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kaxaber qebulaZe

saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi


eduard aixvaldis mogonebebSi
cnobili germaneli mecnieri da mogzauri eduard aixvaldi 1825-1826 wlebSi
kavkasiaSi imyofeboda. man TiTqmis mTeli saqarTvelo moiara da saintereso aRwera
dagvitova. misi cnobebi uaRresad mniSvnelovan masalas Seicavs Cveni qveynis
istoriuli warsulis Sesaswavlad.
eduard aixvaldi Tavis mogonebebSi exeba qveynis politikur mdgomareobas,
ekonomikur viTarebas, gvTavazobs mineralur da botanikur gamokvlevebs; xSirad
iZleva eTnografiul Canaxatebs; axasiaTebs xalxis zne-Cveulebebs, aRwers qalaqebs,
soflebsa da eklesiebs; gvesaubreba savaWro gzebze, gvacnobs mraval samoqalaqo Tu
samxedro moRvawes, romlebTanac uxdeboda urTierToba. mas aseve ainteresebda
gavrcelebuli avadmyofobebi da maTi mkurnalobis wesebi.
rac Seexeba e. aixvaldis biografiul monacemebs, igi cxovrobda 1795-1876
wlebSi. Tavdapirvelad swavlobda mitavis gimnaziaSi, Semdeg swavla ganagrZo
berlinis universitetSi, sadac miiRo ganaTleba sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebsa da
medicinaSi. bevrs mogzaurobda dasavleT evropis qveynebSi. 1819 wels vilnos
universitetSi medicinis mecnierebaTa doqtoris xarisxi miiRo. 1823 wlidan ki
yazanis universitetis meanobisa da zoologiis profesoria. 1827-1831 wlebSi e.
aixvaldi vilnos universitetis profesori xdeba zoologiis, SedarebiTi anatomiisa
da meanobis dargSi. 1838 wels mas mieniWa peterburgis samedicino-qirurgiuli
akademiis profesoris wodeba, zoologiis, mineralogiisa da SedarebiTi anatomiis
ganxriT.
kavkasiaSi mogzauroba yazanis universitetis mier iyo mowyobili da
safuZvlianad organizebuli. cxadia, mogzaurobis marSruti da programac mas
winaswar SemuSavebuli misces. kaspiis zRvis sanapiroebis mosavlelad mis
usafrTxoebas 16-qvemexiani korveti ,,herkulesi" icavda. gamgzavrebamde man Seiswavla
XVIII saukunis mogzaurTa Sromebi kavkasiis Sesaxeb, xolo Semdeg Tavisi samogzauro
dakvirvebebis Sedegad Seajera da Seavso isini.
garda wminda mecnieruli interesisa, e. aixvaldis eqspedicias kavkasiaSi, da maT
Soris saqarTveloSic, dazverviTi daniSnuleba hqonda. ruseTis carizmma miznad
daisaxa qveynis yovelmxriv mecnieruli Seswavla, misi bunebrivi resursebis
gamoyenebisa da dapyrobili xalxis ukeT marTvisaTvis. miT umetes, im droisaTvis
carizms dasrulebuli hqonda saqarTvelos teritoriis didi nawilis dapyroba,
riTac placdarmi Seiqmna TurqeTsa da iranze Semdgomi SetevisaTvis.
XVIII saukunis dasasrulamde kavkasiaSi mogzauroba dakavSirebuli iyo did
siZneleebTan. es iyo sarisko eqspediciebi, romelsac awyobda saimperatoro
mecnierebaTa akademia da hqonda, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, dazverviTi xasiaTi, raTa
niadagi moemzadebina ama Tu im mxaris momavali aTvisebisaTvis.
eduard aixvaldma mogzauroba 1825 wlis martSi daiwyo da imave wlis aprilSi
TbilisSi Camovida. Tbilisidan man ori eqspedicia moawyo: pirveli _ april-maisSi
dasavleT saqarTveloSi (goris, suramis gavliT quTaisisken). daaTvaliera okriba,
Semoiara imereTi, samegrelo da afxazeTis SavizRvispireTi. ukan dabrunebisas Seiara
cxinvalSi. meore _ ivnisSi daaTvaliera aRmosavleT saqarTvelo, kerZod, kaxeTi.
aqedan ki belaqani da elisu. ivlisSi gaemarTa somxeTisaken, magram iranTan omis
dawyebis gamo iZulebuli gaxda sevanidan TbilisSi dabrunebuliyo. 28 ivliss man
datova Tbilisi da samxedro gziT gaemgzavra ukan. yazanSi dabrunda 1826 wlis 10
seqtembers.
swored am mogzaurobis Sedegia misi kapitaluri ortomiani naSromi, romlis
saerTo saTauria ,,eduard aixvaldis mogzauroba kaspiis zRvasa da kavkasiaSi 1825-
1826 wlebSi" (Studgarti, 1937). saqarTvelos Sesaxeb cnobebi Tavmoyrilia misi
naSromis meore nawilSi, romlis sruli saTauria ,,mogzauroba kavkasiaSi, meore
nawili, romelic Seicavs kavkasiaSi mogzaurobis istoriul mimoxilvas" (Studgarti,
1837). am wignis meore TavSi daculia masalebi Tbilisisa da aRmosavleT
saqarTvelos (qarTlis) Sesaxeb, mesame Tavs ewodeba ,,mogzauroba imereTsa da
samegreloSi", meoTxe Tavi moicavs kaxeTSi mogzaurobas.
SeniSvna: 2005 wels gamomcemloba ,,artanujma" dabeWda eduard aixvaldis
mogonebebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, romelic germanulidan Targmna, Sesavali da
saZieblebi daurTo gia gelaSvilma.
eduard aixvaldi saqarTvelos istoriul warsulze msjelobas qveynis
saxelwodebis garkveviT iwyebs da aRniSnavs, rom qveyana, romelsac rusebi gruzias
uwodeben, Zvelad iberiis saxeliT iyo cnobili. aqve igi asaxelebs termin georgias,
romelic, misi azriT, osmalebma da yizilbaSebma Semdeg Secvales gurjistanad.
sainteresoa,rodesac e. aixvaldi iyenebs termin ,,georgiens", gulisxmobs mTel
saqarTvelos, qarTl-kaxeTis samefos, anu aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Tu mxolod
qarTls.
magaliTad, XVIII saukunis 80-iani wlebis dasawyisis germaneli mecnier-mogzauri
iakob rainegsi (1744-1793) ,,georgias" uwodebs qarTl-kaxeTs maSin, roca imereTs
,,iberiis" saxeliT moixseniebs.
marTalia, e. aixvaldi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ,,georgiens" uwodebs, magram
roca exeba konkretulad kaxeTs, am termins ar iyenebs.
eduard aixvaldi saqarTvelos yofs or _ zemo da qvemo nawilad. pirvelis
saxelis qveS gulisxmobs qarTls, saaTabagos anu axalcixis erT nawils, xolo
meoreSi _ imereTs, samegrelos da saaTabagos darCenil teritorias.
naSromis SesavalSive e. aixvaldi saubars qarTvelTa warmoSobis Sesaxeb iwyebs.
samwuxarod, Znelia garkveva, Tu romeli xelnaweriT an ,,qarTlis cxovrebis" romeli
nusxiT sargeblobs igi. es iqidanac kargad Cans, rom mogzaurisaTvis cnobilia
leonti mrovelis koncefcia TargamosianTa Sesaxeb.
rac Seexeba dasavleT saqarTvelos, e. aixvaldi imeorebs rogorc Zvel berZen,
aseve romael istorikosTa da geografTa (herodote, diodore sicilieli,
apoloniuri, straboni da a.S.) cnobebs Zveli kolxebis egvipturi warmomavlobis
Sesaxeb. Tumca unda iTqvas, rom igi am mosazrebas sakmaod kritikulad udgeba da
mxolod varaudis doneze ganixilavs. aqve imasac SevniSnavT, rom sakmaod bevri
uzustobaa daSvebuli Zveli istoriis gadmocemisas, romelsac igi fragmentulad
mimoixilavs. samagierod, SedarebiT srulyofiladaa moTxrobili istoriuli faqtebi
XVIII saukunidan dawyebuli XIX saukunis pirveli meoTxedis CaTvliT. magaliTad,
erekle II-is droindeli saSinao da sagareo politikuri viTareba, giorgi XII-is
mefoba, qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gauqmeba, ajanyebebi XIX saukunis 20-ian wlebamde da
sxva.
germaneli mecnieris TqmiT, qarTvelebi TavianT qveyanas saqarTvelos uwodeben,
xolo sakuTar Tavs qarTvels, Targamosis vaJis qarTlosis mixedviT. aqve igi
asaxelebs Targamosis ufros Svils haoss, romelsac somexTa winaprad miiCnevs da
acxadebs, rom haosi da qarTlosic erTdroulad ganTavisufldnen babilonelTa
uRlisagan.
eduard aixvaldis mogonebebis mixedviT, pirveli dampyrobeli, romelmac
qarTlSi ilaSqra, aleqsandre makedoneli iyo. masTan erTad igi moixseniebs qarTlis
mamasaxlis azons, romelic aleqsandre makedonelis sardali iyo. makedonelis
gardacvalebis Semdeg ki aspareze gamodis farnavazi, mcxeTis mamasaxlis samaris
ZmisSvili, romelic qveyanas aTavisuflebs azonis batonobisagan. e. aixvaldis azriT,
es unda momxdariyo qristes dabadebamde daaxloebiT 300 wliT adre. farnavazi mas
imdroindeli saqarTvelos pirvel mefed miaCnia. garda farnavazisa, mogzauris
gamoTvliT, saqarTvelos (qarTls) giorgi XII-is CaTvliT ganagebda 97 mefe,
romelsac igi oTx samefo Stod yofs: farnavazianebad, arSakunianebad (anu
arSakidebad), xosroianebad da bagrationebad.
SeniSvna: Cveni azriT, ufro marTebuli iqneboda qarTuli samefo dinastiis sam
Stod dayofa: farnavazianebad, gorgaslianebad da ra Tqma unda, bagrationebad.
qarTlis Zvel dedaqalaq mcxeTaze saubrisas mogzauri aRniSnavs, rom
dedaqalaqis istoria esaa mokle `aRwerilobani im sisxliani brZolisa, romelsac
awarmoebda es patara samefo mezoblebTan 1500 welze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi". aqve
igi moixseniebs qarTlis 27-e mefes _ varaz bakurs, romlis drosac qarTlSi
ulaSqria spars mxedarTmTavar ubarabs. mizezi am laSqrobisa gamxdara varaz
bakuris kavSiri bizantiis keisar Teodor II-sTan (409-450).
SeniSvna: saxeli ubarabi ,,qarTlis cxovrebaSi" ar moixsenieba, Tumca
Semosevaze da cixis agebaze aris saubari (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv. 136).
savaraudoa, e. aixvaldi gulisxmobdes sparseTis mefes uarans, igive bahram IV-s,
romelic mefobda 389-399 wlebSi (narkvevebi, 1970, gv. 450).
mefe mirianis daxasiaTebisas e. aixvaldi ganmartavs, rom swored mis dros
gamocxadda qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad qarTlSi, Tumca erTi uzustoba mainc
mosdis: nacvlad IV saukunisa III saukunes uTiTebs.
momdevno mefeTagan germaneli mogzauri gansakuTrebiT mefe vaxtang gorgasals
gamoarCevs, romelsac vaxtang I-s uwodebs. mefe vaxtangis moRvaweobas ki V saukunis I
naxevriT aTariRebs, rac arazustia, radgan cnobilia, rom vaxtang gorgasali
mefobda V saukunis II naxevarSi. e. aixvaldis TqmiT, qarTlis mefem awarmoa
Zlevamosili brZolebi indoelebTan, sparselebTan, berZnebTan da kavkasiis xalxebTan.
mefe vaxtang gorgaslis mefobas ukavSirebs igi Tbilisis daarsebas da aseve metexisa
da suramis cixeebis agebas.
guaram bagrationis mefobis Sefasebisas e. aixvaldi xazs usvams im garemoebas,
rom igi iyo warmoSobiT qarTveli mefe, dediT - xosroiani, mamiT - bagrationi.
guarams didi aRmSeneblobiTi samuSaoebi Cautarebia Tavis samefoSi, kerZod,
ganuaxlebia Zveli metexis RvTismSoblis (sionis) saxelobis eklesia da avlabarSi
augia didi samefo sasaxle.
guaram bagrationis Semdeg e. aixvaldi saubrobs arabTa erT-erT gamoCenil,
Tumca amave dros Tavisi sisastikiT cnobil sardal murvan ibn-muhamedze, anu,
rogorc mas saqarTveloSi uwodebdnen, murvan-yruze. Tumca laSqrobis TariRad,
nacvlad 735 wlisa, 633 wels asaxelebs.
eduard aixvaldi 858 wliT aTariRebs buRa-Turqis mier Tbilisis aRebas da
amira sahakis dasjas, rac aseve arazustia.
SeniSvna: cnobilia, rom xalifa muTavaqilma buRa-Turqi gamoagzavna ara 858
wels, rogorc amas e. aixvaldi amtkicebs, aramed 853 wels Tbilisis amira
sahakis dasasjelad. amiras winaaRmdeg misi mokavSire iyo tao-klarjeTis mTavari
bagrat I kurapalati (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv. 255).
saqarTvelos Zlierebis mesaZirkvled e. aixvaldi tradiciulad daviT IV
aRmaSenebels miiCnevs (Tumca teqstSi daviT IV-is nacvlad daviT III aqvs
miTiTebuli). mogzauri sakmaod dadebiTad axasiaTebs gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos
mefes - giorgi III-s (1156-1184), romelmac, misive sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, saxeli gaiTqva
sparselebsa da Turqebze gamarjvebiT. germaneli mecnieri gansakuTrebiT enawyliania
Tamaris mefobis Sefasebisas, Tumca misi gamefebis TariRad, nacvlad 1184 wlisa,
asaxelebs 1254 wels. e. aixvaldis azriT, Tamar mefe saqarTvelos taxtze avida
Tavisi qveynis didebis xanaSi. istoria ki mas warmoadgens rogorc SorsmWvretel da
mwyalobel xelmwifed. Tamaris mefobiT aRfrTovanebuli e. aixvaldi mas uwodebs
,,xelovnebisa da mecnierebis brZen mfarvels", romlis drosac yvaoda poezia da
xuroTmoZRvreba. amis damamtkicebel sabuTad mogzaurs SoTa rusTavelis cxovreba
da moRvaweoba miaCnia.
Tamaris mefobis Sefasebis Semdeg e. aixvaldi gverds uvlis laSa-giorgis
mefobas da pirdapir rusudanis mefobaze saubrobs. Tumca aqve ganmartavs, rom
pirvelad monRolTa sardalma subudaim (romelsac e. aixvaldi SecdomiT sabada
baRaTurqs uwodebs) 1230 wels ilaSqra saqarTveloSi. swored monRolTa Tavdasxmebs
ukavSirebs igi qveynis gayofas or nawilad _ qarTlad da imereTad.
Temur-lengis Semosevas e. aixvaldi, nacvlad 1386 wlisa, 1388 wliT aTariRebs
da aRniSnavs, rom am Semosevis Sedegad mniSvnelovnad dazianda qalaqi Tbilisi,
xolo Tbilisis mosaxleobis didi nawili daatyveves.
SeniSvna: Temur-lengs Tbilisis mosaxleoba ar dautyvevebia da dedaqalaqic
mniSvnelovnad ar dauzianebia. Tumca man daatyveva gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos
mefe bagrat V da dedofali ana erTi vaJiTurT.
qveynis aRdgena-ganaxlebis process e. aixvaldi savsebiT samarTlianad
ukavSirebs aleqsandre I-is (1412-1442) moRvaweobas. Tumca SecdomiT aRniSnavs, rom
erTiani saqarTvelos daSla samefo-samTavroebad XVI saukunis bolos moxdao, mefe
aleqsandre I-ma ki Tavis sam vaJs gaunawila qarTli, kaxeTi da imereTio.
SeniSvna: saqarTvelos daSla samefo-samTavroebad moxda XV saukunis II
naxevarSi, xolo gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos ukanaskneli mefe giorgi XIII (1446-
1466) iyo, romelic amave dros kaxeTis samefos pirvel mefed aris miCneuli
(1466-1476).
eduard aixvaldis azriT, erTiani saqarTvelos daSlis Semdeg dasavleT
saqarTvelo TurqeTis, xolo aRmosavleT saqarTvelo iranelTa gavlenis qveS moeqca.
saqarTvelos daSlis Semdeg e. aixvaldi yuradRebas calkeul samefo-
samTavroebze amaxvilebs. Tumca germaneli mogzauri ratomRac nakleb interess iCens
dasavleT saqarTvelos, kerZod imereTis samefoSi mimdinare movlenebisadmi, maSin
rodesac TiTqmis detalurad mimoixilavs aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, anu qarTl-
kaxeTis samefos, politikur istorias.
kaxeTis samefoze saubrisas e. aixvaldi aRniSnavs, rom kaxeTis mefe aleqsandre
II-m 1586 wels mfarveloba sTxova ruseTis mefe Tevdore ivanes Zes da amiT ruseTis
uzenaesoba aRiara.
SeniSvna: aq ,,ficis wigni" da ,,wyalobis sigeli" igulisxmeba, magram radgan
realuri daxmareba ver miiRo, amitom kaxeTis mefe aleqsandrem da qarTlis mefe
giorgim (igulisxmeba qarTlis mefe giorgi X (1600-1605) gadawyvites, rom
amjerad TanadgomisaTvis ruseTis mefe boris godunovisaTvis (1598-1605)
miemarTaT. ruseTis samefo karis ndobis mopoveba aleqsandre giorgis Zem (1639-
1660) da Teimuraz I-mac (1606-1661) scades, rasac Sedegad imereTis mefis mier
ruseTis xelisuflebisadmi erTgulebis ficis dadeba (1651) mohyva (i. cincaZe,
1969, gv. 25).
rostom-xanis (1632-1658) mefobis Sefasebisas e. aixvaldi yuradRebas amaxvilebs
rostomis mier warmoebul saSinao da sagareo politikisadmi, romelsac aSkarad
proiranuli xasiaTi hqonda. mogzauri ratomRac nakleb yuradRebas iCens vaxtang V-
sadmi, romelsac igi SecdomiT vaxtang IV-d ixseniebs. Tumca sworad asaxelebs misi
gamefebis TariRs (1658) da aRniSnavs, rom vaxtangi bagrationebis gverdiTi Stos _
muxranbatonebis STamomavali iyo.
eduard aixvaldis interesTa sferoSi moeqca qarTlis mefe erekle I, anu igive
nazar-ali-xani (1688-1703), Teimuraz I-is Zis, daviTis, vaJi. germaneli mecnierisaTvis
isicaa cnobili, rom igi (e.i. erekle _ k.q.), ,,rusuli" ganswavlulobis miuxedavad,
iranis Sahis politikis gamtarebeli aRmoCnda.
eduard aixvaldi Tavis mogonebebSi jerovan yuradRebas qarTl-kaxeTis samefos
uTmobs. igi sakmaod detalurad ganixilavs Teimuraz II-isa da misi vaJis, erekle II-is
moRvaweobas. mogzauris azriT, qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gaerTianebis Semdeg (1762)
erekle ,,ufro gaZlierda da Tavisi mtrebisTvis mrisxane gaxda". miuxedavad amisa,
politikuri situaciis arastabilurobam rogorc qveynis SigniT, aseve mis gareT,
mezobeli kavkasieli tomebis permanenturma Semosevebma aiZula erekle II 1783 wels
gaformebuli georgievskis traqtatiT ruseTis mfarvelobaSi Sesuliyo.
SeniSvna: miuxedavad mefe erekles am nabijisa, qarTl-kaxeTis samefo gareSe
mtrebTan brZolaSi (omar xanis laSqroba 1785, aRa-maxmad-xanis Semoseva 1795)
marto aRmoCnda, radgan carizmma, rogorc yovelTvis, masze dakisrebuli
movaleoba amjeradac ar Seasrula.
qarTvel mefeebze msjelobas e. aixvaldi asrulebs qarTl-kaxeTis ukanaskneli
mefis giorgi XII-is mefobis SefasebiT da daaskvnis, rom: mefe giorgim igrZno ra
sikvdilis moaxloeba, sagareo orientacia kvlav ruseTisken miapyro, radgan, e.
aixvaldis azriT, mefem ,,kargad dainaxa Tavisi samSoblos gardauvali daRupva,
romelsac emuqreboda nawilobriv gareSe mteri, nawilobriv Sinauri aSlilobani".
SeniSvna: rogorc cnobilia, 1800 wlis 18 dekembers, jer kidev giorgi XII-is
sicocxleSi, imperatorma pavle I-ma mier SeimuSava manifesti qarTl-kaxeTis
samefos gauqmebis Sesaxeb, romelic 1801 wlis 18 ianvars gamoqveynda. imperatorma
aleqsandre I-ma ki manifesti gamosca 1801 wlis 12 seqtembers, romelic sionis
taZarSi Sekrebil xalxs erTi wlis Semdeg gaacnes (e. orjonikiZe, 1992, gv. 10).
ase rom, ruseTis saimperatoro kars jer kidev didi xnis win hqonda ,,ganaCeni
gamotanili" qarTl-kaxeTis samefosaTvis. amisaTvis isini mxolod Sesaferis
moments elodnen. es momentic dadga... saqarTveloSi rusuli mmarTveloba
damyarda, amas TviT e. aixvaldic sagangebod aRniSnavs.
germaneli mecnieris e. aixvaldis naSromi ,,mogzauroba kavkasiaSi", miuxedavad
garkveuli xarvezebisa da uzustobisa, mniSvnelovan istoriul wyarod migvaCnia.
mogzauris cnobebi, romlebic iwyeba uZvelesi droidan da mTavrdeba XIX saukunis
dasawyisiT, Zalze sayuradReboa.
eduard aixvaldis naSromis moZiebiTa da mecnierul mimoqcevaSi SemotaniT
qarTul istoriografias saintereso gamokvleva Seemata.

damowmebuli literatura

narkvevebi, 1970 - saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. I (tomis redaqtori g.


meliqiSvili), Tb., 1970.
e. orjonikiZe, 1992 - e. orjonikiZe, rusuli mmarTvelobis damyareba
saqarTveloSi (XIX s-is I naxevari), Tb., 1992.
qarTlis cxovreba, 1955 - qarTlis cxovreba, s. yauxCiSvilis redaqciiT, t. I,
Tb., 1955.
i. cincaZe, 1969 - aleqsi ievlevis 1650-1652 ww. imereTis samefoSi elCobis
saangariSo aRwerilobani, Tb., 1969.
KAKHABER KEBULADZE

QUESTIONS OF GEORGIA’S HISTORY IN EDWARD


AICHWALD’S MEMOIRS

Edward Aichwald, a famous German scientist and traveler was in the Caucasus during 1825-
26. He made a journey over almost the entire Georgia and left an interesting description of the
country. His writings contain important materials for the study of the country’s history.
The author discusses political situation and economic conditions of the period and provides
mineral and botanic researches and often gives ethnographic sketches.
Apart from the purely scientific nature of E.Aichwald’s expedition to the Caucasus it had also
the intelligence significance as Tsarist Russia had determined the complete study of the occupied
territories for the better application of the country’s natural resources and ruling of the conquered
people.
Irrespective of Russia’s aims Edward Aichwalds work “Traveling in the Caucasus” present an
important historical source. The information provided by the author since the ancient times and ends
up in the 19 century deserves due attention.
th

The rediscovery of Edward Aichwald’s book and introducing it in the scientific circulation has
enriched Georgian historiography with the one more interesting work.