base of the hill Ratna Kund, Surabhi
Kund, Hariju Kund, Airavat Kund and
Kusum Sarovar are located within groves.
Those away from the hillVilachu, Gauri,
Kilol, Sakhi and Narad kunds, once
surrounded by grove, are now amidst
farms. Yet others Jugal, Malyahari and
Indra kunds have farms, housing and
remnant groves surrounding them.
A shrine or a temple close to the kund
celebrates the event believed to have taken
place at that spot in mythic time. The
temple/shrine, kund and van thus form the
place archetype, repeated as a modular
unit in the cultural landscape of Braj (Shah
2007). Narayan Bhatt, author of Vraj
Bhakti Vilasa is credited with the
rediscovery of sacred sites of Braj in the
sixteenth century and establishing the

forest (Haberman 1994). In the 84kos


(168 miles) pilgrimage of Braj,
circumambulation of Govardhan is
recommended on the seventh day and
pilgrims are advised to spend the night
there. As many as 23 kunds in and around
Govardhan Hill are visited by pilgrims in
the course of their parikrama. Kunds
situated in vans are ideal locales for resting
because of their sacred ambience,
proximity to the parikrama path, open
space in the vicinity for camping and raas
lila performances. The kund-van-temple is
a node in the parikrama circuit where the
pilgrim can perform ablutions, obtain
darshan, listen to discourse, and reflect on
the story just heard.
Reclamation of Kunds
Today many kunds lack water or their
water quality is degraded because of
algae and sedimentation. Farms and
houses have replaced their groves. The
traditional system of water harvesting,
conveyance and distribution appears to
have become dysfunctional and there is
little evidence of community
maintenance. Kunds amidst dense
settlements have poor water quality
because of waste-water drainage from
streets and from adjoining houses as well
as residents cleaning activities. With a
few exceptions, they are not visible from
the road and neither are other place
markers such as raas-sthal is where stories
can be narrated, sung and interpreted
through dance. The opportunity to

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

109

Kunds in groves are closest to the


idealised representations and should be
restored and reclaimed as padav sthals
(resting places) for the pilgrim on the ban
yatra. The outlying kunds surrounded by
farms should be designated as protected
sites with a buffer zone of 200m (using
the Ancient Sites and Monuments Act of
the Government of India) where groves
can be replanted. Kunds in proximity to
the inner parikrama path Kusum
Sarovar and Uddhav Kund in the
northern section, and Hariju, Airavat,
Surabhi, Apsara and Naval kunds in the
southern section of the hill, are in the
midst of remnant forests with clearings
where the pilgrims camp overnight during

Proposed Padav Sthal at Kusum Sarovar

experience a pond in the grove where


one can bathe, meditate, and visualise
the pastoral scenes of Krishna teasing the
gopis and dancing with Radha is
increasingly difficult to obtain and
generally only available to those who
choose to walk on the inner path at the
foothill. In recent years the road around
Govardhan Hill has provided an
alternative to walking since mechanised

Surabhi Kund

110

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

transport shortens the eight hour long


trip to 30 minutes. Pilgrims pressed for
time or unwilling/unable to walk thus
choose the easy way and insulate
themselves from directly experiencing the
landscape (Shinde 2010). They have
fewer direct physical and sensual
encounters with the kunds and the
consequent disengagement limits their
ability to envision the divine in nature.

their journey. These should be the


priority for reclamation efforts, including
planting of trees after which the grove
was named (ashok, kadamb and dhak),
remediation of water quality and
restoration of ghats, and provision of
camping facilities in open spaces.
Circumambulating the hill would then be
traversing through a series of gardengroves that will be resting places for the
weary pilgrim.

Padav Sthal in the Northern Section of


the Hill
Kusum Sarovar in the northern section

and chanting. Kusum Sarovar is proposed


as a major padav sthal in the reforested
Ashok and Pushpa Vans with a camping

of the Govardhan Hill derived its


importance from being situated in Pushpa
Van (forest of flowers) where Krishna and

site, wildlife lookout pavilion and bird


feeding areas. The dense kikar scrub on the

Radha quarrelled and were brought


together by Radhas sakhis (friends). At the
nearby Ashok Van, Krishna braided
Radhas hair with flowers and adorned her

west should be cleared for a camping site


linked with trails to Uddhav Kund and the
historic charbagh gardens around the
pavilions restored as kunjs (or kunds) with
flowering shrubs.

Sutala), temples (Narsimha, Apsara-Bihari,


Punchari Ka Lautha) and Mani Kandali
Cave. The sites are situated in the midst of
partially denuded Apsara and Sutala Vans
with a large clearing at the edge of water
bodies. Apsara and Naval kunds are
perceived to be liquid forms of Radha and
Krishna, their waters symbolising the
essence of their love. The clearing at their
edge is the site of Radha and Krishnas raas

Proposed Padav Sthal at Surabhi Kund

with jewellery. An adjacent temple is


dedicated to Uddhav, Krishnas friend and
cousin. Upon Krishnas departure from
Braj, the gopis were inconsolable and
Uddhav, sent as Krishnas messenger, was
so enraptured by their devotion that he
became a creeper on the banks of the
Sarovar, a witness to the eternal lila of
Krishna and the gopis. Uddav Kund,
located on the western side of the hill and
accessible only from the outer road, is a
smaller replica of Kusum Sarovar.
Kusum Sarovar and its pavilions, built in
1764 CE by Jawahar Singh, the ruler of
Bharatpur, are protected by the Uttar
Pradesh State Archaeology Department.
The pavilions contain the samadhi
(memorial) of Suraj Mal (and his two
queens) father of Jawahar Singh and
patron of Govardhan. The central pavilion
has Krishnas footprints in marble on the
floor and painted frescoes on the ceiling
showing episodes from the lives of Krishna
and Suraj Mal. The ornate ghats and
platforms of Kusum Saravor draw many
visitors and are used by local residents for
their daily bathing and washing, praying

Padav Sthal in the Southern Section of


the Hill
Along the inner parikrama path,
between the villages of Punchari and
Jatipura, the Kadamb forest opens into a
clearing with three kunds
Hariju/Rudana, Airavat and Surabhi.
Rudana Kund overlooking the larger
Hariju Kund (named after Krishnas
cowherd friend) was filled with Shivas
tears of ecstasy when he was meditating
on Krishna and Radha. The clearing is
ideal for camping but it needs lighting,
composting toilets, clean drinking water
and cooking facilities. The proposal for
padav sthal delineates trails leading to
nine sites, each surrounded by six camps
thus accommodating 250-300 pilgrims.
The camps face a central open space with
a multifunctional spiral cob bench built
with locally available materials and
decorated with local sanjhi art. It has a
built-in stove that can be used for meal
preparations by ban yatris.
Punchari (literally tail), the southern tip
of Govardhan Hill, has a cluster of sacred
sites including kunds (Apsara, Naval,

with the gopis. Punchari Ka Lauta Temple is


dedicated to a cowherd friend of Krishna
who waits for him to return from Mathura.
The site redesign proposal aims at
improving the water quality of the twin
kunds, restoring their ghats and creating
spaces for kirtan and raas lila. Water
quality will be remediated by planting
lotuses that decrease algae growth and can
be used in temple worship. Low steps are
proposed at the edge of the clearing,
creating a performance space for raas lila.
Community Kunds
Kunds in the midst of dense settlements
face additional challenges in their
restoration as clean water bodies
appropriate for ritual practices as well as
vibrant public spaces of their local
communities. The twin Radha-Shyam
kunds situated in the midst of Radha Kund
village at the now vanished tip of
Govardhan Hill are perceived to the eyes of
Govardhan Hill popularly imagined as a
peacock (Brahmacari 1999). They are
believed to be the co-mingling aquatic
forms of Radha and Krishna. Medieval

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN Ma y 2 0 1 5

111

Proposed reclamation of Govind Kund

Govind Kund

112

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

texts describe the kunds as being


surrounded by kunjs, with swings hanging
from kadamb, mango and bakul trees. The
kunds were lost in time but were
re-discovered by Chaityana Mahaprabhu
and rebuilt by his disciple Raghunath Das
in mid-sixteenth century. There are many
place-markers around the kundsjihvashila (tongue of Giriraj/Govardhan), five
trees symbolic of the five Pandavas of
Mahabharata, Chaityanas baithak (seat),
Raghunath Dass bhajan-kutir and samadhi
and raas mandal at the southern edge of
Radha Kund.
The kunds are visited by a large number
of pilgrims for bathing and
circumambulating, especially on
Krishnashtami (Krishnas birthday) when
they apply the mud of Radha Kund on
their foreheads. The water quality of the
kunds is poor because of lack of sewage
and drainage system in the surrounding
settlement, solid waste management
problem and sludge created by stagnant

water. Lalita Kund feeds the twin kunds


and in turn receives water from a cascading

perception of the landscape decreases.


It is believed that Braj has been

series of low lying natural water bodies


surrounded by farm fields. Green terraces

reclaimed repeatedly since antiquity; the


most recent appropriation occurring

and floating islands of pollutant absorbing


aquatic vegetation are proposed for

about five centuries ago after Islamic


iconoclasm destroyed the local temples,

Brahmacari, Rajasekhara Dasa. The Color Guide

filtering water as it flows down to RadhaShyam kunds from the outlying ponds. In
addition perimeter sand filtration beds

led by charismatic saints who galvanised


mass movements of piety and initiated

Mountain (New Delhi: Vedanta Vision

pilgrimages to Braj. Much of what is seen


of its landscape today stems from

Brahmacari, Rajasekhara Dasa. The Color Guide

around Lalita Kund are designed to catch


and filter water from the surrounding
residential area.
Govind Kund at the Govardhan foothill
is situated at the edge of Aniyor village
and on the inner parikrama path. Close
by are Sankarsana Kund named after
Krishnas brother Balram and Nipa Kund
in the kadamb grove where Krishna and
his friends ate gopis milk and butter in
cups made from tree leaves. The washing
and cleaning activities of village residents
have contaminated the water quality of
the kund and it also lacks resting places
for the pilgrims. The site redesign
proposes selective demolition of derelict
buildings around the kund to introduce
public spacesentrance plazas, shaded
squares, and widening of ghat terraces for
worship and congregation at the waters
edge. A separate smaller tank above the
main kund for washing and bathing
activities of the villagers is proposed so
that its grey water can be filtered through
a gravel and sand bed and distributed to
adjacent orchards and fields.
Conclusion
The powerful iconography of
Govardhan Hill in popular imagination
creates an expectation that its actual
landscapes conform in some degree to its
representations. The loss of water bodies in
groves leads to weakening of place
memories, in turn affecting ones capacity
to envision. The dissonance between the
current reality and the imagined landscape
is causing the disappearance of many
traditional ritual practices that promote an
immersive sensual engagement with the
landscape with the potential of visionary
experiences. The possibility of
transmutations between vegetal and
aqueous forms and mythic personas
occurring in the devotees heightened

114

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

historical events and the activities of


charismatic saintsNarayan Bhatt,

Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, for sharing his


research on Govardhan.

References

to Govardhana Hill: Indias Most Sacred

Publications, 1997).

to Radha Kunda: The Holiest of all Holy Places


(New Delhi: Vedanta Vision Publications, 1999).
Isacco, Enrico and Anna Dallapiccola (ed.) Krishna,

Chaitanya, Vallabha and Madhavendra


Puriwho had visionary experiences of

The Divine Lover: Myth and Legend through Indian

Radha and Krishna, rediscovered deities


in ponds, and established the pilgrimage

Entwistle, A W Braj: Centre of Krishna Pilgrimage

circuit in the sixteenth century. Today the

Haberman, David. Journey through the Twelve

sacred sites of Govardhan Hill face the


challenge of public neglect, loss of royal
patronage and deforestation. Restoration
of the archetypal landscape of pondgrove-shrine is therefore imperative for
improving the ecological health of
Govardhan Hill as well as conserving its
rich intangible heritage. Govardhan
kunds, lined by temples and shrines, are
public spaces for the local communities
and sites of ritual ablutions by pilgrims.
Their reclamation will be a catalyst for
conservation of the larger cultural
landscape and its management as a
protected heritage zone. The regenerated
Govardhan Hill can become an exemplary
precedent for other holy sites in Braj that
are rapidly losing their water bodies and
forest cover.

Forests: An Encounter with Krishna (New York:

Art (Bombay: B I Publications, 1992);

(Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1987).

Oxford University Press, 1994).


Hays, David, Landscapes within Buildings,
Harvard Design Magazine 29 (Fall 2008/Winter
2009): 110-117.
Ohri, V S and Roy Craven Jr (eds) Painters of the
Pahari Schools (Mumbai, Marg Publications, 1998).
Randhawa, M.S. Kangra Valley Painting (New
Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting, Government of
India, 1972).
Shah, Behula, Braj: The Creation of Krishnas
Landscape of Power and Pleasure and Its
Sixteenth-Century Construction through the
Pilgrimage of the Groves in Michel Conan (ed)
Sacred Gardens and Landscapes: Ritual and
Agency, 153-172 (Washington, DC: Dumbarton
Oaks Research Library and Collection and
Spacemaker Press, 2007).
Shinde, Kiran, Sacred Performances, Sacred

Amita Sinha is a professor of Landscape

Landscapes: Connection & Cacophony, in Rana

Architecture at the University of Illinois at

P.B. Singh (ed) Holy Places and Pilgrimages:

Urbana Champaign.

Essays on India. Planet Earth & Cultural


Understanding Series, Pub 8 (Cambridge Scholars

Acknowledgements

Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK 2010), pp

This article draws upon proposals developed in a

211-230.

landscape design workshop on Govardhan Hill

Sinha, Amita. Landscapes in India: Forms and

conducted at the site in collaboration with Braj

Meanings (Boulder, Colorado: University Press of

Foundation, Vrindavan and subsequently at the

Colorado, 2006; reprinted by Asia Educational

University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign in Spring

Services, 2011).

2010. Landscape planning, design and

Toomey, Paul. Food from the Mouth of Krishna:

management proposals are detailed out in the

Feast and Festivities in a North Indian Pilgrimage

project report Govardhan Hill in Braj, India:

Centre (Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation,

Imagined, Enacted and Reclaimed, 2010. Braj

1994).

Foundation has so far restored Rudra Kund and

Vaudeville, Charlotte, The Govardhan Myth in

Sankashana Kund. I am grateful to Divay Gupta,

Northern India, Indo-Iranian Journal, 22 (1980),

director of Built heritage Division at Indian National

pp 1-45.

Products

Sanitaryware Solutions

Bathtub Collection
Bathline Sensations, the high-end bathroom studio, has launched
Takiyu Bathtubs. Its concept is based on the combination of a
waterfall with the massaging effects of air-water jets, enhanced by
coloured lighting. This model supports physical and psychological
regeneration. Varun Gupta, joint managing director, Bathline
Sensations, said, Consumers today look for innovation, comfort
and style in bathtubs that are worthy of the spotlight in their bath.
Bathtubs have evolved from simple cleansing vessels to elegant,
high-tech oasis of serenity. With updated features and unique
design, Takiyu will allow the mind and body to relax and transport
your senses to serene peacefulness.

Contemporary Designs
Delta Faucet Company has launched the Sotria bath
collection by Brizo, the fashion faucet brand.
The collection is influenced by soft contemporary design
sensibilities. With a distinctive, triangular silhouette, the
collection comprises single-handle and widespread
lavatory faucets featuring channel or closed spouts, a
freestanding tub filler and a bidet. Its custom shower
options include Sensori high-flow thermostatic shower.
To know more, visit: www.deltafaucet.in

116

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN

Sanitaryware brand Hindware has introduced


Element, a range of faucets in the market. Made of
virgin brass and use of technology at each stage of
its manufacturing process is one of the hallmarks of
Element faucets. Fitted with cartridge and aerator,
this range of faucets can deliver smooth water flow
even when the pressure of water is low. In terms of
design, the range is a homogenous blend of bold
lines and curves. The Element range includes a
collection of faucets, showers and water closets as a
complete bathroom suit.
For more information, visit: www.hsilgroup.com

Modular Kitchens
Italian brand Veneta Cucine has come up with a new product
called Liquida. This sleek kitchen comprises refrigerator and
cooker hoods integrated into the design itself. The high
performance technical materials are wholly recyclable and can also
be used to create new functional characteristics such as the door
which slides into the cupboard. They are available in black and
white colours in both matt and gloss finish. It is easy to maintain
and an ideal kitchen for bachelor pads, office pantries, etc.

AMASS ARCHITECTURAL KNOWLEDGE

SATYA PAUL TIE WORTH ` 1500

M A R C H 2 0 1 5 ` 175

+
DESIGN
E
R
U
T
C
E
ARCHIT
A

1 YEAR
ARISE ELECTRIC KETTEL WORTH ` 2250

2 YEARS

ZIPPO LIGHTER WORTH ` 3599

CE DESIGN
DIVERSITY IN RESIDEN
VOLUME 32

ISSUE 3

3 YEARS

Terms

1 Year

2 Years

Name:

ST
BE FER
F
O

3 Years

Job Title:

No. of Issues
12

24

36

Cover Price `
2100

4200

6300

Company Name:

Address:

You Pay `

You Save `

1650

450

3100

1100

4600

1700

Age:

City:

State:

Enclosed DD/Cheque no.

Dated

E-mail:

Mobile:

Drawn on in favour of Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd. (For outstation cheque please add Rs 10)

Free Gift

Satya Paul Tie worth ` 1500

Arise Electric Kettel worth ` 2250


Zippo Lighter worth ` 3599

Sex:
Pin:

Phone:
for Rs

To subscribe, Send this form to Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd, 323 Udyog Vihar, Phase IV, Gurgaon-122016 (Haryana)
Call Delhi: 09899414369, Tel: 0124 4759616, Fax: 0124 4759550, Mumbai: 022 42467777, Fax No: 022 26053710,
Bengaluru: 080 22219578, Fax: 080 2224342, Chennai: 044 28141816 (Telefax), Kolkata: 033 22805323 (Telefax)
E-mail: circulation@emmindia.com / subscriptionsupport@emmindia.com
Subscribe online at www.mediatransasiaindia.com

Terms & Conditions: Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd. reserves the right to cancel, extend or discontinue the offer or any part there of without giving any reason or prior notice. Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd. is not responsible for
any postal delay. All disputes are subjected to competent courts in the jurisdiction of Delhi only. Exposure Media Marketing Pvt. Ltd will take 4-6 weeks to start the subscription and 10-12 weeks to despatch your gift. Gift free with
Subscription in India only Overseas subscription: 1 year-US $120; 2 years- US $270. Products may vary as shown. Conditions Apply.

Products

Shower Toilets
Innovative Designs
Roca has launched a new range of product

VitrA, one of the leading manufacturers of bathroom


products, has introduced its technologically advanced V-Care
the new range of shower toilets. Designed by the design studio
NOA, the range is made with a specially designed nozzle spray

Virginia Bath Tub for the bathroom space. The

that allows the user to regulate the water as desired. It can be

bathroom features Virginia free standing bathtub


without a tub filler. It is designed in oval shape with
glossy surface. It is available in a size of
1700x800x560mm with 192 litres of water capacity.

used via a remote controller which is easy to use and helps in


controlling features like nozzle position, water pressure and the
temperature of the water and the seat. The rimless design of
the inner bowl and a hidden installation of V- Fit, makes it
easier to clean the WC.

Wood Flooring Collection


Pergo has unveiled its latest Pergo Wood Parquet flooring collection.
Built for both living areas and commercial areas, the collection is
available in fourteen different designs. It is easy to install and durable,
which means it can withstand years of use. The designs in this range
are divided in six groups, such as 2 decors in Svalbard, 2 decors in
Gotland, 4 decors in Bornholm, 3 decors in Varmdo, 2 decors in
Jomfruland and 1 decor in Dutch pattern.

Exterior Claddings
NOTION has launched Exterior Cladding for front
elevations. Inherent insulation properties, low maintenance
and high durability are the salient features of these deck
timber cladding. Fixing of this cladding is done by means of
U shaped stainless steel clip. All boards are manufactured
with a double groove profile and do not require to be
drilled. It has a smooth uniform surface that minimises the
risk of splinter and fissure forming. A gap of 4mm between
boards is the optimum space for wood to expand and
contract and allow enough expanses for air circulation.
For more information, visit: www.notion.net.in

118

M a y 2 0 1 5 ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN