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SERVICE TRAINING

TRAINING MANUAL

Copyright All rights reserved.


The information and drawings contained herein must not be duplicated, used improperly, or
communicated to third parties without the consent of Schwing America Inc.
All Information is subject to revision
5900 Centerville Road White Bear, MN 55127 TEL 651-429-0999 FAX 651-429-2112 www.schwing.com

SCHWING SERVICE DEPARTMENT


(651) 429-0999
OR

1-888-292-0262
OR

FAX (651) 429-2112


8:00 A.M. TO 5:00 P.M. (Central Time)
(MONDAY THROUGH FRIDAY)

SCHWING PARTS DEPARTMENT


1-800-328-9635
OR

FAX (651) 429-2112


6:00 A.M. - 9:00 P.M. (Central Time)
(MONDAY THROUGH FRIDAY)

24 Hour Service Hotline


1-888-292-0262
(MONDAY THROUGH SATURDAY)

Branches
Florida............................................................. 1-813-985-8311
Northern California........................................ 1-925-371-8595
Southern California ....................................... 1-562-493-1012
Georgia ........................................................... 1-678-560-9801
Texas .............................................................. 1-972-245-5166

SERVICE TRAINING

Table of Contents

Typical Twin Circuit ........................ 1

Typical Boom Circuit .................... 16

PTO Switch/Air Valve ..................................................1


PTO ...............................................................................2
Continuous Duty Solenoid ............................................2
CPC/CPCII Controller ..................................................3
Hydraulic Pumps ...........................................................3
Fixed Displacement ......................................................4
Variable Displacement ..................................................4
Main Control Block Brain .........................................4
Concrete Pump Forward/Reverse Valve .......................5
Main Control Block - S1/S2 Spool ...............................5
Main Relief Valve .........................................................6
Differential Cylinders ...................................................6
Material Cylinders ........................................................7
Differential Cylinder - Bottomed Out ...........................7
MPS Valve ....................................................................8
S3/Accumulator Control Block .....................................8
Accumulator Theory .....................................................9
Rock Valve Slewing Cylinder ......................................9
Soft Switch Relief Valve ............................................10
Main Control Block - S2 Spool ..................................10
Differential Cylinder - Beginning of stroke ................11
MPS ............................................................................11
Differential Cylinder - Bottomed Out .........................12
MPS ............................................................................12
S3/Accumulator Control Block ...................................13
Rock Valve Slewing Cylinder ....................................13
Soft Switch Relief Valve ............................................14
Main Control Block - S2 Spool ..................................14
Differential Cylinders .................................................15

Boom Pump ................................................................16


E-Stop Manifold .........................................................17
Poppet Valve Theory ..................................................17
E-Stop - Override .......................................................18
Boom Handvalve - No functions activated ................18
Boom Handvalve - Outrigger enabled ........................19
Outrigger Handvalve ..................................................19
Boom Handvalve - Boom Function Activated ...........20
Pulsar Coil Theory ......................................................20
Boom Holding Valves ................................................21
Manual Controls and Overrides ..................................21

Training Manual

Table of Contents

SERVICE TRAINING

Service Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Typical Twin Circuit


Main Control Block
Main Relief/Soft Switch

MPS Valve

Differential Cylinders
S3/Accumulator Valve
Rock Valve
Slewing Cylinder

Accumulator Pump
Boom Pump

Rock Valve

PTO
Material Cylinders

Hydraulic Pumps

PTO Switch/Air Valve


Air Pressure Switch

Air Pressure Switch


(Energized)
To:PTO

Switch pushed in, air supply blocked by


spool.
Switch pulled out , opening is created
allowing air pressure to energize the air pressure switch.
A passage way is created allowing air pressure to be sent to the PTO.

Air blocked by spool


PULL
TO APPLY

PARKING
BRAKE
PUSH TO
RELEASE

QUARTZ
00000.1

1 HOURS

From:Truck Air Supply

PTO switch
Must be pulled

Training Manual

Power to fuse

SERVICE TRAINING

PTO
Air is routed to the small cylinder mounted
in the distribution gear case (PTO).
When the cylinder is pushed in the PTO is
in the pumping position.
When the cylinder is pushed out the PTO
is in the travel position.
Air Supply Block

To:12v Controller

PTO.eps

Fork

All hydraulic pumps for the concrete pump, placing boom, agitator, etc. are mounted on a distribution gearcase. When you are driving the truck,
the power of the truck engine is transmitted
through the truck transmission, through a propeller shaft, through the bottom of the distribution
gearcase, through another propeller shaft, and
into the rear end(s) of the truck. When you are
operating the unit, the distribution
gearcase interrupts the power to the rear ends,
and transmits it to internal gears that turn the
hydraulic pumps. Changing between travel and
pumping modes is accomplished by means of an
air switch in the truck cab.

Continuous Duty Solenoid


Electric signal from Air Switch enters Continuous Duty Solenoid

CPC/CPC II Style
(Not used on Vector units)

The signal energizes the magnetic coil in the


Continuous Duty Solenoid
The energized magnetic coil, pulls the
plunger down
To: Controller

A connection is established between the 12


volt power supply and CPC Controller

Plunger

Magnetic Coil

From: 12v Power Supply

Cont_Solenoid.eps

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

CPC/CPCII Controller
The CPC/CPC II provides a proportional signal
to
each of the boom functions and the concrete
pump
output. It also controls all on/off functions on the
unit. The CPC/CPC II receives power via the
PTO switch through the Continuos duty solenoid
and into the Power connector.

CPC/CPC II
POWER
REAR CTR
UMB CTR
RADIO CTR
ID
LINK
ALARM
E-STOP

WHEN WELDING ANYWHERE ON UNIT


POWER CABLE MUST BE DISCONNECTED

L1357-01

Vector Controller

Power Connector

The Vector control system is a completely digital control system, which means that the function
movements are converted to numbers (0s and
1s). The numbers are sent to the controller
where they are analyzed, converted back to analog (voltage or current), and sent to the valves
and indication devices.

Vector

OK

OFF

x1000 3
0
PTO 1500 rpm
62C

Menu: [ENTER]=ON

HOME

HELP

START

CLEAR

ENTER

QUIT

X12 Connector
(Behind)

Hydraulic Pumps
Typical Gearbox
To: Main Control Block

To: Boom Control Block

Pumpkit Pumps

s
.ep
ps
um
licP
u
dra
To:
Hy

The hydraulic pumps for the concrete pump circuit are bent axis, variable displacement piston
pumps. They are horsepower controlled, which
means that as pressure rises towards maximum,
the flow can decrease, so the power consumption
remains constant. We use this type of pump so
the truck engine will not bog down under hard
pumping conditions. The pumps also accept
external signals for control of the output. At
Schwing, we route signals to the pump from the
hydraulic stroke limiter. The net effect of these
devices is to tell the pump to put out less oil per
revolution, as required by the pump operator.

To: S3 Accumulator
Agitator
To: Oil Cooler

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Fixed Displacement
Puts out a set amount of oil, that can only be
changed by increasing/decreasing the RPMs.
Fixed Dispalcement
Bent Axis

Variable Displacement
Variable or Positive displacement pumps deliver
to the system, a variable amount of oil according
to the angle for the rotary group or swash plate.

min

max

min

Variable Displacement
Bent Axis

max

Variable Displacement
Swash Plate
PumpCutaways.eps

Main Control Block Brain


Oil from hydraulic pumps enter the P1 and
P2 ports of the Main Control Block.
S1 spool is in the neutral position
From: Pumps

Hydraulic oil will flow through the Main


Control Block and go back to the hydraulic
tank.

To: Tank

To: Tank

S1 Spool

From: Pump
From: Pump
S2 Spool

HiFlowBrain.eps

S1 - Neutral Position, pathway block

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Concrete Pump Forward/Reverse


Valve

To: Main Control Block/MPS Valve


P2 Vent
T

Blocked pathway (Neutral)

A
B

From: Pump

In the forward position, a passage way is


created between the pressure port and the
A port, through grooves in the spool.

Oil is sent to the XP port of the Main


Hydraulic Control Block and the XB port
of the MPS valve.

To: Main Control Block (XP port)


and MPS Valve (XB port)
A

The Concrete Pump Forward/Reversing valve is


a simple control device, containing a 3 position,
6 way spool attached to a handle. The valve
receives hydraulic oil from the Accumulator
pump.
In the neutral position, the passage way for
the hydraulic oil is blocked and will return to
tank.

This valve also plugs the vent line, which


allows pressure to build in the system

Passageway created (Forward position)

Main Control Block - S1/S2 Spool


With hydraulic pressure on the XP side of
the spool and no pressure on the XR side,
the S1 spool will move into the Forward
position.

S1 - Forward Position,
pathway to S2 spool created

Passage way created for the hydraulic oil


from the Main Hydraulic Pumps to move
past the S1 spool and unto the S2 spool.
Passage way created for the hydraulic oil
moving past the S2 spool and unto the Differential Cylinder.

S1 Spool

XP

XR

From: CP Forward/Reverse Valve


From: Pump

S2 Spool

From: Pump

HiFlowBrain_S1.eps

Pathway to Differential cylinder


To: Differential Cylinder

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Main Relief Valve


The main relief valve protects the hydraulic circuit, by relieving pressure before it reaches 350
bar or greater.
Pressure exceeds 350 bar and presses against
the 350 bar main relief valve plunger.

80 bar
350 bar

The 350 bar relief valve spring will collapse,


creating a passage way for the oil to bleed to
tank. This creates a pressure drop in the poppet spring chamber.
Less than relief pressure

Over relief pressure

Pressure is greater on the piston side of the


poppet than the spring side. This will collapse the poppet spring allowing the poppet
to open.
With the poppet opened, a passage way is
created, allowing oil to escape to tank until
350 bar pressure or lower is achieved.

Poppet opens

Excess oil drained to tank

Differential Cylinders

Loop Oil

To:MPS ZK2
To:MPS ZK1
High pressure oil

The term differential cylinder means that each


hydraulic cylinder that pushes the concrete has
an area difference (referred to as an area differential) between the two sides of the piston. This
area differential exists because the rod extends
only from one side of the piston. This is in contrast to the rock
valve slewing cylinder, for example, which has a
rod
extending from both ends of the piston and therefore has the same area on both sides of the piston
(it is a nondifferential cylinder).
Hydraulic oil from the Main Control Block
flows to the rod side of the left hand differential cylinder.
The pressure from the hydraulic oil extends
the rod of the left hand differential cylinder.

From: Pumps
To:MPS ZS1
To:MPS ZS2
From: Pumps

DiffCylinders.eps

Loop oil on the piston side of the left hand


differential cylinder crosses over to piston
side of the right hand differential cylinder,
causing that rod to retract.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Material Cylinders
The material cylinders contain rubber rams that
are connected to the differential cylinder rods.
One side will push the concrete through the Rock
valve while the opposite side will suck concrete
from the hopper.
Concrete pushed through Rock Valve

Concrete sucked in from hopper

MatCylinders.e

Differential Cylinder - Bottomed Out


Left-hand differential cylinder bottoms out.
Signal lines connected to the ZK1,ZK2,
ZS1 and ZS2 ports of the MPS valve.

To:MPS ZK2
To:MPS ZK1

From: Pumps
To:MPS ZS1
To:MPS ZS2
From: Pumps

DiffCylinders_Bottom.ep

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

MPS Valve

X3

To: Soft Switch


Reversing Valve
To:
S3 Spool

XB

XA

ZS1

ZS2

ZK1

ZK2

The MPS system consists of three small directional control valves. The main pressure that is
supplied to these directional control valve is supplied by the accumulator.
A high pressure signal line from the Differential Cylinder enters the MPS valve through
the ZK2 port.
This moves the NG 6 directional valve over
creating a passage way for the Accumulator
oil to flow through MPS valve and out the
A and X3 port.
From: Differential Cyl.

From:
Differential
Cylinder

SP

Passage way created


To:S3 Spool
From: Accumulator Pump

From: Differential Cyl.


From: Accumulator Pump

S3/Accumulator Control Block


Hydraulic oil from the MPS valve A port
enters the XA port of the S3/Accumulator
Control Block.
To: Rock valve slewing cylinder
and S2 spool

The S3 spool moves to the left.

From: MPS valve "B" port

A passage way is created for accumulator oil


to travel to the Rock valve Slewing Cylinder
and S2 spool in the Main Control Block.

From: MPS valve "A" port


To: Rock valve slewing cylinder
To: S2 spool
Manual Bleed

S3_Block02.eps
From: Accumulator Pump
From: Accumulator Pump

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Accumulator Theory

Without Nitrogen
Charge

With nitrogen charged


to pressure P1

Influx of hydraulic oil


for storage

The accumulator can be considered an energy


storage device for hydraulics, similar to the function of a battery in an electrical circuit. The accumulator stores the oil flow of a small hydraulic
pump until it is time to shift the Rock Valve.
When needed all of the oil that as been stored in
the accumulator is quickly released. This has the
following benefits:
Lower power requirements for switching the
RockValve (less horsepower taken from the
engine).
Simpler switching to begin the next stroke
(the differential cylinders get the signal to
change direction as soon as the S3 spool
moves, regardless if the Rock Valve has
moved or not).

Fluid charged to
maximum working
pressure P3

Discharge of
hydraulic oil

Fluid discharged
down to minimum
working pressure P2
AccumulatorTheory.eps

Rock Valve Slewing Cylinder


From: S3/Accumulator Control Block

From: S3/Accumulator Control Block

The rock valve slewing cylinder is a nondifferential cylinder (see Differential Cylinder). The
switching grooves are used in single-circuit
machines, but not in twin-circuit machines.
A working line from the A port of the S3/
Accumulator Control Block enters the rear
of the Rock Valve Slewing cylinder
This pushes the rod over, thus switching
the rock valve.

RockSlewingCylinder.eps

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Soft Switch Relief Valve


Signal from MPS Valve
X3

X3

80 bar

80 bar

350 bar

350 bar

When the Rock Valve is shifting, a signal line


enters the X3 port of the Main Control Block
The Soft Switch Reversing Valve is opened,
creating a passageway to the 80 bar relief
valve.
Pressure exceeds 80 bar and presses against
the 80 bar Soft Switch relief valve plunger.
The 80 bar relief valve spring will collapse,
creating a passage way for the oil to bleed to
tank. This creates a pressure drop in the poppet spring chamber.

X3

X3

80 bar

80 bar

350 bar

350 bar

Pressure is greater on the piston side of the


poppet than the spring side. This will collapse the poppet spring allowing the poppet
to open.
With the poppet opened, a passage way is
created, allowing oil to escape to tank until
80 bar pressure or lower is achieved.

Path open to tank

Main Control Block - S2 Spool


Signal line from the MPS valve enters the
XB port of the Main Control Block
S2 spool moves to the right
A passage way is created for oil to travel to
the Differential Cylinder.
From: CP Forward/Reverse Valve
S1 Spool

From: Pump

From: Pump
S2 Spool

XB

XA

From: Accumulator
Control Block

HiFlowBrain_S2.eps

Pathway to Differential cylinder

10

Training Manual

To: Differential Cylinder

SERVICE TRAINING

Differential Cylinder - Beginning of


stroke
Loop Oil

Hydraulic oil from the Main Control Block


flows to the rod side of the right-hand differential cylinder.
The pressure from the hydraulic oil extends
the rod of the right-hand differential cylinder.

pressure oil

To:MPS ZK2

Loop oil on the piston side of the right-hand


differential cylinder crosses over to piston
side of the left hand differential cylinder,
causing that rod to retract.

To:MPS ZK1

From Pumps
To:MPS ZS1
To:MPS ZS2
DiffCylinders_NewStroke.eps

From Pumps

MPS

X3

A high pressure signal line from the Differential Cylinder is sent to the ZK1 port of
the MPS valve.

Pressure is greater on the ZK1 side of the


NG 6 spool than the ZK2 side.

Signal lost

The NG 6 spool will move to the right


closing the passage way for high pressure
accumulator oil.

XB

XA

ZS1

ZS2

ZK1

ZK2

SP

From: Differential Cyl.

Passage way closed

From: Differential Cyl.


From: Accumulator Pump

From: Accumulator Pump

Training Manual

11

SERVICE TRAINING

Differential Cylinder - Bottomed Out


The Differential cylinder has reached the
bottom of the last stroke.
High pressure signal line are sent to the
ZK1, ZK2, ZS1 and ZS2 ports of
the MPS valve.

To:MPS ZK2
To:MPS ZK1

From Pumps
To:MPS ZS1
To:MPS ZS2
DiffCylinders_03.eps

From Pumps

MPS
X3

To: Soft Switch


Reversing Valve
B

To: S3 Spool

XB

XA

ZS1

ZS2

A high pressure signal line from the Differential Cylinder enters the MPS valve through
the ZS2 port.
This moves the NG 6 directional valve over
creating a passage way for the Accumulator
oil to flow through MPS valve and out the
B port and unto the S3 spool.
Accumulator oil also travels out the X3
port and unto the Soft Switch Reversing
Valve.

From:
Differential Cylinder
To:Soft Switch Reversing Valve
To:S3 Spool

ZK2

ZK1

From:Differential Cylinder

SP

Passage way created

From: Accumulator Pump

From:Differential Cylinder

From: Accumulator Pump

12

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

S3/Accumulator Control Block


To: Rock valve slewing cylinder
and Main Control Block
From: MPS valve "A" port

Hydraulic oil from the MPS valve B port


enters the XB port of the S3/Accumulator
Control Block.
The S3 spool moves to the left.

A passage way is created for accumulator oil


to travel to the Rock valve Slewing Cylinder
and S2 spool in the Main Control Block.

S3_Block.eps

To: Rock valve slewing cylinder


Manual Bleed

To: S2 spool
From: MPS valve "A" port

From: Accumulator Pump

From: Accumulator Pump

Rock Valve Slewing Cylinder


A working line from the B port of the S3/
Accumulator Control Block enters the front
of the Rock Valve Slewing cylinder

From: S3/Accumulator Control Block

This pushes the rod over, thus switching


the rock valve.
From: S3/Accumulator
Control Block

Training Manual

13

SERVICE TRAINING

Soft Switch Relief Valve


Signal from MPS Valve
X3

X3

80 bar

80 bar

350 bar

350 bar

When the Rock Valve is shifting, a signal line


enters the X3 port of the Main Control Block
The Soft Switch Reversing Valve is opened,
creating a passageway to the 80 bar relief
valve.
Pressure exceeds 80 bar and presses against
the 80 bar Soft Switch relief valve plunger.
The 80 bar relief valve spring will collapse,
creating a passage way for the oil to bleed to
tank. This creates a pressure drop in the poppet spring chamber.

X3

X3

80 bar

80 bar

350 bar

350 bar

Pressure is greater on the piston side of the


poppet than the spring side. This will collapse the poppet spring allowing the poppet
to open.
With the poppet opened, a passage way is
created, allowing oil to escape to tank until
80 bar pressure or lower is achieved.

Path open to tank

Main Control Block - S2 Spool


Signal line from the MPS valve enters the
XA port of the Main Control Block
S2 spool moves to the left
A passage way is created for oil to travel to
the Differential Cylinder.

S1 Spool

From: CP Forward/Reverse Valve


From: Pump

From: Pump

S2 Spool

To: Differential Cylinder

HiFlowBrain_S2.eps

From: Accumulator
Control Block

14

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Differential Cylinders
Hydraulic oil from the Main Control Block
flows to the rod side of the left hand differential cylinder.
The pressure from the hydraulic oil extends
the rod of the left hand differential cylinder.
Loop oil on the piston side of the left hand
differential cylinder crosses over to piston
side of the right hand differential cylinder,
causing that rod to retract.

From Pumps

From Pumps

DiffCylinders_04.eps

Training Manual

15

SERVICE TRAINING

Typical Boom Circuit


Boom Cylinder

To:Outrigger Function
Outrigger Handvalve

Boom Pump

1 PM

P1

P4

P3
P2

Boom Handvalve
Estop Manifold

Boom Pump
To: Boom Control Block

To: Main Control Block

The hydraulic pump for the placing boom is a


variable displacement, bent axis, axial piston
pump. It feeds all of the following components:
the hydraulic cylinders on the boom sections
the hydraulic cylinders on the outriggers
the hydraulic motor for the boom slewing
gear

Boom Pump

the hydraulic motor for the water pump


the hydraulic motor of the compressor
(optional equipment)

dra
Hy

s
.ep
02
s_
mp
u
P
ulic

To: S3 Accumulator

To: Agitator
To: Oil Cooler

Training Manual

16

SERVICE TRAINING

E-Stop Manifold
Hydraulic oil from the boom pump enters the
E-stop Manifold from the P1 port.

P2
T

T
P4

P3

Equal Pressure
Poppet Closed

P1

Energized Solenoid

If the solenoid is not energized, a passage


way will be created for the signal line to go
to tank.

Signal Line from P1 port

This will create a pressure drop on the spring


side of the poppet valve.

P2
T

T
P3

With the solenoid energized, a signal line


from the P1 port enters the spring side of
the poppet valve. This will equalize the pressure on both sides of the poppet. The pressure plus spring tension will hold the poppet
closed.

Greater Pressure
Poppet Opened

P4
P1

De-energized Solenoid

Pressure from the P1 port will overtake the


spring tension, allowing the poppet to open.
A passage way is created for the oil from the
P1 port to escape to tank.

Passage way to tank

Poppet Valve Theory


1

Pressure A = B

Pressure A

Pressure A

Pressure B + Spring

Pressure A > B

Pressure A > B

Pressure B + Spring

1. Pressure A and B are equal. With B


pressure, plus the spring, Pressure A is not
great enough to open the poppet.
2. If pressure A is greater than pressure B
plus the spring tension, pressure A will
collapse the spring, lower the poppet.
3. With the poppet lowered, a path for excess
pressure is created and flows back to tank.
4. When pressure B is greater or equal to
pressure A the spring will expand, closing
the pathway to tank.

Pressure A = B

Housing

Pressure A
Poppet
Pathway to Tank
(open)

Pressure B + Spring

Pathway to Tank
(closed)

Spring

Pressure B + Spring

Training Manual

17

SERVICE TRAINING

E-Stop - Override
Concrete pump,
agitator, accumulator
dump valve

Override
buttons
MP

Boom/outrigger
circuit dump
valve

T
MP

P3

P2

Agitator
system plumbing

P4

P1

Concrete pump
system plumbing

Turn the bypass key switch to Bypass


position. If control is not restored, there
probably a hydraulic problem; Proceed to the
next step.
To manually bypass each system, the inlet
plumbing to the nonworking system must be
plumbed out of the manifold.
With the engine stopped, disconnect the
plumbing for the nonworking system at the
appropriate fitting

Boom/outrigger
system plumbing

Accumulator
system plumbing

BY-PASS
NORM. BY-PASS

by-pass2.eps

Boom Handvalve - No functions activated


Oil enters the Boom Handvalve from the P
port.

Blocked passage way

C2

C1

Apitech_Side_03.eps

From: Pump

From: Boom Pump

18

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Boom Handvalve - Outrigger enabled


Outrigger push button is depressed
Pulsar coil is activated
Spool moves, creating a passage way for the
oil to exit out of the C2 port and unto the
outrigger hand valve.

To: Outrigger Handvalve


To: Outrigger Handvalve

Apitech_Side_02.eps

Solenoid Energized
Passage open

From: Boom Pump

Outrigger Handvalve

The Outrigger hand valve is a simple control


device, containing four - 3 position, 6 way spools
attached to handles. The valve receives hydraulic
oil from the Boom Handvalve.
In the neutral position, the passage way for
the hydraulic oil is blocked
In the extend position, a passage way is
created between the pressure port and the
A port of the Outrigger hand valve.

To: Outrigger Function

This will send oil to whatever outrigger function has been activated. Example Outrigger
Extend.

Training Manual

19

SERVICE TRAINING

Boom Handvalve - Boom Function


Activated
Either the pulsar coil or handle are activated
A passage way is created for the oil to be
sent to whatever boom function has been
activated.

Blocked passage way

To: Boom Function


From: Pump

Passage open

Apitech_Side_01.eps

From: Boom Pump

Pulsar Coil Theory


Coil
Control Oil to Spool

Control Disk

As the control disk pulses on and off, pretension


oil is allowed to flow from the pressure passage
to the tank passage. Since the top orifice is larger
than the bottom orifice, eventually more oil will
be in the tank passage than can leave through the
0.024 orifice. At this point, pressure will build in
the main spool control port and move the main
spool.
The longer the on time, the greater the pressure
in the control port, and the further the main spool
is moved, causing the boom to go faster.

0.040 Orifice
Pilot Pressure

20

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Boom Holding Valves


Passage way for rod side oil (to tank)

Passage way for piston side oil

Two hydraulically unlockable check valves


(H.E.R. valves, or holding valves) on each boom
cylinder prevent the boom from coming down
unintentionally

LINE B
LINE A

From:Boom Handvalve

Passage way closed. Oil trapped, cylinder held in place

LINE B
LINE A

Manual Controls and Overrides


000419.eps

10 11

AGITATOR

CONCRETE PUMP

Boom 1

Boom 2

Boom 3

Boom 4

Boom 1 Telescope

Slewing
Boom / Outrigger

Water / Compressor

10189517

DANGER
Electrocution hazard.
Stay back from high
voltage wires at least
17 feet (5 meters).

WARNING
Do not operate this
machine without
training. Understand
the warnings in safety
manuals and on decals.

WARNING
Clear area
before activating
outriggers

REAR EXTEND

REAR JACKING

FRONT JACKING

FRONT EXTEND

8 12

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

E-stop
Boom #1 Control Handle
Boom #2 Control Handle
Boom #3 Control Handle
Boom #4 Control Handle
Boom Telescope Handle
Boom Slewing Control Handle
Water Pump/Air Compressor Handle
Water Pump System Change-Over Valve
Concrete Pump Handle
Agitator Handle
Two Position Boom/Outrigger Handle.

Training Manual

21

SERVICE TRAINING

22

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING
The Schwing Group ............................................................ 1
Schwing America, Inc. ................................................. 1

Hydraulic Training
General Principles ............................................................... 3
Mechanical Versus Hydraulic ............................................. 7
Transfer of Energy .............................................................. 7
Hydraulic Jack ..................................................................... 8
Linear & Rotary Actuators .................................................. 8
Basic Hydraulic Components .............................................. 9
Check Valve Comparison ................................................. 10
Shuttle Valve ..................................................................... 11
Throttle Check Valve ........................................................ 12
Switching Valves .............................................................. 13
Hydraulic Pumps ............................................................... 14
Placing boom hydraulic pumps .................................. 14
Concrete pump hydraulic pumps ............................... 14
Fixed Displacement Pump ................................................ 15
Rexroth A2F20 ........................................................... 15
Variable Displacement Pump ............................................ 15
Rexroth A7VO ........................................................... 15
Variable Displacement Axial Piston Pump ....................... 16
RexrothA10VO .......................................................... 16
RexrothA11VO .......................................................... 16
Rexroth A11VO Adjustments .................................... 17
Transfer Cases ................................................................... 18
Relief Valves ..................................................................... 19
Safety Relief Valves .......................................................... 20
Pressure Relief Valve Type DB ................................. 20
Pressure Relief Valves Type DBW ............................ 20
Hydraulic Symbols ............................................................ 21
Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.) ............................................... 22
Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.) ............................................... 23
Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.) ............................................... 24
Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.) ............................................... 25
Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.) ............................................... 26
Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.) ............................................... 27
Formulas ............................................................................ 28

Pumpkits
800 Gate Valve .................................................................. 30
801 Gate Valve .................................................................. 31
801 Pumpkit Schematic ............................................. 32
Concrete Pump Control Block ................................... 33
Stroke Limiter ............................................................ 34

Table of Contents

494 Block ....................................................................34


Hydraulically Unlockable CheckValve ......................35
Gate Valve ..................................................................35
900-1200 Single Circuit .....................................................37
900-1200 Single Circuit Schematic ............................38
Concrete Pump Control Block ....................................39
Stroke Limiter .............................................................40
494 Block ....................................................................40
Switching Valve .........................................................41
A7VO .........................................................................41
Rock Valve .................................................................42
Phase A .......................................................................44
Phase B .......................................................................45
Phase C .......................................................................46
Phase D .......................................................................47
Phase E .......................................................................48
Phase F ........................................................................49
Phase G .......................................................................50
Phase H .......................................................................51
Phase I ........................................................................52
Phase J ........................................................................53
Phase K .......................................................................54
Troubleshooting .................................................................55
High-Flow Single Circuit 2020/2023 ................................61
High-Flow Single Circuit Schematic ..........................62
Concrete Pump Control Block ....................................63
Switching Manifold ....................................................64
Stroke Limiter with Fast Switch/Dampner .................64
Phase A .......................................................................66
Phase B .......................................................................68
Phase C .......................................................................70
Phase D .......................................................................72
Twin Circuits .....................................................................74
1200 Twin Circuit with Switching Valves ........................75
Twin Circuit Schematic w/Soft Switch ......................76
Concrete Pump Control Block ....................................77
S3 Control Block ........................................................77
Soft Switch .................................................................78
Accumulator Unloader Valve .....................................78
Accumulator Control Block/Dump Valve ..................79
Phase A .......................................................................80
Phase B .......................................................................82
Phase C .......................................................................84
Phase D .......................................................................86
1200 Twin Circuit with MPS .............................................89
Twin Circuit with MPS/Soft Switch ...........................90
Concrete Pump Control Block ....................................91
S3 Control Block ........................................................91
MPS ............................................................................92
Accumulator Control Block/Dump Valve ..................93
Soft Switch .................................................................94
Phase A .......................................................................96

Training Manual

Table of Contents
Phase B .......................................................................98
Phase C .....................................................................100
Phase D .....................................................................102
Twin Circuit with Variable displacement
accumulator pump Schematic 104
Model Number Nomenclature .........................................105
Hi-Flow Pumpkits (2023-2525) ......................................106
Hi-Flow Pumpkits (2525H) .............................................107
Hi-Flow Pumpkits Schematic ...................................108
Concrete Pump Control Block .................................109
Main Relief/Soft Switch Block ................................110
MPS ..........................................................................111
S3 Control Block - Machined ...................................112
S3 Control Block - Cast ...........................................113
2023 Circuit diagram ................................................114
Phase A .....................................................................114
Phase B .....................................................................116
Phase C .....................................................................118
Phase D .....................................................................120

Booms
Black & White .................................................................123
Electric/Air/Oil .........................................................123
Electric/Oil/Oil .........................................................123
Proportional .....................................................................125
Boom Holding Valves .....................................................126
28X B&W Boom .............................................................127
Load Sense Hydraulic Circuits ........................................131
Overview ..................................................................131
Components ..............................................................132
Basic Principles - Simple Circuit .............................133
Basic Principles - Orifice .........................................134
Basic Principles - Without Relief Valve ..................135
Basic Principles - With Relief Valve .......................136
Basic Principles - Delta-P ........................................137
Basic Principles - Delta-P ........................................138
Basic Principles - Pressure Cut-Off .........................139
Basic Principles - Shuttle Valves .............................140
Basic Principles - Pressure Regulator ......................141
A7 Variable Displacement Hydraulic Pump Training ....142
All Functions in Neutral ...........................................142
Cylinder Extend Function Initiated ..........................144
Hydraulic Cylinder Extending .................................146
Hydraulic Cylinder Fully Extended Pump ...............148
Fixed Displacement Pump Training ................................150
All Function in Neutral ............................................150
Boom Function Activated ........................................151
Cylinder Pressurized at the End of Stroke ...............152
Output Charts ...................................................................153
Using the Chart ................................................................154

Using a Nomograph ........................................................ 159


General information ................................................. 159
The quadrants ........................................................... 161
Minimum Pipe Wall Thickness ....................................... 167
Preventative Maintenance ............................................... 168
Scheduled Maintenance ........................................... 168
Filtration .......................................................................... 170
General information ................................................. 170
Specific information ................................................. 170
Changing hydraulic oil filters .................................. 170
Changing high pressure water filter ......................... 171
Hydraulic Oils ................................................................. 171
General information ................................................. 171
Specific information ................................................. 172
When to change your hydraulic oil .......................... 172

Electrical
Introduction ..................................................................... 173
What is Electricity? ......................................................... 173
Amperage ........................................................................ 176
Voltage ............................................................................ 177
Resistance ........................................................................ 177
Basic Circuits .................................................................. 179
Schematics ...................................................................... 181
Circuit Types ................................................................... 181
Ohms Law ...................................................................... 183
Series Circuit Laws ......................................................... 185
Parallel Circuit Laws ....................................................... 186
Series Parallel Circuits ................................................. 188
Circuit Faults ................................................................... 189
Using Test Equipment ..................................................... 190
The Troubleshooting Process ................................... 195
Electrical Symbols .......................................................... 196
Electrical Symbols .......................................................... 197
Electrical Symbols .......................................................... 198
Controller Systems .......................................................... 199
Analog ...................................................................... 199
Digi-Prop (Microwave) ............................................ 199
Comfort Control ....................................................... 199
C32 ........................................................................... 200
CPC .......................................................................... 200
CPC II ...................................................................... 200
Vector - Current Production ..................................... 201
28X Truck and Pumpkit Circuit ...................................... 203
28X Boom Circuit ........................................................... 204

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Misc Procedures
Material Cylinder Alignment .......................................... 205
Pumping on piston side ................................................... 207
(Available on some units only) ................................ 207
Shimming the Differential Cylinders .............................. 208
Determining the proper shimm size ......................... 208
Dimension A ............................................................ 208
Dimension B ............................................................ 208
Formula .................................................................... 209
Apitech Control Chamber Air Bleed Procedure ............. 210
Hydraulic Pump Adjustments ......................................... 213
Main System Pumps A11VO ................................... 213
Setting the Flow Rate ............................................... 213
Horsepower Setting .................................................. 214
Q-min Output Flow .................................................. 214
Check all hydraulic pressures. ................................. 215
Setting pressures on Hi-flo -6 pumpkits .................. 215
Pressure setting procedure: ...................................... 216
Setting the soft switch relief pressure ...................... 217
Accumulator Bypass Retrofit .......................................... 219
Service Bulletin 1001-03 ......................................... 219
Trouble Shooting Kit ...................................................... 220

Training Manual

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

The Schwing Group

Schwing America, Inc.

Schwing America, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of


the Schwing GmbH located in Herne, Germany.
Schwing was founded in Germany in 1934, it has
always been a family owned company and is currently
managed by Gerhard Schwing.
The Schwing Group has grown steadily since its
inception over sixty years. The company is known for
its innovation and worldwide operations. The Groups
primary products are concrete pumps, ready mix trucks
and batch plants. Pumping and boom technologies are
applied to other products as opportunities arise.
Currently the Schwing Group has factories located
around the world at:

Schwing GmbH, Herne, Germany

Schwing GmbH, Memmingen, Germany

Schwing America, Inc., White Bear, USA

Schwing GmbH, St. Stefan, Austria

Schwing SIWA, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Schwing Shanghai, China

Schwing India
The Schwing group also has numerous sales and
service locations around the world.

SAI was started in 1974, located in a small office on


Pierce Butler Road. At this time SAI was primarily a
sales, service and parts facility, with the assembly and
some manufacturing subbed out to Telelect. This
arrangement continued until October 1978. Telelect
suffered a prolonged strike, which really hurt SAI. It
was at this time that the Schwing company purchased
the property here at 5900 Centerville Road. This
facility was previously a distribution center for Arctic
Cat snowmobiles, and consisted of 114,000 sq. ft.,
which included a couple pole barns on 16 acres of land.
In 1983, we added 20,000 sq. ft. of production space
and then in 1986 we added 28,000 sq. ft. to this space
introducing our paint facility and testing facility.
Then in 1989, an additional 29 acres of land was
purchased to the North, and our 20,000 sq. ft. weld
shop was constructed. We also worked over one of the
pole barns for our fab facility and trailer assembly
plant. These additions have proven to be a major break
through to make us a complete manufacturing facility.
In 1993 we started on our 28,000 sq. ft. office facility.
In 1995 we completed construction of a 62,000 sq. ft.
state of the art Weld Shop.
In addition, in 1996 we added the 15,000 sq. ft.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

machining center, which is home of the new Forrest


Line machining Center.
For the year 2000, Schwing America, Inc. has added a
75,000 sq. ft paint booth. This state-of-the-art
behemoth is the largest building in the surrounding
communities. Dubbed the Super Booth by industry
insiders. This is the largest facility for painting
concrete pumps in the world. The six-story structure
combines with retractable roof panels to accommodate
unfolded booms. Painters will use catwalks to cover

every surface with high quality acrylic urethane in an


endless array of colors and paint schemes. Climate
controlled conditions assure proper curing and drying
time. A new solvent recovery system keeps the Super
Booth environmentally friendly.
Today Schwing America has over 326,000 square feet
of manufacturing space and employs over 400 people.

E
N

S
W

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Training
General Principles
1. Hydraulic pressure always takes path of least
resistance.

2. Hydraulic pressure is created equal in all directions


(Pascal's Law).
Pascal's Law
2 A 10 pound force applied
to a stopper with a
surface area of one
square inch......

1 The bottle is filled


with a liquid, which
is not compressible

3 Results in 10 pounds of force on


every square inch (pressure) of
the container wall

4 If the bottom has an area of 20


square inches and each square
inch is pushed on by 10 pounds
of force, the entire bottom
recieves a 200 pound push.

3. Liquids (oil) are relatively incompressible.

OIL

AIR

1000 lbs of Force

1000 lbs of Force

Training Manual

OIL

AIR

SERVICE TRAINING

4. When hydraulic pressure and flow is not converted


into work it is converted into heat.

Open relief (Heat)

5. When oil is heated it will expand (5% or more).


Atmospheric pressure
forces water past seals

Vacuum formed as
hydraulic oil cools
Seals

Hydraulic Cylinder

Water Box

6. When oil is heated the viscosity of it changes.

6 bar
4

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

7. GPM (Gallons Per Minute) only determine the


speed at which the actuator (motor or cylinder)
operates.

0 GPM

10 GPM

8. P.S.I. (Pounds Per Square Inch) determine only the


amount of force exerted upon the load by the actuator.
10,000 LBS
LOAD

10 gallon maximum
capacity cylinder

10 inch of area on
cylinder piston

1000 PSI

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

9. The resistance created in a hydraulic circuit,


whether by the amount of the load on the actuator
and/or the pressure drop in a circuit, is what determines how much work is required.

U.S.
F = FORCE (in pounds) (lb)

F=PxA

F
P

P = F/A
A = F/P

P = PRESSURE
(in pounds per square inch) (P.S.I.)
A = AREA (in square inches) (in2)

METRIC
F = FORCE (in kilograms) (Kg)
P = PRESSURE
(in kilograms per square centimeter) (Kg/cm2)
A = AREA (in square centimeters) (cm2)

GENERAL
POWER =

QxP
CONSTANT

Q = FLOW RATE
(unit of volume per time period)
P = PRESSURE
(unit of force per unit of area)

U.S.
HP = HORSEPOWER
HP =

GPM x PSI
1714

GPM = GALLONS PER MINUTE


PSI = POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH
1714 = KNOWN CONSTANT

METRIC
KW = KILOWATTS
KW =

LPM x BAR
600

LPM = LITERS PER MINUTE


BAR = METRIC UNIT OF PRESSURE
600 = KNOWN CONSTANT

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Mechanical Versus Hydraulic

1. An input force of
10 lb.(44.48 N) on a
one square inch
2
(6.45 cm ) piston...

COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL FORCES


VERSUS HYDRAULIC FORCES
2. will balance 100 lb
(444.82 N) here...

1. Ten pounds (44.48 N) here...

3. This pressure will


support a 100 lb.
(444.82 N) weight if
this is a 10 sq. in.
(64.52 cm2 ) piston.

100 lb.
(444.82 N)

10 lb.
(44.48 N)
1 sq. in.
(6.45 cm2 )

10 sq. in.
(64.51 cm2 )

2. develops a pressure of
10 pounds per square inch(psi)
(.69 bar) (68.94 kilopascals)
throughout the container.
100 lb.
(444.82 N)
10 lb.
(44.48 N)

INPUT
4. this arm.

3. if this arm is 10 times


as long as...

4. The forces are proportional


to the piston areas.

OUTPUT

100 lb. (444.82 N)


10 lb. (44.48 N)
=
10 sq. in (64.52 cm2)
1 sq. in (6.45 cm2)

A. SIMPLE MECHANICAL LEVER

B. SIMPLE HYDRAULIC PRESS

Transfer of Energy
ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED
1. Moving the small piston 10 in.
0.25 m) displaces 10 cu. in.
(163.87 cm3) of liquid.
(1 sq. in. x 10 in. =10 cu. in.)
(6.45 cm2 x 25.40 cm = 163.87 cm3)

2. 10 cu. in. (163.8 cm3) of liquid


will move the larger piston only
1 in. (2.54 cm)
(10 sq. in. x 1 in. = 10 cu. in.)
(64.52 cm x 2.54 cm = 163.87 cm )

100 lb.
(444.82 N)

10 lb.
(44.48 N)
1 sq. in.
(6.45 cm2)

10 sq. in.
(64.51 cm2)
1 in
(0.02 m)
10 in
(0.25 m)

4. The energy transfer here also is


100 in. lb. (11.30 Nm)
(1 in. x 100 lb. = 100 in. lb.)
(.02 m x 444.82 N = 11.30 Nm)

3. The energy transfer here equals


10 lb. x 10 in. (44.48 N x 0.25 m)
or 100 in. lb. (11.30 Nm)

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Jack

HYDRAULIC
ROD

8"

PISTON

Linear & Rotary Actuators


LINEAR ACTUATOR

1.The pump pushes the


hydraulic liquid into lines.

ROTARY ACTUATOR

2. Lines carry the liquid to


actuators which are pushed
to cause a mechanical output
to move a load.

4. Rotary actuators or motors


give the system rotating output.
They can be connected to pulleys,
gears,rack-and-pinions, conveyors, etc.

MOTOR

PUMP
LOAD

PUMP

PISTON & ROD


TO RESERVOIR

3. Some actuators operate in


a straight line (linear actuators).
They are called cylinders or rams.
They are used to lift weight, exert
force, clamp, etc.

Training Manual

ROTARY
DRIVE SHAFT

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Hydraulic Components

Check Valve

Throttle Valve

Throttle Check Valve

Switching Valve

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Check Valve Comparison

In-Line Check Valve

Cartridge Check Valve

Right Angle Check Valves

10

CHECK VALVE
COMPLETE
P/N 30333030

CHECK VALVE
COMPLETE
P/N 30333031

CARTRIDGE
W/SEALS
P/N 30333032

CARTRIDGE
W/SEALS
P/N 30333033

SEAL KIT ONLY


P/N 30333034

SEAL KIT ONLY


P/N 30333035

TORQUE
SPECIFICATION
55 ft/lbs.

TORQUE
SPECIFICATION
200 ft/lbs.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Shuttle Valve

A shuttle valve is used where the higher of the two


pressures must be selected, while blocking the lower
pressure input.

C
B

The valve has two inlet, ports A and C, and one


output port B. When either port A or C is
pressurized, a ball automatically seals the other inlet
and allows the higher pressure fluid to flow to port B.

Greater pressure from "A" port

C
Greater pressure from "C" port
39000145.ai

Training Manual

11

SERVICE TRAINING

Throttle Check Valve


Flow control valve Model MK is pressure, temperature
and viscosity dependent throttle/check valves, used to
restrict flow. It consists of adjustment sleeve (1) and
inner housing (2).

Model MK (Throttle/Check Valve)


This valve is capable of flow control in one direction
while allowing reverse free flow in the opposite. Fluid
passes spring (6), through radial drilling and throttling
area (4). Throttling is achieved similarly to the MG
valve. In the reverse direction, pressure acts on the area
of check valve (5). When pressure exceeds spring force
(6), the poppet opens, allowing reverse free flow
through the valve. Fluid also passes through the throttle
area (4), thereby flushing contamination from the
valve.

Throttle Check Valve Model MK

Caution! Do not adjust the valve while under pressure

12

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Switching Valves

POPPET END PORT

The switching valves have a logic function in that they


sense multiple pressures simultaneously and will route
oil from the poppet end port to the output port only
when the pressure from the poppet end port exceeds the
pressure at the spring end port by more than 2:1 in
most situations

BODY
SEAT

O-RING
AND
BACK-UP
RINGS

POPPET
HOUSING

SIDE POR
(PLUGGED

SIDE PORT
POPPET

BODY

O-RING
AND
BACK-UP
RING

SPRING

SIDE PORT

SPRING
GUIDE

SPRING END POR


T
SPRING END PORT

SPRING
GUIDE
SPRING
POPPET
POPPET END PORT

Pressure equal on both sid


es

POPPET
HOUSING

High Pressure pushes poppet backallowing


oil to flow through th
e side port, sending a
signalto S3

Training Manual

Pressure greater onthe Spring End Port


forcingthe poppet to close

13

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Pumps

Concrete pump hydraulic pumps

Placing boom hydraulic pumps


Load sensing proportional
The hydraulic pump for the placing boom is a variable
displacement, bent axis, axial piston pump, with load
sensing control. It can feed all of the following
components:

the hydraulic cylinders on the boom sections

the hydraulic cylinders on the outriggers

the hydraulic motor for the boom slewing gear

the hydraulic motor for the water pump

the hydraulic motor of the compressor (optional


equipment)

The hydraulic pumps for the concrete pump circuit are


bent axis, variable displacement piston pumps. They
are horsepower controlled, which means that as
pressure rises, the flow decreases, so the power
consumption remains constant. We use this type of
pump so the truck engine will not bog down under hard
pumping conditions. The pumps also accept external
signals for control of the output. At Schwing, we route
signals to the pump from the hydraulic stroke limiter
and the dampener (with single circuit), or the
accumulator (with twin circuit). The net effect of these
devices is to tell the pump to put out less oil per
revolution, as required by the pump operator.

The directional control valves for all of the above


circuits are incorporated into control blocks and
equipped with hand levers. In addition, the control
block for the boom functions have electric over oil
piloting for operation via remote control.
PumpKit Pumps
PumpKit Pumps

Proportional Boom Pump

Boom Pump
Accumulator Pump

Oil Cooler Pump

Agitator Pump

Stiebel 4194

Proportional Boom Pump

Stiebel 4400
PumpKit Pumps

PumpKit Pumps

Proportional Boom Pump

Accumulator Pump

Oil Cooler Pump

Accumulator
Pump
Agitator Pump
Oil Cooler Pump

Agitator Pump

Stiebel 4194

InLine Drive
(other options are available)

14

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Fixed Displacement Pump

Variable Displacement Pump

Rexroth A2F20

Rexroth A7VO

Fixed displacement pumps discharge a set volume of


fluid regardless of the system requirements. This
volume can be changed only by changing the drive
speed of the pump. If the system requires less fluid than
the pump is discharging, the balance of the flow must
find an alternate pah which is usually over a relief valve
and back to the reservoir.

Variable pump with axial tapered piston rotary group


of bent axis design, for open circuit hydraulic drives.
This pump is suitable for mobile applications.
Comprehensive programming of control devices is
available. The robust taper roller drive shaft bearings
are designed to give long service life. Output flow is
proportional to drive speed and pump displacement is
steplessly variable between maximum and zero.
Horse Power Control
(other locations possible)
Q min

Q max

Q max

25 -

Q min

Horsepower Adjustment Screw


(other locations possible)

Training Manual

15

SERVICE TRAINING

Variable Displacement Axial


Piston Pump
RexrothA10VO
Variable displacement axial piston A10VO of swash
plate design is designed for hydrostatic transmissions
in open loop circuits. Flow is proportional to the drive
speed and the displacement. By adjusting the position
of the swash plate it is possible to smoothly vary the
flow.

RexrothA11VO
The A11VO is a variable displacement pump of axial
piston swash plate design for use in open circuit
hydrostatic drives.
Designed principally for use in mobile applications. A
wide variety of controls are available. Setting of the
constant power control is possible via external
adjustments, even when the unit is operating. The
pump is available with a through drive to accept a gear
pump or a second axial piston pump up to the same
size (100% through drive).
Output flow is proportional to drive speed and pump
displacement and is steplessly variable between
maximum and zero.

Q min

Pressure Cut-off Screw


Q max

16

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Rexroth A11VO Adjustments


Pressure Cut-Off

Pressure Cut-Off

Delta P

Q min

Q min

Load Sense Port

Q max
Q max

A11VO Boom Pump

A11VO Accumulator Pump

Horsepower Control
*Stroke
Regulation

*Stroke Regulation
**Pressure Cut-Off

Pressure Cut-Off

Horsepower
Control

Style #1
***Pressure Cut-Off
Q min
Horsepower
Control

Q min
*Stroke Regulation

Style #2
* The beginning of stroke regulation has been increased from 5-7
bar to 8-10 bar on pumps with the following serial numbers:

**

Pressure Cut-Off / Style #1


Turn Clock-wise to increase the pressure
Turn Counter-Clock-wise to decrease the pressure

***

Pressure Cut-Off / Style #2


Turn Counter-Clock-wise to increase the pressure
Turn Clock-wise to decrease the pressure

A11VO 130 - 21034174, dated 08/22/05


A11VO 190 - 21006318, dated 08/01/05
Pumps with serial numbers below these should also have
beginning of stroke regulation pressure set to 8-10 bar.

A11VO 190/130 Main Pumps

Training Manual

17

SERVICE TRAINING

Transfer Cases
Hydraulic pumps for the concrete pump, placing boom,
agitator, etc., are usually mounted on a distribution
gearcase. When you are driving the truck, the power of
the truck engine is transmitted through the truck
transmission, through a propeller shaft, through the
bottom of the distribution gearcase, through another
propeller shaft, and into the rear end(s) of the truck.

When you are operating the unit, the distribution


gearcase interrupts the power to the rear ends, and
transmits it to internal gears that turn the hydraulic
pumps. Changing between travel and pumping modes
is accomplished by means of an air switch in the truck
cab.

4194

4195

4400

18

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Relief Valves
This is a direct acting non adjustable relief valve.
When the oil has enough pressure to over take the
spring the relief poppet will start to move out of the
way and allow the excess pressure to be relieved to
tank. This style pressure relief is not adjustable except
by changing the internal spring.The maximum system
pressure that this style can be used for is limited
because the spring must directly act upon system
pressure and thus higher pressures would require a
larger spring. When this direct acting design relieves it
causes pulsations in the system.

Pressure

This is a pilot operated adjustable relief valve. The


relief poppet has a small orifice in it that allows the
hydraulic pressure to also be applied on the back side
of the poppet. This internal chamber is hydraulically
locked and it will hold the main poppet closed as long
as it has equal pressure on the front side and the back
side. There is also a much smaller pilot poppet, that is
operator adjustable. This smaller poppet, with a smaller
area, can have a smaller spring controlling it. Once this
pilot poppet opens we lose our hydraulic lock, the
pressure is reduced on the back side and thus the main
poppet can relieve the excess pressure to tank. With
this design we are able to control large volumes of oil
at high pressures with minimal sized springs.

Pressure

Tank

Tank

This is a direct acting adjustable relief valve. When


the oil has enough pressure to over take the spring the
relief poppet will start to move out of the way and
allow the excess pressure to be relieved to tank. This
style is adjustable though a external control which
varies the spring tension on the relief poppet.The
maximum system pressure that this style can be used
for is limited because the spring must directly act upon
system pressure and thus higher pressures would
require a larger spring.

Pressure

Tank

Pressure
Pressure

Tank

Tank

Training Manual

19

SERVICE TRAINING

Safety Relief Valves

Pressure Relief Valves Type DBW

Pressure control valve type DB/DBW are pilot


operated pressure relief valves. They are used to limit
(DB) or unload by means of solenoids (DBW) pressure
in a system. Pressure relief valves (DB) consist mainly
of a pilot valve with pressure setting element and main
valve with main spool insert.

In principle, the function of this valve is the same as


that of valve type DB. Unloading at the main spool is
achieved by means of actuating the built-on directional
control valve.

Pressure Relief Valve Type DB


Pressure in line A affects the main spool (1). At the
same time there is pressure via control passage (4) and
(5) through orifice (2), (3) and (15) to the spring loaded
side of the main spool (1) and pilot poppet (6). If
system pressure exceeds the value set at the spring (8),
pilot poppet (6) opens.
The oil on the spring loaded side of the main spool (1)
now flows through orifice (3), control passage (5) and
poppet (6), and into spring chamber (9). From here it
flows internally - type DB.-30/.through passage (10),
or externally-type DB.-20/.Y.by means of control port
(11) to tank. Orifices (2), (3) and (15) cause a pressure
drop at the main spool (1), and the connection from
line A to line B opens. The oil now flows from line A to
line B, while the set operating pressure in maintained.
The valve can be unloaded or switched to a different
pressure (second pressure rating) by means of port X
(13).

VENT
LINE

20

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Symbols
SHOWING DIN (DEUTSCHE INDUSTRIAL NORM) SYMBOLS USED ON SCHWING SCHEMATICS
NO ATTEMPT HAS BEEN MADE TO SHOW EVERY POSSIBLE COMBINATION.

LINE, WORKING
P = R 1/2"
T = R 1/2"
SP = R 3/4"
G = R 3/8"
AC = R 11/2"
Y = R 3/8"

Nitrogen pressure set at 55 bar


(800 PSI)
G

1.9 mm

LINE, JOINING
("T" FITTING)

S3
0.8 mm
hole drilled
through
spool

190
bar

SP

LINE, PASSING
138 bar
Y

This line MUST


return to tank by
itself.
P

NG
10

10

Filter

Agitator

LINE TO RESERVOIR (TANK)

2.0
mm

LINE, PILOT or SIGNAL

300
bar

BP 750 & 1000 TC

S1

(with twin cylinder switching and


Hartman control valves)

P 0-25 bar

2.0 mm

599010
1-95 RE
Y(T)
A

125 b
bar

LINE, PLUGGED
P

RESTRICTION, FIXED
(orifice, nozzle)
0.7 mm

100
bar

LINE, WORKING

LINE, PILOT or SIGNAL

12

Filter

A11VO

LINE, PASSING

LINE TO RESERVOIR (TANK)


(ABOVE FLUID LEVEL)
(BELOW FLUID LEVEL)

CONNECTOR
LINE, PLUGGED
LINE, JOINING
("T" FITTING)

RESTRICTION, FIXED
(orifice, nozzle)

Training Manual

1.3

1.3
OR

21

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.)

RESTRICTION, VARIABLE
(throttle valve or adjustable orifice)

PUMP, SINGLE
FIXED DISPLACEMENT

MANUAL SHUT-OFF VALVE

PUMP, SINGLE
VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT

(MANITROL VALVE)

X1
X2

A
A1

PRIME MOVER,
ELECTRIC MOTOR
PUMP, SINGLE
VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT,
SHOWING HORSEPOWER
CONTROL CIRCUITS.

D
PRIME MOVER,
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
(Diesel shown..."G" if gas.)

MOTOR, ROTARY,
FIXED DISPLACEMENT

MOTOR, ROTARY,
FIXED DISPLACEMENT
BI - DIRECTIONAL

22

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.)

CYLINDER, SINGLE ACTING

PRESSURE GAUGE

CYLINDER,
DIFFERENTIAL ROD

TEMPERATURE GAUGE

ACCUMULATOR,
GAS CHARGED

CYLINDER, DOUBLE
END ROD

ACCUMULATOR,
SPRING LOADED

FILTER OR STRAINER

CYLINDER, DOUBLE END ROD WITH GROOVES IN


PISTON ROD FOR SWITCHING FUNCTION
(ROCK VALVE SHIFTING CYLINDER)

FILTER WITH INTEGRAL


BYPASS CHECKVALVE

Training Manual

6 bar

23

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.)


OIL COOLER WITH
ELECTRIC FAN MOTOR

HYDRAULICALLY UNLOCKABLE
CHECK VALVE.
(CLOSED)

OIL COOLER WITH


HYDRAULIC FAN MOTOR

HYDRAULICALLY UNLOCKABLE
CHECK VALVE WITH INTEGRAL
RELIEF VALVE.

(OPEN)

320 BAR

(H.E.R. BOOM HOLDING VALVE)

BASIC VALVE ENVELOPE


PRESSURE SWITCH
NORMALLY CLOSED
NORMALLY OPEN

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE


(SAFETY VALVE OR
SAFETY CARTRIDGE)

CHECK VALVE (BASIC)

CHECK VALVE, FIXED FORCE

280 bar

A 2.0

(SPRING FORCE INDICATED)

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE


WITH EXTERNAL DRAIN

300 bar

(SHOWN WITH A NORMALLY


OPEN SOLENOID VALVE...
MANY OTHER POSSIBILITIES
ARE AVAILABLE).

ADJUSTABLE CHECK VALVE


(PRETENSION OR PRELOAD VALVE)
(Desired spring force indicated)

6 BAR

300 bar

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE


WITH EXTERNAL DRAIN

24

Training Manual

F NR

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.)


A

P 0-55 bar

Y(T)
A

PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE

ACCUMULATOR
UNLOADING VALVE

MANUAL (STROKE LIMITER) OR


DAMPNER

P
T

70 bar

300
bar

0-50
bar

PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE


(ELECTRIC STROKE LIMITER)

ACCUMULATOR DUMP VALVE


(ELECTRIC)

A 55 bar
T
P
T
P
MY

Pressure
reducing valve

MG
G
Y

A
Electric
stroke limiter

1.5

THROTTLE
CHECK VALVE

FIXED (size shown)

ADJUSTABLE

SLEW BRAKE
VALVE

P
A

CARTRIDGE VALVE
(SWITCHING VALVE)

OLD WAY

NEW WAY

SHUTTLE VALVE

SHOWN 2 DIFFERENT WAYS

Training Manual

25

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.)

X1
X2

A
A1

COMPONENT ENCLOSURE
BRAKE VALVE
(BERINGER)
(USED ON #1 SECTION
DOWN FUNCTION)

BALL COCK
(SHUT OFF VALVE,
QUARTER TURN VALVE)
B

BRAKE VALVE
(COUNTERBALANCE VALVE)
(USED ON ALL SECTIONS KVM 52 & 55)
B
R

BRAKE VALVE (SAUER)


(USED ON #1 SECTION
DOWN FUNCTION)

VENTED RESERVOIR
(TANK)

26

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Symbols (Cont.)


DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES

DIRECTIONAL VALVE: METHODS OF OPERATION

BASIC VALVE SYMBOL


MULTIPLE FLOW PATHS
PILOT PRESSURE

DIRECTIONAL VALVE

OR

2 POSITION, 3 WAY

SOLENOID

DIRECTIONAL VALVE
2 POSITION, 4 WAY

SPRING

DIRECTIONAL VALVE
3 POSITION, 4 WAY, CLOSED CENTER

MANUAL
(HANDLE OR PUSHBUTTON)

DIRECTIONAL VALVE
3 POSITION, 4 WAY, OPEN CENTER

DETENT

DIRECTIONAL VALVE
3 POSITION, 4 WAY
CLOSED PRESSURE CENTER

HAND LEVER

DIRECTIONAL VALVE
3 POSITION, 4 WAY, TANDEM CENTER
(REQUIRES A HOLLOW SPOOL)

EXAMPLES OF COMBINATIONS OF METHODS

3 POSITION, 6 WAY, CLOSED CENTER (10631)

SOLENOID OPERATED,
SPRING RETURN

DIRECTIONAL VALVE, 3 POSITION,


6 WAY, CLOSED PRESSURE CENTER,
ORIFICED A & B PORTS IN CENTER (10632F)

HAND LEVER OPERATED


WITH DETENT

DIRECTIONAL VALVE, 3 POSITION,


5 WAY, LOAD SENSING,
CLOSED PRESSURE CENTER,
INFINITE POSITIONING

HAND LEVER OR
SOLENOID OPERATED,
SPRING CENTERED

DIRECTIONAL VALVE

(PROPORTIONAL)

SOLENOID CONTROLLED,
PILOT PRESSURE OPERATED,
SPRING CENTERED,
WITH HAND LEVER

DIRECTIONAL VALVE, 3 POSITION,


5 WAY, LOAD SENSING,
CLOSED CENTER,
INFINITE POSITIONING
(PROPORTIONAL)

PRESSURE REGULATOR
(REGULATES DELTA P)
USED ON LOAD SENSING SYSTEMS

OR

Training Manual

27

SERVICE TRAINING

Formulas
Piston Side

Rod Side

R2

R2

= 3.14
R = 1/2 of Diameter
5

= 3.14
R = 1/2 of Diameter
2.5

10,000
Pounds

3.14(2.5 x 2.5) = 19.625


3.14 x 6.25 = 19.625

3.14(1.25 x 1.25) = 4.90625


3.14 x 1.5625 = 4.90625

Piston - Rod = Rod Side Area

Area of piston = 19.625

19.625 - 4.90625 = 14.719

19.625
10,000
Pounds

10,000 = 509.55
19.625

10,000 = 679.39
14.719

To move this load it will take


about 510 psi

To move this load it will take


about 680 psi

POWER =

5100
1714

28

14.719
10,000
Pounds

10 GPM x 510
1714 (A Constant)

POWER =

6800
1714

= 2.975 HP

Training Manual

10 GPM x 680
1714 (A Constant)
= 3.967 HP

SERVICE TRAINING

Pumpkits
Single Circuit Pumpkits

Twin Circuit Pumpkits

800

1200 w/Switching Valves

801

1200 w/MPS

900/1200

2023 Hi-Flow

Hi-Flow

2525 Hi-Flow
PumpkitCompare.eps

Training Manual

29

SERVICE TRAINING

800 Gate Valve

30

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

801 Gate Valve

Training Manual

31

SERVICE TRAINING

801 Pumpkit Schematic


5

Pipe Gate

Hopper Gate

9B
9A

7
300
bar

10A

10B
D

12A

12B

11A

11C
11B

2
6 bar

2
1

39000156.eps

1. Hydraulic oil reservoir

7. Directional control valve S-2

2. Main hydraulic pumps

8. Locking Valve

3. Main pressure relief valve

9A9B. Needle valves

4. Directional control valve S-1 (forward/reverse)

10A10B. Hydraulically Unlockable Check valves

5. Gate Valve

11A11C. Check valves

6. Directional control valve S-3

12A12B. Differential Cylinders

32

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Concrete Pump Control Block

T P1

9B
9A

9B

S3

S1

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S2

300
bar

3
8

9A

S-1

S-2
7

S-3
6
39000155.eps

Training Manual

33

SERVICE TRAINING

Stroke Limiter

P
2

A
4

0-50
BAR

4
1

3
2

A
39000158.eps

494 Block
A
5

agitator
motor

P
1
2

Agitator
pressure*

H2O pump
motor

A
B

H2O
pressure*

5
1

39000157.eps

CA B

34

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulically Unlockable CheckValve

C
B

A
C

2
1

A
1

0.7
mm

39000160.eps

Gate Valve
B

D
1

C
2

D
2

C
Training Manual

39000163.eps

35

SERVICE TRAINING

36

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

900-1200 Single Circuit

Single Circuit

Training Manual

37

SERVICE TRAINING

900-1200 Single Circuit Schematic

900 Pumpkit - eps

10A

11

10B

4
10D

10C

10E

9A
8A

8B

12

9B

10F
1

1. Hydraulic oil reservoir

8A8B. Differential hydraulic cylinders

2. Main hydraulic pumps

9A9B. Switching valves

3. Main pressure relief valve

10A10F. Check valves

4. Directional control valve S-1 (forward/reverse)

11. Ball cock (Shutoff valve)

5. Rock valve slewing cylinder

12. Hydraulic oil filter with bypass valve (return filter

6. Directional control valve S-3


7. Directional control valve S-2

38

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Concrete Pump Control Block

P1
X

S3
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1

10B

P2

300 bar

S2

A
10A

Port size
limits flow

S-1

S-2

S-3
6

39000147.eps

Training Manual

39

SERVICE TRAINING

Stroke Limiter

P
2

A
4

0-50
BAR

4
1

3
2

A
39000158.eps

494 Block
A
5

agitator
motor

P
1
2

Agitator
pressure*

H2O pump
motor

A
B

H2O
pressure*

5
1

39000157.eps

CA B

40

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Switching Valve
C
C
B

B
2

2
1

39000161.eps

A7VO

Q min

1
2
B

Q max

X1

X1
X2

X2

A
A1

A1

D
2

2
To
Boom
Circuit

Training Manual

39000162.eps

41

SERVICE TRAINING

Rock Valve
1

A
2

A
1

C
D

F GH

B
F
H

G
E
39000164.eps

42

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Training Manual

43

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase A

oil of the left hand differential is directed back to tank


via valves S2 and S1 and through the filter (7). Oil
directed through the S3 has the rock valve shift
cylinder held in the retracted (right) position so that
concrete from the left hand material cylinder is being
pushed into the delivery pipe line. Concrete from the
hopper is being sucked into the right hand material
cylinder.

First working stroke

With S1 valve (1) in the forward position, and the S2


valve (2) in the left position oil flows to the right hand
differential acting on the rod side. Oil from the piston
side of the right hand differential oil is passed to the
piston side of the left hand differential and the rod side

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

44

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase B

(1), filter (7) and back to the hydraulic tank.

End of first working stroke

* NOTE: If the left hand differential has not fully


extended at this point due to not enough loop oil, high
pressure oil will continue to flow through check valve
(17) on the right hand differential until the left hand
differential is fully extended.

The differential cylinders have reached the end of their


stroke position*. Switching valve (5) is sending a high
pressure signal to the left hand end cap of S3 valve (3).
Oil from the right hand end cap of the S3 valve (3) is
relieved via check valve (15), the S2 valve (2), S1 valve

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

45

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase C

cylinder (4) is changed and the right hand side of the


cylinder is getting oil so that the cylinder will extend.
Oil from the left hand side of the rock valve shift
cylinder is routed to tank via valves (3, 1) and filter (7).

Rock valve cylinder getting oil to extend

High pressure oil from switching valve (5) has now


shifted the S3 valve (3) fully to the right hand position.
At this point the pressure oil to the rock valve shift

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

46

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase D

rock valve shift cylinder (4). As the S2 valve (2) shifts


to the right oil from the right hand end cap of the S2
valve (2) is routed to the hydraulic tank via check valve
(13), valves (3, 1) and the filter (7).

S2 valve getting signal to shift

The rock valve shift cylinder (4) has now fully


extended. At this point a signal is sent to the left hand
end cap of the S2 valve (2) from a signal port on the

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

47

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase E
Left hand differential getting oil to move

With the S2 valve (2) fully shifted and held in the right
hand position, pressure oil is routed through the S1
valve (1) and the S2 valve (2) to the rod side of the left

hand differential cylinder. Please note that while the


left hand differential cylinder is starting to retract,
check valve (17) must close otherwise the right hand
differential cylinder will not extend.

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

16

8
M

17
Note: Check Valve Must Close

48

Training Manual

6 bar

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase F

via the loop hose. The oil on the rod side of the right
hand differential is going through valves (2 and 1),
filter (7) and back to the tank. Oil directed through the
S3 valve has the rock valve shift cylinder held in the
extended position so that concrete from the right hand
material cylinder is being pushed into the delivery pipe
line and concrete from the hopper is being sucked into
the left hand material cylinder.

Middle of the second working stroke (diagram 6)

Pressure oil is being routed through the S1 valve (1)


and S2 valve (2) to the rod side of the left hand
differential cylinder causing it to retract. Oil from the
piston side of the left hand differential cylinder is
passed to the piston side of the right hand differential

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

49

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase G

(3) is relieved via check valve (14), the S2 valve (2), S1


valve (1), filter (7) and back to the hydraulic tank.

End of second working stroke (diagram 7)

* NOTE: If the left hand differential cylinder has not


fully retracted at this point because of to much loop oil,
high pressure oil will continue to flow through check
valve (16) and back to the hydraulic tank until the left
hand differential cylinder is fully retracted.

The left hand differential cylinder has now fully


retracted*. Switching valve (6) is sending a high
pressure signal to the right hand end cap of the S3
valve (3). Oil from the left hand end cap of the S3 valve

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

50

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase H
Rock valve cylinder getting oil to retract

High pressure oil from the switching valve (6) has not
shifted the S3 valve (3) fully to the left hand position.
At this point the pressure oil to the rock valve shift
cylinder (4) is changed and the left hand side of the

cylinder is getting oil so that the cylinder will retract.


Oil from the right hand side of the rock valve shift
cylinder (4) is being routed to tank via valves (3, 1) and
filter (7).

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

51

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase I

the rock valve shift cylinder (4). As the S2 valve (2)


shifts to the left oil from the right hand end cap of the
S2 valve (2) is routed to the hydraulic tank via check
valve (12), valves (3, 1) and filter (7).

S2 valve getting signal to shift

The rock valve shift cylinder (4) has now fully


retracted. At this point a signal is sent to the right hand
end cap of the S2 valve (2) from a signal port on the on

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

52

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase J

differential cylinder. Please note that check valve (16)


must close otherwise the right hand differential
cylinder will not retract.

Right hand differential getting oil to move

With the S2 valve (2) fully shifted and held in the left
position, pressure oil is routed through the S1 valve (1)
and the S2 valve (2) to the rod side of the right hand

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

53

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase K
First working stroke

Refer to diagram 1 for explanation of first working


stroke.

KEY

High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

12

18

13

3 S3

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

1
10

2 S2
14

15

20
D

5
6

54

16

17

Training Manual

6 bar

SERVICE TRAINING

Troubleshooting
Differentials start to move before the rock
valve has completely shifted.
If check valve (A) is stuck open, the left hand
differential would start to retract and the right hand
differential would start to extend before the rock valve

was completely shifted to the left. This would cause


some of the concrete from the right hand material
cylinder to be pumped back into the hopper. If the
problem occurred while the right cylinder was
extended and the left cylinder was retracted, check
valve (B) has failed.

KEY
High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

A
OPEN

S3
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

S2

M
6 bar

Training Manual

55

SERVICE TRAINING

Before rock valve shifts to the right the


unit builds high pressure, left differential
continues to move, right differential has
stopped.
The unit has too much rocking oil and the right hand
differential has reached its stop. The left hand

differential continues to get pressure oil to the rod side


so that the excess rocking oil can be exhausted through
check valve (A). As soon as the left hand differential
has fully retracted a signal will be sent out of the
switching valve to S3 valve.

KEY
High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

S3
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

S2

M
6 bar

56

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Rock valve shifts and as soon as the


differential cylinder shifts the rock valve
shifts again (machine gunning).
The rock valve has shifted to the right and a signal
from the rock valve has shifted the S valve to the left.
The pressure oil is supposed to go to the rod side of the

right hand differential for the start of the next stroke.


However since check valve (A) is stuck open and the
pressure oil shifts the S3 valve to the right causing the
rock valve to shift to the left. (See diagram 3B).

KEY
High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

S3
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

S2
A

Note:
Stuck Open
D

M
6 bar

Training Manual

57

SERVICE TRAINING

Check valve (A) is stuck open and the


pressure oil shifts the S3 valve to the right
causing the rock valve to shift to the left.
After the rock valve shifts to the left a signal is sent to
the S2 valve to shift the direction of the differentials.

KEY
High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

S3
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

S2
A

Note:
Stuck Open
D

M
6 bar

58

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

The differentials are already in the end


position for this mode so a signal is sent
to the S3 valve and the rock valve will shift
again to the right.
Thus we get the machine gun sound and no concrete
output.

KEY
High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

S3
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

S2
A

Note:
Stuck Open
D

M
6 bar

Training Manual

59

SERVICE TRAINING

Rock valve shifts to the right and then the


machine builds high pressure.
After the rock valve is done shifting to the right a
signal is supposed to be sent to the right hand end cap
of the S2 to shift it to the left, however the signal will
not reach the S2 end cap because the ball cock is
closed.

NOTE: If the ball cock was partially closed the


machine would continue to stroke, however there
would be a pressure spike between the time the rock
valve is done shifting and the differential cylinders start
moving.

KEY
High Pressure
Rocking Oil
Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

Ball Cock

S3
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1
300
bar

S2

Note:
Stuck Open
D

M
6 bar

60

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

High-Flow Single Circuit 2020/2023

Single Circuit
S3 shifting by signal from Switching valve

Training Manual

61

SERVICE TRAINING

High-Flow Single Circuit Schematic

ZK2

1.3

ZS2

1.3

SP

ZK1

9A

ZS1

9B
XA

XB

3.5

3.5

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PBP"

B
X3

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PZ"

A2

B2
B3

A3

S3

10C

6
XB3

XA1

10D

1.5
A

B
B1

A1

S2
XA

11

XB

PR
PP

S1
XR

XP

P2

P1

MP

10E
1.8

T2

1.2

12

T1

1.4

300 bar

X1

8A

8B

10F

T
1.8

1. Hydraulic oil reservoir

7. Directional control valve S-2

2. Main hydraulic pumps

8A8B. Differential hydraulic cylinders

3. Main pressure relief valve

9A9B. Switching Valves

4. Directional control valve S-1 (forward/reverse)

10A10F. Check valves

5. Rock valve slewing cylinder

11. Ball cock (Shutoff valve)

6. Directional control valve S-3

12. Main flow poppet relief valve

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Training Manual

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Concrete Pump Control Block


A2

B2
B3

A3

S3

XA1

X1 MP

XB3

B
B1
XB

P1

X
1

T1

PR

S2

XA

P2

XR

PP

S1

A1

P2
P

1.5

T2

XP

1
B

XP

P1

MP
T2

XB

T1

12

300 bar

1.2

1.4

3
XB

B3

B2

A2

A3

X1

2
1

Training Manual

63

SERVICE TRAINING

Switching Manifold

10A

3.5MM Orifice

10B

ZK2

SP

ZK1

1.3

9A
3.5MM Orifice

1.3MM Orifice

ZS2

ZS1

1.3

9B
9C

9C

XB

XA
A

9A

9B

3.5

3.5

10A

10B

X3

MPS_SC.eps

Stroke Limiter with Fast Switch/Dampner


MG2

Reversing Valve
(for Fast Switch)

G2

11

Dampner

0.7

20
bar

0-30
bar

X1
MX1

3.5-40
bar

12

10

4
2

3.5-40
bar

MP

MG1

0.7

7
9

12

PBP

10

PZ

5
11

3
SC_FastSwitchDampner.eps

64

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Training Manual

65

SERVICE TRAINING

The following diagrams A through D show the


switching functions of the concrete pumpkit plumbed
on the ROD SIDE with simplified schematics. The
agitator, boom, and S-1 control circuits are not shown.

Phase A

Pressure oil (red) flows through the S3 valve (6)


(cross-over position) into the retract side oil port
of the rock slewing cylinder (5).

The rod of the rock slewing cylinder (5) retracts


(shown in the new position).

When the slewing cylinder has completely


retracted, the switching groove lines up with the
switching port and routes pressure oil to the right
side end cap of the S2 valve (7).

The S2 valve (7) moves into the parallel position


(shown in the new position).

The oil in the left side end cap of the S2 escapes to


tank through thecheck valve (10C.)

Pressure oil (red) flows through the cross-over


position of the S2 spool (7) into the rod side of the
right side differential cylinder (8B). The cylinder
retracts, which creates a vacuum in the material
cylinder. The right side material cylinder fills with
concrete. (This is called the suction stroke).

The oil that is forced out of the piston side of the


right differential cylinder flows through a hose
into the piston side of the left differential cylinder
(8A). This oil is called rocking oil (orange).

The rocking oil forces the left side differential


cylinder (8A) to extend. The concrete in that
material cylinder is pumped out of the machine.
(This is called the pressure stroke).

The oil from the rod side of the left cylinder is


routed back to the tank. (Green).

The blue oil, such as the oil in the reservoir, is at


rest, or pressureless.

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Phase

A Hi-Flow Single Circuit

KEY

High Pressure

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

ZK2

SP

1.3

ZK1

9A
ZS2

1.3

ZS1

9B
XA
A

XB
3.5

3.5

10A

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PBP"

10B

X3

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PZ"

10C

A2

B2
B3

A3

S3

10D

6
XB3

XA1

1.5
A

A1

B1

S2

11

XA

XB

PR
PP

S1
XR

XP

P2

P1

MP

10E
1.8

T2

1.2

8A

3
300 bar

T1

12

8B
1.4
X1

T
1.8

1
10F

Training Manual

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SERVICE TRAINING

Phase B

The right side differential cylinder (8B) reaches


bottom dead center. If there is not enough rocking
oil in the loop to bring the left side cylinder to the
top dead center position, oil will be added now
through check valve 10F.

The left side differential cylinder (8A) reaches top


dead center. As the piston reaches the guide bushing, it exposes a port to the end cap of the reversing
valve (9B), which becomes connected to high pressure oil (red). The left end cap of the reversing
valve (9B) is connected to low pressure oil (green),
so the reversing valve slides into the parallel position, sending high pressure oil (red) toward the end
cap of the S3 valve (6).

The pressure signal reaches the S3 valve (6) end


cap, pushing the valve to the right, which places it
into the cross-over position (shown in the new
position).

The oil on the right end cap of the S3 valve flows


through the switching valve and back to tank.

In the parallel position, the S3 valve routes oil to


the extend port of the rock valve slewing cylinder.
The cylinder begins to extend.

The oil from the left side of the rock slewing


cylinder is routed back to tank.

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Phase

B Hi-Flow Single Circuit

KEY

High Pressure

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

ZK2

SP

1.3

ZK1

9A
ZS2

1.3

ZS1

9B
XA
A

XB
3.5

3.5

10A

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PBP"

10B

X3

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PZ"

10C

A2

B2
B3

A3

S3

10D

6
XB3

XA1

1.5
A

A1

B1

S2

11

XA

XB

PR
PP

S1
XR

XP

P2

P1

MP

10E
1.8

T2

1.2

8A

3
300 bar

T1

12

8B
1.4
X1

T
1.8

1
10F

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SERVICE TRAINING

Phase C

The rock valve slewing cylinder (5) reaches the


top dead center position.

When the slewing cylinder (5) has completely


extended, the switching groove lines up with the
switching port and routes pressure oil to the left
side end cap of the S2 valve (7).

The pressure pushes the S2 spool (7) to the right,


placing it into the parallel position (shown in the
new position).

The oil in the right end cap of the S2 escapes to


tank through the check valve(10D).

Oil from the pump is routed through the S2 valve


to the rod side of the left hand differential cylinder
8A.

The left side differential cylinder (8A) begins to


retract. In the material cylinder, concrete begins to
flow in to fill the void left by the retracting rubber
ram. (Suction stroke).

The oil escaping from the left side differential


cylinder travels through the hose to the piston side
of the right hand differential cylinder (8B),
forcing it to extend. In the material cylinder, the
concrete from stage A is forced out into the
delivery pipeline. (Pressure stroke).

The oil from the rod side of the right hand


material cylinder is routed through the S2 valve
(7), through the return filter, and back to tank.

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Training Manual

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Phase

C Hi-Flow Single Circuit

KEY

High Pressure

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

ZK2

SP

1.3

ZK1

9A
ZS2

1.3

ZS1

9B
XA
A

XB
3.5

3.5

10A

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PBP"

10B

X3

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PZ"

10C

A2

B2
B3

A3

S3

10D

6
XB3

XA1

1.5
A

A1

B1

S2

11

XA

XB

PR
PP

S1
XR

XP

P2

P1

MP

10E
1.8

T2

1.2

8A

3
300 bar

T1

12

8B
1.4
X1

T
1.8

1
10F

Training Manual

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SERVICE TRAINING

Phase D

The left side differential cylinder retracts (8A) to


bottom dead center. The right side differential
cylinder extends to top dead center (shown in their
new positions).

Any excess rocking oil is routed to the tank across


check valve 10E.

When the right side differential cylinder is in the


bottom dead center position, pressure is applied to
the left end cap of the reversing valve 9A. The
right end cap of the reversing valve is connected
to low pressure, so the valve slides into the
parallel position. The reversing valve routes the
pilot signal to the right side end cap of the S3
valve (6).

The S3 valve moves to the left in response to the


pilot signal, putting it into the cross-over position
(shown in the new position). The oil in the left
side end cap of the S2 escapes to tank across
check valve (10D).

Pressure oil is routed through the S3 valve to the


retract port of the rock slewing cylinder.

The rock cylinder retracts (5), sending the extend


side oil back to tank through the S3 spool.

When the rock cylinder reaches bottom dead


center, the switching groove lines up with the
switching port and oil is routed to the right end
cap of the S2 valve.

This brings us back to phase A. The machine has made


one complete cycle, which consists of 2 suction strokes
and 2 pressure stroke.

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Phase

D Hi-Flow Single Circuit

KEY

High Pressure

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

ZK2

SP

1.3

ZK1

9A
ZS2

1.3

ZS1

9B
XA
A

XB
3.5

3.5

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PBP"

X3

TO STROKE LIMITER PORT "PZ"

10C

A2

B2
B3

A3

S3

10D

6
XB3

XA1

1.5
A

B
B1

A1

S2

11

7
XB

XA

PR
PP

S1
XR

XP

P2

P1

MP

10E
1.8

T2

1.2

8A

3
300 bar

T1

12

8B
1.4
X1

T
1.8

1
10F

Training Manual

73

SERVICE TRAINING

Twin Circuits
Beginning in 1995, most units became available with
optional twin circuit switching. Twin Circuit refers
to the fact that there is one hydraulic circuit to move
the differential cylinders, and another separate circuit
to switch the rock valve. On single circuit units, the
main hydraulic pumps move the main differential
cylinders AND the rock valve.
There are certain advantages to having a separate
hydraulic circuit to switch the rock valve. For example,
under the single circuit system, if you were pumping a
stiff, lean mix and pressure was running high, it would
also take quite a bit of pressure to switch the rock
valve. There were even a few isolated cases where the
rock valve wouldnt switch because there wasnt
enough pressure available, usually when pumping
straight up. The reason that it was hard to switch the
rock valve was because the valve had to try to dislocate
a column of concrete that still had pressure on it from
the stroke. The next stroke could not begin until the
rock valve had completed its travel.
When using twin circuit, the differential cylinders do
not have to wait for the rock valve before they change
directions and begin the next stroke. As soon as the S-3
spool changes directions, which gives the rock valve

Single Circuit

the oil to change directions, oil is also routed to the


valve that changes the direction of the differential
cylinders. If the rock valve cylinder has enough
pressure available to switch, it will do so. If not, it will
wait. As soon as the differential cylinders have changed
directions, one of the following things will happen:
If the rock valve has already switched, concrete will
immediately be drawn from the hopper, and pushed
into the pipeline, which is just a normal stroke.
If the rock valve has NOT already switched, concrete
will begin to be drawn from the pipeline and pushed
into the hopper. This reduces the pressure in the
pipeline to zero. As soon as pressure in the pipeline is
relieved, the rock valve switches across. It doesnt slam
and it doesnt pound, it just moves. As soon as the rock
valve has moved, concrete is accelerating out of the
unit like normal.
The concrete is not actually pumped in reverse,
because as soon as the pressure in the pipeline drops to
zero, the rock valve switches. A complete description
of the twin circuit switching sequence is found in this
chapter starting on page 56. This system has the added
benefit of reducing wear on the cutting ring, the
spectacle plate, the kidney seal and kidney plate, as
well as the rock valve slewing cylinder.

S1
S2

Twin Circuit

S1
S2

S3
S3

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Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

1200 Twin Circuit with Switching Valves

Twin Circuit with Switching Valves


S3 switching by signal from switching
valves

Soft switch pressure is used to switch


S3

Accumulator oil switches the rock

Rock may or may not shift at the


same time as the differential cylinders

Training Manual

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SERVICE TRAINING

Twin Circuit Schematic w/Soft Switch

14
5

1
11
S3

8A

19

15

16

8B

17

9A

18
10C
1
10D

9B

10B

10A

22

NG
10

13

23
7

1
4

S2
S1

0.7 mm

21
12

24

20

1. Hydraulic oil reservoir

13. Accumulator unloading valve

2. Main hydraulic pump

14. Accumulator

3. Main pressure relief valve

15. Electric accumulator dump valve

4. Directional control valve S-1

16. Manual accumulator dump valve

5. Rock valve slewing cylinder

17. Accumulator shutoff valve

6. Directional control valve S-3

18. Accumulator safety relief valve

7. Directional control valve S-2

19. Accumulator pressure gauge

8A8B. Differential hydraulic cylinders

20. Accumulator hydraulic pump

9A9B. Switching valves

21. Accumulator circuit filter

10A10D. Check valves

22. NG 10 valve for forward/reverse

11. Ball cock

23. Shuttle Valve

12. Hydraulic oil filter with bypass valve (return filter)

24. Soft Switch Valve

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Training Manual

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Concrete Pump Control Block

P1

S1

300 bar

S2

P2

Port size
limits flow

S-1

2
S-2

39000148.eps

S3 Control Block

6
6

S3

1
39000149.eps

Training Manual

77

SERVICE TRAINING

Soft Switch

2
4
1

0.7 mm

4
80
bar
Soft switch

39000151.eps

Accumulator Unloader Valve

39000153.eps

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Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Accumulator Control Block/Dump Valve


1
2
Nitrogen pressure set
at 100 bar (1450 PSI)

Accumulator control device

300
bar

5
6
6

7
4

39000152.eps

Accumulator Pump

A11

A10

200 bar

39000154.eps

Training Manual

79

SERVICE TRAINING

The following diagrams A through D show the


switching functions of the concrete pumpkit plumbed
on the ROD SIDE with simplified schematics. The
agitator, boom, and S-1 control circuits are not shown.

The oil that is forced out of the piston side of the


right differential cylinder (8B) flows through
hoses into the piston side of the left differential
cylinder (Item 8A). This oil is called rocking oil
(orange).

The rocking oil forces the left side differential


cylinder (8A) to extend. The cylinder rod extends,
pushing concrete out of the material cylinder,
through the rock valve, and into the pipeline. (This
is called the pressure stroke.)

The oil from the rod side of the left differential


cylinder (8A) is routed back to the tank through
the return filter (12). The low pressure oil is shown
in green.

The oil shown in blue, such as the oil in the


reservoir, is at rest, or pressureless.

Phase A

As soon as you switch the unit distribution


gearcase to the pumping position, the accumulator
hydraulic pump (20) begins pumping high
pressure oil (red) to charge the accumulator circuit
(14).

The high pressure oil (red) from the accumulator


circuit charges the accumulator (14). When the
accumulator pressure reaches the setting of the
accumulator dump valve (13), the accumulator
dump valve opens and routes the oil from the
accumulator charge pump (20) back to the
reservoir (1).

The high pressure oil (red) from the accumulator


circuit flows through the S3 directional control
valve (6), which is in the parallel position, into the
retract side oil port of the rock slewing cylinder
(5).

The rod of the rock slewing cylinder (5) retracts, if


it is not already retracted.

The S1 directional control valve (4), which


controls whether the unit pumps in forward,
neutral, or reverse, is put into the forward
position.

A pilot signal (high pressure oil) is routed from


the accumulator circuit to the right-side end cap of
the S2 directional control valve (7), which moves
into the parallel position.

High pressure oil (red) flows from the main


hydraulic pump (2) through the parallel position
of the S2 valve (7) into the rod side of the rightside differential cylinder (8B). The cylinder
retracts, which creates a vacuum in the material
cylinder. The right-side material cylinder fills with
concrete. (This is called the suction stroke.)

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Training Manual

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Phase

6.3
mm

A Twin Circuit

14
5
6.3
mm

Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

19

11

15

S3

8A

16

8B

17

9A

300
bar

18
10C
1

10D

9B

22
10B

10A

NG
10

13
T

2.5 mm

0.7
mm
2.5 mm

200
bar
Y

0.7
mm

1
4

S2
S1

320
bar

0.7 mm

21
KEY

High Pressure

12

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

Training Manual

20

81

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase B

The right-side differential cylinder (8B) reaches


bottom dead center. If there is not enough rocking
oil in the loop to bring the left-side differential
cylinder (8A) to the top dead center position, oil is
added now through check valve 10D.

The left-side differential cylinder (8A) reaches top


dead center. As the piston reaches the guide
bushing, it exposes a port to the poppet end port of
the switching valve (9A), which becomes
connected to high pressure oil (red). The spring
end port of the switching valve (9A) is connected
to low pressure oil (green), so the switching valve
opens, sending high pressure oil (red) toward the
left-side end cap of the S3 valve (6).

The pressure signal reaches the S3 valve end cap


(6), pushing the valve to the right, which places it
into the crossover position.

The oil on the right end cap of the S3 valve (6)


flows through the check valve (Item 10B) back to
tank (1).

In the crossover position, the S3 valve (6) routes


oil from the accumulators to the extend port of the
rock valve slewing cylinder (5). The cylinder
begins to extend.

The oil from the left side of the rock valve slewing
cylinder (5) is routed back to tank (1).

A pilot signal (high pressure oil) is routed from


the accumulator circuit to the left-side end cap of
the S2 directional control valve (7). The S2 valve
slides to the right, into the crossover position.

As the rock valve slewing cylinder (5) extends,


pressure in the accumulator circuit falls. When it
drops below the set point of the accumulator
dump valve (13), the dump valve closes, and the
accumulator hydraulic pump (20) begins to
recharge the accumulator circuit.

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Phase

6.3
mm

B Twin Circuit

14
5

Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

6.3
mm

11

19
15

S3

8A

16

8B

17

9A

300
bar

18
10C
1

10D

9B
P

10B

10A

NG
10

22

13
T

2.5 mm

0.7
mm
2.5 mm

200
bar
Y

0.7
mm

1
4

S2
S1

320
bar

0.7 mm

21
KEY

High Pressure

12

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

20

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Training Manual

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SERVICE TRAINING

Phase C

The rock valve slewing cylinder (5) reaches the


top dead center position.

High pressure oil (red) continues to flow into the


accumulator circuit until the accumulators (14)
are fully charged to the pressure preset at the
accumulator dump valve (13). The accumulator
dump valve opens, sending oil from the
accumulator hydraulic pump (20) back to the tank
(1) without pressure.

The S2 valve (7) has finished sliding to the right.


Oil is now routed from the main hydraulic pump
(2) to the rod side of the left-hand differential
cylinder (8A).

As the left-hand differential cylinder (8A) moves,


high pressure oil (red) reaches the spring end port
of the switching valve (9A). The valve closes by
the pressure applied to the spring end port. This
removes the pilot signal to the left side of the S3
directional control valve (6).

As the left-side differential cylinder (8A) retracts,


it creates a void in the material cylinder and
concrete begins to flow in to fill that void (suction
stroke.)

The oil from the piston side of the left-side


differential cylinder (8A) travels through the hoses
to the piston side of the right-hand differential
cylinder (8B), forcing it to extend. In the material
cylinder, the concrete from stage A is forced out
into the delivery pipeline (pressure stroke).

The oil from the rod side of the right-hand


differential cylinder (8B) is routed through the S2
valve (7), through the return filter (12), and back
to tank (1).

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Phase

6.3
mm

C Twin Circuit

14
5

Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

6.3
mm

11

19
15

S3

8A

16

8B

17

9A

300
bar

18
10C
1
10D

9B

10A

10B

NG
10

22

13
T

2.5 mm

0.7
mm
2.5 mm

200
bar
Y

0.7
mm

1
4

S2
S1

320
bar

0.7 mm

21
KEY

High Pressure

12

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

20

28X 1200 TCphaseAoriginal

Training Manual

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SERVICE TRAINING

Phase D

The left-side differential cylinder (8A) retracts to


bottom dead center. The right- side differential
cylinder (8B) extends to top dead center.

Any excess rocking oil (orange) is routed to the


tank (1) across check valve 10C.

When the left-side differential cylinder is in the


bottom dead center position, pressure is applied to
the poppet end port of the switching valve 9B. The
switching valve opens and sends a pilot signal to
the right-side end cap of the S3 valve (6).

The S3 valve (6) moves to the left in response to


the pilot signal, putting it into the parallel
position. The oil in the left-side end cap of the S3
valve (6) escapes to tank (1) across check valve
10A.

High pressure oil (red) is routed from the


accumulator circuit through the S3 valve (6) to the
retract port of the rock valve slewing cylinder (5).

The rock valve slewing cylinder (5) retracts,


sending the extend side oil back to tank (1)
through the S3 valve (6) and the return filter (12).

When the rock valve slewing cylinder (5) reaches


bottom dead center, the switching groove lines up
with the switching port and oil is routed to the
right end cap of the S2 valve (7).

As the rock slewing cylinder (5) extends, pressure


in the accumulator circuit falls. When it drops
below the set point of the accumulator dump valve
(13), the dump valve closes and the accumulator
hydraulic pump (20) begins pumping pressure oil
(red) to charge the accumulator circuit (14).

This brings us back to Phase A. The machine has


made one complete cycle, which consists of two
suction strokes and two pressure strokes.

86

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

6.3
mm

D Twin Circuit

14
5

Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

6.3
mm

11

19
15

S3

8A

16

8B

17

9A

300
bar

18
10C
1
10D

9B

10A

10B

22

NG
10

13
T
200
bar

2.5 mm

0.7
mm
2.5 mm

0.7
mm

1
4

S2
S1

320
bar

0.7 mm

3
21

KEY

High Pressure

12

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

Training Manual

20

87

SERVICE TRAINING

88

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

1200 Twin Circuit with MPS

Twin Circuit with MPS


Soft Switch

Training Manual

89

SERVICE TRAINING

Twin Circuit with MPS/Soft Switch

14

1
19

11
S3

8A

8B

17

9A

15

16

18
10C
1

10D

9B
22
23
10B

10A

NG
10

13

25

S2
S1

0.7 mm

21

12
24

20

1. Hydraulic oil reservoir


2. Main hydraulic pump
3. Main pressure relief valve
4. Directional control valve S1
5. Rock Valve slewing cylinder
6. Directional control valve S3
7. Directional control valve S2
8A - 8B. Differential hydraulic cylinders
9A - 9B. Reversing valves (MPS)
10A - 10D. Check valves
11. Main shutoff valve (Ball cock)
12. Hydraulic return filter with bypass valve

90

13. Accumulator unloading valve


14. Accumulator
15. Electric accumulator dump valve
16. Manual accumulator dump valve
17. Accumulator shutoff valve
18. Accumulator safety relief valve
19. Accumulator pressure gauge
20. Accumulator hydraulic pump
21. Accumulator circuit filter
22. Accumulator redundant relief valve
23. NG 10 valve for forward/reverse
24. Soft Switch valve
25. Shuttle valve

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Concrete Pump Control Block

P1

S1

300 bar

S2

P2

Port size
limits flow

S-1

2
S-2

39000148.eps

S3 Control Block

6
6

S3

1
39000149.eps

Training Manual

91

SERVICE TRAINING

MPS

1
2

4
5

S3

1
3








   
  
  





92

NG
10

Training Manual



SERVICE TRAINING

Accumulator Control Block/Dump Valve


1
2
Nitrogen pressure set
at 100 bar (1450 PSI)

Accumulator control device

300
bar

5
6
6

7
4

39000152.eps

Accumulator Pump

A11

A10

200 bar

39000154.eps

Training Manual

93

SERVICE TRAINING

Soft Switch

2
4
1

0.7 mm

4
80
bar
Soft switch

39000151.eps

94

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Training Manual

95

SERVICE TRAINING

The following diagrams A through D show the


switching functions of the concrete pump kit plumbed
on ROD SIDE with simplified schematics. The agitator,
boom, and S-1 control circuits are not shown.

The oil that is forced out of the piston side of the


right differential cylinder (8B) flows through
hoses into the piston side of the left differential
cylinder (item 8A). This oil is called rocking oil
(orange).

The rocking oil forces the left side differential


cylinder (8A) to extend. The cylinder rod extends,
pushing concrete out of the material cylinder,
through the rock valve, and into the pipeline. (This
is called the pressure stroke.)

The oil from the rod side of the left differential


cylinder (8A) is routed back to the tank through
the return filter (12). The low pressure oil is shown
in green.

The oil shown as blue is at rest, or pressureless,


such as the oil in the reservoir.

Phase A

As soon as you switch the unit distribution


gearcase to the pumping position, the accumulator
hydraulic pump (20) begins pumping high
pressure oil (red) to charge the accumulator circuit
(14).

The high pressure oil (red) from the accumulator


circuit charges the accumulator (14). When the
accumulator pressure reaches the setting of the
accumulator dump valve (13), the accumulator
dump valve opens and routes the oil from the
accumulator charge pump (20) back to the
reservoir (1).

The high pressure oil (red) from the accumulator


circuit flows through the S3 directional control
valve (6), which is in the parallel position, into the
retract side oil port of the rock slewing cylinder
(5).

The rod of the rock slewing cylinder (5) retracts, if


not already retracted.

The S-1 directional control valve (4), which


controls whether the unit pumps in forward,
neutral, or reverse, is put into the forward
position.

A pilot signal (high pressure oil) is routed from


the accumulator circuit to the right side end cap of
the S2 directional control valve (7), which moves
into the parallel position.

High pressure oil (red) flows from the main


hydraulic pump (2) through the parallel position
of the S2 valve (7) into the rod side of the right
side differential cylinder (8B). The cylinder
retracts, which creates a vacuum in the material
cylinder. The right side material cylinder fills with
concrete. (This is called the suction stroke.)

96

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

A MPS Twin Circuit


6.3
mm

14
Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

6.3
mm

19

11

15

S3

8A

16

8B
6

9A
T

1.0 mm

10C

1.0 mm

10D

17

300
bar

18
1

9B
To e-stop
manifold

23
10B

10A

NG
10

22

250 bar

13
T

2.5 mm

0.7
mm
2.5 mm

200
bar
Y

0.7
mm

1
4

S2

S1

320
bar

0.7 mm

21
KEY

High Pressure

12

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

Training Manual

20

97

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase B

The right side differential cylinder (8B) reaches


bottom dead center. If there is not enough rocking
oil in the loop to bring the left side differential
cylinder (8A) to the top dead center position, oil is
added now through check valve 10D.

The left side differential cylinder (8A) reaches top


dead center. As the piston reaches the guide
bushing, it exposes a port to the poppet end port of
the switching valve (9A), which becomes
connected to high pressure oil (red). The spring
end port of the switching valve (9A) is connected
to low pressure oil (green), so the switching valve
opens, sending high pressure oil (red) toward the
left side end cap of the S3 valve (6).

The pressure signal reaches the S3 valve end cap


(6), pushing the valve to the right, which places it
into the cross-over position.

The oil on the right end cap of the S3 valve (6)


flows through the check-valve (item 10B) back to
tank (1).

In the cross-over position, the S3 valve (6) routes


oil from the accumulators to the extend port of the
rock valve slewing cylinder (5). The cylinder
begins to extend.

The oil from the left side of the rock valve slewing
cylinder (5) is routed back to tank (1).

A pilot signal (high pressure oil) is routed from


the accumulator circuit to the left side end cap of
the S2 directional control valve (7). The S2 valve
slides to the right, into the cross-over position.

As the rock valve slewing cylinder (5) extends,


pressure in the accumulator circuit falls. When it
drops below the set point of the accumulator
dump valve (13), the dump valve closes, and the
accumulator hydraulic pump (20) begins to
recharge the accumulator circuit.

98

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

B MPS Twin Circuit


6.3
mm

14
Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

5
6.3
mm

1
19

11

15

S3

8A

16

8B
6

9A
T

17

300
bar

18

1.0
mm

1.0
mm

10C
1

10D

9B
To e-stop
manifold

23
10B

10A

NG
10

22

250 bar

13
T

2.5 mm

0.7
mm
2.5 mm

200
bar
Y

0.7
mm

1
4

S2

S1

320
bar

0.7 mm

To e-stop
manifold

21

KEY

High Pressure

12

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

Training Manual

20

99

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase C

The rock valve slewing cylinder (5) reaches the


top dead center position.

High pressure oil (red) continues to flow into the


accumulator circuit until the accumulators (14)
are fully charged to the pressure preset at the
accumulator dump valve (13). The accumulator
dump valve opens, sending oil from the
accumulator hydraulic pump (20) back to the tank
(1) without pressure.

The S2 valve (7) has finished sliding to the right.


Oil is now routed from the main hydraulic pump
(2) to the rod side of the left hand differential
cylinder (8A).

As the left hand differential cylinder (8A) moves,


high pressure oil (red) reaches the spring end port
of the switching valve (9A). The valve closes by
the pressure applied to the spring end port. This
removes the pilot signal to the left side of the S3
directional control valve (6).

As the left side differential cylinder (8A) retracts,


it creates a void in the material cylinder and
concrete begins to flow in to fill that void.
(Suction stroke.)

The oil from the piston side of the left side


differential cylinder (8A) travels through the hoses
to the piston side of the right hand differential
cylinder (8B), forcing it to extend. In the material
cylinder, the concrete from stage A is forced out
into the delivery pipeline. (Pressure stroke.)

The oil from the rod side of the right hand


differential cylinder (8B) is routed through the S2
valve (7), through the return filter (12), and back
to tank (1).

100

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

C MPS Twin Circuit


6.3
mm

14
Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

5
6.3
mm

1
19

11

15

S3

8A

16

8B
6

9A
T

1.0
mm

1.0
mm

17

300
bar

18
10C
1

10D

9B
To e-stop
manifold

23
10B

10A

NG
10

22

250 bar

13
T

2.5 mm

0.7
mm

200
bar
Y

0.7
mm

2.5 mm

4
S2

S1

320
bar

0.7 mm

21
KEY

High Pressure

12

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

Training Manual

20

101

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase D

The left side differential cylinder (8A) retracts to


bottom dead center. The right side differential
cylinder (8B) extends to top dead center.

Any excess rocking oil (orange) is routed to the


tank (1) across check valve 10C.

When the left side differential cylinder is in the


bottom dead center position, pressure is applied to
the poppet end port of the switching valve 9B. The
switching valve opens and sends a pilot signal to
the right side end cap of the S3 valve (6).

The S3 valve (6) moves to the left in response to


the pilot signal, putting it into the parallel
position. The oil in the left side end cap of the S3
valve (6) escapes to tank (1) across check valve
10A.

High pressure oil (red) is routed from the


accumulator circuit through the S3 valve (6) to the
retract port of the rock valve slewing cylinder (5).

The rock valve slewing cylinder (5) retracts,


sending the extend side oil back to tank (1)
through the S3 valve (6) and the return filter (12).

When the rock valve slewing cylinder (5) reaches


bottom dead center, the switching groove lines up
with the switching port and oil is routed to the
right end cap of the S2 valve (7).

As the rock slewing cylinder (5) extends, pressure


in the accumulator circuit falls. When it drops
below the set point of the accumulator dump valve
(13), the dump valve closes and the accumulator
hydraulic pump (20) begins pumping pressure oil
(red) to charge the accumulator circuit (14).

This brings us back to phase A. The machine has


made one complete cycle, which consists of two
suction strokes and two 0pressure strokes.

102

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

D MPS Twin Circuit


6.3
mm

14
Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

5
6.3
mm

1
19

11

15

S3

8A

16

8B
6

9A
T

1.0
mm

1.0
mm

17

300
bar

18
10C
1

10D

9B
To e-stop
manifold

23
10B

10A

NG
10

22

250 bar

13
T

200
bar
Y

2.5 mm

2.5 mm

0.7
mm

0.7
mm

1
4

S2

S1

320
bar

0.7 mm

21
KEY

High Pressure

12

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

Training Manual

20

103

SERVICE TRAINING

Twin Circuit with Variable displacement


accumulator pump Schematic

6.3
mm

14
Nitrogen pressure
set at 100 bar
(1450 PSI)

5
6.3
mm

1
19

11

15

S3

8A

16

8B

17

9A
T

1.0
mm

1.0
mm

300
bar

18
10C
1

10D

9B
To e-stop
manifold

23
10B

2.5 mm

10A

2.5 mm

0.7
mm

22

250 bar

NG
10

0.7
mm

1
4

S2
S1

320
bar

3
To e-stop
manifold

21

12
2

20

1
TCVariable.ai

104

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Model Number Nomenclature


The complete model number of Schwing Americas
concrete pumps is designated by codes like the
following: S 58 SX -125 BPL 2525H-5 120/85MPS
The code is broken down as follows:

S 58 SX - 125 BPL 2525H-5 120/85MPS


The break down is as follows:
S 58 SX- 125
Boom pipe diameter in millimeters
Outrigger design Super X
Vertical Boom reach in meters
Manufacture Schwing
BPL 2525H-5 120/85MPS
Truck mounted concrete pump (Beton Pumpe Lastkraftwagen)
Pump stroke length in meters 2.5 m
Material cylinder diameter millimeters 250 mm
Factory set up to run on the piston side
Liters of hydraulic oil per minute 500 +
Hydraulic piston diameter 120 mm
Diameter of the piston rod 85 mm
Twin circuit pumpkit

Training Manual

105

SERVICE TRAINING

Hi-Flow Pumpkits (2023-2525)

106

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Hi-Flow Pumpkits (2525H)

Piston Side Operation


Optional Waterbox Switching

Training Manual

107

SERVICE TRAINING

Hi-Flow Pumpkits Schematic


5

S3

13
16

14

17
18

15
P

9A
9B
20
10A

10B

11
7

S2
S1 4

24
3

10C
22

12

21
1.1

8A

23

8B

10D

19
1

1. Hydraulic oil reservoir


2. Main hydraulic pumps
3. Main pressure relief valve
4. Directional control valve S1
5. Rock valve slewing cylinder
6. Directional control valve S3
7. Directional control valve S2
8A - 8B. Differential hydraulic cylinders
9A - 9B. Reversing valves (MPS)
10A - 10D. Check valves
11. Main shutoff valve (Ball cock)
12. Hydraulic return filter with bypass valve

108

13. Accumulator
14. Pilot to close accumulator dump valve
15. Manual accumulator dump valve
16. Accumulator pressure maintenance check valve
17. Accumulator relief valve
18. Accumulator pressure gauge
19. Accumulator hydraulic pump
20. NG 10 valve for forward/reverse
21. Soft switch relief valve
22. Soft switch shutoff valve
23. Soft switch reversing valve
24. Main flow poppet valve

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Concrete Pump Control Block


A

B
B1

A1
3.0
mm

XA

S2

XB

3.0
mm

PP

0.7
mm

PR

0.7
mm

S1

T2

XP

P2

P1

T
X1
P1

MP
T1

T2

24

1.2

P
P

350 bar

MX

1.4

P2
R R
P X

XR

X3

XA

X1

22

80 bar

X2

21
X3

XB

1.1
T

23

7
4

24

3
23

The standard Schwing control block has used up to 560


LPM of oil. We have developed a new control block
designed for 800 LPM of oil. Called G-3 for 3rd
Generation Control Block and is also known as the HiFlow Brain.

21

for compact simpler design


The twin circuit machines with G-3 control block will
also use the condensed version accumulator (only one
larger one).

This block incorporates the soft switch into the relief


valve and the accumulator manifold valve into the S-3,

Training Manual

109

SERVICE TRAINING

Main Relief/Soft Switch Block

MX

1.4

350 bar
X1
2
6

80 bar

X2

X3
4

1.1

5
1
39000213.eps

110

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

MPS

10A

3.5MM Orifice

10B

3.5MM Orifice

1.3MM Orifice

9A

9C
9B
9C

9B

10A

9A

The MPS system is an important part of the twin circuit


system incorporated in the Hi-flo pump kit. The MPS
system consists of three small directional control
valves mounted in a manifold. This replaced the two
switching valves that were located on the passenger
side differential cylinder. The main pressure that is
supplied to these directional control valves is supplied
by the accumulator. This means we are using
accumulator pressure to switch the S3 valve. The end
result is a faster, more consistent switch.

10B

cylinders to switch with a minimum delay. The S3


block and the system accumulator are separated from
the main control block and located above the hopper
end of the material cylinders. Access to these
components is facilitated by removing the decking
between the water box and the rear boom rest.

The faster switch of the S3 valve allows the differential

Training Manual

111

SERVICE TRAINING

S3 Control Block - Machined


B

A
A1

B1

S3

XA

XB

2.0
mm

6
4

300
bar

Mp

M
P

Mp1

M
S
P
1

8.0
mm

7
Psp

T
P

PS

1
3
6
5
2

S0153.eps

112

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

S3 Control Block - Cast

A3

B2

A2

B3

S3

XB1

2
bar

2.0
mm
3

M
P

MSP2

SP
P P1
T MS

MSP1

TUV
330
bar

2
4

MSP3

6.5
mm

M
S
P
3

1 A

T3

SP

M
S
P
2

XA1

MP

4
6

1
7
2
5
S0154.eps

Training Manual

113

SERVICE TRAINING

2023 Circuit diagram

High pressure oil (red) flows from the main


hydraulic pump (2) through the parallel position
of the S2 valve (7) into the rod side of the right
side differential cylinder (8A). The cylinder
retracts, which creates a vacuum in the material
cylinder. The right side material cylinder fills with
concrete. (This is called the suction stroke.)

The oil that is forced out of the piston side of the


right differential cylinder (8A) flows through
hoses into the piston side of the left differential
cylinder (item 8B). This oil is called rocking oil
(orange).

The rocking oil forces the left side differential


cylinder (8B) to extend. The cylinder rod extends,
pushing concrete out of the material cylinder,
through the rock valve, and into the pipeline. (This
is called the pressure stroke.)

The oil from the rod side of the left differential


cylinder (8B) is routed back to the tank through
the return filter (12). The low pressure oil is shown
in green.

The oil shown as blue, such as the oil in the


reservoir, is at rest, or pressureless.

The following diagrams A through D show the


switching functions of the fully hydraulic pump control
system plumbed on ROD SIDE with simplified
schematics. The agitator, boom, and S-1 control
circuits are not shown.

Phase A
Please note that right and left refer to the orientation
you would have if you stood on the unit by the rock
valve, looking towards the cab of the truck.

As soon as you switch the unit distribution gear


case to the pumping position, the accumulator
hydraulic pump (20) begins pumping high
pressure oil (red) to charge the accumulators.(14).
Shown in the beginning position in phase A
schematic. High pressure oil (red) continues to
flow into the accumulator circuit until the
accumulators (14) are charged to the pressure cutoff point of the accumulator hydraulic pump (20).
When the cut-off point is reached, the
accumulator pump reduces the hydraulic oil flow
until there is just enough to maintain the cut-off
pressure.

The high pressure oil (red) from the accumulator


circuit flows through the S3 directional control
valve (6), which is in the parallel position, into the
extend side oil port of the rock slewing cylinder
(5).

The rod of the rock slewing cylinder (5) extends,


if not already extended.

The S1 directional control valve (4), which


controls whether the unit pumps in forward,
neutral, or reverse, is put into the forward
position.

A pilot signal (high pressure oil) is routed from


the accumulator circuit to the end cap of the S2
directional control valve (7), which moves into the
parallel position.

114

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

A Hi-Flo

KEY

High Pressure

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Soft Switch Pressure

Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

S3

14
17

15

18
16

9A

9B
23
10A

10B

11
7

S2
S1 4

26
3

10C
25

12

24
1.1

8A

27

8B

10D

20
1
hiflo A.eps

Training Manual

115

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase B
Please note that right and left refer to the orientation
you would have if you stood on the unit by the rock
valve, looking towards the cab of the truck.

The left side differential cylinder (8B) reaches top


dead center. If there is so much rocking oil in the
loop that the right side differential cylinder (8A)
cannot retract to the bottom dead center position,
then oil is removed now through check valve 10C.

The right side differential cylinder (8A) reaches


bottom dead center. As the piston reaches the
guide bushing, it exposes a port to the end cap of
the reversing valve (9A), which becomes
connected to high pressure oil (red). The left end
cap of the reversing valve (9A) is connected to
low pressure oil (green), so the reversing valve
slides into the parallel position, sending high
pressure oil (red) toward the end cap of the S3
valve (6).

The pressure signal reaches the S3 valve end cap


(6), pushing the valve into the cross-over position.

The oil on the right end cap of the S3 valve (6)


flows back to tank (1).

In the cross-over position, the S3 valve (6) routes


oil from the accumulators to the retract port of the
rock valve slewing cylinder (5). The cylinder
begins to retract.

The oil from the extend side of the rock valve


slewing cylinder (5) is routed back to tank (1).

Shown in beginning position in phase B


schematic. A pilot signal (high pressure oil) is
routed from the accumulator circuit to the left side
end cap of the S2 directional control valve (7).
The S2 valve slides into the cross-over position.

As the rock slewing cylinder (5) retracts, pressure


in the accumulator circuit falls. When it drops
below the set point of the accumulator hydraulic
pump cut-off pressure, the accumulator hydraulic
pump (20) increases the flow of hydraulic oil to
charge the accumulator circuit (14).

116

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

B Hi-Flo

KEY

High Pressure

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Soft Switch Pressure

Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

S3

14
17

15

18
16

9A

9B
23
10A

10B

11
7

S2
S1 4

26
3

10C
25

12

24
1.1

8A

27

8B

10D

20
1
hiflo A.eps

Training Manual

117

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase C
Please note that right and left refer to the orientation
you would have if you stood on the unit by the rock
valve, looking towards the cab of the truck.

The rock valve slewing cylinder (5) reaches the


bottom dead center position.

High pressure oil (red) continues to flow into the


accumulator circuit until the accumulators (14)
are charged to the pressure cut-off point of the
accumulator hydraulic pump (20). When the cutoff point is reached, the accumulator pump
reduces the hydraulic oil flow until there is just
enough to maintain the cut-off pressure.

The S2 valve (7) has finished sliding. Oil is now


routed from the main hydraulic pump (2) to the
rod side of the left hand differential cylinder (8B).

As the left hand differential cylinder (8A) moves,


rocking oil (gold) reaches the left end cap of the
reversing valve (9A). The valve closes by the
pressure applied and the force of the return spring.
This removes the pilot signal to the left side of the
S3 directional control valve (6).

As the left side differential cylinder (8B) retracts,


it creates a void in the material cylinder and
concrete begins to flow in to fill that void.
(Suction stroke.)

The oil from the piston side of the left side


differential cylinder (8B) travels through the hoses
to the piston side of the right hand differential
cylinder (8A), forcing it to extend. In the material
cylinder, the concrete from stage A is forced out
into the delivery pipeline. (Pressure stroke.)

The oil from the rod side of the right hand


differential cylinder (8A) is routed through the S2
valve (7), through the return filter (12), and back
to tank (1).

118

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

C Hi-Flo

KEY

High Pressure

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Soft Switch Pressure

Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

S3

14
17

15

18
16

9A
9B
23
10A

10B

11
7

S2
S1 4

26
3

10C
25

12

24
1.1

8A

27

8B

10D

20
1
hiflo A.eps

Training Manual

119

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase D
Please note that right and left refer to the orientation
you would have if you stood on the unit by the rock
valve, looking towards the cab of the truck.

The left side differential cylinder (8B) retracts to


bottom dead center. The right side differential
cylinder (8A) approaches top dead center.

If there is not enough rocking oil to completely


extend cylinder 8A, rocking oil will now be added
through check valve 10D.

When the left side differential cylinder is in the


top dead center position, pressure is applied to the
right end cap of the reversing valve 9B. The left
end cap of the reversing valve is connected to low
pressure, so the valve slides into the parallel
position. The reversing valve routes the pilot
signal to the right side end cap of the S3 valve (6).

The S3 valve (6) moves to the parallel position in


response to the pilot signal. The oil in the left side
end cap of the S3 valve (6) escapes to tank.

High pressure oil (red) is routed from the


accumulator circuit through the S3 valve (6) to the
extend port of the rock valve slewing cylinder (5).

The rock valve slewing cylinder (5) extends,


sending the retract side oil back to tank (1)
through the S3 valve (6).

As the rock slewing cylinder (5) extends, pressure


in the accumulator circuit falls. When it drops
below the set point of the accumulator hydraulic
pump cut-off pressure, the accumulator hydraulic
pump (20) increases the flow of hydraulic oil to
charge the accumulator circuit (14).

At the same time that the rock valve cylinder is


extending, a high pressure pilot signal is sent to
the right end port of the S2 spool. It slides into the
parallel position. When it has completed the
travel, oil is routed from the main pump (2) to the
rod side of the right hand differential cylinder
(8A).

120

This brings us back to phase A. The machine has made


one complete cycle, which consists of two suction
strokes and two pressure strokes.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Phase

D Hi-Flo

KEY

High Pressure

Rocking Oil Pressure


Low Pressure
Soft Switch Pressure

Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

S3

14
17

15

18
16

9A
9B
23
10A

10B

11
7

S2
S1 4

26
3

10C
25

12

24
1.1

8A

27

8B

10D

20
1
hiflo D.eps

Training Manual

121

SERVICE TRAINING

Booms
Black & White

Proportional

Electric/Air/Oil - Non Load Sensing

Electric/Oil/Oil - Varable Displacement Pump

Electric/Oil/Oil - Non Load Sensing

Electric/Oil/Oil - Fixed Displacement Pump

Electric/Oil/Oil - Load Sensing


BoomCompare.eps

122

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Black & White


Electric/Air/Oil

39000168.eps

Electric/Oil/Oil

39000167.eps

Training Manual

123

SERVICE TRAINING

Electric/Oil/Oil - Load Sensing

39000169.eps

124

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Proportional
Electric/Oil/Oil - Variable

To:Outrigger Function

1PM

P1

P4

P3
P2

39000165.eps

Electric/Oil/Oil - Fixed Displacement

To:Outrigger Function

1PM

P1

P4

P3
P2

39000166.eps

Training Manual

125

SERVICE TRAINING

Boom Holding Valves


Schwing uses a specially-designed hydraulically
unlockable check valve on all hydraulic cylinders
which operate placing boom sections. These valves
seal the hydraulic cylinder to prevent it from creeping
or moving until pressure is applied to it. A holding
valve is installed at both ends of the hydraulic cylinder
to prevent movement and limit pressure in either
direction.

TRUCK-MOUNTED AND SEPARATE


PLACING BOOM HYDRAULIC CYLINDER HOLDING VALVES

HER - SV2 - R 1/2"


SCHEMATIC DRAWING

CYLINDER CONNECTION

UNLOCKABLE
CHECK

RETURN OIL
CONNECTION
(LEAKAGE OIL)

RELIEF (NON-ADJUSTABLE)
SAFETY VALVE
CONTROL LINE CONNECTION
(CONNECTED WITH WORKING LINE
OF THE OPPPOSITE SIDE)

If oil flowing out uniformly from the leakage oil


connection, this indicates that the auxiliary safety valve
is not properly sealing. If this holding valve is on boom
section 1 cylinder, holding valve replacement is
necessary.
This auxiliary safety valve protects the cylinder from
excess pressure; therefore, this valve must not be set at
random. Precision setting for a specific placing boom
model is necessary and can only be done with the
correct equipment and certified personnel.

BLEED OFF
SCREW

PRESSURE
CONNECTION
(WORKING LINE)

If you should have a problem with a boom section


creeping, position the boom in an area which still
produces pressure in the corresponding cylinder but
leaves the holding valve in an accessible area. Loosen
the fitting of the pressure connection of the working
line and the leakage oil connection. With the hydraulic
pump not turning, you will be able to see which portion
of the valve is leaking.

If hydraulic oil is flowing out uniformly from the


working line, this indicates that the check valve is not
sealing properly, or debris in the oil has caused the
unlocking system to hang up and not allow the check
valve ball to seat. If there are any questions concerning
holding valves or other areas of your Schwing
equipment that you need answered, contact your local
Schwing dealer or Schwing America, Inc. for more
information.

HER VALVE INSTALLATION


DRIP-TANK

PORT X

BLOCK A

BLOCK B

LINE B

CYLINDER
LINE A

126

PORT Y

Training Manual

CYLINDER ROD

SERVICE TRAINING

28X B&W Boom

300 bar
T

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders

B A P1

KVM 28

BOOM #2

BOOM #1 (MAIN)

B3

1.3

270 BAR

A3

1.7

270 BAR

B4

1.0

A2

1.7

B2

A1

1.3

B1

1.3

SLEWING CYLINDERS

2.0

5 - 7 bar

Zero Pressure (Tank, or oil at rest)

AIR TANK

140 bar

A4

Low Pressure

1.3

Neutral

Control Pressure

270 BAR

BOOM #3 (Tip)

270 BAR

280 bar

Reduced Pressure

196101
10/91
RE

W/ MONSUN - TISON HANDVALVES

High Pressure

127

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

300 bar
T

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders

B A P1

KVM 28
196101
10/91
RE

BOOM #2

BOOM #1 (MAIN)

B3

1.3

270 BAR

A3

1.7

270 BAR

B4

1.0

A2

1.7

B2

A1

1.3

B1

1.3

SLEWING CYLINDERS

2.0

5 - 7 bar

Zero Pressure (Tank, or oil at rest)

AIR TANK

140 bar

A4

1.3

Low Pressure

#3 Extend Only

Control Pressure

270 BAR

BOOM #3 (Tip)

270 BAR

280 bar

Reduced Pressure

W/ MONSUN - TISON HANDVALVES

High Pressure

Training Manual

128

SERVICE TRAINING

300 bar
T

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders

B A P1

KVM 28
196101
10/91
RE

BOOM #2

BOOM #1 (MAIN)

B3

1.3

270 BAR

A3

1.7

270 BAR

B4

1.0

A2

1.7

B2

A1

1.3

B1

1.3

SLEWING CYLINDERS

2.0

5 - 7 bar

Zero Pressure (Tank, or oil at rest)

AIR TANK

140 bar

A4

Low Pressure

1.3

#1 Retract
#3 Extend

Control Pressure

270 BAR

BOOM #3 (Tip)

270 BAR

280 bar

Reduced Pressure

W/ MONSUN - TISON HANDVALVES

High Pressure

129

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

B A P1

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders

PRINT # 329324

300 bar
T

A
P

35 bar

270 BAR

BOOM #3 (Tip)

270 BAR

280
bar

270 BAR

BOOM #2

1.0
B4

270 BAR

1.3
A4

1.3
B3

140 bar

BOOM #1 (MAIN)

1.7
A3

KVM 28
190321

W/ MONSUN - TISON HANDVALVES

1.7

A2

B2

1.3
B1

SLEWING CYLINDERS

2.0

1.3
A1

5-7
bar

Training Manual

130

SERVICE TRAINING

Load Sense Hydraulic Circuits


Overview
Load sense hydraulic circuits offer advantages over
conventional fixed flow circuits. One advantage is
improved efficiency. With the conventional system, a
fixed displacement hydraulic pump is used to run the
boom. This hydraulic pump must have the capability of
displacing enough oil volume to run the largest
cylinder on the boom. However, because the smaller
cylinders on the boom require less oil volume, an inline orifice is used to divert the excess oil to tank via
the relief valve. When no boom function is activated,
this fixed volume of oil is routed through the handvalve
and back to the tank. All of the excess oil is converted
to wasted horsepower and heat.

When activating a function by remote on a black &


white system, the handvalve spool is fully activated
and a signal is sent to the hydraulic pump to send the
required amount of oil to run that function.

1.0

1.3
A4

280 bar

39000180.eps

When activating a function on a proportional system,


electronics are used to vary the position of the
handvalve spool, which in turn varies the speed of the
function. The proportional system allows the operator
to move the boom as slow and as fast as desired; thus
increasing controllability for smoother boom
movement, and reducing operator effort.
C2

C1
G1/2

39000178.eps

With the original load sense hydraulic circuit, a


variable displacement hydraulic pump was used. This
hydraulic pump puts out only the required volume of
oil needed to run any particular function or
combination of functions. This pump also de-strokes to
a minimum output when no functions are activated;
thus conserving energy and fuel.

A7 VO Pump

39000181.eps

NOTE!
The complete hydraulic system on a load
sense hydraulic circuit must be kept as clean
as possible due to many of the components
used in these circuits contain precision
machined metering passages and spools that
could malfunction from contamination.

A1

X3

39000177.eps

Training Manual

131

SERVICE TRAINING

Components
Constant:A theoretical factor that is regarded as
invariant in specified circumstances. The constant for
calculating hydraulic HP is: 1714 (when psi and gpm
are used). The constant for calculating kW is: 600
(when bar and lpm are used).
Horsepower (HP):A unit of power in the United
States Customary System, equal to 0.7457 kilowatts
(kW). To calculate hydraulic horsepower consumption,
use the following formula; HP= Pressure multiplied by
the Volume, divided by a Constant.

HP =

GPM x PSI
1714

KW =

LPM x BAR
600

Orifice: A restriction installed in either a hydraulic or


pneumatic passageway to create a pressure drop. This
does not always reduce flow directly, but it may cause
enough pressure upstream so that some of the flow
would be diverted or reduced elsewhere.

Pressure
Drop

Orifice created between the spool and valves walls

39000182

Delta Pressure (Delta-P):The pressure differential


between two given points in a hydraulic circuit.

Q-Maximum(Q-max): The highest volumetric flow


rate possible from the hydraulic pump. Adjusted with a
mechanical stop screw. Turn screw inward to decrease
and outward to increase.
Q-Minimum(Q-min): The lowest volumetric flow rate
possible from the hydraulic pump. Adjusted with a
mechanical stop screw. Turn screw inward to increase
and outward to decrease.
Q-Min Screw

Delta P = 13.8 bar

(200 psi)

1000 PSI
68.95 bar

Q-Max Screw
Q-Max

1200 PSI
82.75 bar

Q-Min

Section Compensator: A component in the directional


control valves that self-adjusts for supply pressure
changes. Also described as a pilot operated pressure
compensating valve.

X
C1
G1/2

C1

Section
Compensator

X3

39000183.eps

C2

Section
Compensator
39000186.eps

132

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - Simple Circuit


In this diagram, the cylinder will take exactly 1 minute
to extend with a pressure of 1000 psi. When the
cylinder reaches the end of the stroke, something will
have to break because there is no relief valve and the
hydraulic pump is fixed displacement, meaning the
pump will continue to put out oil until it is shut off.

10,000 lbs

10

1000 psi

10 GPM

39000187.eps

Training Manual

133

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - Orifice


In this diagram, we have a 10 gpm fixed displacement
pump, an orifice creating a pressure drop of 200 psi,
and free-flowing back to tank.

0 psi

200 psi

10 GPM

39000188.eps

134

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - Without Relief Valve


In this diagram, the cylinder will take exactly 1 minute
to extend with a pressure of 1000 psi at the cylinder
and a pressure of 1200 psi at the pump due to the
orifice that caused a pressure drop. The orifice did NOT
change the flow rate nor the cylinder speed. When the
cylinder reaches the end of the stroke, something will
have to break because there is no relief valve.
10,000 lbs

10

1000 psi

1200 psi

10 GPM

39000189.eps

Training Manual

135

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - With Relief Valve


In this diagram, A relief valve has been added. When
the cylinder has bottomed out, the relief valve vents the
excess pressure to tank. The pressure vented to tank
becomes wasted horsepower and generates heat.

10,000 lbs
10,000 lbs

10
10

1000 psi

2000 psi

1200 psi

2000 psi

2000 psi
10 GPM

10 GPM

39000190.eps

136

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - Delta-P


In this diagram, the handvalve is in the neutral position.
The pump is only putting out enough oil to maintain
Delta -P.

10

0 psi

Delta P
The pressure differential
between two given points
in a hydraulic circuit

200 psi
2000 psi
X

X3

39000191a.eps

Training Manual

137

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - Delta-P


In this diagram, the cylinder will take exactly 2
minutes to extend. There will be a pressure of 1000 psi
at the cylinder and a pressure of 1200 psi at the pump.
The orifice caused a drop in pressure (Delta-P). The
regulator has been adjusted to maintain 200 psi (Delta-

P). The pump is only supplying the amount of oil


required to maintain the (Delta-P). In this case, 5 gpm.
If the size of the orifice increases, the flow rate will be
increased by the Delta-P regulator. That will increase
the speed of the cylinder.

10

1000 psi

Delta P
The pressure differential
between two given points
in a hydraulic circuit

1200 psi

X3

39000191.eps

138

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - Pressure Cut-Off


In this diagram, the cylinder is at the end of its stroke.
There will be a pressure of 3000 psi at the cylinder and
a pressure of 3000 psi at the pump. The orifice does
NOT cause a drop in pressure because there is no flow.

The regulator has been adjusted to a pressure limit of


3000 psi. The pump is only supplying the amount of oil
required to maintain 3000 psi.

10,000 lbs

10

4350 psi

4350 psi

X3

39000192.eps

Training Manual

139

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - Shuttle Valves

have been replaced by the proportional handvalves.


The regulator has been adjusted to a pressure limit of
3000 psi. If any one cylinder reaches the end of its
stroke, the main pressure will be 3000 psi.

In this diagram, the cylinder with the highest load


(2500 psi) will be monitored at the regulator. The
regulator will maintain the 200 psi delta-P above that
load. The orifices, needed to cause a drop in pressure,

25,000 lbs

20,000 lbs

10

10,000 lbs

10

2500 psi

10

2000 psi

1000 psi

X3

39000193.eps

140

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Basic Principles - Pressure Regulator

P regulator

P regulator

X
20
bar P
300
bar

Pressure
Regulator
300 bar

P
Regulator
20 bar

0 bar

ORIFICE
0.8 mm
KVM 36X . . . . 1.6 mm
0-15 Bar
KVM 36 LW . . 1.6 mm
KVM 42 . . . . . .1.6 mm
KVM 52 . . . . . .not used

Pressure Regulator
(300 bar)
P Regulator
(20 bar)

P
T

39000219.eps

Training Manual

141

SERVICE TRAINING

A7 Variable Displacement Hydraulic Pump Training


All Functions in Neutral
The directional valve is in the neutral position.
Hydraulic oil is blocked at the handvalve.

Pressure below 20 bar


Pressure below 20 bar

X
20
bar P

C2

300
bar

C1
39000197.eps
A

C1

C2

20 bar spring

P
20 bar spring
T

Moving the spool to the left will create a passage way


from the Control Piston Chamber of the hydraulic
pump to tank.
Oil blocked by spool

Passageway opened to tank

39000195.eps

The pumps rotary group is at reduced displacement,


and is only putting out enough oil to maintain 20 bar
(Delta-P)

Passageway opened to tank

X
20
bar P

+20 bar pressure pushing on spool


Compressed Spring

39000199.eps
A

300
bar
T

A
X
20
bar P

This will create a pressure drop on the piston side of


the Control Piston Chamber, allowing the spring on rod
side of the chamber to decompress. As the spring
decompresses the angle of the rotary group will
increase. The pump will displace more oil, until 20 bar
(Delta-P) reached.

A1

300
bar
X3

39000194.eps

Not enough pressure to hold back the spring


A

+20 bar pressure pushing on spool

X
20
bar P

Compressed Spring

A1

300
bar
X3

T
P

39000200.eps

X3

Pressure on the A port drops below 20 bar, the force


of the spring is greater than the pressure exerted on the
spool. The spring will decompress, moving the spool to
the left.

P
X3

Not enough pressure to hold back the spring

The rotary group angle will increase/decrease as


necessary to maintain 20 bar (Delta-P).

142

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

KEY
High Pressure

330 bar
320 bar

Low Pressure

310 bar

Control Pressure

320 bar

1.0 mm

Reduced Pressure

Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

1.0 mm

NOTE: On the schematic, the 20 bar


Delta P spool and spring is shown
above the 300 bar spool and spring.
On the Pressure Regulator cut-out,
you can see that in reality the 300 bar
spool and spring is located above the
20 bar Delta P spool and spring.

P regulator

A7 VO Pump
X
20
bar P

A1

300
bar
X3

A7 VO Pump

P regulator

A1
Q-MIN
Pressure
Regulator
300 bar

P
Regulator
20 bar

0 bar

ORIFICE
0.8 mm
KVM 36X . . . . 1.6 mm
0-15 Bar
KVM 36 LW . . 1.6 mm
KVM 42 . . . . . .1.6 mm
KVM 52 . . . . . .not used

Q-MAX
X3
HT001.ai

Training Manual

143

SERVICE TRAINING

Cylinder Extend Function Initiated


The directional valve has been moved to the "cylinder
extend" position. Oil travels through the handvalve and
to the boom holding valve. A signal is also sent from
the handvalve to the Delta P regulator, via the X port.

This will create a pressure drop allowing the spring on


rod side to decompress, thus changing the angle of the
rotary group to displace enough oil to extend the
hydraulic cylinder.
Decompressed Spring

The pressure from the X port plus the 20 bar spring


is greater than the pressure on the A port side of the
spool. This will move the spool to the left, creating a
passage way for the oil in the Control Piston Chamber
of the hydraulic pump to tank.

A
X

A1

20 + Load
bar P T
300
bar
X3

1
A

Pressure + 20 bar
spring signal from
handvalve pushing
on spool

39000202.eps

Rotary Group

A
X

A1

X3

20 + Load
bar P T

Not enough pressure to hold back the spring

300
bar

Oil enters the holding valve. The hydraulically


unlockable check valve opens allowing oil to enter
the piston side chamber of the hydraulic cylinder. A
signal is also sent to the rod side hydraulically
unlockable checkvalve. This will open the relief valve
and create a passageway for the oil on the rod side
chamber to escape to tank.

X3
A

Control Piston Chamber

Pressure + 20 bar spring signal


from handvalve pushing on spool
C1

C2

Open Relief

320 bar
X
A

310 bar

330 bar

320 bar

1.0 mm

Control Piston Chamber

1.0 mm

X3

39000201.eps

Open Checkvalve
39000203.eps

144

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

KEY
High Pressure

330 bar
320 bar

Low Pressure

310 bar

Control Pressure

320 bar

1.0 mm

Reduced Pressure

Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

1.0 mm

NOTE: On the schematic, the 20 bar


Delta P spool and spring is shown
above the 300 bar spool and spring.
On the Pressure Regulator cut-out,
you can see that in reality the 300 bar
spool and spring is located above the
20 bar Delta P spool and spring.

P regulator

A7 VO Pump
X

A1

20 + Load
bar P T
300
bar
X3

A7 VO Pump

P regulator

A1
Q-MIN
Pressure
Regulator
300 bar

P
Regulator
20 bar

0 bar

ORIFICE
0.8 mm
KVM 36X . . . . 1.6 mm
0-15 Bar
KVM 36 LW . . 1.6 mm
KVM 42 . . . . . .1.6 mm
KVM 52 . . . . . .not used

Q-MAX
X3
HT002.ai

Training Manual

145

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Cylinder Extending


The hydraulic pump is only putting out enough oil to
extend the hydraulic cylinder. Depending upon the load
requirements, the signal line pressure will increase or
decrease accordingly. If the signal line pressure
increases, the 20 bar Delta P spool will open, allowing
allowing a larger passageway for the Control Piston
Chamber oil to escape to tank. This will decrease the
pressure on the piston side of the Control Piston
Chamber, allowing the spring on the rod side to
decompress and the angle of the rotary group to
increase, creating more flow to meet the load
requirements.
Example:
Load requirements for a particular function increse.
Increased Load

X port pressure on the spring side of the 20 bar spool


is greater than the A port pressure. The spool will
move to the left, creating a larger passageway for the
Control Piston Chamber oil to escape to tank.
The farther left the spool moves,
the larger the opening back to tank
X
A
A

20 + Load
bar P

39000206.eps

With a larger passageway to tank, pressure decreases in


the Control Piston Chamber.

Increased Load
X

1.0 mm

320 bar

A1
310 bar

330 bar

320 bar

T
1.0 mm

39000204.eps

As the load requirements increase, the signal line


pressure from the handvalve to the X port increases.
Increased Load

X3

39000207.eps

With a larger opening created to tank, the pressure


on the piston side of the chamber will decrease.

Increased Load
C2

C1

Spring decompresses, rotary group angle increases,


more flow created.

C1

C2

More oil displaced


A1

Load increases, signal


line pressure increases

X
A

20
bar P

39000205.eps

146

Training Manual

X3

39000208.eps

SERVICE TRAINING

KEY
High Pressure

330 bar
320 bar

Low Pressure

310 bar

Control Pressure

320 bar

1.0 mm

Reduced Pressure

Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

1.0 mm

NOTE: On the schematic, the 20 bar


Delta P spool and spring is shown
above the 300 bar spool and spring.
On the Pressure Regulator cut-out,
you can see that in reality the 300 bar
spool and spring is located above the
20 bar Delta P spool and spring.

P regulator

A7 VO Pump
X
20
bar P

A1

300
bar
X3

System when equipped with Rexroth hydraulic pump

A7 VO Pump

P regulator

A1
Q-MIN
Pressure
Regulator
300 bar

P
Regulator
20 bar

0 bar

ORIFICE
0.8 mm
KVM 36X . . . . 1.6 mm
0-15 Bar
KVM 36 LW . . 1.6 mm
KVM 42 . . . . . .1.6 mm
KVM 52 . . . . . .not used

Q-MAX
X3
HT002.ai

Training Manual

147

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Cylinder Fully Extended Pump


The cylinder has fully extended.

If pressure reaches over 300 bar. The spring on the 300


bar spool will compress. Creating a passageway for oil
from the A port to pass through the spool and flow to
the piston side of the Piston Control Chamber.
300+ pressure
X

T
300
bar

310 bar

320 bar

320 bar

1.0 mm

330 bar

A
A1

X3
1.0 mm

39000211.eps
39000209.eps

Pressure has been equalized on both ends of the 20 bar


(Delta P) spool.

P
X3
C2

C1

C1

C2

Pressure on the piston side of the chamber is greater


than the rod side pressure, plus spring. The spring will
compress, decreasing the angle of the rotary group,
resulting in less flow. The pump will only put out
enough flow to maintain 300 bar.

Equal pressure

A
X

A
X

20
bar P

A1

300
bar

X3
X3

300
bar

A1

39000212.eps

P
X3

P
X3
39000210.eps

148

The rotary group angle will increase/decrease putting


out more/less oil to maintain 300 bar.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

KEY
High Pressure

330 bar
320 bar

Low Pressure

310 bar

Control Pressure

320 bar

1.0 mm

Reduced Pressure

Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

1.0 mm

NOTE: On the schematic, the 20 bar


Delta P spool and spring is shown
above the 300 bar spool and spring.
On the Pressure Regulator cut-out,
you can see that in reality the 300 bar
spool and spring is located above the
20 bar Delta P spool and spring.

P regulator

A7 VO Pump
X
20
bar P

A1

300
bar
X3

System when equipped with Rexroth hydraulic pump

A7 VO Pump

P regulator

A1
Q-MIN
Pressure
Regulator
300 bar

P
Regulator
20 bar

0 bar

ORIFICE
0.8 mm
KVM 36X . . . . 1.6 mm
0-15 Bar
KVM 36 LW . . 1.6 mm
KVM 42 . . . . . .1.6 mm
KVM 52 . . . . . .not used

Q-MAX
X3
HT003.ai

Training Manual

149

SERVICE TRAINING

Fixed Displacement Pump Training


All Function in Neutral

EB
1.0

B1

290 bar

320 bar

B2

330 bar
T

300 bar

A2

A1
1.0
EA

C1

C2
G1/2

C1

C2

PP

G1/2

15
bar

0.2
mm

300
bar
P

.061 mm

LS

KEY
High Pressure
Reduced Pressure
Pretension Pressure
High pressure filter

Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

2.0
atmospheres

150

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Boom Function Activated

EB
1.0

B1

290 bar

320 bar

B2

330 bar
T

300 bar

A2

A1
1.0
EA

C1

C2
G1/2

C1

C2

PP

G1/2

15
bar

0.2
mm

300
bar
P

.061 mm

LS

KEY
High Pressure
Reduced Pressure
Pretension Pressure
High pressure filter

Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

2.0
atmospheres

Training Manual

151

SERVICE TRAINING

Cylinder Pressurized at the End of Stroke

EB
1.0

B1

290 bar

320 bar

B2

330 bar
T

300 bar

A2

A1
1.0
EA

C1

C2
G1/2

C1

C2

PP

G1/2

15
bar

0.2
mm

300
bar
P

.061 mm

LS

KEY
High Pressure
Reduced Pressure
Pretension Pressure
High pressure filter

Low Pressure
Zero Pressure
(Tank, or oil at rest)

2.0
atmospheres

152

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Output Charts

maximum strokes per minute of your pumpkit


model.

The hydraulic pumps that drive your concrete pump are


horsepower controlled. That means that when pressure
rises past a certain point (known as the breakpoint), the
pumps change their displacement per revolution,
resulting in less flow and fewer strokes per minute. The
reason for this is so the pumps will not stall your
engine by drawing too much horsepower. Output charts
show the horsepower curve (in kilowatts, or Kw) of the
concrete pump hydraulic circuit. From them, you can
determine the:
maximum concrete pressure of the pumpkit model.
maximum output (in cubic yards per hour) of the
pumpkit model.

maximum output (in liters per minute, L/min) of


your hydraulic pumps.

expected output at various pumping pressures.

condition of your hydraulic pumps when used in


conjunction with a flowmeter.

breakpoint of your hydraulic system.

BPL 1200 HDR-23

Pumpkit model

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE AXIAL PISTON HYDRAULIC PUMP

ROD SIDE
(bar)

PISTON SIDE
(bar)

An explanation of an output chart is shown on the


following pages, followed by some examples of chart
usage. The output chart of the pumpkit shipped with
this manual is shown later.

PUMP SPEED
2100 RPM
HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVE IS SET AT
300 BAR MAX. PRESSURE (4350 PSI).

350
PISTON SIDE

Piston
side
breakpoint

200

ROD SIDE

131

1800

124

1700

117

1600

110

1500

103

83

1100

76

1000

70

900

62

800

The
breakpoint
specification
is
listed here.

52

48
41

200

500

34

150

400

28

300

21

200

14

100

100
50
breakpoint 0
178 bar

13

26

39

52

65

78

92

105 118 131 144


103
CONCRETE OUTPUT (cu yd / h)

157 170 183 196


170.5

26
5
50
PISTON
SIDE

10
100

150

5
100

15
200

10
200

300

20
250

300

15.5
15

20

400

500

25
350

400
25

OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)
30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)
OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)

Material Cylinders
Bore dia. x Stroke length

Hydraulic Pumps
Type / KW

125 mm / 80 mm x 2000 mm

230mm x 2000 mm

2 x A7VO-107
2 x 66KW

Slewing cylinder 80 / 45 x 185

Training Manual

Concrete output is shown


here, with max
shown for both
piston and rod
side configurations.

30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)

Differential Hydraulic Cylinder


Bore dia. / Rod dia. x Stroke length

output chart explain.eps

Concrete pressure is shown


here.
Max.
pressure
is
shown
for
both
piston
and rod side
configurations

55

600

250

ROD
SIDE

Hydraulic liters per


minute and the corresponding strokes
per minute for both
piston and rod side.

758

700

100

50

97
88.6 90

1200

Rod side
breakpoint

300
150

1900

1300 1285

250

350

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(BAR)
138

1400

300

OIL PRESSURE (BAR)

Hydraulic oil pressure shown here,


ranging from zero to
the relief valve setting.

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(PSI)
2000

Information
about
the
pumpkit and
hydraulic
pumps
is
shown here.

153

SERVICE TRAINING

Using the Chart

the 220 bar oil pressure marking on the rod side scale
(item A in the example below). Then draw a line
straight across the page until you intersect with the
horsepower curve (Item B). Next, draw a straight line
down from the intersection point until you pass through
the rod side number of strokes scale, and read the
strokes per minute. At 220 bar you should be getting a
little more than 21 strokes per minute. Your unit is fine.

Example 1Checking flow at a given pressure


Your unit is configured on the rod side (standard from
the factory). You notice that your machine is not getting
as many strokes per minute as you are used to seeing.
You count the strokes and see that you are getting
about 21 1/2 per minute. You check your pressure gauge
and see that the hydraulic oil pressure is at 220 bar. To
determine whether your unit is acting normally, locate

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE AXIAL PISTON HYDRAULIC PUMP

ROD SIDE
(bar)

PISTON SIDE
(bar)

output chart use.eps

PUMP SPEED
2100 RPM
HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVE IS SET AT
300 BAR MAX. PRESSURE (4350 PSI).

350
PISTON SIDE

B. Draw a line STRAIGHT


across the page until you
contact the horsepower
curve of the rodside. Then
draw a line straight down
from the intersection point.

OIL PRESSURE (BAR)

300

A. Find 220 bar


on the rod side oil
pressure scale.

250

200

ROD SIDE

350

250
200

EXAMPLE 1

100
150
50

50

131

1800

124

1700

117

1600

110

1500

103

1400

97

1300 1285

88.6 90

1200

83

1100

76

1000

70

900

62
758

52

55

700

48

600

41

500

34

400

28

13

graph tells
you how 14
many
200
yards/hour you can expect
(in this100case, about 7138).
Where the line crosses the
number
26 39 52 65 78 92 105 118 131 144 157 170 183
196 of strokes scale tells
103
170.5 you how many strokes per
minute you can expect (in
CONCRETE OUTPUT (cu yd / h)
this case, a little over 21).
26

ROD
SIDE

5
50

PISTON
SIDE

10
100

150

5
100

15
200

10
200

300

20
250

300

15.5
15

20

400

500

Example 2Checking your hydraulic pumps


To determine whether your pumps are still in good
working condition, use the output chart and a flow
meter. Test one pump at a time, multiply the readings

154

1900

21 the
300 the line leaves
C. Where

100

breakpoint 0
178 bar

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(BAR)
138

800

300
150

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(PSI)
2000

25
350

400
25

30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)
OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)
30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)
OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)

by 2, and chart the result. You multiply the readings


because the chart is based on the output of two pumps,
but we are only testing one at a time.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

To test your pumps:

Use use the chart that applies to your unit (see


Output Chart in the Appendix of your Operation
Manual).

Select the proper truck transmission gear for


pumping (found on the information plate mounted
in the truck cab).

Set the pump speed (input drive shaft) RPM.


Pump speed information is found on line 16 of the
Delivery Inspection Report which arrived with
your unit when it was new. A difference of even a
few RPM will give you a bad reading. Check the
RPM with a digital tachometer if one is available.

Know how to use your flowmeter. Read the


instructions that came with it. A flowmeter must
be calibrated periodically.

Make two copies (one for each pump tested) of


the Output Chart located in the Appendix of the
Operation Manual. Dont use the original copy,
you will need additional copies of the original for
future tests.

Read the flow at 0 bar, 100 bar, 150 or 200 bar, 250 bar,
and 300 bar. Also document the breakpoint. The
breakpoint is where the flow drops off rapidly. You will
be able to notice it on the flowmeter. If you think it
would be helpful, copy the chart below. Check which
reading you used (150 or 200 bar). The breakpoint will
be very close to either 150 or 200 bar, so it is not
necessary to take both readings. The breakpoint
specification is shown on each output chart.

1st Pump

breakpoint
specification

150 or

liters/min
(read on meter)

2nd Pump
Total
(for plotting)

liters/min
(read on meter)

Total
(for plotting)

0 bar

x2

x2

100 bar

x2

x2

breakpoint

x2

200 bar

x2

x2

250 bar

x2

x2

300 bar

x2

x2

breakpoint

x2

checking output form

As an example, well assume that we have just taken


the following readings.

Training Manual

155

SERVICE TRAINING

Plot the readings on the output chart. Take a clean


output chart and proceed as follows:

Lay a straight edge horizontally across the page at


the pressure point you are plotting. Draw a light
line across the chart. In the example below, we use
the rod side scales and curve (you could use the
piston side scale and curve instead). The ruler is
shown ready to draw a line at 250 bar hydraulic
pressure.

Turn the ruler sideways and draw a light line up


the page from the liters/minute reading you took
at that pressure. (Remember to multiply the
reading by 2.) In our example, we measured 276
liters at 250 bar.

Put a dot at the point where the two lines intersect.

Do the same thing with each pressure reading. You


should end up with six dots.

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE AXIAL PISTON HYDRAULIC PUMP

ROD SIDE
(bar)

PISTON SIDE
(bar)

1checking output.eps

PUMP SPEED
2100 RPM
HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVE IS SET AT
300 BAR MAX. PRESSURE (4350 PSI).

350
PISTON SIDE

OIL PRESSURE (BAR)

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(BAR)
138

1900

131

1800

124

1700

117

1600

110

1500

103

1400

97

1300 1285

300

250

200

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(PSI)
2000

1200

83

1100

76

1000

70

900

62

ROD SIDE

350

800

300
150

250

1
200

10

100
150
50

50
13

26

39

52

65

78

92

105 118 131 144


103
CONCRETE OUTPUT (cu yd / h)

5
50

PISTON
SIDE

100

150

5
100

156

10

15
200

10
200

300

20
250

300

15.5
15

20

400

500

Training Manual

52

55
48

600

41

11
500

34

400

28

300

21

200

14

100

157 170 183 196


170.5

26
ROD
SIDE

758

700

100

breakpoint 0
178 bar

88.6 90

25
350

400
25

30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)
OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)
30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)
OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)

SERVICE TRAINING

the upper right of the spec, you have done the test
incorrectly, or you are using the wrong chart. In
our example, the pump is okay. (See the plot
which follows.)

Connect the dots. If your plotted line reasonably


matches the specification plot on the chart, the
pump is fine. If your line is to the lower left of the
spec, the pump is getting weak. If your line is to

ROD SIDE
(bar)

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(PSI)
2checking output.eps

300 bar

350

83

1100

76

1000

70

900

62

Breakpoint 800

300
OIL PRESSURE (BAR)

1200

250 bar

ROD SIDE

250
200

200 bar

150
100
50

breakpoint 0
178 bar

100 bar

OK
13

26

0 bar
39

52

65

78

92

105 118 131 144

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(BAR)

758

52

55

700

48

600

41

500

34

400

28

300

21

200

14

100

157 170 183 196


170.5

CONCRETE OUTPUT (cu yd / h)


26
ROD
SIDE

5
50

10
100

150

15
200

20
250

(234)

300
(276)

25
350
(338)

400

30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)
OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)

(388) (398)
(392)

Check the second pump. We hook up the flowmeter


just as when we checked the first pump. Again, be sure
that you have the correct speed, gear, chart, and so on.
This time our example will have worse results.

Training Manual

157

SERVICE TRAINING

Plot the results again on a clean copy of the flowchart.


As we plot this pump, we can see that the dots are
moving quite a bit to the inside of the flow
specification. (See next chart.)

When you connect the dots, the line is completely


below the specifications. This pump is very weak and
will completely stop pumping oil soon. You may notice
high heat with this unit, if you are pumping at high oil
pressures.

handy when you call to get a replacement. Also, please


advise us if you have changed differential cylinders,
material cylinders, or hydraulic pumps, because you
may need a different output chart than the one that was
originally shipped with the unit.

NOTE!
Never try to make up for this weak pump by
increasing the speed of the engine. As the
pump turns faster than specifications, it will
not be able to suck oil as fast as it is turning
(it is called cavitation if this happens),
and immediate failure could results.
If the plotted curve matches the spec for a while, but
the breakpoint is too high or too low, it is possible to
make an adjustment. Contact the Schwing America
Service Department for the procedure.
There are many different possible pumpkits and power
settings for this unit. If you accidentally destroy your
original output chart, please have your serial number

158

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Using a Nomograph
General information
NOTE!
If you have read the original Schwing America publication, NomographsA Guide to
Usage, you will notice several changes in this
document. Because not all of the power
from the truck engine is used for the concrete pump, the TK number of the engine
has no meaning. Therefore, this section
about using nomographs has been adapted
especially for boom pumps. You can still figure out the TK of the job to do, but the suitability of the pump has to be determined in
a different manner. To make the pump numbers and job numbers match, we will use a
Power Factor number, which takes into
account the power of the hydraulic pumps
instead of the engine and is easy to use with
cubic yards per hour and PSI instead of
cubic meters per hour and bar.
Concrete pumps are limited in what jobs they can do
by three factors:
1. The amount of power available.
2. The maximum concrete output available.
3. The maximum concrete pressure available.
To estimate the power a pump requires to complete a
particular job and to determine which pump is
appropriate, a nomograph is used.

With a concrete pump that is driven by its own prime


mover, such as a trailer-mounted concrete pump or a
truck-mounted pump with a separate drive engine, the
power rating (in Kw) is shown for the engine or electric
motor. With a truck-mounted pump that uses a PTO
from the truck engine, the power rating reflects the
power output of the hydraulic pumps only. (All the
power from the truck engine is normally not available
to the concrete pump and should not be used for power
calculations.) If you know the required output for the
job, the nomograph will help you calculate the required
pressure. If you know the output and pressure, you can
calculate the power requirement.
The nomograph was developed by extensive trial-anderror testing and has proven to be accurate to 10% in
nearly all pumping applications. The original
nomographs used spread measure of fresh concrete
instead of slump, and the two are not directly
interchangeable. Some approximations are used in
translating the charts from spread measure to slump,
but the 10% accuracy still applies. In all cases, it is
assumed that you will receive fresh, high-quality
concrete on your job and that the concrete will be
plastic enough to flow into the material cylinders. If
you know that the concrete will be hard to feed into the
cylinders, you should adjust the output requirement to
compensate for incomplete filling. For example, if you
will need 50 cubic yards per hour into the form but the
concrete is so stiff that it will fill the cylinders only
80%, you should multiply the required output by 1.25
(180%).
The nomograph is divided into four quadrants
.

Upper left quadrant

Upper right quadrant

Figure 1
Quadrants
Lower left quadrant

Training Manual

Lower right quadrant

159

SERVICE TRAINING

To use the nomograph, you begin at output required


and move clockwise until you encounter the lines that
represent your job situation. Each time you meet the
line that applies, you make a 90 turn until you come to
a point on the bottom of the upper left quadrant that
shows pressure required (Figure 2).

The upper left quadrant is the beginning and end point


of the graph and shows maximum output, pressure, and
power for a specific machine. The upper right quadrant
accounts for the relationship between concrete output
and pipeline diameters. The lower right quadrant
accounts for the resistance to flow of the entire pipeline
system. The lower left quadrant accounts for the
pumpability of the concrete.

Pipeline diameter in inches

(72600)
200

For vertical placing,


add 1.105 PSI per foot
of level difference.

180
160

Q in yd3/hr.

boom-small-no blocks-eps

TK number does not apply to truck mounted units.


Curve shown is the Power Factor number (PF).

6"

5"

4.5"

140

4"

120 116

Rod side

100
80
Piston side

60

67

40
132 KW

20
3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800
1566
870
P in PSI

600

400

200

100
200
2"
300
400

2.5"

500
600
3"
4"

5"

6"

Slump of fresh concrete in inches

Pumpkit Model: 120/80 x 1600:200


Power: 132 KW

3000 2500 2000 1800 1500

1200

1000

800

Proportional value of pipeline in feet

Figure 2
Moving around a nomograph
To illustrate the use of a nomograph, we will use a
hypothetical job situation with the following
specifications.
1. We will need an average output of 75 cubic yards
per hour, but we will be pumping only 75% of the
time. The rest of the time will be spent moving
hose, removing pipe lengths, waiting for concrete
trucks, and taking care of miscellaneous jobs. This
means that when we are actually pumping, we will
need an output rate of 75 .75 = 100 yd3/hr.
2. We will use 5-in.-diameter pipeline.
3. We will need the following pipeline lengths:
Separately laid pipeline.

40 ft of 5-in. rubber hose

150 ft of 5-in. horizontal steel pipe

160

Boom pipe, elbows, and deck system.

13 ft of 5-in. rubber hose

144 ft of 5-in. steel pipe (on the boom and pump


deck)

5.25 ft of 6to5-in. reducer (on the pump)

4 5-in. 45 elbows, radius 250 mm

11 5-in. 90 elbows, radius 250 mm

2 6-in. 90 elbows, radius 250 mm


4. We will specify a slump of 5-6 in. and use the 5-in.
line on the chart.
5. In addition, when we add the pressure for the vertical run, we will have to add 1.1 times 70 ft = 77
PSI.
All of these criteria will be explained in detail as we go
through the individual quadrants.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

The quadrants

For vertical placing,


add 1.105 PSI per foot
of level difference.

Kw rating

180
160

Example Job

Working power (in kW)

Power curve

200

Power factor
number
(replaces TK)
Q in. yd3/hr.

upper left quad-eps

Power factor number (PF)


English to Metric Conversion Factor is PF 18.966

56,650

1. The upper left quadrant describes the power


curve of a given hydraulic pump Kw rating and the
maximum output and maximum pressure of a particular model of concrete pump (Figure 3).

140
120
100
Maximum output and
80maximum pressure
of a specific unit
60
40
20

103 KW
3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200
P in PSI

Figure 3
Upper left quadrant
Any concrete pump selected for a job must meet three
technical parameters:

The power factor number of the pump must be


equal to or greater than the power factor number
of the job.

The maximum output required by the job must be


available from the pump.

The maximum pressure required by the job must


be available from the pump.
It is important to notice the pump maximum pressure
and maximum output, even if the power factor number
of the pump is larger than the job requires. These
parameters are decided during the design stage of the
unit and cannot be adjusted on the job. If the unit is
able to go from rod side to piston side, maximum
pressure and output can be exchangedthat is, you can
decrease one while increasing the other the same
amount.
The power factor number (PF) replaces the TK
number on a truck-mounted unit. It is the Kw
multiplied by a constant (550) that has several

efficiency factors figured in. When using an


Americanized nomograph (pressure in PSI and flow in
cubic yards per hour), the pressure multiplied by the
output must always be less than or equal to the PF of
the pump. For example, if you needed 50 cubic yards
per hour and determined that this will require 750 PSI,
you can multiply 50 by 750, which equals 37,500. Any
pump you select must have a PF of 37,500 or greater. If
you are using a nomograph that has been converted to
metric units of measure (pressure in bar and output in
cubic meters per hour), you can still multiply the
pressure by the output, but you must multiply the
answer by the conversion factor between metric and
English units of measure to get the PF. The conversion
factor for cubic yards to cubic meters and bar to PSI is
18.966. For all practical purposes, you can use 19. For
example, if you need 50 cubic meters per hour and
determine that your job setup will require 65 bar, you
can multiply 50 by 65, which equals 3250. Multiply
this by 19, and you find that your PF requirement is
61,750. Again, any pump you select for the job in this
example should have a PF of 61,750 or greater.

Training Manual

161

SERVICE TRAINING

The maximum output (abbreviated as max Q) is


determined by the size of the hydraulic pumps, the
number of strokes per minute, and the size of the
differential and material cylinders. The unit is usually
designed so maximum output can be achieved only at
less than maximum pressure.
Maximum pressure (abbreviated as max P) is
determined by the size of the differential and material
cylinders and the setting of the main relief valve. To be
sure that the unit will handle the job, be careful to
notice max P and max Q. Here is an example of why
that is important: You contract to pump a job that
requires only 20 yards per hour, but you calculate that
you will need 2100 PSI pressure. The PF of this job is
42,000 (20 x 2100). The pump shown in Figure 3 has a
TK of 72,600, so there is enough power available.
However, the maximum pressure available from the
pump is only 1570 PSI. This pump would not do the
job.
6. Follow the chart in a straight line from required
output into the upper right quadrant until you
come to the size of the pipeline that you will use. A
good rule of thumb for sizing pipeline is to use the
largest-diameter pipeline that you can. It takes less
force to move concrete through a 6-inch pipeline
than, for example, a 4-inch pipeline. When pressure is exerted on concrete in a pipeline, a paste of
water and cement fines coats the inside of the pipe-

line and forms a slippery layer on which the bulk of


the concrete slides. While it is true that a 6-inch
pipeline has 49 percent more surface area to coat
than a 4-inch pipeline, the volume of concrete that
can move on the layer is increased by 12 percent,
which results in lower velocity of the concrete (in
feet per second), lower friction, and therefore lower
pressure. A pump that may not be capable of completing a difficult job through 4- or 5-inch pipe may
be able to do it easily through 6-inch pipe. Note!
Experience has taught us that 5-inch is the optimum pipeline size for lengthy vertical runs such
as those found on high-rise buildings. It is large
enough for most aggregate, but small enough
that you minimize the amount of concrete that
slides back into the hopper when the concrete
valve cycles, which we call backwash. You must
also consider the people at the point of placement. Very few hose handlers, if any, can move
6-inch hose on a slab all day. There is no provision in the nomograph for mixing pipeline sizes.
For example, if you will be reducing from 5-inch to
4-inch, pipe, you should calculate the chart as if
you were using 4-inch pipe for the entire distance.
This will not be completely accurate, but you will
be safe in your pressure calculation. In our example
(Figure 4) we use 5-inch pipeline.

Q in yd3/hr.

Pipeline diameter in inches


6"

5"

4.5"
4"

Make a 90 turn when


you intersect with the
pipeline diameter that
applies to your job.
uppr rght quad-eps

Figure 4
Upper right quadrantPipeline diameter

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When the output line intersects the pipeline diameter


that corresponds to your job, draw a line straight down
into the lower right quadrant, as shown in Figure 4.
7. The lower right quadrant refers to the proportional value of your pipeline. It is a way of taking
into account not only the length of the pipeline, but
also the number of bends, the increased resistance
of flow in rubber hose, and other factors. It is more
a measure of the resistance to flow than a measure
of length. In calculating the proportional value of
your pipeline, always apply the following criteria:
Each 90 bend with a radius of 250 mm (boom
elbow) = 3.5 feet.
boom 4 nomo.eps

Each 90 bend with a radius of 1 meter (long


sweep) = 10. feet.
Each 30 or 45 bend with a radius of 1 meter or
250 mm = 3 feet.
Each section of rubber hose causes three times as
much resistance as the same length of steel pipe
(e.g., 12 feet of rubber hose has the same
resistance as 36 feet of pipeline).
Figure all horizontal and vertical distances
equally. The increased pressure required to push
concrete vertically is accounted for by adding
pressure, not distance.
An example pipeline is shown below (Figure 5).

150 ft. pipe

40 ft.
hose

70 ft.
level
difference

elbow - 90, r = 250 mm...3.5 feet


elbow - 90, r = 1 meter...10 feet
elbow - 30 or 45, r = 250mm or 1 meter...3 feet
Note!
Proportional value of the 39X boom and deck pipe system is 261 feet.
This value includes elbows, reducer, and tip hose.
Example: You must go 150 feet out through the deck and boom pipe, including the tip hose, then
through 40 feet of rubber hose. Calculate the proportional value as follows:
all boom system = 261. feet (includes a 12-ft long, 5-in. tip hose)
15 10-foot pipe sections = 150. feet
40 x 3 = 120. feet (for the rubber hose)
Total = 531. feet.
Round the total to 500 feet to make it easy to use the following chart (Figure 6).

Figure 5
Calculating proportional values

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SERVICE TRAINING

intersection, make a 90 turn clockwise, into the lower


left quadrant. As noted above, we are using 500 feet as
our proportional value (Figure 6).

Once you have calculated the proportional value of


your pipeline, extend your line down from the upper
right quadrant until it intersects with the line that
represents your pipeline. When you reach the



  






Make a 90 turn when


you intersect with the
proportional value that
applies to your job.




    









       

Figure 6
Lower right quadrant - proportional value of pipeline
right quadrant until it intersects with the 5-inch
slump line, then make a 90 turn clockwise. This
will lead you back into the upper left quadrant
through the pressure scale (Figure 7).

8. The lower left quadrant refers to the pumpability


of the concrete. If the concrete specifications allow
a range in slump (for example 56 in.), always use
the lower end to be safe. In our example, we use 5inch slump. You extend the line from the lower

   





Figure 7
Lower left quadrant
pumpability of the
concrete

          





Make a 90 turn when


you intersect with the
slump that applies to
your job.





    





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NOTE!
When calculating the head pressure from
vertical runs, it doesnt matter if the pipeline runs straight up and down, or if it runs
uphill at an angle. Only the level difference
in feet is needed for the pressure calculation.
If the pipeline is running downhill, the operator will need special knowledge, but you
dont need to add any head pressure to the
nomograph.

upper left quad-eps

We need a unit that is capable of 627 PSI, and 100 yd3/


hr. The PF of this job is:
PF = (627 x 100)
PF = 62,700
The unit must have a PF over 62,700 and it must be
able to pump 100 yd3/hr and 627 PSI simultaneously.
Look at the pump shown in our sample nomograph
(Figure 8).

Can the unit pump at 627 PSI? Yes

Can the unit pump 100 yd3/hr? Yes

Can the unit pump both simultaneously? No! This


unit will not do the job.

Power factor number (PF)


English to Metric Conversion Factor is PF 18.966

For vertical placing,


add 1.105 PSI per foot
of level difference.

180
160

Example Job

Working power (in kW)

200

Q in. yd3/hr.

550 PSI + 77 PSI = 627 PSI

The nomograph is now complete. The PF of our job


can be calculated like this:
PF = PSI x yd3/hr

56,650

As you can see by the chart in Figure 7, we are


reentering the upper left quadrant through the pressure
scale at about 550 PSI. Remember, we now have to add
the head pressure for our vertical rise. At 1.1 PSI per
foot of level difference, and our 70-foot vertical run,
we must now add 1.1 x 70 = 77 PSI to the 550 PSI
from the chart.

140
120
100
80
60
40
20

103 KW
3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200
P in PSI

Figure 8
Is this unit sufficient for the job?
The engine is a little too small. The intersection of 100
yards3/hr and 627 PSI has been plotted for visual
representation, but you will see immediately that the
PF of the job (62,700) is bigger than the PF of the unit
(56,650). The curved black line represents the PF of the
unit. If the unit is going to be able to handle the job, the
intersection of pressure and yd3/hr will be to the right
and down from the curved line. Anything to the left or
above the line is beyond the power of the hydraulic
pumps. What if we could order this same unit with the

pumps set to a higher Kw? The PF of the higher Kw


unit is 72,600. This should work. Plotting the
intersection of our hypothetical job again, you will see
that it falls within the power zone of the hydraulic
pumps (Figure 9)

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Pump the top of the building at 85 yd3/hr instead


of 100 yd3/hr.
Pump the top of the building at a 6-inch slump
instead of 5-inch. (This would still be within
specifications.)
Remove some of the rubber hose at the end of the
horizontal run. Normally, with job circumstances
that did not require a substantial vertical run, you
could also use 6-inch instead of 5-inch-diameter
pipeline, but in our example, the entire vertical run
was made with the boom. The boom can never
support 6-inch pipeline.

Power Factor number (PF)


English to Metric Conversion factor is PF

18.966

Working power (in kW)

200

For vertical placing,


add 1.105 PSI per foot
of level difference.

180
160
140
120
100

Example Job

80
60
40
20

132 kW

3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800
P (in PSI)

600

400

Figure 9
Same model pump with larger Kw hydraulic pumps

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200

up1ft 132Kw Quad 2000R.eps

Q (in yd3/hr)

72,600

The nomograph should only be considered accurate to


within 10 percent. You should always calculate
conservatively, and allow for the graph tolerance. In the
case of the pump in Figure 9, we should still be safe
even if the pressure required were 10 percent greater
(690 PSI).What if you already own the pump shown in
Figure 8? Is there anything that can be done to the job
specifications to make the unit with the less powerful
pumps work? You could use the smaller PF unit shown
in Figure 8 if you can get permission to do any of the
following things:

SERVICE TRAINING

Minimum Pipe Wall Thickness

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Preventative Maintenance
The table below lists the normal recommended
maintenance schedules (after the break-in period). A
description of each maintenance task is on the pages of
this manual listed in the page number column.

This is only a generic sample of a maintenance chart.


Please refer to your O/M manual for your specific
units break-in period.

As Indicated

Annually

Semi-annually

Quarterly

Change main hydraulic oil filter

Change high pressure oil filter

Change water system inline filter

Check truck fluid levels

Bleed moisture from air tank

Check tires

Check hydraulic oil

Bleed moisture from hydraulic tank

Check differential cylinder rod packings

Inspect bolts on Rock Valve and rams

Grease Rock Valve and agitator bearings

Grease Rollix bearing and hollow pin

Check optional auto greaser reservoir

Fill optional auto greaser reservoir

168

Monthly

Task

Weekly

Daily

Scheduled Maintenance

Inspect for damage and leaks

Check if maintenance is due

Grease boom zerks

Check pipe wall thickness

Check oil in optional air compressor

Check Rock Valve tension nut

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SERVICE TRAINING

Inspect cutting ring/rotate if needed

Lubricate mechanical moving parts

Check tapered bend wedge bolt

Check boom slewing gearcase oil level

Clean slewing gearcase breather cap

Check function of mech. boom brake

Clean and repack the Rollix gear

Inspect the turret bolts for tightness

Check fluid in distribution gearcase

Check unit mounting hardware

Check hydraulic pressures

Clean hydraulic oil cooler fins

Check drive pinion mounting screw

Change oil in optional compressor

Change oil in distribution gearcase


Change oil in boom slewing gearcase

Test dirty filter lamp circuit

Change hydraulic oil for age reasons

Clean optional compressor

Change corrosion inhibitors

Periodic - structural inspection

As Indicated

Annually

Change hydraulic oil for temp. reasons


Check the accumulator pre-charge

Semi-annually

Quarterly

Monthly

Task

Weekly

Daily

Scheduled Maintenance (Continued)

= Breakin period

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Filtration
General information relates to all concrete pumps.
Specific information contains information the relates to
your Schwing concrete pump.

General information
Filtration is the single most important method of
keeping the concrete pump hydraulic system
operational. Particles that could damage the
components are introduced into the oil by the
differential cylinders and the valves through the
reservoir breather tube and by internal wear in the
components themselves. Additionally, when you
change hydraulic oil the new oil is not clean enough to
be used in a concrete pump without being filtered. In
fact, new hydraulic oil is only filtered at the refinery to
40m (40 microns). The oil in a Schwing concrete
pumps must be filtered to a minimum of 25m, and
preferably finer than that. Filters are rated by:

the size of particles they trap and whether that size


is nominal, or absolute,

the dirt holding capacity in grams, and

the clean element pressure drop for a given flow


rate as well as the ratio of particles of a given size
encountered versus particles passed through the
filter (referred to as the beta ratio). (The flow rate
can be in PSI and gallons per minute or bar and
liters per minute.) An example of a beta ratio
would be 25 = 200 (pronounced beta twenty
five equals two hundred). This means that for
every 200 particles of 25 microns or larger that hit
the filter media, one makes it through. A finer
filter example would be 12 = 200. A courser filter
example would be 25 = 75. Concrete pumps
require medium to fine filtration.

because A) the components dont require it, and


B) a finer filter would plug up with dirt too often,
resulting in high maintenance costs to you. We
have settled on a compromise that should afford
long service life and minimum maintenance costs.
Dont be fooled by the one particle that gets
through, this is an extremely high quality element
with very good trapping characteristics.
The clean element pressure drop is about 6 PSI at
400 liters per minute (element only) + 2 PSI for
the housing, for a total of 8 PSI P when the
element is clean. The pressure drop varies with the
viscosity of the oil, that is why you can ignore the
dirty filter light until the oil is heated to normal
operating temperatures.
The filter holds between 65 and 80 grams of dirt
when operating at a flow rate of 400 L/m. The
flow rate is important because the filter would
hold more if you operated at a lower flow rate.
Good filtration is not cheap, but it will save you
thousands of dollars by preventing component
failure.
The return filter is equipped with an integral
bypass check valve with a spring force of 50
pounds. That means that when the filter is clogged
with dirt and oil is having a hard time making it
through, the pressure difference between the filter
inlet and the tank rises. This pressure difference
(commonly referred to as a pressure differential)
is called delta P and is shown as P. When the P
reaches 50 PSI, the check valve opens, and the oil
returns to the tank unfiltered. If the filter did not
have the bypass check valve, it would simply
break apart when it was clogged. That would put
all of the dirt that it ever trapped directly into the
system, and the element itself would become a
contaminant.

Specific information

Changing hydraulic oil filters

Here are some facts regarding filtration as they relate to


your pump.

As delivered from the factory, each Schwing


concrete pump is equipped with a return filter that
is rated at 12 micron (shown as 12) absolute.

The beta ratio is 12 = 200. This means that for


every 200 particles of 12 microns or larger that hit
the filter media, one makes it through. Although
we are not happy about the one particle that is
allowed through, we do not use finer filtration

Your concrete pump is equipped with a P sensing


switch in the filter housing that turns on a light on the
operators panel when the filter is in bypass. While the
light is on, the oil is not being filtered. When the oil is
cold, the filter may go into bypass simply because the
oil is stiff enough to create 50 PSI P. When the oil
reaches operating temperature, the light should go off.
If it doesnt, the filter is plugged with dirt. If you have a
filter with you, install it at the first opportunity. If you
do not have a spare filter, change it as soon as you get

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SERVICE TRAINING

back to the shop, or order the filter so it can be replaced


soon. Remember, unfiltered oil wears out every
hydraulic component on the concrete pump.
Your concrete pump may be equipped with a main
return oil filter mounted on top of the hydraulic oil
reservoir or an inline filter located on the passenger
side just above the hydraulic oil cooler. (Both types of
filter are shown in.
t

The boom/outrigger circuit is equipped with an in-line


high-pressure filter. This filter is in a canisters rated to
handle the pressure that is felt by this circuit. There is
no integral bypass in this filter. The filter is not fitted
with a P switch, so you should change it whenever
the return filter light comes on. The rating on the
filter is 25 = 200. We install this filter to catch large
particles that may cause a boom valve or holding valve
to stick in an open position. Because the boom circuit
gets its oil from the same tank as the return filter, the
oil should be clean anyway.
The oil tank breather filter is mounted on top of the
hydraulic oil tank. This filter should be changed when
the main return oil filter is changed.
The high pressure oil filter is located on the passenger
side of the unit.
The type of filters installed on your unit are the result
of years of experience and testing. We recommend that
you do not change the housing or element to some
other type. You may learn that in the long run, cheaper
is more expensive.

Changing high pressure water filter


The optional high pressure water pump has an inline
filter between the water tank and the optional high
pressure water pump. This filter needs to be inspected,
cleaned, or replaced at the same time hydraulic oil
filters are changed. This filter will also need inspection
and cleaning if water is not flowing through the high
pressure water system. The part number for the filter
element is in the Parts List manual supplied with your
concrete pump.

Hydraulic Oils
General information relates to all hydraulic oils.
Specific information contains hydraulic oil
recommendations for Schwing concrete pumps.

General information
Hydraulic oils are rated for viscosity, heat dissipation,
foaming characteristics, pour point, antiwear additives,
anticorrosive
additives,
lubricating
qualities,
compressibility, temperature range, temperature
stability, and other functions. Although many different
brands of oil meet these specifications, they may use
different chemical additive packages to achieve the end
result. For this reason, you should not mix two
different brands of oil. The additive package from one
brand may be incompatible with the additive package
from the other, rendering both packages useless.
Recently a few manufacturers have introduced
biodegradable hydraulic oils onto the market. These
oils are based on vegetable extracts instead of mineral
extracts. They are considered safer for the environment
in the event of a spill, although the additive packages
are not inert. One brand, Mobil EAL 224-H, has been
accepted for use in Schwing pumps, and other brands
are under consideration and testing. These oils must
not be mixed with mineral-based hydraulic oils, even in
very small amounts. If you will be pumping a job in an
environmentally sensitive location and want to use this
type of hydraulic oil, please contact the Schwing
Service Department at (651) 429-0999 for instructions
on making the change from mineral oil.
Viscosity of hydraulic oil is similar in concept to the
different weights of motor oil. For example, in the
winter you may run 5W-30 in your car, while in the
summer you run 10W-40. The same is true for
hydraulic systems. If you live in a climate where the
weather is changing from extremely hot conditions to
extremely cold conditions, you should consider
changing the weight of the hydraulic oil that you use
by the season. The International Standards
Organization (ISO) has developed a method of grading
hydraulic oils for viscosity. For summer in northern
North America, we recommend ISO VG 46 weight oil,
while in the winter we recommend ISO VG 32 or even
VG 22, depending on how cold it gets in your area. For
southern North America and Central America, we
recommend ISO VG 46 for the winter and ISO VG 68
or VG 100 for the summer, depending on how hot it
gets. The lower the ISO VG number the thinner the oil
and the lower the pour point of the oil. On the other
hand, the thinner the oil, the lower the temperature will
have to be before it breaks down the lubricating film
that protects your components.

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The quality of the oil needed for use in a Schwing


concrete pump is rated in the DIN system. The ratings
have to do with the chemical additive package that is
introduced into the oil. Both the DIN rating HLP and
HV qualities are approved for use in our concrete
pumps.

Specific information
Most concrete pumps leave the Schwing factory filled
with Texaco Rando HD 46 hydraulic oil, which has an
ISO viscosity rating of VG 46. Rando HDZ 46, an
extended-viscosity oil designed for use under severe
conditions, is available on request. If you want your
new concrete pump filled with a different brand or
different viscosity oil, you should specify it when
ordering.
Many other brands of oil have been approved for use in
Schwing concrete pumps, including:

Mobil DTE

Shell Tellus oil

BP Energol

Aral Vitam

Esso Nuto

Esso Univis

Total Azolla

Wintershall Wiolan

The order of the brands listed is not significant. Any oil


that meets the quality and viscosity standards described
above can be used.

When to change your hydraulic oil


Change your hydraulic oil at least once a year. If you
use good filters, and change them when they are dirty,
the oil will be clean even after a year. The chemical
additive packages that give the oil its properties will
break down with time, however and no amount of
filtration will bring them back.

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Electrical

Introduction
This guide will help you learn how to service current
and future Schwing electrical systems. Even if you
have little or no experience with electrical repairs, this
guide will help. It begins with the basic definition of
electricity and continues all the way through the
troubleshooting process. It will show you how to use
Ohms law, identify series, parallel and series-parallel
circuits, and troubleshoot circuits using various testers.
Its a fairly complete journey from concepts to
applications.

Electrons (13)
-

What is Electricity?

Nucleus
(w/13 Protons)

Figure 1. Aluminum atom (Neutral state)

One Electron Is
Forced From
The Atom Leaving
Only 12
-

Electricity is the flow or displacement of electrons.


Normally, the atoms in a substance are balanced in an
electrically neutral state. Theyre made up of equal
numbers of positively-charged protons and negativelycharged electrons.
However, it is possible to strip electrons from atoms.
This creates areas of positive and negative charge in a
substance: positive charge where there are atoms
without the normal number of electrons, and negative
charge where there are excess electrons. As you might
have guessed, these two oppositely charged areas
attract each other. Why? Because the unbalanced atoms
and stray electrons always want to return to the
balanced, or electrically neutral, state. On the other
hand, areas with the same charge repel.

The Atom is Unbalanced


With 13 Protons Resulting
In A Positively Charged Atom

Figure 2. How a positively charged aluminum


atom is created

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Static electricity is electricity that does not move. Its


created when electrons are rubbed off one material by
friction and deposited on another. A common example
of this is when a balloon is rubbed against some fabric.
The fabric gives up some electrons to the balloon. This
makes the balloon negatively charged and the fabric
positively charged.
Since opposite charges attract each other, this causes
the balloon and fabric to stick together. And since like
charges repel, two of these negatively-charged balloons
will push each other apart.

Figure 3. Opposite charges attract

The attractive and repulsive forces created by static


electricity work like magnets. This principle is used in
copy machines, CRTs and electrostatic painting
processes.
Unfortunately, static electricity has its bad side too.
Unwanted discharges, like the zap you get when you
touch a metal doorknob, can be dangerous. For
example, truck drivers who transport flammable
materials such as gasoline have to make sure that no
sparks caused by ESD are created when gasoline is
being loaded or unloaded. In addition, even a small
discharge packs a high-voltage punch that may damage
sensitive electronic parts and modules. Be careful not
to touch the terminals of an electronic module. A static
discharge through the components circuitry can
destroy it.

Figure 4. Like charges repel

Figure 5. Typical static discharge

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Dynamic electricity is moving electricity thats


created when electrons flow from atom to atom through
a substance. Its the type that flows through power lines
to homes or that lights the headlights on a truck.

Electrons (13)

The flow of electrons is called an electric current. To


understand how it works, picture a row of atoms: An
electric current starts when an electron is stripped from
an atom at the end of the row. This now positively
charged atom then attracts a negatively charged
electron from its neighbor, leaving its neighbor
positively charged. The neighboring atom then attracts
an electron from its neighbor and so on down the line.

Figure 6. Electron Flow=Current Flow

For current to flow then, there must be a complete path


of atoms (called a closed circuit) and an electron
pump, that can trip electrons from atoms on one side
using a strong positive charge and push them through
the circuit on the other side using a strong negative
charge.
In a typical Schwing concrete pump circuit, wires
provide the path of atoms, and the battery is the pump
that forces the electrons to flow from atom to atom.
Figure 7. AC current flow periodically
reverses direction

AC and DC. Two types of electric currents exist; AC,


for Alternating Current, and DC, for Direct Current.
In DC currents, the electrons flow in one direction only.
So, in all the diagrams youll be looking at, DC current
flows from the positive battery terminal to the negative.

DC current is used to power the electrical systems of


all Schwing concrete pump. It has important properties
you must understand to properly repair electrical
circuits. Those properties are amperage, voltage, and
resistance.

Figure 8. DC current flow constantly in one


direction only

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Amperage
Seconds
0
3

Amperage describes the rate of current flow. It is


measured in amps, using an ammeter. The higher the
amperage, the greater the number of electrons flowing
past a single point in one second.

1
2

6.28 Billion
Billion Electrons
Per Second
1 Amp

Figure 9. Amperage is the rate of current flow


Low Current Flow
Low Heat

High Current Flow


High Heat

Figure 10. Relationship of current flow and


heat
CURRENT CAPACITY INCREASES

WIRE RESISTENCE DECREASES

Figure 11. Relationship of current capacity


and resistance to wire thickness

176

It helps to think to current as water, and amperage as


the rate of water flow through a pipe. You can measure
the rate of water flowing in a pipe in gallons per
second. Similarly, one amp is equal to 6.28 billion
electrons passing a single point in one second.

Current flow and heat are related. As amperage


increases, more electrons flow and more heat is
generated. Any electrical component that carries
current, generates heat. For this reason, the wires in a
Schwing concrete pump are sized according to the
amount of current they must carry. Thick wires carry
large currents, while thin wires are used for small
currents. Thick wires can handle a large current
without burning up because they are made up of more
atoms with more available electrons. They therefore
resist the flow of current less than thin wires.

Wire gauge sizes describe the thickness or thinness of a


wire. Gauge size refers to the wire core, not the
insulation covering it. Two numbering systems are
used to designate wire sizes: American Wire Gauge
(AWG) and metric. In the AWG system, as the wires
get thicker, the number designation decreases. For
example, a 20 AWG wire is very thin, while a 4 AWG
wire is much thicker. The metric system works in the
opposite way. As the wires get thicker, the number
designation increases. So, a.5 metric gauge wire is very
thin, and a 19 metric gauge wire is much thicker.

Because insulation sizes vary, never try to judge the


thickness of a wire core by looking at the size of the
insulation. Always refer to the code or measure the
thickness with an appropriate tool. And always replace
a wire with new one of the same gauge or thicker. A
wire that is too thin poses a fire hazard because it may
overheat and burn.

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Electron Flow

Wire Conductor

Figure 12. Voltage is the push, or pressure, on electrons

Voltage
Allows Less
Flow (Amps)

Voltage is the force that moves electrons through a


circuit. Its also known as electromotive force, or
EMF. Technically, it is the potential difference in
electron pressure between any two points. Voltage is
measured in volts, using a voltmeter.

Allows More
Flow (Amps)

The higher the voltage, the more force is available to


cause electrons to flow. The lower the voltage, the less
available force.

1000

10
Figure 13. A resistence is a restriction

Allows Less
Flow (Amps)

Voltage is like the water pressure in a pipe. At 10 psi of


pressure, water flows through a pipe at a certain rate. At
20 psi, the water will flow almost twice as fast. The
relationship is similar in an electrical circuit. For
example, at 12 volts, current flows through a particular
circuit at a rate of 12 amps. At 24 volts, however,
current flow through that same circuit at a rate of 24
amps.

Infinite

Resistance
Allows More
Flow (Amps)
0
Figure 14. The two extremes of resistence

Resistance descries how much a component or circuit


resists, or restricts, current flow. Think of it as a kind of
electrical friction. The greater the resistance, the less
current flows. The less the resistance, the greater the
current flow. Resistance is measured in ohms, using an
ohmmeter.

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Copper Wire

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

Conductors. Some materials have very low resistance


to current flow because they have many electrons,
called free electrons, that can be made to move
easily. These are called conductors. Most metals are
good conductors. Copper and aluminum wires,
switches, and connector terminals and the iron and
steel of the trucks engine and chassis are typical
conductors in a Schwing electrical circuit.

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

Besides the thickness of a wire, several other factors


affect the resistance of a conductor. They include
condition, length and temperature. For instance, a wire
in poor condition with a partially cut core, has
increased resistance because the narrower width at the
cut restricts the movement of electrons. In fact, the
partially cut wire operates in a circuit as if its entire
length were of the reduced diameter at the point of the
cut.

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 15. Copper conductor

Short Wire Offers


Less Resistence

The length of the conductor also affects its resistance.


A longer wire offers more resistance than a shorter
wire (of the same diameter) because the voltage has to
move the electrons through it farther.

Long Wire Offers


More Resistence
Figure 16. Resistence of short vs. long wires

RESISTANCE

Why does temperature affect a conductor? At lower


temperatures, the atoms in a conductor remain rigidly
aligned and dont move around much. Resistance and
heat are low because electrons flow relatively smoothly
from atom to atom.

.05

.04
70F

170F

TEMPERATURE
Figure 17. Resistence to temperature
relationship in 10ft. long wire

178

Heating a conductor increases its resistance: The


higher the temperature, the greater the resistance. In
addition, conductors themselves generate heat as
current flows through them. This heat also causes the
resistance of a conductor to increase as it is warms up
and decrease as it cools down. As long as a conductor
is properly sized, the amount of resistance it offers in a
circuit is so low that it can usually be disregarded, and
the amount of heat it generates wont damage the
circuit.

At higher temperatures, however, the atoms in a


conductor are less well aligned and move around a lot
more. Many electrons collide with electrically
balanced atoms before reaching positively charged
atoms. The increased frequency of these collisions
increase resistance and generates excess heat.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Insulation

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

Insulators. Materials with a very high resistance to


current flow are called insulators. Insulators have no
free electrons that can conduct a current. Theyre used
to keep current flowing in a particular circuit and
covers a wire to keep current flowing through its
copper conductor and prevent any unwanted contact
with another conductor. Glass, rubber, and ceramic are
other examples of typical insulators.

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

Figure 18. Wire insulation

Circuit Breaker

V mA

Basic Circuits
A typical Schwing concrete pump circuit is made of a
voltage source, a circuit protection device, a load, a
control and a ground.

The voltage source is the pressure source or electron


pump that creates the force necessary to make current
flow. The battery is ultimately the voltage source for all
circuits in a truck. However, the alternator is the
voltage source for most circuits when the engine is
running.

Batteries convert chemical energy to electrical energy


using the reaction of two different conductive metals in
an acid solution. Alternators convert the mechanical
energy of the rotating crankshaft into electrical energy.

Figure 19. Circuit breakers

Circuit protection devices such as fuses and circuit


breakers are designed to protect a circuits wiring and
components by cutting off current flow when it
becomes too high. They do this by switching off or
melting. This opens, or breaks, the circuit.

Loads are electrical devices designed to perform


various useful functions. They convert electrical energy
into other forms of energy. For instance, a light bulb
converts electrical energy into light energy, a starter
motor converts it into mechanical energy, and a resistor
converts it into heat energy. AC compressor clutches,
relay coils, horns, and gauges are other examples of
loads.

Training Manual

179

SERVICE TRAINING

A load has resistance and draws a certain amount of


current in a circuit. It also uses up voltage as current
passes through it. This is called voltage drop; it is
measured by connecting a voltmeter across a load. A
circuit will operate properly as long as the resistance
and voltage drop of its load remain normal.

A good conductor, however, has a small resistance and


causes very little or no (measurable) voltage drop. A
conductor with high resistance and high voltage drop is
faulty in some way. Typical faults include cut wires and
loose or corroded connections. If the voltage drop
across a wire or connection is sever enough, the circuit
will not operate, or will operate improperly the light
dim, cranking slows, or the battery discharges
frequently.

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 20. Measuring voltage drop

Potentiometer

POWER

+12V

1000

-0V

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

Figure 21. Rheostat

Controls are used to turn circuits on and off. The


simplest type of control is the on-off switch. Opening a
switch turns off the circuit by breaking the path of
current flow and creating an open circuit. Closing a
switch turns on a circuit by completing the path of
current flow and creating a closed circuit.

V mA

Other types of controls vary the function of a load by


increasing or decreasing current flow. Variable
resistors, do this by allowing you to vary the amount of
resistance in the circuit. So, in a light dimming circuit,
for example, the higher the resistance, the dimmer the
lights, and the less resistance, the brighter the lights.
A ground is a return for current flow to the voltage
source. Ultimately, the negative battery terminal serves
as the ground for all the circuits in Schwing concrete
pumps. However, since the frame and engine are also
connected to this terminal and are conductors, most
ground connections are made to them, not the battery
terminal.
When working on a Schwing concrete pump, always
be sure to note the proper ground polarity. Reversing
battery or jumper cable connections can instantly
destroy solid-state parts and modules.

180

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Schematics

Circuit Types

Electrical diagrams, also called schematics represent


the different components of a circuit using various
symbols. Most of the symbols shown on page 138-140
are standard; be sure to familiarize yourself with them.
However, be aware that some components may be
represented differently on other schematics. If a
symbol is unfamiliar, refer to the legend for the
schematic.

When two or more loads are use in a circuit, they can


be connected to form any one of three different types of
circuits: series, parallel, and series-parallel.

Schwing America produces a variety of Electrical


System Manuals for different electrical control
systems. The schematics they contain are great
troubleshooting aids that allow you to examine a circuit
on paper and figure how it should work. You can locate
the likely causes of a problem on the schematic and go
directly to those places on the truck. This can save you
a great deal of time by reducing the number of
components you have to remove and the number of
wires you have to trace.

Series. A series circuit exists when the loads are


connected end-to-end in one continuous path. In this
type of circuit, one of the loads is disconnected or
develops an open, all of them stop functioning.

Parallel. A parallel circuit exists when the loads are


connected side-by-side so that there are a number of
paths for current flow. In this arrangement, if one load
is disconnected or open, the others continue to
function.

To read a schematic, follow the current flow from the


positive battery terminal to the negative. Since switches
and relay contacts are usually shown in the off or deenergized position, youll have to determine how a
circuit operates by following current flow as if these
components were on or energized.

Figure 23. Typical series circuit


SWITCHE
RELAYS S: Methods of operation
SHOWING DIN (DEUTSCHE INDUSTRIAL NORM) SYMBOLS,
PLUS COMMONLY
Normally closed
N.C. =ON
Normally open
USED
A.N.S.I.
SYMBOLS
AS SHOWN
SCHWING SCHEMATICS
: N.O. =
KEY
PUSHBUTTO
N
(EMERGENCY STOP)
Relays

SWITCHES
KEY: N.O. = Normally open
Solid line = position of

LINE

operational
Position ofCONNECTOR
functions (detented "ON",
shown)
spring returned "OFF"
Method of
operation:
(double throw
switch shown)

Control
s)
MAGNET
COIL
(DIN drawing
DIN
ANSI
shown)
FOR HYDRAULIC VALVE

Contacts
(Bosch brand
(higher current rating)
1 N.O. and
1N.C. contact
PUSHBUTTON
shown

as

ON O OFF

In this example,
contact is made
between terminals
1 and 2 in the
"ON" position

OFF

BATTERY
shown
Pivot point of the switch
line indicates
below the activation
would be
that the contact lever
#2 in the
drawn towards contact

FUNCTION WHEN
ACTIVATED "ON"

"ON" position

CHASSIS GROUND
"OFF" position activated,
indicated by solid line

d during
Spring is compresse
that it will
activation, indicating
return to "O" when released

as

ON O OFF

In this example,
contact is made

STARTER between terminals

OR

B+
86

DIN

DIN

TACHOMETER SENDING UNIT


(PROXIMITY SWITCH,
DIN - ANALOG CONVERTER)
ANSI
DIGITAL
87a 87

(L.E.D.)
N.C. contacts
50a N.O. contact
wire
N.C. contact
are underlined
OVER-CURR
ENT SWITCH
30
numbers
SHIELDED
CABLE
(Always normally closed)
N.C.
CR 3
14 (Show all conductors
1
9
5
inside shield)
8
STARTER
DIN

OL

CR 3
FLOAT
SWITCH
1
1
9
Level)

common
hot

15

CR 2
2

16

ANSI

MISC. DEVICES

ANSI

RESISTOR
(VALUE INDICATED IN OHMS)
(K = 1000)

POTENTIOMETER
(Value indicated)
OR
T

2.5 K

POT

1K
1K
DIN

CURRENT FLOWS
IN THIS DIRECTION

Primary

120V
60 HZ

ANSI

120V
60 HZ

TRANSFORMER
Secondary

12V

12V

DIN

ANSI

BRIDGE RECTIFIER
(A.C. to D.C. converter)

ANSI

FS

TERMINAL CONNECTORS

31
9 (Oil

shown ELECTRIC MOTOR


Pivot point of the switch
line indicates
below the activation
would be
FUNCTION WHEN
that the contact lever
#3 in the
ACTIVATED "OFF"
pushed towards contact
"OFF" position

plug
TGS.

which relay
these numbers denote
coil will operate the contact

DIN

receptacle

D.P.D.T.

ALTERNATOR

OL

ANSI

TGS.

on one part
If the relay coil is drawn
contacts
K3
MECHANICA
andLthe
SWITCH
schematic,
of the31
D30
part, the relay
(V-BELT
on another
SWITCH)
are drawn
NONE
K3) will be listed
number (in this example,
as shown here. OIL TEMPERATURE AVAILABLE
in both places
+
TRANSMITTER
DIN
ANSI
(both DIN)
these numbers
Control Relays
) show the location
TAS
(ANSI "ladder" drawing
(line number)
contacts
of the
N.O.
Relay coil
Relay terminal
C that the relay coil
DIODE
numbers
TEMPERATU
will operateBLOCKED
RE SWITCH
CURRENT
TAS
IN THIS DIRECTION
line numbers
N.C.
OR
CR 2
C 2
CR 1
3
8, 9
13
9LIGHT EMITTING DIODE
1
5
1
DIN
9
CR
7
ANSI

OFF

20A
20A
MOTOR OVERLOAD
RELAY

S.P.S.T.

0 1 2

D+

lens color)

ANSI

0,1,2

1 and 3 in the
"OFF" position

ON

DIN

ANSI

PLUG AND RECEPTACLE

OR

85

PS.

PS.

FUSE
87 RATING INDICATED)
87a(AMP

K3

ON

ANSI

K3
TOGGLE SWITCH
G
30
85
ALTERNATOR

switch
In the "ON" position,
detent
is held in place by the
line)
(indicated by the vertical

ANSI

CB / DISC

CIRCUIT BREAKER /
DISCONNECT
SWITCH (Letter
R
indicates

N.O.

Component N.C.
enclosure
DIN

86

AS DRAWN
("O" POSITION)

"ON" position activated,


indicated by solid line

DIN

OR

Contacts (2 N.O.
contacts shown).

Dashed lines =
available positions
of switch

DIN

PRESSURE SWITCH

LINES,3 PASSING

DIN

DISC.

If the contact operator is shown


extending beyond the last contact,
it indicates that this operator will
also
work a contact shown elsewhere
on
the schematic.
ANSI

N.C.

LAMP
85WITH BULB

30

ON OFF

86

87

87a

Terminals
(Numbers shown if
they are presesnt
on the switch)

Relay coil
(very small current
N.O.
draw)

MOMENTARY CONTACT
HORN

LINES, JOINING

ON O OFF

Component
enclosure

DISCONNECT
SWITCH

N.C. = Normally closed

switch as drawn

21

21

22

DIN

22

ANSI

N.O.

CAPACITOR
FS

Q
DIN

common
N.C.
neutral

(VALUE INDICATED
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
TERMINALS
TERMINALS
FARADS)

IN

( = micro or 1 millionth)

ANSI

Figure 22. Typical electrical symbols

2 F
DIN

2 F
ANSI

Figure 24. Typical parallel circuit

Training Manual

181

SERVICE TRAINING

Series-Parallel. Any circuit that combines series and


parallel connections is called a series-parallel circuit.
On Schwing concrete pumps, batteries may be
connected in parallel or series. When batteries are
connected in parallel, the available current of each
battery adds to the first, but the voltage output remains
the same. So, if you connect two 12 volt/85 amp
batteries in parallel, the output from both will be 12
volts/170 amps.

Figure 25. Typical series - Parallel circuit


12V

The opposite effect occurs when you connect batteries


in series. The voltage output of each battery adds to the
first, but the available current remains the same. Thus,
two 12 volt/85 amp batteries in series yield 24 volts/85
amps of output.

+
POWER

12V

1000

500

BATT

200

200

9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

2000

20k

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 26. Batteries in parallel

12V

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

12V

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k

200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 27. Batteries in series

182

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

I=

Ohms Law

E
R

Amperage, voltage, and resistance are related in a


circuit. Ohms law describes this relationship and can
be used to find a missing value when the other two are
known.

E=IxR

The basic equation of the law is I equals E divided by


R. I is the current in amps, E is the voltage, and R is the
resistance in ohms.

R= E
I
Figure 28. The different forms of Ohms Law

E
I R

You should memorize the different forms of Ohms law


because youll need them when troubleshooting
circuits.

Figure 29. Memory aid for Ohms Law

Heres a quick way to remember Ohms law: Arrange


the letters of the law as shown in Figure 29. Then cover
the letter of the value you want to solve. The positions
of the other two letters will show you how to solve for
the one you covered.

1Amp= 12V
12

Examples of how to use Ohms law to solve for


amperage, voltage, resistance and voltage drop follow:

12 ohm load

Figure 30. Typical amperage calculation

12V = 4A x 3

To solve for voltage, the equation can be rearranged


like this: E=I x R. And to solve for resistance, the
equation is R equals E/I.

Amperage. Whats the current flow in a closed circuit


having a 12 ohm load connected to a 12 volt battery?
The answer is 1 amp. (12volts/12ohms=1 amp)

Voltage. Now, whats the voltage in a circuit with 4


amps of current flowing through a 3 ohm load? Its 12
volts. (4 amps x 3 ohms = 12 volts.)

Figure 31. Typical voltage calculation

Training Manual

183

SERVICE TRAINING

Resistance. Whats the resistance in a circuit with a 12


volt battery and 12 amps of current flow? Its 1 ohm.
(12 volts/12amps = 1 ohm.)

= 12V
12A

Figure 32. Typical resistance calculation

Voltage Drop. Now, what should be the voltage drop


across the 12 ohm load in that first circuit? (Figure 32)
Its 12 volts. (1 amp x 12 ohms =12 volts.) The load
uses up all the voltage in order to operate. If you get a
significantly lower reading, youd know the circuit had
a poor connection or damaged conductor that was
adding unwanted resistance to (and stealing voltage
from) the circuit.
What should be the voltage drop across the 12 ohm
load if the circuit is opened? Zero volts. (0 amps x 12
ohms = 0 volts.) With no current flowing, the load
doesnt operate and cant use up any voltage.

12V=1 Amp x 12

12 ohm load
POWER
500

1000

BATT

200

200

9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 33. Typical voltage drop calculation

0V=0 Amp x 12

12 ohm load
POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 34. Voltage drop in open circuit

184

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Series Circuit Laws

When there is more than one load in a circuit,


determining the values to plug into Ohms law requires
a little more effort. Thats because series and parallel
circuits obey different rules. For series circuits, those
rules are:

Figure 35. Series circuit

4
+4
4
12

First, the sum of the individual resistances in a


series circuit equals the total circuit resistance.

Second, current has the same value at any point in


the circuit.

Third, the sum of the individual voltage drops


across the loads equals the source voltage.

Total Resistance. For example, whats the total


resistance in a circuit with a 12 volt battery connected
to three 4 ohm loads wire in series? Its 12 ohms; you
just add up the resistance.
(4 ohms + 4 ohms + 4 ohms = 12 ohms.)

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

Amperage. Whats the amperage in this circuit. Since


its the same throughout the circuit, you can use Ohms
law:

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 36. Total resistence in series circuit

12 volts/12 ohms = 1 amp.

1Amp= 12V
12

Figure 37. Amperage in series circuit

Training Manual

185

SERVICE TRAINING

Voltage Drop. Now, whats the voltage drop across one


of the loads. To figure that, you use Ohms law and
plug in the total circuit current and the resistance of one
load. 1 amp x 4 ohms = 4 volts.

This result also agrees with the rule that current is the
same throughout the circuit. If you plug the voltage
drop and resistance of one load into Ohms law, you get
the same current value: 4 volts/4 ohms = 1 amp of
current flow.

4V=1 Amp x 4

POWER
500

1000

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m

The third rule also proves out. Each 4 ohm load causes
a 4 volt drop, and 4 volts + 4 volts + 4 volts = 12 volts
the source voltage.

200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

2000

20k

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 38. Voltage drop of one load in series


circuit

Parallel Circuit Laws


The rules that parallel circuits follow are:

12 Volts

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT

First, the voltage drop across each branch of the


circuit is the same as the source voltage.

Second, the total amperage in a parallel circuit is


equal to the total of the individual branch
amperages. This means you can treat each
individual branch of the circuit as a series circuit,
and add up their individual amperages to find the
total flowing through the parallel circuit.

Third, the total resistance in a parallel circuit is


less than the value of the smallest branch
resistance. Another formula must be used to
calculate this total resistance value.

9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 39. Sum of voltage drops equals


source voltage

RT =

1
1 + 1 + 1
R1 R2 R3 etc.

Now, lets apply these rules:

Figure 40. Parallel circuit

186

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Total Amperage. What is the total amperage in a


circuit with a 12 volt battery connected to three 12
ohms loads wired in parallel? You know from the first
rule that the voltage drop across each of the loads is 12
volts, since thats what the source voltage is. If each
load is 12 ohms, the amperage through each branch is 1
amp. (12 volts/12ohms = 1 amp.) The total current then
is 3 amps.

(1 amp + 1 amp + 1 amp = 3 amps.)


POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

2000

20k

200 mA FUSED

500V max

Figure 41. Measuring total amperage in a


parallel circuit
Total
Resistance

1
= 1
1 + 1 + 1
3
12 12 12
12
Add Fractions
Find a Common
Denominator, If
Necessary

1 = 1x 4 = 4
1
1
4

Simplify
Fraction

Invert
Fraction and
Multiply

Figure 42. Calculating total resistance in a


parallel circuit

Total Resistance. To find the total resistance of this


circuit, you plug numbers into the total resistance
equation. See Figure 42 for an illustration of how to
solve the equation for this example. The total resistance
in this circuit is 4 ohms. This number also agrees with
the 3 amps of total current: Using Ohms law, 12 volts/
4 ohms = 3 amps.

An important difference between parallel and series


circuits is that as you add more branches to a parallel
circuit, its total resistance decreases instead of
increases. And this, of course, increases the current in
the circuit. For instance, add another 12 ohm load in
parallel with the previous circuit, and the total
resistance goes down to 3 ohms, while the amperage
increases to 4 amps.

+
-

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT

200u

2000
m

20m

9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m

200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

200m

200m

200k

20k

20k

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

200

2000k

2000

2000

COM

V mA

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

Figure 43. Measuring total resistance in a


parallel circuit

Figure 44. Total total resistance in a parallel


circuit

Training Manual

187

SERVICE TRAINING

Series Parallel Circuits


12 V
-

That brings us to series-parallel circuits. When youre


trying to calculate values in these circuits, you have to
simplify parts of the circuit. That usually means
substituting an equivalent resistance for the parallel
part of the circuit, and then applying the series laws to
determine values for the overall circuit.

For instance, suppose you had a circuit like the one


shown in Figure 45. What is the total resistance of this
circuit? To figure that out, first find an equivalent
resistance for the two 12 ohm loads in parallel. Using
the parallel resistance equation, youll find the
equivalent resistance is 6 ohms. Now, to find the total
resistance, treat the circuit as if it were a simple series
circuit: 6 ohms + 6 ohms = 12 ohms. You can find the
amperage and voltage drops easily now: The amperage
is 1 amp, and 6 volts are dropped across each load.

Figure 45. Series - Parallel circuit

1
= 1
1 + 1
2
12 12
12

1 = 1x 6 =
1
1
6

Figure 46. Equivalent resistance for parallel


part of previous series - parallel
circuit

12 V
-

Figure 47. Previous series - parallel circuit


simplified

188

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Circuit Faults

Opens. An open puts unwanted infinite resistance into


the circuit. Because theres a break, however, no
current flows, the components in the circuit do not
operate and no heat is generated. As a result, an
ammeter will not give a reading, but a voltmeter,
depending on where it is placed, may or may not show
a voltage reading.

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

2000

20k

Electrical circuits fail when they are open or shorted.


An open circuit occurs when theres an unwanted break
in the circuit resulting in no current flow. The break
may be in the wiring or a component.

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

Figure 48. Voltage reading before opne

These unwanted resistances allow current to flow, but


at a reduced amount. This causes components either to
stop operating or to operate at a reduced level. The
starter motor turns too slowly or the lights dim, for
instance.

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

Unwanted Resistances. Opens are one extreme of


unwanted added resistance. But problems also occur
when any unwanted, but less then infinite, resistance is
added in series to a circuit. This may be caused by a
wire of incorrect size or material, a damaged wire,
loose or dirty connectors, or corroded connections or
terminals.

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

Figure 49. Voltage reading after open

Shorts. A short circuit occurs when previously


unconnected conductors touch one another allowing
current to bypass a part of a circuit. Shorts may occur
within a component, such as a starter motor or relay
coil, or across conductors in one or more circuits.

Figure 50. Short across conductors in


separate circuits

Training Manual

189

SERVICE TRAINING

Shorts often provide current with an alternate path of


lower resistance. A common example of this is a short
to ground. This makes bypassed components
inoperative and increases current flow. The increased
flow creates heat which usually causes a fuse or circuit
breaker to blow, adding an open to the short condition.

However, if the short bypasses the circuit protection,


components and wiring may burn up from the
increased heat.
A short may also bypass current so that the controls of
one circuit operate the components in another. For
example, lights that were previously controlled by one
switch may now go on whenever another set of lights is
switched on. Or a short may bypass the controls of a
circuit so that it operates continuously and cant be
controlled by its switch. These are called shorts to
voltage.

Figure 51. Short to ground

Using Test Equipment

To diagnose circuit faults, youll have to use test


equipment. One very useful test instrument is the
digital multimeter. This device combines the functions
of an ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter, so you dont
separate pieces of equipment to measure these values.

Figure 52. Short voltage across switch

However, jumper wires and self-powered and


unpowered test lights are also useful troubleshooting
tools, but can cause other problems if not used
correctly.

Jumper Wire

CAUTION: Never begin to test a circuit without


knowing whether it contains any solid-state
components. Jumper wires and self-powered test lights
can damage circuits containing solid-state components,
and low-impedance analog (needle reading type)
meters can give misleading readings. Use only a high
impedance (10 mega-ohms or more) digital mulitmeter
for testing circuits containing solid-state components.

Unpowered
Test Light

Self - Powered
Test Light
Figure 53. Other useful troubleshooting tools

190

Jumper Wire. A jumper wire is simply a length of


insulated wire with clips or probes on each end. You
use a jumper wire to bypass a suspected fault and see
whether the circuit operates correctly. If it does, a fault
exists in the part of the circuit youve bypassed.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Fused jumper wires are recommended to protect the


circuit youre testing. A 5 amp fuse in the wire will
adequately protect most circuits. Of course, you can
use a larger fuse if the circuit youre testing normally
draws more than 5 amps of current.

Be cautious when using a jumper wire: Never bypass a


load of any kind. The lower resistance of the wire will
increase current flow and may cause the wiring or
components to overheat or burn.

Figure 54. Jumper wire bypassing an opening

Test Light "On"

CAUTION
Unpowered Test Light. An unpowered
testlight is simply a bulb with leads attached
to the bulbs terminals. A 12 volt light is
used on 12 volt systems, a 6 volt light on 6
volt systems. This type of test light must be
used in a powered, or active, circuit, since
the only way the bulb will light is when current flows from the circuit and through the
light to ground.
You can check for voltage in a circuit by
touching one lead to ground and probing
the circuit with the other lead. This type of
testing, however, only tells you where voltage is present. To find out how much, you
must use a voltmeter.

Figure 55. Voltage check with a unpowered


test light

Test Light "Off"

You can test continuity of parts of a circuit


by connecting the light into the circuit. Continuity, or a complete current path, exists
when the bulb lights fully. A dim light
means there is an additional resistance in
the circuit before or after the points where
the light was connected. No light means
there is an open.

Figure 56. Continuity check with an


unpowered test light

Training Manual

191

SERVICE TRAINING

Test Light
"On"

Self-Powered Test Light. A self-powered test light has


its own battery, so it must be used in an unpowered
circuit. You use it to check for continuity.

Short to Ground
Figure 57. Checking for a short to ground with
an unpowered test light

Test Light "On"

Connecting the light in series allows you to check for a


short to ground. Just disconnect the loads in the circuit,
and put the light in series where the fuse should be. If
the bulb lights with the circuit on, you know theres a
short to ground in the circuit.

If touch the probes to different ends of a conductor


(wire, switch, connector, etc.) and the bulb lights, you
know theres continuity through the conductor. If the
bulb is dim or does not light, there is an added
resistance or an open exists in the conductor. To find
out just how much resistance there is, you must use a
ohmmeter.

Check for a short to ground by disconnecting the


normal ground connection of the circuit (including any
redundant grounds) and connecting the light between a
part of the circuit and ground. If the bulb lights, a short
to ground exits.

Test Light "On"

Figure 58. Test light indicating continuity

Test Light "Off"

+
+

Figure 59. Test light indicating an opening

192

Figure 60. Checking for a short to ground with


a self-powered test light

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

POWER
1000

500

BATT

200

200

9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k

Red Lead

200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

Black Lead

COM

V mA

Figure 61. Proper Fluke multimeter lead


connections for measuring
amperage

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

the meter on its proper care and use. In particular, note


how the test leads should be connected to the
instrument for different tests. And make sure the meter
will not be damaged when used to measure amperage
in the ranges you expect.

Always observe the proper polarity when connecting


the meter leads. Properly connect the leads to the
meter. Then, always connect the negative battery
terminal and the positive, or red, lead to the conductor
connected to the positive battery terminal. With a
digital meter, but it will indicate a negative reading on
the display when it should be positive.

Units of Measurement. One of the things youll have


to get used to when using a multimeter is
understanding the different units of measure. The
symbols for these units mean the following: Capital K,
for kilo, is 1,000. Capital M, for mega, is 1,000,000.
Small m, for milli, is one-thousandth and small u, for
micro, means one-millionth. A number without one of
these symbols behind it stands for a basic amps, volts
or ohms measurement. A number with one of these
symbols behind it means the basic value is multiplied
of dividend by 1,000 or 1,000,000. For instance, 20K
stand for 20,000 and 200, stands for.200 (200
thousandths).

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 62. Observing proper polarity when


making a connections

To change a given measurement from one unit to


another, find both units on this chart. Then move
the decimal point the (total) number of places
indicated, in the direction that matches the
direction of your desired change.

Digital Multimeters are preferred over other types of


meters because they are more accurate and will not
damage most electronic circuits.

MEGA (M)

It is important to remember how to connect a


mulitmeter to obtain the proper reading and prevent
damage to the meter or sensitive electronic circuit.
First, read and follow the instructions that come with

KILO (K)

BASE UNITS
VOLTS
OHMS
AMPS
3

MILLI (m)

MICRO (u)

Figure 63. Converting units of measure

Training Manual

193

SERVICE TRAINING

connected on the instrument.

When measuring the amperage, always connect the


meter in series with the circuit so that current flows
through it. Initially, make your connections with the
circuit unpowered. Then turn the meter to the correct
range and turn on the circuit.

Current clamps are also available for use with a digital


multimeter. These allow you to measure amperage
without wiring the meter into the circuit. You just close
the clamp around the conductor and the meter reads the
current flow in amps. Usually, the mulitmeter must be
set to a mV (millivolts) scale for use with current
clamp. However, the reading on the meter still
indicated amperage.

Figure 64. Measuring amperage

Voltage. When measuring voltage or voltage drop,


always connect the meter in parallel so that its across a
device or a part of the circuit. This is an advantage over
amperage and resistance measurements, because you
can often leave the device or circuit connected. Take
your measurements with the circuit device powered.

Conductors should have almost no voltage drop. A


drop greater than 0.1 volt in a low-current conductor, or
0.3 volts in a high-current conductor (such as a battery
cable) indicates a damaged conductor or a poor
connection.

POWER
1000

500

200

200

BATT
9V

20

200u

2000
m

20m
200m

200m

200

2000k
200k

20k

2000

200 mA FUSED

500V max
500V

COM

V mA

Figure 65. Measuring resisitance of a load


Youll sometimes find it necessary to convert between
the different units of measure. This is simply a matter
of moving decimal point and adding or subtracting
zeros. (Actually, youre multiplying or dividing by the
number of thousands between units.) For instance, 1M
ohm equals, 1,000K ohms, and 2.2m amps equals.0022
amps. See Figure 65 for how to make conversions.
Amperage. Before measuring amperage, make sure
the meter is capable of handling the amount of current
flow you want to measure. Many digital meters will
only handle 2 amps of current, some even less. Others
with different connections, can handle up to 10 or 20
amps. Also make sure you have the leads properly

194

Resistance measurements must be made with the


circuit unpowered and the components under test
isolated. This always means turning off the power and
sometimes means disconnecting the components or
wiring you want to test from the rest of the circuit.

Remember, zero ohms of resistance indicates a


complete circuit with no resistance. Conductors should
have zero or very close to zero ohms of resistance. A
resistance greater than 0.1 ohm indicates a damaged
conductor or a poor connection. On the other hand, an
infinite resistance reading, usually a 1- or OL
reading on the meter, indicates an open.

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

The Troubleshooting Process


A logical, step-by-step approach to troubleshooting is
absolutely necessary. A good general approach is to
observe all symptoms. Perform a visual inspection, test
the circuit, make repairs, then test the repair.
Observe and Verify. When observing symptoms, first
make sure that there really is a problem, and the
operator is not merely mistaking the normal operation
of a system for a malfunction. If you dont notice a
problem, it may be intermittent. In this case, you need
to recreate the conditions that caused the malfunction
in order to find it. This means operating the unit under
the same conditions it failed under. If you still cant
find it, dont give up yet. There are still some things
you can do during testing that may reveal it.
Next, perform a visual check of the problem circuit.
Look for broken, loose, or corroded connections or
wires, burned out bulbs, blown fuses, misadjusted
switches, etc. The problem may be nothing more then a
disconnected connector. Looking for the simple things
now can help you solve the problem quickly.
Test. If the cause of the malfunction is still a mystery,
its time to test the circuit. To do this properly, refer to
the wiring diagram for the unit. Note the path that
current must take in order for the circuit to operate
correctly. Check the operation of those components
which share sources of power or ground with problem
circuit. If such components operate correctly, you can
eliminate part of the circuit, up to the point where it
connects with a working component, as a source of the
problem. On the other hand, if you find that a couple of
circuits are operating incorrectly, you can begin testing
at the points these circuits have in common, if any.
Refer to the proper Service Manuals or Service
Bulletins for recommended tests. If non, apply, start
testing near the middle of the circuit where the wires or
components can be easily reached, unless your initial
observations lead you to a specific part of circuit. What
tests you choose are up to you. As long as you progress
in an orderly manner and understand the readings you
get, youll solve the problem. If necessary, record your
test results so you can analyze them more carefully.

Training Manual

195

SERVICE TRAINING

Electrical Symbols
SHOWING DIN (DEUTSCHE INDUSTRIAL NORM) SYMBOLS, PLUS COMMONLY
USED A.N.S.I. SYMBOLS AS SHOWN ON SCHWING SCHEMATICS
LINE
MAGNET COIL
FOR HYDRAULIC VALVE
CONNECTOR

DIN

ANSI

HORN

LINES, JOINING

LAMP WITH BULB

(Letter
indicates
lens color)

R
DIN

ANSI

LINES, PASSING
20A

20A

FUSE
(AMP RATING INDICATED)
DIN

ANSI

G
receptacle
ALTERNATOR

PLUG AND RECEPTACLE

OR

plug

B+

DIN

ANSI

D+

ALTERNATOR

31

TACHOMETER SENDING UNIT


(PROXIMITY SWITCH,
DIGITAL - ANALOG CONVERTER)

DOIL TEMPERATURE
TRANSMITTER
(both DIN)

+
BATTERY

OR

CURRENT FLOWS
IN THIS DIRECTION

DIODE
CURRENT BLOCKED
IN THIS DIRECTION

OR

CHASSIS GROUND

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE


(L.E.D.)
50a
30
STARTER

STARTER

31

ELECTRIC MOTOR

196

SHIELDED CABLE
(Show all conductors
inside shield)

TERMINAL CONNECTORS

21

21

POSITIVE
TERMINALS

Training Manual

22

22

NEGATIVE
TERMINALS

SERVICE TRAINING

Electrical Symbols
SWITCHES

RELAYS

KEY: N.O. = Normally open N.C. = Normally closed

KEY: N.O. = Normally open N.C. = Normally closed


Control Relays
(DIN drawings)
(Bosch brand shown)

Solid line = position of switch as drawn


Position of operational
functions (detented "ON",
spring returned "OFF" shown)
Method of
operation:
(double throw
switch shown)

ON O OFF

Contacts
(higher current rating)
1 N.O. and
1N.C. contact
shown

Terminals
(Numbers shown if
they are presesnt
on the switch)

Relay coil
(very small current
draw)

87a

86

87

85

30

ON OFF

OR
Component
enclosure

Component
enclosure

Contacts (2 N.O.
contacts shown).

Dashed lines =
available positions
of switch

86

AS DRAWN
("O" POSITION)

87a 87

K3
85
In the "ON" position, switch
is held in place by the detent
(indicated by the vertical line)

"ON" position activated, as


indicated by solid line

OR
86

K3

ON O OFF

ON

30

85

In this example,
contact is made
between terminals
1 and 2 in the
"ON" position

OFF

Pivot point of the switch shown


below the activation line indicates
that the contact lever would be
drawn towards contact #2 in the
"ON" position

87a 87

If the relay coil is drawn on one part


of the schematic, and the contacts
are drawn on another part, the relay
number (in this example, K3) will be listed
in both places as shown here.

K3

Control Relays
(ANSI "ladder" drawing)
FUNCTION WHEN
ACTIVATED "ON"

Relay terminal
numbers

Relay coil

line numbers
Spring is compressed during
activation, indicating that it will
return to "O" when released

"OFF" position activated, as


indicated by solid line

ON O OFF

ON

Pivot point of the switch shown


below the activation line indicates
that the contact lever would be
pushed towards contact #3 in the
"OFF" position

13

N.C. contact
1

In this example,
contact is made
between terminals
1 and 3 in the
"OFF" position

3
CR

N.O. contact

CR 3

these numbers
show the location
(line number)
of the contacts
that the relay coil
will operate

8, 9

N.C. contacts
are underlined

wire
numbers

14

these numbers denote which relay


coil will operate the contact

OFF

CR 2

CR 1
7

30

3
9

FUNCTION WHEN
ACTIVATED "OFF"

common
hot

Training Manual

CR 3
9

15

CR 2
2

16

common
neutral

197

SERVICE TRAINING

Electrical Symbols
SWITCHES: Methods of operation
PUSHBUTTON
(EMERGENCY STOP)
DIN

If the contact operator is shown


extending beyond the last contact,
it indicates that this operator will also
work a contact shown elsewhere on
the schematic.

ANSI

DISC.

DISCONNECT
SWITCH

DIN

ANSI

N.O.

PUSHBUTTON
MOMENTARY CONTACT

CB / DISC

Q
N.C.
DIN

CIRCUIT BREAKER /
DISCONNECT
SWITCH

ANSI
PS.

N.O.

PRESSURE SWITCH

PS.

N.C.
DIN

MOTOR OVERLOAD
RELAY

ANSI

TOGGLE SWITCH

TGS.

OL

DIN

S.P.S.T.

ANSI

MISC. DEVICES
TGS.

0 1 2

RESISTOR
(VALUE INDICATED IN OHMS)
(K = 1000)

D.P.D.T.
0,1,2

DIN

2.5 K

ANSI
POT

MECHANICAL SWITCH
(Hopper Grate Switch)

NONE
AVAILABLE
DIN

1K

POTENTIOMETER
(Value indicated)

1K

ANSI

DIN

ANSI

Primary

120V
60 HZ

120V
60 HZ

Secondary

12V

12V

DIN

ANSI

DIN

ANSI

TAS

N.O.

C
TEMPERATURE SWITCH

TRANSFORMER

TAS

N.C.

DIN

OVER-CURRENT SWITCH
(Always normally closed)

ANSI

OL

N.C.
DIN

BRIDGE RECTIFIER
(A.C. to D.C. converter)

ANSI
FS

N.O.

Q
FLOAT SWITCH
(Oil Level)

FS

Q
DIN

198

N.C.

CAPACITOR
(VALUE INDICATED IN
FARADS)
( = micro or 1 millionth)

ANSI

Training Manual

2 F
DIN

2 F
ANSI

SERVICE TRAINING

Controller Systems
Analog

39000170.eps

Digi-Prop (Microwave)

40

60

20

0 0 0 0 0

80

1
10

100

C
HOURS

VDO

Filter
in Bypass

15
10

MAT

20

U/minx100

25
30

35
OIL
COOLER
ON

OFF

3034

1803

30339533
4

9
10

39000171.eps

Comfort Control

3034

1221

30339533
4

9
10

39000172.eps

Training Manual

199

SERVICE TRAINING

C32
OUTPUT

PARAM VALUE
THRESHOLD

20

2_

25
O

T O P E R AT E
D Z O N E!

RE

NO

U/minx100 I

POWER

START PWM

3_

30

REAR CTR

KEY

MAX

1_

15
10

4_
MAX PWM

35

5_

UMB CTR
RAMP UP

6_
RADIO CTR
ID

RAMP DOWN

MIN

LINK
40

ALARM

60

20

80

100

E-STOP

STORE
VDO

WHEN WELDING ANYWHERE ON UNIT


POWER CABLE MUST BE DISCONNECTED

3034
4

1803

30339533

9
4

10
7

L1357-01

9
10

39000173.eps

30339530

CPC
OUTPUT

PARAM VALUE

KEY

MAX

1_
THRESHOLD

2_
START PWM

3_

RPM

POWER

4_
MAX PWM

REAR CTR

5_

UMB CTR
RAMP UP

6_
RADIO CTR
ID
LINK

C
NORMAL

RAMP DOWN

MIN

BYPASS

ALARM
E-STOP

STORE

WHEN WELDING ANYWHERE ON UNIT


POWER CABLE MUST BE DISCONNECTED

3034

Reset

30345602

L1357-01

9
10

39000174.eps

30351405A

CPC II
OUTPUT

PARAM VALUE
MAX

1_

KEY

THRESHOLD

2_
START PWM

3_

RPM

POWER

4_
MAX PWM

REAR CTR

5_

UMB CTR
RAMP UP

6_
RADIO CTR
ID
LINK

C
NORMAL

RAMP DOWN

MIN

BYPASS

ALARM
E-STOP

STORE

WHEN WELDING ANYWHERE ON UNIT


POWER CABLE MUST BE DISCONNECTED

Reset

L1357-01

200

Training Manual

30357944

39000175.eps

10

CPC 2

8540

SERVICE TRAINING

Vector - Current Production

OK

OFF

x1000 3
0
PTO 1500 rpm
62C

Menu: [ENTER]=ON

HOME

HELP

START

30356534 C

3
HP

QUIT

ENTER

10

CLEAR

30362348

39000176.eps

Training Manual

201

202

X2 Terminal Block
3 - TB #3
1 - TB #1

Training Manual
Non-joining lines
2

1.5 - 1.5 SQ. MILS


all 3 wires

Relay coil location


11 - page 11
2 - reference 2

Joining lines

K12 Relay contact ".1" - reference 1 same page

K12 relay location


same page
.2 - reference 2

6 - 6 SQ. MILS
(wire size)

(Reference #s)

X11 - Plug connector X11


B2 - pin on X11

SERVICE TRAINING

SERVICE TRAINING

28X Truck and Pumpkit Circuit

JunctionBox
(see boom
schematic)

orange

Trouble Light
Receptacle at
Operators
Panel

Panel
Light

to Pin 2/5

brown

G
G

brown
brown

brown
from Pin 1/11

Emergency
stop button

10 gauge
12 gauge

red

orange

red

brown

=
=
=

Remote
thermometer for
Pass. Side oil tank

grey

brown

brown

G
Small
On-Off
switch

All fuses
20 amp
(AGC size)

Remote thermometer
for Drivers side oil tank
orange

red

16 gauge

brown

Tachometer

Panel
Light

brown

brown

orange
red
black

purple

purple

white

white

USA 28M
1/94 GRP

white with
black stripe

electric oil
cooler only
green

yellow

Continuous
duty
solenoid

Switch
on
pump
air
shift
lever

blue

brown

yellow

purple

Oil cooler
light (red)

cooler
M Oil
motor 12V

purple

red

purple

red

white & black stripe

H
Hour
meter

Oil cooler
On/Off switch

white

Warning
lamp

white

black

In line
fuse

25 A

25 A

red

purple
Dirty oil
filter light
(red)
brown

Key switch
terminal - Hot
when in "On"
brown
position
blue
black

12 volt
+

Tachometer
sending unit
(proximity switch)

Trouble Light
Receptacle
at Center of
Unit

Dirty hyd. oil


filter pressure
switch 35 PSID
(2.4 bar)

Training Manual

Passenger side
hyd. oil
temperature
sending unit

Drivers side
hyd. oil
temperature
sending unit

203

SERVICE TRAINING

28X Boom Circuit

U.S.A. 28 METER AS WIRED...1989 and LATER


yellow

1. OPERATORS PANEL
2. REMOTE CONTROL
BOX-992.900.100.900
3. REMOTE CORD (red)
992.900.801.900
4. CABLE DRUM/90
FEET-992.903.000.100
5. JUNCTION BOX
(12 volt) 992.900.104.800
6. DISCONNECT BOX
(assembly consisting of
303394,303393, 303395,
992.900.700.700)
7. CABLE TREE
305609

red

R= Remote Control
L= Local Control
brown

white

R Off L

brown

86

SEE TRUCK/PUMP
SCHEMATIC

87
Off

30

85
blue

NOT-AUS
(Emergency Stop)
red

brown
red

NORMALLY OPEN
BYPASS VALVE
(boom and outrigggers)

20 Amp x 5

white

G+

25 A

S O P

G-

Continuous Duty Solenoid


(See truck/pump schematic)

STOP

white

A2
A2

A3
A3

A4
A4

A5
A5

B1
B1

B2
B2

B3
B3

C5
C5

B4
B4

B5
B5

15

10

15

15

15

1/1

1/2

1/3

1/4

1/5

1/6

1/7

1/8

1/12

C2
C2

C4
C4

C3
C3

C1
C1

16

14

12

13

11

10

16

14

12

13

11

10

16

14

12

13

11

10

16

14

12

13

11

2/4

2/11

2/5

2/2

2/1

10
d1
11

1/9
1/10

10
d2
11

4
5

6
2

d1

d2

2/7

2/3
2/12

A1
A1

1/9
1/10
1/11
2/6
2/7
2/8
2/9

10 12
9 11
9
10
11
12

204

10

11

Training Manual

12

13

P2

14

15

16

17
CONCRETE PUMP
REVERSE

+ 2

CONCRETE PUMP
FORWARD

CONCRETE PUMP
REVERSE RELAY

CONCRETE PUMP
FORWARD RELAY

G2

THROTTLE DOWN

F2

THROTTLE UP

E2

Components 2 thru 5
BYPASS VALVE

C2 D 2

#2 BOOM RETRACT

#2 BOOM EXTEND

B2

#3 BOOM RETRACT

A2

#3 BOOM EXTEND

SLEWING CW

SLEWING CCW

#1 BOOM DOWN

#1 BOOM UP

12 Volt

18

19

2/90 RE

SERVICE TRAINING

Misc Procedures
Material Cylinder Alignment
1. To visually inspect the alignment, put a trouble
light in the waterbox, at the opening to the cylinder
being aligned (See Figure 66). Be careful with
fingers and hands in the waterbox. Put the trouble
light in the waterbox, then remove your hand
BEFORE proceeding to the next step.

Figure 67
Material Cylinder Alignment Tool
LIGHT RAYS

CYLINDER WALL

ALIGNMENT TOOL

Figure 66
Placing a spot light in the waterbox
2. Select the forward mode of the S1 valve, AT
THE SLOWEST POSSIBLE SPEED! Look into
the material cylinder from the valve end. The gap
between the alignment tool (See Figure 67) and the
cylinder wall should be seen as even rays of light
(See Figure 68). When the cylinder gets fully
extended, the alignment tool may drop a small
amount or even barely touch the material cylinder
wall.

Figure 68
Light rays in material cylinder
If the alignment tool should contact the cylinder wall at any time, return the pump to
neutral immediately! Damage may occur to
cylinder wall.

Training Manual

205

SERVICE TRAINING

3. If, for example, the alignment tool contacts the cylinder on the lower side, loosen the mounting bolts
at the waterbox a little bit, then tighten the
LOWER bolts first (See Figure 69). This will lower
the bottom of the material cylinder. When the
alignment is close, tighten the top bolts and
recheck the alignment. When the alignment is
within specification, the alignment tool will travel
the entire length of the cylinder without touching
the cylinder wall. If the alignment tool is not
always located exactly in the middle of the cylinder
during the travel, but DOES NOT TOUCH, then
realignment is not necessary. Minor misalignments
are compensated for with the rubber ram. Repeat
procedure for the other cylinder.

9.
10.

11.
12.
13.

NOTE!
If a squeaking sound indicates the alignment tool is dragging on the material cylinder, turn off the pump IMMEDIATELY!
If there is no dragging, you may proceed to step 11.
If dragging does happen, repeat the visual checks.
Loosen the bolts on the material cylinders and
valve housing, and at the machine frame, and
repeat the alignment procedure.
Check the mounting of the pump kit and its mounting to the pump kit frame.
Tighten all bolts.
Complete the reassembly of valves, and install the
rubber rams.

NOTE!
If proper alignment cannot be achieved otherwise, tightening torques may be exceeded
by 10% over the charts specs. If further
alignment problems persist, please contact
the Schwing Service Department.

MOUNTING
BOLTS

Figure 69
Mounting bolts
4. Grease new o-rings and insert in the valve housing.
5. Carefully slide the valve housing onto the material
cylinders, and rest the valve housing on the
machine frame.
6. Bolt the valve housing and material cylinder
flanges together making sure that the alignment is
being maintained.
7. Bolt the valve housing to the machine frame.
8. Check alignment with the tool once more, at slowest possible speed.

206

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Pumping on piston side

tools to install them.

(Available on some units only)


Piston side pumping changes your concrete pump from
a low-pressure, high-volume machine into a high
pressure, low-volume machine. This would be handy,
for example, to pump long distances horizontally or
vertically.
Piston side operation dramatically raises the maximum
pressure on the concrete. For this reason, it is crucial
that your entire material delivery system be rated to
handle the available pressure and be maintained in likenew condition. Remember that pipe wall thickness
wears with each yard of concrete pumped. Inspect the
wall thickness regularly. The maximum material
pressure available on the piston side depends on which
differential and material cylinders you purchased with
your unit. The maximum material pressure is recorded
on the main ID tag.
To convert your machine to piston side operation, you
must have some additional hoses and fittings, plus the

When changing the hoses from the rod side port to the
piston side port, you must cross them. This keeps the
machine in the same sequence of events as when it is
hooked up for rod side pumping. Failure to cross the
hoses will result in pumping in reverse whenever you
select forward.
When you have finished with the need for piston side
operation, change it back to rod side immediately.
When you are configured on the piston side, the safety
rules for the following topics become even more
important:
Opening lines under pressure
Sucking back plugged lines before opening
Pressure-handling capacity of pipes, hoses, and
clamps in your delivery system
The dangers of blockages
All of these items are covered in the Safety Manual.
Understand the rules and live by them
.

Loosen for
rotation

Add dead
plugs
(1200s only)

This hose
1200s only
Add hose
and fittings
to each side

Loosen for
rotation

rod/piston change.eps

Loosen for
rotation

Loosen for
rotation

Rod Side
Configuration

Changes

Training Manual

Piston Side
Configuration

207

SERVICE TRAINING

Shimming the Differential


Cylinders

Tension Ring

Determining the proper shimm size


When ever you rebuild differential cylinders, it may be
necessary to add shimms to the tension ring. Adding
shimms protects the cylinder rod from the cheveron
seals in the event the cheveron seals expand. Use the
following procedure to determine the proper amount of
shimming necessary.

Cheveron Seal Set

Dimension A

Tape

Using a caliper measure the distance from the top of


the bushing down to the bushing seal recess. See Figure
70.

Figure 71
Compacting the Cherevon seals
Use the caliper to measure the distance between the top
and the bottom of the compacted cheveron seals. See
Figure 72.

Dimension A = 57.12 mm
57.12 mm is the depth of the guide
bushing seal recess.

Dimension B = 57.4 mm

Tension Ring
Bushing Seal Recess

Bushing

Dimension B
Cheveron Seal Set

Dimension B

Figure 70
Measuring for dimension A

Figure 72
Measuring for dimension B

Dimension B
Leave the tape around the cheveron seals to hold them
into place. On a solid flat surface place the Tension ring
on top of the cheveron seals. This will compact the
cheveron seals to the proper size. See Figure 71.

208

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Formula

A should equal B
B - A = shims required
In this example:

57.40
- 57.12
.28 mm (.011")
Refer to SAIE 5221
Figure 73
Formula for determining shimm size
In this example, we would need to add 1 - 0.5mm
shimm to the Tension ring. This will ensure that the
cheveron seals will not expand, thus preventing wear
on the cylinder rod.

NOTE!
A maximum of 5 shimms can be used.

NOTE!
Dimension B can never be greater than
dimension A or cylinder rod damage can
occur.

Training Manual

209

SERVICE TRAINING

Apitech Control Chamber Air


Bleed Procedure
The mounting orientation of the Apitech boom control
handvalve makes a difference in the way the air is bled
out of the control chambers. Normally, if the valve was
installed at the factory then there is no reason to bleed
the air from the control chambers. But if a spool or
solenoid is replaced, then air can enter the control
chambers and may need to be bled. The following is
a list of the potential mounting orientations of the valve
and the procedure to remove the air from the control
chambers, if ever required.

If the valve is mounted in its normal horizontal


position with solenoids above the main spool (Figure
75), then the valve will automatically purge the air
from the control chambers, as the valve is actuated.

Spool

Spool

Solenoid

Figure 76
Horizontal mounted - Solenoids below the
main spool
The PC2 control chamber (spring side) is bled
by loosening the spool plug with flow limiter several turns in order for the O-ring to disengage with
the lead-in surface of the SAE port (Figure 77).
Then supply a pilot signal to the end chamber by
energizing the solenoid closest to the plug with
100% input signal. Once there is no more air exiting from the threads of the plug, turn the plug into
the valve housing until the O-ring contacts the
lead-in surface. Then remove the pilot signal and
any other positive pressure from the valve. Tighten
the plug into the valve housing to 10 - 30 ft. lbs. of
torque.

Figure 74
Typical Apitech Handvalve

Solenoid

Solenoid

O-ring

Spool Plug with


Flow Limiter

PC2 Control
Chamber

Solenoid

Figure 77
Bleeding the PC2 control chamber
Figure 75
Normal Horizontal Position
If the valve is mounted with the main spool horizontal
and the solenoids (Figure 76) are below the main spool,
then the following must be done:

210

The PC1 control chamber (handle side) is bled


by loosening the port plug several turns (Figure
78). Then supply a pilot signal to the end chamber
by energizing the solenoid closest to the port plug
with a 100% input signal. Once there is no more air

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

exiting from around the threads of the port plug,


turn in the port plug into the valve housing until the
seal contacts the valve housing surface. Then
remove the pilot signal and any other positive pressure from the valve. Tighten the port plug into the
valve housing to 25 35 in. lbs. of torque.

Spool Plug with


Flow Limiter

O-ring
PC2 Control
Chamber

Port Plug

PC2 Control
Chamber

Figure 78
Bleeding the PC1 control chamber
If the valve is mounted with the main spool horizontal
and the solenoids are to the left or the right of the main
spool in the same horizontal plane (Figure 79), then the
following must be done:

Figure 80
Bleeding the PC2 control chamber
The PC1 control chamber (handle side) is bled
by loosening the spool plug with flow limiter several turns in order for the O-ring to disengage with
the lead-in surface of the SAE port (Figure 81).
Then supply a pilot signal to the end chamber by
energizing the solenoid closest to the plug with
100% input signal. Once there is no more air exiting from the threads of the plug, turn the plug into
the valve housing until the O-ring contacts the
lead-in surface. Then remove the pilot signal and
any other positive pressure from the valve. Tighten
the plug into the valve housing to 10 - 30 ft. lbs. of
torque.

NOTE!
Solenoid

Solenoid
Spool

Figure 79
Spool Horizontal - Solenoids to the left and
right of main spool

Due to the internal core of the casting, it


may be necessary to slightly tilt either the
valve or the equipment in which the valve is
mounted on, so that the end plug is the highest point of the valve section, in order to
remove all the air from the control chamber.

The PC2 control chamber (spring side) is bled


by loosening the spool plug with flow limiter several turns in order for the O-ring to disengage with
the lead-in surface of the SAE port (Figure 80).
Then supply a pilot signal to the end chamber by
energizing the solenoid closest to the plug with
100% input signal. Once there is no more air exiting from the threads of the plug, turn the plug into
the valve housing until the O-ring contacts the
lead-in surface. Then remove the pilot signal and
any other positive pressure from the valve. Tighten
the plug into the valve housing to 10 - 30 ft. lbs. of
torque.

Training Manual

211

SERVICE TRAINING

Spool Plug with


Flow Limiter

O-ring
PC2 Control
Chamber

signal. Once there is no more air exiting from the


threads of the plug, turn the plug into the valve
housing until the O-ring contacts the lead-in surface. Then remove the pilot signal and any other
positive pressure from the valve. Tighten the plug
into the valve housing to 10 - 30 ft. lbs. of torque.

Spool Plug with


Flow Limiter

Figure 81
Bleeding the PC1 control chamber

O-ring

If the valve is mounted with the main spool vertical


(Figure 82), then the following must be done:
Upper Control
Chamber

Upper Chamber

Figure 83
Bleeding the upper control chamber using
spool plug with flow limiter

Spool Plug with


Flow Limiter

O-ring

Upper Control
Chamber

Figure 82
Vertically mounted handvalve
Only the upper control chamber needs to be
bled since the air in the lower control chamber will
rise and the air will purge out of the control chamber through the clearance around the main spool
(Figure 83 or Figure 84 depending upon the orientation of the valve).The upper control chamber is
bled by loosening the spool plug with flow limiter
several turns in order for the O-ring to disengage
with the lead-in surface of the SAE port. Then supply a pilot signal to the end chamber by energizing
the solenoid closest to the plug with 100% input

212

Figure 84
Air bleeding the upper control chamber using
the port plug

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Hydraulic Pump Adjustments


Adjustment Knob

Main System Pumps A11VO


To perform the proper adjustments of flow, horsepower,
beginning of stroke limitation and the pressure cut-off
to the tandem A11VO main system hydraulic pumps,
the following steps must be done in order that they are
listed;

T
P
T

MG

P
MY

G
Y

Setting the Flow Rate


Before flow metering the pumps, ensure that the
maximum engine Rpms are set to the proper
specifications. All Schwing units have a metal ID tag
located inside the cab displaying the specific RPM
settings for that particular unit. Set the supplement
system pressure to 0 bar by turning the adjustment
knob all the way out on the electric stroke limiter. This
will avoid false readings of the flow rate until the
maximum flow rate and horsepower break points are
set.

Adjustment Knob

Adjustment Knob

Figure 85
Electric Stroke Limiters
Install the flow meter. (Consult the operation manual
for proper installation and use of the flow meter). Set
the engine Rpms at maximum and set the maximum
flow at the Q max screw to the proper specifications per
the output chart. (Check your operators manual for the
proper output chart for your specific unit).

A11VO130 / A11VO130

Q-max Screws

A11VO130 / A11VO190

Q-max Screws

Training Manual

213

SERVICE TRAINING

Horsepower Setting
Adjustment Knob

After the flow rate is set, the horsepower setting then


must be done. The horsepower break point must be set
to the proper specifications per the output chart.
CONCRETE
PRESSURE

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE AXIAL PISTON HYDRAULIC PUMP

ROD SIDE

4500

350
300

4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000

250
200

131

117

HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVE IS SET AT


350 BAR MAX. PRESSURE (5075 PSI).

1600

110

1500

103

1400

97

MY

1300

90

1200

83

1100

76

200 Kw

150
100

Break Point
180 Kw = 182 bar
200 KW = 202 bar
At 350 bar
180 Kw = 278 l/m
200 Kw = 309 l/m

10

20

7.5 15

30 40

50 60

70 80

900

62

800

55

700

48

600

41

500

34

400

27

300

21

200

14

100

208
90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220

23 30.5 38 46 53.5 61 69 76.5 84 92 99 107 114 122 130 137 145 153 160 168

cu yd / h
cu meters/ h

CONCRETE OUTPUT
5

10
100

15
200

20
300

25
400

30
500

32

535

P
T

MG
G
Y

1000 1007 69

50
500

124

1700

SA

OIL PRESSURE

5000

Bar
138

1900
1800

180 Kw

5500

PSI
2000

PUMP SPEED
2100 RPM

M
PL
E

Piston Side
Bar

Piston Side
PSI

BPL 2023-5
350 or 400 HP truck

Number of strokes
(stroke / min.)
Oil volume
(liter / min.)

Break Points

Figure 86
Sample output chart

Setting Stroke Limitation


Now that the maximum flow rate and horsepower
settings have been made, the beginning of stroke
limitation can be set. Adjust the supplement system
pressure to the maximum pressure of 50 bar.
1. Make sure the stroke limit potentiometer at the rear
operation panel or remote box is at the maximum
material output setting.

Adjustment Knob

Adjustment Knob

Figure 88
Stroke Limiters (two generations)
3. Increase the engine Rpm's to the maximum setting
and while watching the flow meter scale, slowly
turn the stroke limit potentiometer to the minimum
material output until the maximum flow rate begins
to drop.
4. When the flow rate begins to drop, stop turning the
potentiometer and read the pressure on the 0 to 40
bar gauge. The reading that is seen is the
beginning of stroke limitation. The reading should
be between 5 to 7 bar. If it is not, then adjust the
beginning of stroke limitation screw accordingly to
achieve the proper pressure reading.
a. If the pressure is too high, then turn the screw
counter-clockwise (out) to reduce the pressure.
b. If the pressure is too low, then turn the screw
clockwise (in) to increase the pressure.

Q-min Output Flow

Figure 87
Stroke Limiter Potentiometer
2. Install a 0 to 40 bar gauge in the electric stroke
limit line going to the Y port of the hydraulic
pumps, at this time the reading on the gauge should
be 0.

214

Once the beginning of stroke limitation is set, the next


step is to check the Q min output flow.
1. With the 0 to 40 bar gauge still in the electric
stroke limit line going to the Y port of the hydraulic
pumps.
Increase the engine Rpm's to the
maximum setting and while watching the flow
meter scale, turn the stroke limit potentiometer to
the minimum material output. The 0 to 40 bar
gauge should be reading approximately 25 bar
more than the beginning of stroke limitation setting
to ensure the hydraulic pumps are all the way to the
minimum against the Q min stop. The Q min
reading should be between 15 to 25 liters per
minute. If it is too high, turn the Q min screw out

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

until the reading is correct or if it is to low, turn the


Q min screw in until the reading is correct. When
the Q min has been set, the flow meter can now be
removed.
A11VO190

A11VO130

1. Locate the agitator shutoff valve and close it.


NOTE! If your unit does not have a shutoff valve,
order one from the Schwing Spare Parts Department using part number 10004680 (valve), and
number 30303432 (tube). Contact the Service
Department for installation instructions.
14. Activate the agitator. With the valve closed the agitator will not be able to turn and the oil will be
forced over the relief valve. At an idle (about 600
RPM), 4.5 horsepower is being converted to heat.

Q min Screw
Q min Screw

Figure 89
Q-min screw locations
agitoff.eps

2. Repeat steps 2 through 6 on the second main


system pump before attempting to set the pressure
cut-off on both pumps.

NOTE!
All screw adjustments with the system
reliefs and pressure cut-off must be done
while the unit (pumpkit) is in the neutral
position.

Check all hydraulic pressures.


Changes in pressures can indicate trouble in one or
more components. The specifications for each circuit
are shown on the hydraulic schematics found in the
Appendix of this manual. The hydraulic schematics are
the only documents in this manual that have been
updated specifically for your unit, by the serial number,
so in each of the following procedures you will be told
to refer to the schematic for the pressure required.

Figure 90
Agitator shutoff valve
15. When the oil temperature gauge shows 50C, open
the shutoff valve.

Setting pressures on Hi-flo -6 pumpkits


a. To set the pressure of the main relief valve on Hiflo pumpkits, you must first disable the soft switch
circuit. Simply locate the ball cock for the soft
switch circuit (Figure 91) and close it by rotating
the handle 90 degrees.
b. The quarter turn shutoff valve for the concrete
pump (Figure 91) will also need to be closed
during this procedure.

NOTE!

Preheat the hydraulic oil

Pressure settings must be made with the oil at normal


operating temperatures (40 60 C). In the past we
could pressure out a function in the boom or outrigger
system to create heat, but load sensing systems no
longer allow maximum oil flow to be forced over relief.
Because of this the agitator circuit must be used to heat
the hydraulic oil.
To preheat the hydraulic oil:

Main system adjustments are preset at the


factory. The following procedure begins
with adjustment of the main relief cartridge
and pressure cutoff. If proper pressures can
not be obtained through these steps, refer to
the beginning of this procedure for specific
instructions on the adjustment of flow,
horsepower, beginning of stroke regulation
and Q-min.

Training Manual

215

SERVICE TRAINING

Pressure setting procedure:


Soft switch
shutoff valve
Main Pressure
Gauge port

Concrete pump
shutoff valve

hif

lob

rn

.e

ps

Figure 91
Concrete pump and Soft switch shutoff valves

23. Stop the truck engine and put the key in your
pocket. Adjust the pressure cutoff screw (Figure
92) on each pump, by backing off the jam nut with
a 13mm wrench. Using a 4mm allen wrench, turn
the adjustment screw in (clockwise) one full turn
and tighten the jam nut. Restart the truck engine.
24. Adjust the engine RPM to maximum specification.
(See decal in truck cab)
25. Pressure out the system by activating the concrete
pump forward switch on the rear panel. Using the
rear panel controls will allow you to read the concrete pump main system pressure gauge, near the estop manifold, from a safe distance.

NOTE!

1. Be sure that the waterbox covers and guards are in


place any time you will be working in the area
around the main control block.
16. Wear safety glasses when working around a concrete pump.

NOTE!
It is vital that each adjustment screw be
properly identified prior to making any
adjustment. All screw adjustments for the
system relief must be made with the pumpkit in the neutral position and adjustments
for pressure cutoff must be made with the
engine shut off.
17. Start the truck engine, and put the PTO in gear just
as you would to pump a job.

26.

18. If you have not already closed the soft switch shutoff valve and the concrete pump shutoff valve (Figure 91) do so at this time.
19. At the rear panel, select local control with the
local/remote switch and turn the electric stroke
limiter knob clockwise to maximum strokes per
minute.
20. The main system control block pressure must be
set first to properly set the pressure cutoff on both
pumps. Begin by backing off the jam nut of the
main relief cartridge (Figure 93) with a 9/16 inch
wrench.
21. Using a 5/32 inch allen wrench, turn the adjustment
screw out (counterclockwise) until you can feel no
spring tension on the adjustment screw.
22. Now, turn the screw back in (clockwise) two or
three full turns to give you a proper starting point
and tighten the jam nut.

216

27.
28.

29.

Because you turned out the pressure relief


cartridge in step 21., the system pressure
should read low at this time. If it does not
and the gauge spikes to 320 bar or more,
disengage the pump immediately. Turn the
relief cartridge out (counterclockwise)
more. For safety, it is important to adjust
the pressure up from below the specified
target pressure rather than down from a
pressure which exceeds the target. Continue
this procedure until the main system pressure gauge reads lower than the specified
target.
To increase the pressure put the pump in the neutral
position and adjust the relief cartridge by turning it
in (clockwise). When increasing the pressure, the
adjustments should be made in quarter turn increments. If you make adjustments to increase the
pressure but the pressure does not come up, you are
probably reading the pressure cutoff of the pumps,
if so proceed to the next step otherwise skip to step
29.Turn the relief cartridge adjustment screw back
out (counterclockwise) until you can no longer see
a pressure drop and tighten the jam nut.
Stop the truck engine, put the key in your pocket.
Go to the pressure cutoff screw on both hydraulic
pumps (Figure 92) and back off the jam nut with a
13mm wrench. Turn the adjustment screws in with
a 4mm allen wrench one or two more turns, restart
the engine and check the pressure again. Repeat
this procedure until the main system relief can be
set to the target pressure.
When the proper main relief pressure is achieved,
pressure cutoff can be set. Shut off the engine, put
the key in your pocket and install 0-600 bar gauges
with whip hoses to the M1 gauge ports on the

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

bottom of the two hydraulic pumps (Figure 92).


You must be able to read both gauges simultaneously to ensure that one pump is not more dominant than the other.

NOTE!
The gauges in the M1 ports will read considerably less than the cutoff pressure of the
pump. On a -6 (190/130 pump combination)
the 190 will usually read 85 to 90 bar while
the 130 reads about 110 bar. They could
read the same however, at approximately
110 bar, but the 190 must never read higher
than the 130. The actual cutoff pressure will
be read on the concrete pump main system
pressure gauge near the e-stop manifold.

  
       
   
 









   
     
130ajst.eps

Figure 92
Adjustment screw locations
Soft switch
shutoff valve

30. Activate concrete pump forward to pressure out the


pump and read the pressure on the two gauges in
the M1 ports.

32. When you have achieved the same pressure on the


M1 port gauges, you can begin to adjust the pressure cutoff screws in or out simultaneously until
you achieve the desired pressure setting of 350 bar
(again, confirm the pressure specification with the
hydraulic schematic).
After pressure cutoff is set, return the pump to neutral,
bring engine RPM to idle, open the soft switch quarter
turn valve, and either proceed to other pressure settings
or take the transmission and PTO out of gear and shut
off the truck.

Concrete pump
shutoff valve

Closed

hif

lob

rn

.e

ps

Open
   
   

 

31. Always stop the truck engine and put the key in
your pocket before making any adjustment on the
hydraulic pump. If the cutoff on one pump is set
higher than the other, that pump will be more dominant. The pressure gauge in the M1 port of the
dominant pump will however, read lower than the
other. To equalize the two pumps you must either
adjust the cutoff screw in (clockwise) to increase
the pressure of the pump showing the higher reading or adjust the cutoff screw of the dominant
pump showing the lower reading out (counterclockwise) to reduce the pressure. These adjustments must be made until the two gauges in the M1
ports are reading approximately the same.

Main Pressure
Gauge port

    
   

   

Figure 93
Soft switch circuit/Main relief valve

Setting the soft switch relief pressure


First, open the soft switch quarter turn valve (Figure
93) that you closed in the previous procedure. The rest
of the unit should still be set up as if you were going to
check the main relief valve pressure (concrete pump
shutoff valve still closed).

Training Manual

217

SERVICE TRAINING

When you put the pump in forward now, the main concrete pump pressure gauge should read the pressure
shown on the schematic for soft switch. If adjustment
is needed, loosen soft switch relief valve jam nut (Figure 93) with a 9/16 open end wrench, and use a 5/32
allen wrench to adjust the pressure. Turn the adjustment screw in (clockwise) to raise the pressure or out
(counter clockwise), to lower the pressure. When you
attain the required pressure, tighten the jam nut while
holding the allen wrench to keep the pressure from rising. Be sure to open the concrete pump shutoff valve
on the side of the brain (Figure 93) when you are finished. The unit will not stroke with this valve closed

218

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Accumulator Bypass Retrofit

mechanical dump valve on the accumulator manifold,


start the machine and engage the PTO, bring the oil up
to operating temperature (60c 80 c), and check all
work for leaks.

Service Bulletin 1001-03


Reference page 4 for schematic.
Before installing this kit make sure that the engine is
off, the key is removed, and the accumulator system is
de-energized by confirming that the accumulator
pressure gauge is at zero and the manual dump valve
on the accumulator manifold is opened.
Install check valve and fittings, items 8, 9, and 10 in the
pressure line from the outlet of the hydraulic pump.
Make sure that the check valve is installed in the
correct orientation (free flow from the pump) as shown
in Figure 1. These items must be installed between the
outlet of the pump and where the line is Teed for the
e-stop manifold so that the accumulator system will be
de-energized when an e-stop button is depressed or the
machine is taken out of PTO mode. Reconnect all
lines.
ACCUMULATOR
SYSTEM

11

To test the bypass operation you need to disconnect the


pressure line from the accumulator hydraulic pump.
Plug the hose and pump using items #12, 13, and 14 as
in Figure 2.
ACCUMULATOR
SYSTEM

AGITATOR
VALVE
9

10

E-STOP

AGITATOR
VALVE
9

10
14
13

B
CLOSED FOR
BYPASS

A
2.0 bar
39000215.eps

12
13

ACCUMULATOR
PUMP

Figure 2
Plugging the hose and pump

B
CLOSED FOR
BYPASS

A
2.0 bar

E-STOP

11

39000214.eps

ACCUMULATOR
PUMP

Figure 1
Installing Checkvalves and Fittings
Confirm the 1/4 turn valve shutoff on the agitator
system is installed in the B line of the agitator system
as shown in Figure 1. If your machine is not equipped
with a 1/4 turn shutoff, p/n 10004680, one must be
installed. Disconnect the 1/4 turn valve from the tube
or hose going to the agitator hydraulic motor. Install
items 5, 4, 3, 1, 2, and hose 11. Make sure that the
check valve is installed in the correct orientation (free
flow from agitator to accumulator system). Reconnect
the tube or hose going to the agitator motor.
Route hose 11 under the deck and T it into the P port
of the accumulator manifold using items 6 and 7.

Close the 1/4 turn valve on the accumulator system and


stroke the machine with water in the hopper. The
accumulator gauge should respond very similar as it
does with the accumulator pump. Also, you must
confirm that the e-stop manifold does de-energize the
accumulator system.
Retrofit Assembly Kit# 30364723
SEQ QTY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.00

PART#
10102204
10008108
10020109
10019122
10018848
10018849
10008033
10019728
10008110
10003861
10049909
10016789
10001741
10008093

DESCRIPTION
VALVE CHECK S10A 0.0
FITTING STR GES-16-SR 1/2
FITTING STR EGESD-16-SR 1/2 WD
FITTING EL EWSD-16-S
FITTING TEE ELSD-16-S
FITTING STR REDSD 20/16S
FITTING TEE ELSD-20-S
FITTING STR EGESD 20 SR 3/4 WD
FITTING STR GES 20-SR 3/4
VALVE CHECK S 15 A 2/0
HOSE H.P. DN 13/4 X 1700 DKO-S
FITTING PLUG VS 20 S
CAP NUT M 20 S
FITTING STR GS-20-S

After the installation is complete, you need to close the

Training Manual

219

SERVICE TRAINING

Trouble Shooting Kit

These kits contain a 0-600 Bar pressure gauge, a 0-40


Bar pressure gauge, plus all the necessary fittings,
locking plugs, manitrol valves, and hoses to plumb the
gauges into any hydraulic circuit on the unit. These kits
include the heavy duty foam lied carrying case.
Schwing Part Number:
Trouble Shooting Kit for BPAs

Part # 30308552
Trouble Shooting Kit BPAs and BPLs

Part # 30308553 (shown)

220

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Visual Inspection
General Instructions ....................... 3
Periodic Maintenance ....................................................3
Safety Decals ................................................................4
General Items ................................................................5
Clearance at Front Boom Rest ......................................6
Outriggers .....................................................................7
Do not partially extend outriggers ................................8
Tower ............................................................................9
Turret ...........................................................................11
Slewing Gear ...............................................................12
Boom Sections ............................................................13
Concrete Delivery Pipeline .........................................15
SAIE 5158 ...................................................................17

Training Manual

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

SERVICE TRAINING

Service Manual

Visual Inspection
General Instructions
NOTE!
The following pages contain suggestions
about what to look for during routine visual
inspections.
A
complete
structural
inspection must still be done according to
the manufacturers recommended schedule.

Periodic Maintenance
A complete structural inspection of the concrete pump,
boom, and outrigger assembly should be performed by
a qualified boom inspector, at the following intervals:
The first five years - at least once per year.
Five to ten years - every 6 months
Ten years and older - every 500 working hours,
or at least once per year, whichever occurs
first.

Figure 2
Visible rust, indicating a possible crack.
If paint is found to have split and rust is coming
through, remove the paint and do a close visual
inspection. If a crack is found a Schwing approved
boom inspector must be called in for analysis. Please
contact SAI Engineering if you have any questions.

At least once per week the unit should have a complete


visual inspection. The unit should be clean and dry
prior to inspection including inside the tower.
Freshly painted units arent likely to show cracks (paint
covers them up). Cracks typically wont show up until
at least 150 pumping hours after painting. Visual
inspection of all components, however, must still be
done each week. Check safety decals for proper
positioning. Remember that safety decals and labels
are available, free of charge, from the SAI Spare Parts
Department. Order replacements whenever these labels
are damaged or missing. Please have the serial number
of the unit available when you call Spare Parts.

Figure 3
Crack on a welded joint.

All areas of discontinuity in a weldment and the weld


seams are considered critical areas to inspect. Pipeline
holders and/or supports must also be inspected.

Figure 1
Paint crack - may indicate a crack in the metal.

Figure 4
Dented corners, indicating damage.

Training Manual

Safety Decals
Each machine is equipped with a set of warning labels
specific to the model, boom style and installed options.
Safety decals MUST be replaced if they are damaged,
faded, missing, or unreadable for any reason.
Ultraviolet radiation, rain, steam cleaning, and other
factors cause these labels to fade in time. Sets include
outrigger load labels, but they do not include metal
plates, which can be ordered separately. For installation
locations, see the decal location guide insert found in
the Appendix section of the Operation manual. To get
replacement labels, identify which label(s) you need

from the diagrams and lists, get the serial number of


the unit from the serial number plate, and call Schwing
America at (800) 328-9635. The person taking the
order will make a note of the serial number of the unit
for our files and send you the labels you need. You may
order complete sets or single labels. If the serial
number plate is missing or unreadable, the number is
stamped into the subframe just below the normal
location of the serial number plate.

SERVICE TRAINING

SERVICE TRAINING

58p6.eps

WARNING

CAUTION

TION
SO
C IA

E
CONCRET

BOOM UP

Operation of this machine requires training. You must read all warning labels on the unit items covered on specific warning labels are not covered here. There are
other hazards and safety rules that are ONLY covered in the safety manual or
operation manual.

2.

Only the operator may authorize access to the unit or surrounding area.

3.

Safety devices and guards must NOT be altered or removed.

4.

Stop the operation if any malfunctions, failures or structural faults occur. DO NOT restart
until repaired.

5.

NEVER try to finish the operation with the emergency stop dump valves bypassed.

6.

You must always be able to see the point of discharge. If this is impossible, an assistant
(spotter) MUST be used. The spotter must be positioned to see both the
operator and point of discharge for the purpose of giving instructions to the
operator.

7.

Ensure the stability of the unit. Use adequate outrigger cribbing for soil conditions. Level
the unit to within 3.

8.

Check for obstructions before unfolding or slewing the boom or outriggers.

9.

DO NOT unfold the boom unless the outriggers are fully extended and properly jacked.
Shortrigging is NEVER allowed on the side of the pour.

P/N 30345427

10.

Maintain a safe distance from excavations or cliffs. Stay as far back from the edge as the
depth of the excavation or cliff. (This is the one to one rule).

11.

Never retract the outriggers until the boom is folded into the transport position.

Factory-filled with

Rando HD
P/N 30345426

TEXACO

1. TO RELEASE, PULL
SLIDE-PLATE DOWN AND
PIVOT HANDLE OUT AND UP
COMPLETELY.

TIE-DOWN
STRAP AND
RATCHET

4.
5.
6.
BOOM RIGHT
OPEN OR
CLOSE OR
EXTEND BOOM RETRACT BOOM

1.

Rando HDZ
TEXACO

S
MP ING A

2.
3.
BOOM DOWN BOOM LEFT

Stand clear of
outriggers when
activating.

5
Factory-filled with

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1. Release tie-down strap before lifting boom.
2. Lower boom into cradle and reattach tie down strap
before transport.
SLIDE-PLATE

1.

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

WARNING

Do not use the


boom as a crane
or hoist.

ERICAN
AM

PU

WARNING

The hydraulic oil filters on this unit are disposable.


Cleaning and re-use is not possible. It is time to
replace the filter if the oil is at normal operating
temperature and the "dirty filter" indicator light is
illuminated. Normal operating temperature is
needed because, on some machines, when the oil
is cold the "dirty filter" lamp may illuminate even if
the filter is clean.

Electrocution hazard.
Stay back from
high voltage wires
at least 17 feet
(5 meters).

When light is on, hydraulic pumps are


engaged. Do not put transmission in
reverse. Do not drive unit.

IMPORTANT

DANGER

Falling hazard.
Not a work
platform.

IMPORTANT

30355887

Use
A MOBIL PRODUCT

HANDLE

Change all filter elements if the dirty filter lamp illuminates when oil is
above 20 C. If unit does not have electrical filter lamp, change the filter
elements every 13,000 yds or every 6 months, whichever occurs first.

11

Mobil DTE 25

10

DATE OF LAST CHANGE

DATE OF LAST CHANGE

DATE OF LAST CHANGE

12.

Be sure outriggers are retracted and pinned before driving the unit.

13.

NEVER drive the unit with extended outriggers or an unfolded placing boom! Not even a
few feet.

14.

The supplied safety cable MUST be used to secure the discharge hose or reducer to the
tip section.

15.

DO NOT overload the boom. The maximum allowable weight from hose or reducer/hose
combination is 376 pounds, which is equivalent to one 12 foot long 5 inch
hose, OR a 5 inch to 4 inch reducer and one 12 foot long 4 inch hose. NEVER
use the boom as a hoist or crane. NEVER attach a structural extension to the
boom.

16.

In the event of a thunderstorm or high winds (over 48 MPH), the boom must be folded into
the transport position.

WARNING
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
STOP BOOM START PUMP SLOW PUMP STOP PUMP
LITTLE BIT
SPEED UP
DOWN

12.
ADD WATER
4-GALLONS

13.
ALL DONE
CLEAN UP

2. TO REATTACH, PULL 2"


OF STRAP THRU RATCHET

PUMP THE HANDLE


TO TIGHTEN.

PUSH HANDLE
DOWN TO LOCK.

Do not operate at
pressures exceeding
the rating of the
entire material
delivery system.

12

DANGER

ROCK VALVE

TM

16

3,409,334
3,580,696
3,640,303
3,685,543
3,741,691
3,829,251
4,019,839

4,057,373
4,178,142
4,191,513
4,260,338
4,343,598
4,373,225
4,373,875

4,392,510
4,437,817
4,465,441
4,472,118
4,556,370
4,621,375
4,681,022

4,708,288
4,852,467
4,978,073
5,066,203
5,106,225
5,106,272
5,224,654

5,257,912
5,263,828
5,281,113
5,332,366
5,346,368
5,401,140

Re. 32,041
Re. 32,657
Re. 32,719

30308020 C

WARNING

WARNING

22

CAUTION

You can order additional operation manuals, spare


parts books, safety manuals and decal sets by
contacting us at:
Schwing America, Inc.
1-(800)-328-9635
6:00 AM to 9:00 PM Central Time
Monday through Friday

27

26

Keep hands out of


waterbox.
Stop engine/motor if
access is required.
Keep covers closed.

WARNING
Keep hands out
of hopper and
valve assembly.
See operation
manual if access
is required.

Keep hands out of


waterbox.
if
Stop engine/motor
access is required.
Keep covers closed.

Do not operate this


machine without
training. Understand
the warnings in safety
manuals and on decals.

SAFETY

23

MANUAL

29

Electric Motors
1. Stop the electric motor.

2. Remove the key, place it


in your pocket, and put
a "DO NOT OPERATE"
tag on the switch.

2. Lock out the power


source according to an
approved
lockout-tagout program.

3. Check accumulator
circuit pressure gauge
(if so equipped) to verify
zero system pressure.

3. Check accumulator
circuit pressure gauge
(if so equipped) to verify
zero system pressure.

32

2.

25

35

34
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

This unit will NOT operate unless one of these


plugs is connected to the control receptacle.

USE OF THE TOWING EYES


You MUST pull within 15 of straight when
attached to these towing eyes, or unit damage
may result.

1. The radio remote control receiver (if so


equipped).
2. The cable remote.
3. The shorting plug (supplied).

WARNING

40

Put all remote


control functions
in OFF position
BEFORE
connecting cable.

36

37

WARNING

EXTEND OUTRIGGER TO HERE BEFORE UNFOLDING BOOM

44

WARNING

(shown on dummy receptacle)

24 Volts
Here

Do not touch
hydraulic oil leaks.
Get immediate
medical attention if
oil penetrates skin.

radio or cable remote plug


(shown on control receptacle)

47

2. For a hydraulic problem, the inlet plumbing to the nonworking system must be plumbed
out of the manifold. With the engine stopped, disconnect the plumbing for the nonworking system at the fitting
pointed
out
BY-PASS
Boom/outrigger
below.
Plug both
NORM. BY-PASS
circuit dump
open fittings that
valve
result, using hydraulic
blocking plugs. Be
Accumulator
sure to tighten the
circuit dump
plug/fitting connecvalve
tion before restarting
Concrete pump
the engine.
dump valve
Boom/outrigger
3. The emergency stop
system plumbing
manifold is now plumAccumulator
bed out of the system.
Concrete pump
system plumbing
Make repairs before
system plumbing
reusing the machine.

40A

49
WARNING

30353078

EMERGENCY POWER SOURCE

30350982 A

46

45

Total weight of all hanging


hoses, reducers and clamps
must NOT exceed 215
pounds including concrete.
Do NOT hang 5 inch (125mm)
system from this boom.

Emergency stop
switches do NOT
function when
manual bypass is
depressed.

24 Volts Here

1. Remove nuts from battery connections


on outside left battery.
2. Bend cables out of the way as shown
3. Install jumper cable as shown
4. 24 volts now available as shown

NORMAL POWER SOURCE

WARNING

WARNING

48

30A

30343571

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Turn the bypass key switch to "BY-PASS" position. If control is restored, there is an electrical problem in the control circuits. You can clean out and fold up with the key switch
override. If control is not restored, there is a hydraulic problem; proceed to step 2.

IGN 12V GND

24V

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Extend outriggers until striped
decals are visible, as shown in
illustrations.

43

42
OVERRIDE OF EMERGENCY STOP MANIFOLD
Use ONLY for emergency foldup and cleaning.
Emergency stop buttons DO NOT WORK when procedure is used.

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

Unit will tip if


outriggers are not
fully extended.

shorting plug

30343260 A

41
Stand clear of
outriggers when
activating.

Use retaining
pins in all
delivery system
clamps.

WARNING
Clear area
before activating
outriggers

15
15

EMERGENCY STOP
PARO DE EMERGENCIA
ARRT D'URGENCE

39

38

MANUAL

1.

30

Total weight of all


hanging hoses, reducers
and clamps must NOT
exceed 376 pounds
including concrete.

Do not operate this


machine without
training. Understand
the warnings in safety
manuals and on decals.

SAFETY

33
WARNING

31
WARNING

WARNING

WARNING
Boom strap
MUST be used
during travel.

1. Raise #2 boom.

CUIDADO WARNING

WARNING
WARNING
Safety guard
is missing.

BEFORE REMOVING HOPPER GRATE OR


PERFORMING ANY SERVICE:

PROCEDURE FOR RAISING THE BOOM


Unfold the boom in this order to avoid damage to the truck cab.

24

Electrocution hazard.
Stay back from high
voltage wires at least
17 feet (5 meters).

28

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Gasoline or Diesel Engines
1. Stop the engine.

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

WARNING

2. Raise #1 boom.

Keep hands out


of hopper and
valve assembly.
See operation
manual if access
is required.

IMPORTANT

Do not stand on
hopper grates.

20
Boom may float down without warning if tip is brought into hazard zone.

Before opening a
blocked pipeline,
relieve pressure
by making 2
reverse strokes.

21

WHEN PERFORMING ANY WELDING


ON THIS UNIT IT IS NECESSARY TO
DISCONNECT ALL THE WIRING FROM
THE DUVAC II SYSTEM. FAILURE TO DO
THIS MAY DAMAGE THE COMPONENT.

HAZARD ZONE
(During operation, tip
hose must never
enter this zone)

19

WARNING

WARNING

HAZARD ZONE

SAFE ZONE
(During operation, tip
hose must always
be in this zone)

18

This machine is
remote controlled
and may start at any
time. Stop engine
before servicing unit.
WARNING

SAFE ZONE

Stay clear.
Contact will result in
death or serious injury
if the unit becomes
electrically charged.

This product is covered by one or more of the following U.S. patents:

15

WARNING

DANGER

Electrocution hazard.
Stay back from high
voltage wires at least
17 feet (5 meters).

14

13

ADVENTENCIA

WARNING

WARNING

NO!

IMPORTANT!

Los interruptores de
emergencia de paro no
funcionan cuando se
activa el sobre paso
manual

WARNING
Emergency stop
switches do NOT
function when manual
override is activated.

WATER ONLY
58

DIESEL ONLY
59

57

WARNING
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

Clear discharge area when


first starting the pump,
restarting after moving, or
whenever air is present in
the delivery system. See
Safety Manual.

OVERRIDE OF EMERGENCY STOP MANIFOLD


Use ONLY for emergency foldup and cleaning.
Emergency stop buttons DO NOT WORK when procedure is used.
1.

2.

Pull override handle and hold. If control is


restored, there is a control system electrical problem. You can fold up and
clean out by holding the override handles. Be careful where you position
yourself when lowering the boom and closing the outriggers. If control is not
restored, there is a
hydraulic
problem;
Accumulator
proceed to step 2.
system plumbing
Boom/outrigger
F o r
a system plumbing
hydraulic problem, the
inlet plumbing to the
nonworking
system
must be plumbed out of
the manifold. With the
engine
stopped,
disconnect
the
plumbing
for
the
nonworking system at
the fitting pointed out at
right. Plug both open
fittings that result, using

51

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

Explosion / fire
hazard. Stop engine
before refueling.

Boom/outrigger
circuit override
handle

Shutoff valve - closed to preheat hydraulic


oil by creating high pressure.

NEVER PARTIALLY EXTEND OUTRIGGERS

2.
3.

Outriggers must NEVER be partially extended when the boom will be used,
or when the truck will be raised. The forces transmitted to the outriggers must
be absorbed by the outrigger reinforcements. Partial extension defeats the
reinforcements.
Outriggers must be fully extended or fully retracted.
If the outrigger is fully retracted (shortrigged), different hazards are present.
See the Safety Manual, or your Operation Manual for information regarding

NO!

Serial #:
Was built according to these drawings.

Agitator shutoff valve

52

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

WARNING

ATTENTION!

hydraulic:
hyd. boom:

60

output chart:
30357363

61

Do not partially
extend outriggers.
See Safety
Instructions.
30358147

Outrigger
Outer Box
Reinforcements

62

Figure 5
Sample decal location guide. See your Operation Manual
for your specific unit.

Training Manual

WARNING

OK
Outrigger
Inner Box
Reinforcements

electric:

Shutoff valve - open for normal operation.

30354564

55

54

Open

Concrete pump,
accumulator
override handle

56

Do not insert solid


objects into waterbox
cleanout holes.
1.

Fire extinguisher
inside.
30354741

53

Closed

Concrete pump
system plumbing

50

Stop agitator before


putting any solid
object in hopper.

Tipping hazard.
Additional cribbing
needed for many soil
types, including
asphalt. See manual.

Outrigger
Reinforcements
Aligned

30358148

30359230

63

General Items
Items to check:

Boom Tie Down Straps


Rear Steps
Bearings and Pins Greased
Tie Down Plates/Channels to Chassis
Tower Tie-Down Bolts and Detach Tower Pins
Hopper Grate
Water Box Covers
Clearance at Front Boom Rest (See SAIE
5158)
Figure 8
Make sure all bearings and pins are greased.

Figure 6
Check for frayed edges and a working locking
mechanism on the boom tie-down strap.

Figure 9
Check for cracks on the Tie Down Plates/
Channels

Figure 7
Check for damaged or missing steps.
Figure 10
On SPB booms, make sure the detach tower
pins are in place and not damaged.

Training Manual

Figure 11
Check the hopper grate for damage. Make
sure the hopper grate switch works properly.

Correct

Figure 12
Make sure the water box covers and safety
grates are in place.

Incorrect

In the transport position, each boom rest should be in contact with the boom and
slightly compressed, (approximately 1/16 to 3/32 of an inch compression of the
rubber rest). The load of the boom should not be on the boom hook. Maintain some
clearance between the boom hook and the boom hook pin.

Clearance at Front Boom Rest


SAIE 5158 covers the proper procedure for setting the
clearance of the boom rests. Improper clearance may
result in damage to the placing boom during travel.

Training Manual

Outriggers
Items to check:

Structural members and welded seams for


cracks, deformation and wear
Operation/Functions
Outrigger Tubes
Outrigger Pads
Pins, Pin Bores and Safety Devices

Figure 15
Check for cracks on the outrigger pin, also
make sure the pin is in place and functioning
properly.

Figure 13
Check for cracks on the outrigger structure.

Figure 16
Check for damage on all 4 outrigger pads.

Figure 14
Make sure the outriggers are functioning properly.
Check for proper vertical alignment. Outrigger
tubes must be replaced if wear is greater than 10
percent of original wall thickness.

Figure 17
Check for cracks on outrigger tube, pay special
attention to all welded seams

Training Manual

Do not partially extend outriggers


Structural damage could result.

NO!
.ep

58

04

00

Force
Fulcrum

Outrigger
Inner Box
Reinforcements

1. Outrigger fully retracted.

Outrigger
Outer Box
Reinforcements

No lever action.
Force absorbed by reinforcements.
Force must be low, or unit will tip.

Figure 18
Transparent outrigger shows reinforcement
areas (curved outriggers have the same
limitations)

Fulcrum

Force

CAUTION
Force

Fulcrum

000467.eps

Structural damage to outriggers is


possible. Do not jack outriggers unless
they are either fully extended or fully
retracted.

2. Outrigger fully extended.

Partial extension of telescoping outriggers is not


acceptable at any time. Jacking the outriggers while
they are in any position other than fully extended or
fully retracted could cause structural damage to the
outrigger outer box and/or the inner box (Figure 18).
The three illustrations shown on the right explain the
configurations of the outrigger in all positions.
Remember that in configuration number 1, the boom
must never be extended over a retracted outrigger.

Lever action present, but


force absorbed by reinforcements.

Fulcrum

Force
Force

NO!

Fulcrum

3. Outrigger partially extended.


Lever action present, but force transmitted to
areas with no reinforcements.
Outrigger bends, bottom plate dents, or both.
000459.eps

Training Manual

Tower
Items to check:

Structural members and welded seams for


cracks, deformation and wear
Tie-Down Bolts
Rubber Dust Cover
Hydraulic Hoses
Slewing Cylinders
Tower Bolts, Bushing and Main Column

Figure 21
Crack on subframe inside bottom corner.
(view from under tower.)

Figure 19
Cracks on tower gussets

Figure 22
Check tie-down bolts and plates for damage.

Figure 20
Crack on upper tower plate
Figure 23
Check for missing or worn rubber dust cover.

Training Manual

Figure 24
Check for damaged or worn hydraulic lines.

Figure 26
Check for missing or damaged tower bolts. It
is recommended that the anchor bolts for the
tower be replaced every three years.

Figure 25
Make sure the cover for the slewing cylinders
is in place and not damaged.

10

Training Manual

Turret
Items to check:

Structural members and welded seams for


cracks, deformation and wear
Hollow Pin Mounting Bolts and Snap Ring
Internal Structure

Figure 29
Pipeline clamp rubbing on hollow pin.

Figure 27
Damage on tower.

Figure 30
Dislodged hollow pin bushing. Damaged
retaining ring.

Figure 28
Improper hollow pin mounting bolt.

Figure 31
Cracks inside the turret

Training Manual

11

Slewing Gear
Items to check:

Structural members and welded seams for


cracks, deformation and wear
Bolts Tight
Drive Gear Wear or Deterioration
Slewing Bearing Gear Wear or Deterioration

Figure 34
Excessive Wear on slew drive

Figure 32
Check for wear or deterioration on slew drive

Figure 33
Check tightness of bolts

12

Training Manual

Boom Sections
Items to check:

Structural members and welded seams for


cracks, deformation and wear
Articulated Joints and Guide Levers Bearing
Pins and Safety Devices
Latch Hook and Assembly, Hook Support
Hydraulic Lines
Hydraulic Cylinder
Threaded Pins

Figure 37
Crack on side plate

Figure 35
Damaged head section
Figure 38
Crack on the end plate

Figure 36
Crack on bottom plate

Figure 39
Check for cracks and damage on the guide
levers.

Training Manual

13

Figure 40
Bent keeper bolt

Figure 43
Check for leaks and damage on boom
cylinder. Make sure the boom cylinder is
operating properly.

Figure 41
Make sure the boom hook is working properly.

Figure 44
Damage on threaded pin

Figure 42
Check for damaged hydraulic lines on boom
section

14

Training Manual

Concrete Delivery Pipeline


Items to check:

Mounting Hardware - U-Bolts/Nuts/Saddles


Clamps with Safety Devices
Reducer safety cable/nylon choker
End Hose Safety Cable

Figure 47
Check pipeline clamps for damage.

Figure 45
Make sure all U-bolts and related hardware are
in place and are not damaged.

Figure 48
Make sure nylon choker and safety cable are
in place and are not damaged.

Figure 46
Damaged U-Bolts

Figure 49
Check for broken or damaged pipe arm
clamps.

Training Manual

15

16

Training Manual

SAIE 5158
Standard: 5158
Page: 1 of 5

SAIE STANDARD
Subject: Procedures for Setting Boom Rests

The following procedures are for Schwing America personal to follow and adhere to in regards to the setting of the boom rests for the following units: KVM 17, KVM 23, KVM 26, KVM 28X, 31 EZ, KVM 32
XL, KVM 34X, KVM 36 X, KVM 39 X AND THE KVM 42, S 45/47 SX, KVM 52/55, S 58/61 SX and
an others.
3 Section Booms
1. The boom must be folded up unto the main rest and all four outriggers must be raised off the ground
so there is no outrigger contact with the ground
2. Raise the #1 boom section enough that the #2 boom section is off the A-Frame boom rest :A:. Then
make sure that all boom sections are folded together. Each boom rest section should be folded into the
mating boom section rest without causing the boom section to bow.
3. Then lower the #1 boom section until the #2 boom section comes in contact with the A-frame boom
rest rubber A. The #2 boom section should come in contact with the rubber rest enough to be
slightly compressed, approximately 1/16 to 3/32 of an inch compression of the rubber rest.
4. Position the #2 front boom rest B to have a 1/8 of an inch clearence with the #2 boom section. The
key to this setting must be when the #2 boom section is in the rear A-frame rest and the #2 boom is
extended (lowered) to touch the front boom rest, there is still clearence between the boom hook and
the boom hook pin. The load of the boom should never be on the boom hook while in the traveling
position.

Prepared by: Jim


Issue: 11/11/99

Mielke/Mark Berggren

Approved by: Jason

Mehl

05/29/06

Training Manual

17

Standard: 5158
Page: 2 of 5

SAIE STANDARD
Subject: Procedures for Setting Boom Rests

4 Section Booms - Except 34X, 39X, 45 SX, 47SX and 52M


1. The boom must be folded up into the main rest and all four outriggers must be raised off the ground
so there in no outrigger contact with the ground
2. Raise the #1 boom section enough that the #2 boom section is off the A-frame boom rest A. Then
make sure that all boom sections are folded together. Each boom rest section should be folded into the
mating boom section rest without causing the boom to bow.
3. Then lower the #1 boom section until the #2 boom section comes in contact with the A-frame boom
rest rubber A. The #2 boom section should come in contact with the rubber rest enough to be slghtly
compressed, approximately 1/16 to 3/32 of an inch compression of the rubber rest.
4. Install the #4 boom rest D for a 1/4 to 3/8 of an inch gap between the rubber rest and the #4 boom
section.
5. After the #4 boom rest D is installed, lower the #4 boom section to just come in contact with the 34
boom rest D.
6. Then position the rear #4 boom rest B to touch the #4 boom section. At this time, both #4 boom
rests should be in contact with the #4 boom section.
7. Position the #2 boom rest C to have a 1/8 of an inch clearance with the #2 boom section. The key to
this setting must be when the #2 boom section is in the rear A-frame rest and the #2 boom is extended
(lowered) to touch A the front boom rest, there is still clearance between the boom hook and the
boom hook pin. The load of the boom should never be on the hook while in the traveling position.

Prepared by: Jim


Issue: 11/11/99

18

Mielke/Mark Berggren

Approved by: Jason

05/29/06

Training Manual

Mehl

Standard: 5158
Page: 3 of 5

SAIE STANDARD
Subject: Procedures for Setting Boom Rests with preload

The boom should be completely folded so that all hydraulic cylinders are retracted to their furthermost
position. The #2 boom should be in the main rear rest. All four outriggers must be raised off the ground so
there is no outrigger contact with the ground. The front #4 boom rest dimension should be taken from the
bottom of the folded #4 boom., to the top of the tower plate on the pedestal weldment. The dimesion
should be noted and 1-1/2 added to that dimension this will be the overall length for the front boom rest
with the rubber pad bolted on. Then the #4 rear boom rest should be measured from the bottom of the
folded #4 boom, to the top of the rear pedestal boom rest. Again this dimension should be noted this time
1 should be added. This will be the overall length for the rear boom rest with the rubber pad bolted on.

Prepared by: Jim


Issue: 11/11/99

Mielke/Mark Berggren

Approved by: Jason

Mehl

05/29/06

Training Manual

19

Standard: 5158
Page: 4 of 5

SAIE STANDARD
Subject: Procedures for Setting Boom Rests

Prepared by: Jim


Issue: 11/11/99

20

Mielke/Mark Berggren

Approved by: Jason

05/29/06

Training Manual

Mehl

Standard: 5158
Page: 5 of 5

SAIE STANDARD
Subject: Procedures for Setting Boom Rests

Prepared by: Jim


Issue: 11/11/99

Mielke/Mark Berggren

Approved by: Jason

Mehl

05/29/06

Training Manual

21

22

Training Manual

SERVICE TRAINING

Schematics
Output Chart - Sample .........................................................2
Nomograph - Sample ...........................................................3
Accumulator Bypass Retrofit - Reference ...........................4
800 ........................................................................................5
801 ........................................................................................6
900 ........................................................................................7
900 w/o FAST SWITCH ......................................................8
900 WITH FAST SWITCH .................................................9
900 WITH FAST SWITCH and DAMPNER ....................10
1200 TC WITH SWITCHING VALVES ..........................11
1200 TC WITH MPS .........................................................12
HI-FLOW - SINGLE CIRCUIT ........................................13
2023-4 ................................................................................14
2023-5 ................................................................................15
2525H .................................................................................16
KVM 31 EZ Boom .............................................................17
KVM 32XL ........................................................................18
32XLG ...............................................................................19
34 XG .................................................................................20
KVM 39X ..........................................................................21
S 39/41 SX .........................................................................22
S 42 SX ..............................................................................23
S 42 SX ..............................................................................24
S 45 SX ..............................................................................25
S 45 SX ..............................................................................26
52 M ...................................................................................27
52 M ...................................................................................28
S 58 SX ..............................................................................29
S 58 SX ..............................................................................30

Training Manual

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Training Manual

Output Chart - Sample

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(PSI)
2000

CONCRETE
PRESSURE
(BAR)
138

1900

131

1800

124

1700

117

1600

110

1500

103

1400

97

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE AXIAL PISTON HYDRAULIC PUMP

ROD SIDE
(bar)

PISTON SIDE
(bar)

BPL 1200 HDR-23

PUMP SPEED
2100 RPM
HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVE IS SET AT
300 BAR MAX. PRESSURE (4350 PSI).

350
PISTON SIDE

1300 1285

OIL PRESSURE (BAR)

300

250

200

1200

83

1100

76

1000

70

900

62

ROD SIDE

350

800

300
150

758

52

55

700

48

600

41

200

500

34

150

400

28

300

21

200

14

100

250

100

50

88.6 90

100
50
Breakpoint
=178 bar
@ 300 bar
=238 l/m

13

26

39

52

65

78

92

105 118 131 144


103
CONCRETE OUTPUT (cu yd / h)

157 170 183 196


170.5

26
5

ROD
SIDE
50
PISTON
SIDE

10
100

150

5
100

15
200

10
200

300

20
250

300

15.5
15

20

400

500

25
350

30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)
OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)

400
25

30 NUMBER OF STROKES
(stroke / min.)
OIL VOLUME
(liter / min.)

Differential Hydraulic Cylinder


Bore dia. / Rod dia. x Stroke length

Material Cylinders
Bore dia. x Stroke length

Hydraulic Pumps
Type / KW

125 mm / 80 mm x 2000 mm

230mm x 2000 mm

2 x A7VO-107
2 x 66KW

Slewing cylinder 80 / 45 x 185


SAIE 5240-029
Rev. 100296

THE PERFORMANCE CURVE INDICATES THAT THERE IS NO ALLOWANCE FOR


FILLING EFFICIENCY OF THE CONCRETE CYLINDER.

Training Manual

Nomograph - Sample

Model: BPL 900


320 l/m
Revision date: 042298 Power: 132 Kw

By: Number:

Pumpkit Model:

TK number does not apply to truck mounted units.


Curve shown is the Power Factor number (PF).

(72600)

Pipeline diameter in inches


180
160

Q in yd3/hr.

For vertical placing,


add 1.105 PSI per foot
of level difference.

Max Q

120/80 x 1600:200

200

012

Number:

Max Q

Model: BPL 900


320 l/m
Revision date: 042298 Power: 132 Kw

012

6"

5"

4.5"

140

4"

120 116

Rodside

100
80
67

Pistonside
60
40

132 KW

20
3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800
1566
870
P in PSI

600

400

200

100
200
2"
300
400

2.5"

500
600
3"
4"

5"

6"

3000 2500 2000 1800 1500

1200

1000

800

Proportional value of pipeline in feet

Slump of fresh concrete in inches

Training Manual

Accumulator Bypass Retrofit - Reference


Service Bulletin Number:

* Normal Mode
Bypass Mode

Valve Open
Valve Closed

1001-03

WHITE BEAR, MINN. 55127


Name: Accumulator Bypass Retrofit

Assembly: N/A

Product: Twin Circuit Models


Drawn By: MB
P
A1

1.5 mm

S3
11

6.0 mm

Psp

9
T

Agitator

This line must return


to tank by itself

Mp

Truck air supply

A
5-7 bar

10 bar

T(A)

P(B)

CLOSED FOR
BYPASS

Emergency stop
manifold

SP

2.0 bar

MP2

MP3
P2

0.9

ZK1

P3

ACCUMULATOR
PUMP

1.3
mm

Shut-Off*
Valve

2nd agitator with


long rock and
sloped side units

ZK2

AGITATOR
VALVE

10

2.0 mm

Accumulator control device

1.3
mm

XB

Mp1

300
bar

E-STOP

Approved

200 bar

ACCUMULATOR
XA
SYSTEM
Nitrogen pressure set at
100 bar (1450 PSI)

Checked

FOR REFERENCE ONLY


SERVICE BULLETIN 1001-03

B1

Date 08/14/03

2 1.6

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

FOR REFERENCE ONLY


SERVICE BULLETIN 1001-03
ZS1

Figure 1

XB

0.9

XA

3.5
mm

3.5
mm

Concrete Pump
Forward/Off/Reverse

MP1

P1

2 1.6

X3

See boom schematic

ZS2

MG 7-105 bar

ACCUMULATOR
SYSTEMA

A1
3.0
mm

B1

7 S2
XA

11
3.0
mm

XB

XP

AGITATOR
VALVE

MP

9
T2

T1
1.2

2.0 bar

350 bar

12
13
80

13

bar

1.3
X3

1.8
mm

4
X1

A1

B
2.0 bar

P1

10

1.1
T

S1

E-STOP P2

1.8
mm

MY

Y3

PP

14

PR

XR

0-35 bar

1.4

See boom
schematic

CLOSED FOR
BYPASS

MX
X1

X1
Y3

X2

10 bar

ACCUMULATOR
PUMP

A1

Rexroth
A7VO-LRDH
Hydraulic pumps

50 psi
P

Figure 2

200 bar

M
Hyd. oil cooler
w/elec fan

Training Manual

800

Training Manual

801

A
agitator
motor

Pipe Gate

BPL 601, 801, 1001, 1201 HDD


KVM 28, 31, 36

P
Agitator
pressure*

Hopper Gate

H2O pump
motor

A
B
M
Hydraulic stroke limiter
added 1982 and later

P
H2O
pressure*

P
0-50
BAR

Position 1 =
Spring Return

S3
S1

Position 2 =
Detent

A
CA B

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

5.5 bar

300
bar

*Agitator pressure =
with gearcase 70 bar
with direct drive 200 bar

S2

*Waterpump pressure =
with agitator gearcase 200 bar
with direct drive agitator 210 bar

A3V hydraulic pumps used


prior to 1982. A7VO shown.
X1

X1
X2

X2
A

A
A1

A1

D
0.7
mm

To
Boom
Circuit

6 bar

1.0 mm orifice on 1001 and 1201


S

Training Manual

900

PRINT # 329325

BPL 900 HDR


KVM 23, 28, 32

Equipped with
OF - 494 control block

P
200 bar
A
B
M

0-50
BAR

210 bar

Position 1 =
Spring Return

S3

Position 2 =
Detent

S1
T1
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

CA B

T
5.5 bar

300
bar

S2

X1

X1
X2

X2
A

A
A1

A1

D
M
To
Boom
Circuit

6 bar
S

Training Manual

900 w/o FAST SWITCH

BPL 900 HDR


KVM 32XL,
24-4, 26-4

with
Single circuit switching,
7 place boom manifold,
&
10167892 (12v) or 10167893 (24v)
emergency stop manifold

0-55 bar
Y(T)
STROKE
LIMITER

T
A
B

Agitator

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

200 bar
Hydraulic style
remote throttle
actuation

AIR TANK

only needed with

5 - 7 bar

hydraulic style

remote throttle

actuation

S3
S1

See boom
schematic

P4
MP4

To boom
circuit

300
bar

Concrete Pump
For. / Neut. / Rev.

X1

MP1

P1

260 bar

350 bar

MP2-4

1.5

1.5
1.6

Emergency
stop
manifold

1.6
2

A
A1

Change

X1
Y3

Y3

A1

D
To
Boom
Circuit

35 PSI P

Training Manual

SAIE 10057

initials

Port size
limits flow

P2

Swap P3 and P4 on e-stop manifold.

P3

Rev.061198

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S2

6
bar

900 WITH FAST SWITCH

Remote controlled
stroke limiter

T
A

Remote Throttle
Actuation (hyd. version)

Agitator

70
bar

Change

A
NG 6

AIR TANK

200 bar
P
Gauge Port
0-400 bar

Water
pump

5 - 7 bar

0.7 mm

T B

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

S3
1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

S1

initials

FAST
SWITCH P
X

with Single
Circuit Switching,
fast switch,
and 344780 (12v) or
344781 (24v) E-stop manifold

Release

6
bar

Rev.032697

STROKE
LIMITER

SAIE 10038

BPL 900 HDR


KVM 28X
KVM 26-4

Compressor
(Optional)

0-55 bar
Y(T)

T
210 bar
P

300 bar

S2

B
T

Concrete Pump
For. / Neut. / Rev.

See boom
schematic
D

X1

Port size
limits flow

X1

Y3

Y3

A1

250
bar

A1
Emergency stop manifold

M
To
Boom
Circuit

3.5 bar

A7VO-80 LR

Training Manual

A7VO-80 LR

900 WITH FAST SWITCH and DAMPNER

Remote controlled
stroke limiter
(Hartman style)

Remote controlled
stroke limiter
(Rexroth style)

Agitator

T
A

P
B

T
0-55 bar
Y(T)

70
bar

A
P

DAMPENER

FAST
SWITCH P
X

with Single Circuit Switching,


4 or 5 place b & w boom manifold,
30344780 (12v) or
30344781 (24v) E-stop manifold

NG 6

Compressor
(Optional)
Water
pump

initials

BPL 1200 HDR


KVM 28X / 26-4 / 32 XL

Release

200 bar

Gauge Port
0-400 bar

Rev.082797

SAIE 10055

STROKE
LIMITER

Change

T
P

T B

0.7 mm
0-55
bar
Y(T)

A
0.7 mm
AIR TANK

S3
C

1.5 mm
hole drilled
through spool

210 bar

6 bar

S1
See boom
schematic

B
300 bar

S2

250
bar

Concrete Pump
For. / Neut. / Rev.

E
Emergency stop manifold

X1

Port size
limits flow

X1

Y3

Y3

A1

M
3.5 bar

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

A1

D
To
Boom
Circuit

5.5 bar

A7VO-107 LR

Training Manual

A7VO-107 LR

10

1200 TC WITH SWITCHING VALVES

Remote controlled
stroke limiter

Nitrogen pressure set at 100 bar


(650 PSI)

Rev.112596

0-55
bar

Release

initials

P
P

Change

SAIE 10026

70
bar

BPL 900-1200 KVM 36X

TWIN CIRCUIT

with electric over air pilot

Y(T)
A

300
bar

S3

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

Manual stroke
limiter

Accumulator control device

P
This line must
return to tank
by itself.

Accumulator pump
unloading valve

Concrete Pump
Forward/Neutral/Reverse

T
200
bar

AIR TANK

NG
10

6 bar

250 bar
0.7
mm

0.7
mm
2.5 mm

Agitator

2.5 mm

S2
B

200
bar

S1
320
bar

Port size
limits flow

0.7 mm

X1

X1

A2F-23

A2F-10

Y3

120
bar

Hyd. oil cooler


w/elec fan

Soft switch

Remote Throttle
Actuation (hyd. version)

Y3
A

A
A1

A1

P
T

35 psi
P

6
bar

1200 = A7VO-107 LR
900 = A7VO-80 LR

See boom schematic

1200 = A7VO-107 LR
900 = A7VO-80 LR

Training Manual

11

1200 TC WITH MPS

Change

SAIE 10025
Rev.071797

6.3 mm

Remote controlled
stroke limiter

,,
,,
,,
,,

Nitrogen pressure set


at 100 bar (1450 PSI)

initials

BPL 900-1200 KVM 36X

MPS - TWIN CIRCUIT

P
P

6.3 mm

0-55
bar

add c.p. checkvalve to e-stop circuit

with electric over air pilot,


emergency stop manifold

70
bar

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

A
Y(T)
A

300
bar

S3

Manual stroke
limiter

Accumulator control device


T

1.0 mm

1.0 mm

P
This line must
return to tank
by itself.

A
A

Accumulator pump
unloading valve

Concrete Pump
Forward/Neutral/Reverse

200
bar

AIR TANK

NG
10

6 bar

T
0.7
mm
2.5 mm

0.7
mm
Agitator

2.5 mm

S2
B

200
bar

S1
320
bar

Port size
limits flow

0.7 mm

X1

A2F-10

Y3

80
bar

Hyd. oil cooler


w/elec fan

Soft switch

Remote Throttle
Actuation (hyd. version)

X1

A2F-23

Y3
A

See boom
schematic

A
A1

A1

C
250 bar

P
T

35 psi
P

1200 = A7VO-107 LR
900 = A7VO-80 LR

See boom schematic

1200 = A7VO-107 LR
900 = A7VO-80 LR

Training Manual

Emergency stop
manifold

6
bar

12

HI-FLOW - SINGLE CIRCUIT


Change

SAIE 10207
Rev. 102901

T
Truck air supply

initials

200 bar

330
bar
3

1.6
2

5-7 bar

P1

2020-4, 2023-4
KVM 32 XG
HI-FLOW - SINGLE CIRCUIT

0.9

See boom schematic

MP1

with Rexroth A7VO hydraulic pumps


and cartridge type MPS manifold

B
Agitator

P(B)

T(A)

Release.

1.6

P3

P2

0.9

Emergency stop
manifold
T
MP3

MP2

A
T

SP

B
ZK2

1.3

ZK1

ZS2

1.3

ZS1

Concrete Pump
Forward/Off/Reverse

MP
MG2
20
bar

XA
A

XB
3.5

3.5

G2

PBP

3.5-40
bar

X3

PZ
0.7

3.5-40
bar
0.7

A2

B2

0-30
bar

B3

A3

S3

XA1

MG1

XB3

MX1

X1

1.5
A

X1

A1

B1
Y3

S2

XA

XB
A1

PR
PP

S1

XR

XP

P2

P1
S

MP
T2

1200 or 2020/2023 = A7VO-107 LR


900 = A7VO-80 LR

T1
1.2

See boom schematic

X1
300 bar

1.4
Y3

X1
1.8

A
A1

10 bar

1.8

Training Manual

1200 or 2020/2023 = A7VO-107 LR


900 = A7VO-80 LR

13

P
Truck air supply

5-7 bar

A1

Agitator

B1

S3

1.5
mm

XA

XB

2nd agitator with


long rock and
sloped side units

Concrete Pump
Forward/Off/Reverse

2020-4, 2023-4
KVM 34 X
MPS - TWIN CIRCUIT

Nitrogen pressure set at


100 bar (1450 PSI)

6.0 mm

Psp

Mp1

2.0
mm

300
bar

Accumulator control device

Mp

This line must return


to tank by itself

200 bar
P

with Rexroth A7VO hydraulic pumps


and cartridge type MPS manifold

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

initials

Change

Correct max. pressure for 2020 versions.

SAIE 10115

Rev. 120798

2023-4

G2
MG2
T

SP
MP5

ZK2

Remote Throttle
Actuation (hyd. version
used when engine not
electronically controlled)

ZK1

P4

Emergency stop
manifold

0-30
bar

P3

0.9
1

X1
P2

2 1.6

MX1

ZS2

MP2

3.5-55
bar

260
bar

ZS1

MG1

MP1

P
0.9

XB

T
1

5.5 bar

X3

XA

P1

MP

PBP

PZ

A1
3.0
mm

2 1.6

See boom schematic

XA

B1

S2

XB

3.0
mm

X1
Y3

PR
0.7
mm

PP
XR

S1

0.7
mm

A
A1

XP

P2

See boom
schematic

P1

MP
T2

T1

1.2
2023 = 350 bar
2020 = 328 bar

1.4

1200 = A7VO-107 LR
900 = A7VO-80 LR

MX
X1

X1
1.8

80
bar

Y3
A

X2

Hyd. oil cooler


w/elec fan

A1

A7VO-LRDH
Hydraulic pumps are
used only on -4 machines

X3
1.1

1.8

35 psi
P

200 bar

Training Manual

1200 = A7VO-107 LR
900 = A7VO-80 LR

14

B1

S3

XA

XB
T

Nitrogen pressure set at


100 bar (1450 PSI)

6.0
mm

Psp

200 bar
This line must return
to tank by itself

Agitator

Mp1

2.0
mm

300
bar

Acumulator control device

Truck air supply

2nd agitator with


long rock and
sloped side units

Mp
T

5-7 bar

initials

Change

3.5 mm and 1.3 mm nozzles adde to A, B,


ZS2, and ZK2 ports on MPS manifold.

P
A1

SAIE 10139

10 bar

Rev. 110499

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

2023-5

T(A)

P(B)
Emergency stop
manifold
T

SP

MP5

2023-5
KVM 39X, 34X
MPS - TWIN CIRCUIT

MP2
P4

ZK2

P3

0.9

ZK1

1.3
mm

1
3

ZS2

260
bar

ZS1

1.3
mm

e-stop manifold
10167892 (12v) or 10167893 (24v)

P2

2 1.6

A
B

MP1

Concrete Pump
Forward/Off/Reverse

XA
1

3.5
mm

3.5
mm

P1

2 1.6

X3

See boom schematic

0.9

XB

P1

P
A

A1
3.0
mm

XA

S2

XB

PR
0.7
mm

PP
XR

B1
3.0
mm

Pressure
reducing
valve 55 bar

0.7
mm

P
T
A

S1

XP

P2

P1

T2

T1

Y T2

T1

A
Electric
stroke limiter

MP
T2

see
note

T1

see
note

1.2

360 bar

1.4

MX
See boom
schematic

X1

1.8
mm

80
bar

X2

Hyd. oil cooler


w/elec fan

X3
M1

1.1

1.8
mm

35 psi
P

Training Manual

M1

M
Note: A11VO-LRDH
Hydraulic pumps are
limited to 350 bar
by pressure cutoff.

200 bar

15

2525H
KVM 52
MPS - TWIN CIRCUIT

Agitator
B

2nd agitator with


long rock and
sloped side units
A1

B1

S3

XA

XB
T

Nitrogen pressure set at


100 bar (1450 PSI)

6.0
mm

Psp

With switching signal


from waterbox end

This line must return


to tank by itself

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

200 bar
P

Mp1

2.0
mm
Acumulator control device

300
bar

Mp
T

initials

Change

3.5 mm and 1.3 mm nozzle added to A, B,


ZS2, and ZK2 ports on MPS manifold.

SAIE 10143

Rev. 110399

2525H

P
MP5

MP2
P4

Remote Throttle
Actuation (hyd. version
used when engine not
electronically controlled)

T
1.1

P3

0.9

P2

2 1.6

260
bar
MP1

Truck air supply

X3
1

80
bar

X2

P1

2 1.6

350
bar

X1

See boom schematic

0.9

B
Concrete Pump
Forward/Off/Reverse

5-7 bar

T
360 bar

1.4

MX

Emergency stop manifold


1.2

T1

T2

MP
P1

P2

0.7 mm XP

XR

T
A

S1

55 bar

PP
PR 0.7 mm

3.0 mm
XB

Pressure
reducing valve

XA 3.0 mm

S2

A1

B1
B

P
T
M

X3

T1

T2

Y M

T1

T2

2.0 mm
3.5
mm

3.5
mm

see
note

XA

XB

ZS1

ZS2

see
note

5.5 bar

Electric
stroke limiter

See boom
schematic

Hyd. oil cooler


w/elec fan

1.3
mm
ZK1

M
ZK2

1.3
mm
SP

35 psi
P

M1

M1
A11VO-LRDH
Hydraulic pumps are
limited to noted pressure
by pressure cutoff.

Training Manual

200 bar

16

KVM 31 EZ Boom

BOOM #2
150/90 x 1195

BOOM #1 (MAIN)
260/160 x 11 80

BOOM #4 (TIP)
120/70 x 805

BOOM #3
170/90 x 1200

BOOM #1 (Extend)
130/80 x 4645

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


125/100 x 550
Rear
Front

Outrigger Extension
Cylinder Rear
60/40 x 1520

A1

A2

A1

10

14

160 bar

150 bar

250 bar

240 bar

A1

1.0 mm

EA

A2

310 bar

B1
300 bar

330 bar

A1

1.0 mm

EA

10

10188569

EA

1.0 mm

B2

A2

1.0 mm

EB

B1
320 bar

290 bar

A2

B1

1.0 mm

B2

10189483

EB

220 bar

190 bar

270 bar

320 bar
180 bar

B2

B1
280 bar

B2

10189484

1.0 mm

230 bar

A1
300 bar

A2

EB

1.0 mm

210 bar

10189485

EB

1.0 mm

240 bar

10160891

EA

1.0 mm

300 bar

HOME

Outrigger Extension
Cylinder Front
70/50 x 2300

B2

T
A1

B1

0 - 16
bar

1.0 mm

125
bar

B1

125
bar

125
bar

C
125
bar

EB

EA

150 bar

150 bar

13
150 bar

T1

14 bar

21
T
A

Front of Unit
Water
pump

Optional HP
water pump

Optional
air compressor

or

280
bar

T1

35 l/m

180 bar

C2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1

C2

C1

G1/2

G1/2

C2

C1
G1/2

C2

C1
G1/2

C2

C2

C1

C2

C1

G1/2

G1/2

C1

22

14

C1

125
bar

MPS

125
bar

125
bar

125
bar

G1/2

10

10

140 bar
30
bar
1

15
bar

MP

Outrigger Extension
Cylinder Front
70/50 x 2300

18

P2

350
bar

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


125/100 x 550
Rear
Front

Outrigger Extension
Cylinder Rear
60/40 x 1520

0.55

P
T

LS

14

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 31 EZ boom
from GmbH 10200675

11
X

T2

T1

See concrete pump


schematic

MP3

P2

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

GD# 10200675
Rev. 112904

initials

T1

R T2

17
MP1

MP2
2.0
bar

Z To concrete pump circuit

0.3
bar

hydraulic pump, port Z.

310 bar

Change

SAIE 10235

High pressure filter


P1
330
bar

P3

20 bar P

1.5
bar

20
M

Not used without 3-circuit


control.

Emergency stop
manifold
0.9

1.6

0.9

12

1.6

g maxV

g minV

Release.
M1

2.5
bar

A11 VO DRS

Training Manual

M1

A11 VO DRSP

17

KVM 32XL

Driver Side
BOOM #1 (MAIN)
200/125 x 1030

10151785
320
bar

BOOM #2
180/110 x 1300

10151785

320
bar

310
bar

P1
E

320
bar

P2
X

P1

P2

10151785

310
bar

P1

P2
X

BOOM #3
150/90 x 800

P2

BOOM #4 (TIP)
110/70 x 670

10151785

310
bar

320
bar

P1
E

P1

HOME

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


90/60 x 650

Outrigger Extension Cylinders


Rear
Front
60/40 x 1520
70/50 x 2300

P2
X

P1

P2

Water
pump

310
bar

P1

P2
X

Optional air
compressor

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

P2

P1
320
bar

320
bar

310
bar

10151785

310
bar

10151785

320
bar
T

310
bar

10151785

320
bar
T

310
bar
A1

10151785

B1

0 - 16
bar

200 bar

200 bar

P
14 bar

140
bar

T
A

80
bar

140
bar

80
bar

80
bar

140
bar

80
bar

140
bar
P

280
bar

P1

T
140 bar

C2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1

C2

C1

G1/2

C2

G1/2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1

MPS

G1/2

30
bar

15
bar

Outrigger Extension Cylinders


Rear
60/40 x 1520

Front
70/50 x 2300
Outrigger Jacking Cylinders
90/60 x 650

MP

350
bar

P2
P
T

LS

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 32XL

St

w/meter out spools


applies to proportional units only
and E-stop manifold number 10181606 (12v)
or 10181607 (24v)

0
See concrete
pump schematic

P3
MP2

initials

P1

P regulator

330 bar

A
A1

MP5

20
bar

0.9

A
3

To LS port
of Apitech

X3

1.6
2

300
bar

0.9
1.6

Emergency
stop
manifold

X
P

Rev. 061900 Release

Change

MP1

SAIE 10188

P2

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

2.0
atmospheres

High pressure filter

System when equipped with Rexroth hydraulic pump

Training Manual

System when equipped with Voac hydraulic pump

18

32XLG

BOOM #2
180/110 x 1300

BOOM #1 (MAIN)
200/125 x 1030

BOOM #4 (TIP)
110/70 x 670

BOOM #3
150/90 x 800

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

HOME

10151785
10151785
1.0 mm

10151785

1.0 mm

310 bar

10151785

1.0 mm

310 bar

1.0 mm

310 bar

Water
Tank

310 bar

320 bar

320 bar

320 bar

320 bar

320 bar

320 bar

320 bar

320 bar

SR
SR1

310 bar

310 bar

1.0 mm

1.0 mm

A1

1.0 mm

1.0 mm

10151785

10151785

Water
pressure

310 bar

310 bar

B1

0 - 16
bar

10151785

10151785

High pressure
water (optional)

200 bar

200 bar

Driver Side
14 bar

Outrigger Extension Cylinder


Rear
70/50 x 2300

T
A

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


125/100 x 550

Outrigger Extension Cylinder


Front
60/40 x 1520

140
bar

140 bar

C2

C1
G1/2

C2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1
G1/2

C2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1
G1/2

C2

C1

140
bar

80
bar

80
bar

MPS

G1/2

15
bar

80
bar

0.76
mm

140
bar

80
bar

140
bar
P

280
bar

0.61
mm

0.2 mm

P1

300
bar

T
P
LS

See pump schematic

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
32XLG

MP2

w/fixed displacement boom pump and


proportional Inlet control valve
XLG units SN170522735 and higher

MP3

P3

P2

Change

P1

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

High pressure filter

Outrigger Extension Cylinder


Rear
70/50 x 2300

Emergency
stop
manifold

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


125/100 x 550

Outrigger Extension Cylinder


Front
60/40 x 1520

Passenger Side

T
0.9

SAIE 10229

MP1

0.9
1.6
2
1

1.6
2
3

Rev. 120403 Release

2.0
atmospheres

initials

Training Manual

19

34 XG

BOOM #2
180/125 x 151 0
EB
1.0

B1

1.0

B2

A2

EB

B2

1.0

320 bar

B1

A2

EA

290 bar
A1

1.0

1.0

A1

1.0

B2

330 bar

330 bar

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

EB

320 bar

310 bar

B1

320 bar

190 bar

B2

180 bar

A2

320 bar

330 bar

EB

280 bar

1.0

A1

HOME

BOOM #4 (TIP)
110/60 x 805

A2

EA

Grayed components represent


optional equipment

140 bar

B1
320 bar

EA

BOOM #3
150/100 x 1173

290 bar

BOOM #1 (MAIN)
225/125 x 880

Water
Tank

330 bar
A

300 bar

Water pump

A1

1.0

HP water pump

Water
pressure

EA
A1

B1

High pressure
water

0 - 16
bar

150 bar

150 bar

Driver Side
Outrigger Extension
Cylinder
14 bar

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


125/100 x 550

Outrigger Extension
Cylinder

T
A

Front
60/40 x 1520

Rear
70/50 x 2300

Compressor

P
140 bar

140
bar
C1

C2
G1/2

C1

C2

C1

G1/2

C2
G1/2

C1

C2
G1/2

C1

C2
G1/2

C1

C2
G1/2

C1

C2

140
bar

80
bar

80
bar

PP

G1/2

15
bar

80
bar

140
bar

80
bar

140
bar
P

280
bar
0.2
mm

300
bar
P

.061 mm

LS

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
34 XG
w/fixed displacement boom pump and
proportional control valve
330 bar

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

SAIE 10187
GD#
Rev. 070803

High pressure filter

Outrigger Extension
Cylinder
Rear
70/50 x 2300

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


125/100 x 550

Outrigger Extension
Cylinder
Front
60/40 x 1520

Passenger Side

Change
Compressor circuit, outrigger cyl. sizes,
brake valve pressures corrected.

2.0
atmospheres

initials

Training Manual

20

KVM 39X
Driver Side
BOOM #2
200/140 x 1620

BOOM #1 (MAIN)
240/180 x 1080

BOOM #4 (TIP)
120/70 x 805

BOOM #3
150/80 x 1173

Optional air
compressor

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

Water
pump

HOM

10151786

Outrigger Extension Cylinder


Rear
70/50 x 2075

1.0 mm
1.0 mm

330 bar
320 bar

1.0 mm
1.0 mm

1.0 mm

1.0 mm

10180550

320 bar

320 bar
330 bar
310 bar

310 bar

310 bar

330 bar
320bar

300 bar

320 bar

310bar

330 bar

Outrigger Extension Cylinder


Front
95/82 + 58/44 X 3561

1.0 mm

1.0 mm

320 bar

320 bar

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


100/65 x 650

10180549

10180551
A1

B1

10151785

0 - 16
bar

200 bar

200 bar

P
14 bar

140
bar

T
A

140
bar

80
bar

80
bar

80
bar

140
bar

80
bar

140
bar
P

280
bar

P1

200 bar

C2

C1
G1/2

C2

C1
G1/2

C2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1
G1/2

C2

C1

C2

G1/2

C1

MPS

G1/2

30
bar

15
bar

Outrigger Extension Cylinder


Rear
70/50 x 2075
MP

350
bar

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


100/65 x 650

Outrigger Extension Cylinder


Front
95/82 + 58/44 X 3561

P2
P
T

LS

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 39X
See concrete pump
schematic

MP3

P3

P2

P1

2.0
atmospheres

High pressure filter

Emergency stop
manifold

w/slewing motor manifold,


Apitech control block, and emergency stop manifold
10181606 (12 volt) or 10181607 (24 volt)

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

MP1
330
bar

P regulator

A
X

MP2
T

20
bar P

A1

300
bar

SAIE 10162
X3

Rev. 120299

Change
E-stop manifold symbol corrected.

initials

System when equipped with Rexroth hydraulic pump

Training Manual

21

S 39/41 SX
14.03.2006

HOME

Training Manual

22

S 42 SX

HOME

Driver Side
Outrigger Extension Cable

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


110/80 x 750

Outrigger Slewing Cylinder


100/40 x 327

Front

Front

Rear
Rear

A1

B1

A2

B2

B3

A3

B4

A4

P
200
bar

T2

350
bar

300
bar

200
bar

To/From Boom System (10233-2)

T1

350
bar

P1

A4

B4

A3

B3

A2

B2

A1

B1

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 42 SX
applies to units w/ symetrical outrigger
valves, and Apitech boom control valves.

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

Rear
Outrigger Slewing Cylinder
100/40 x 327

Front
Rear
Outrigger Jacking Cylinders
110/80 x 750

Front
Outrigger Extension Cable

Passenger Side
Change

SAIE 10233-1/2
Rev. 090904

Release

initials

Training Manual

23

S 42 SX

BOOM #4 (TIP)
110/70 x 1000

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

HOME

10151788
320
bar

Grayed components represent


optional equipment

A1

Water
Tank

B1

200 bar

320
bar

320
bar

320
bar

10039659

400 bar

400 bar

P2
X

E
P2

320
bar

300
bar

10151788

10039659

P2

BOOM #1 (MAIN)
180/110 x 1300

300
bar

P2

300
bar

10151788

10151788

P2

320
bar

BOOM #2
225/140 x 1600

300
bar

P2
X

P1

200 bar

10151788

300
bar

P1

0 - 16
bar

BOOM #3
160/110 x 1200

300
bar

10151788

320 bar

320 bar

10049891

10049891

14 bar

Water pump

#1 Down - brake valve

HP water pump

To/From Outrigger System (10233-1)

Water
pressure

High pressure
water

0.35

T1
0.35

T2

P1

PP

C2

MP

C1

C2

C1

C2

C1

C2

C1

C2

C1

C2

C1

C2

C1

90 bar

190 bar
15
bar
30bar

P2
350
bar

P
T

see concrete
pump schematic
P3
P2
MP3

LS

MP1

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 42 SX

P1

High pressure filter

W/ Apitech boom control valves,


and e-stop manifold 10181607

320 bar
MP2

P regulator

X
0.9

20
bar P

0.9
1.6

1.6
2

A1

300
bar

Emergency stop manifold

Change

SAIE 10233-2/2

Rev. 090904

P
Boom hydraulic pump

Training Manual

initials

Release

2.0
atmospheres

X3
1

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

24

S 45 SX

HOME

Driver Side
Outrigger Jacking Cylinders
110/80 x 750
Rear

Outrigger Slewing Cylinder


100/40 x 327

Outrigger Extension Cable

Rear

Front

Front

A1

B1

A2

B2

A3

B3

A4

B4

P
T1

350
bar

200
bar

T2

200
bar

300
bar

350
bar

P1

A4

B4

A3

B3

A2

B2

A1

B1

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 45 SX
applies to unit SN 70526011, 170526002 and later

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

Front

Rear

Outrigger Extension Cable

Outrigger Slewing Cylinder


100/40 x 327

Rear

Front
Outrigger Jacking Cylinders
110/80 x 750

Passenger Side
SAIE 10047-1/2
Rev. 040898

initials

Change
Correct p.s. outrigger slewing/350 bar
secondary relief connection

Training Manual

25

S 45 SX

HOME

Water
pump

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

Optional air
compressor

BOOM #4 (TIP)
115/70 x 995

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 45 SX

10151788
320
bar

applies to unit SN 70526011, 170526002 and later

BOOM #3
200/110 x 1200

10151786

300
bar

330
bar

A1

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

B1

200 bar

P1

P1

200 bar

320
bar

P1

Change

Rev. 040898

Change adjustable checkvalve to fixed


spring checkvalve, change pilot valve to 35
bar, assign flow to outrigger supply valve.

initials

14 bar

280
bar

330
bar
T

350
bar

330
bar

P2
P1

P1

P2
P1

P1

P2

320
bar

320
bar
T

10151786

10151784

P2

260
bar

10151787

BOOM #1 (MAIN)
340/115 x 2290

310
bar

P2
P1

P2

SAIE 10047-2/2

10151785

320
bar

P2
0 - 16
bar

BOOM #2
260/160 x 1990

P2

310
bar

10151785

350
bar
T

330
bar

10151784

T
A

A4

A3

B3

A2

B2

A1

B1

Pv

Ls

160 - 200

B4

P
X
Y
Ls

T1

Dr2-a'

P1

35
bar

b'

230 bar

a'

Dr1-b'

T2

350
bar
40
bar

30 l
max.

a2

b1

a1
A-G 4-a1

b2

A-G 2-b1

a3

B-G 1-a2

b3

B-G 3-b2

a4

C-G 4-a3

b4

C-G 2-b3

Y
D-G 1-b4

D-G 3-a4

200
bar

LS
see concrete
pump schematic
MP2

PST

P
P2

C-G 4-a3

C-G 2-b3

D-G 3-a4

D-G 1-b4

A-G 4-a1

A-G 2-b1

B-G 3-b2

B-G 1-a2

Dr 1-a'

Dr 1-b'

High pressure filter

P regulator

20
bar

A1

P3

MP1

310
bar
P

P1

X3

T
A

330
bar

P
Boom hydraulic pump

Training Manual

MP3

Emergency stop manifold

2.0
atmospheres

26

52 M

HOME

Driver Side
Outrigger Jacking Cylinders
Rear
180/150 x 900

Outrigger Slewing Cylinder

Front
180/150 x 900

Rear
140/90 x 300

A1

B1

A2

Extension Cylinder

Front
140/90 x 1145

B2

Front
90/70 x 1870

A3

B3

A4

B4

350
bar

350
bar

50
bar

T1

T2

See SAIE 10079


page 2 of 2

P1

150
bar

350
bar

350
bar

50
bar

A1

B1

A2

B2

A3

B3

A4

B4

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 52
1 of 2 (outrigger circuit)
Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders

SAIE 10079-1/2
Rev. 102298

Change

Rear
180/150 x 900

Front
180/150 x 900

Outrigger Slewing Cylinder


Rear
140/90 x 300

Front
140/90 x 1145

Extension Cylinder
Front
90/70 x 1870

change main outrigger relief to 150 bar

Passenger Side

initials

Training Manual

27

52 M

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
KVM 52

BOOM #2
280/160 x 2100

BOOM #3
210/110 x 1173

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

BOOM #4 (TIP)
130/80 x 1069

2 of 2 (boom circuit)
w/10167892 (12v) or
10167893 (24v) Estop manifold

all changes on page 1 of 2

0 - 16
bar

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

10065681
320 bar

10065681
320 bar

10065680
350 bar

10065681
320 bar

A1

B1

10065680
350 bar

10047783
350 bar

10065681
320 bar

10047784
260 bar

280
bar
200 bar

200 bar

initials

14 bar

See SAIE 10079


page 1 of 2

A
A

A
A

1.5

P1

adjusted to 20 bar
dynamic pressure

T1

adjusted to 20 bar
dynamic pressure

T2

adjusted to 20 bar
dynamic pressure

Pst

Pst
L
50
bar

adjusted
to 20 bar
dynamic
pressure

30
bar
a4
b1

b1 a1

a1 b2

b2 a2

a2 b3

b3 a3

b4

a3

b4 a4

a4 b5

b5 a5

a5

b6

b6

a6

A4

B4

a5

A5

B5

a6

a6

A6

B6

a1

A1

B1

a2

A2

B2

a3

A3

B3

190
bar

350 bar

L(T)

10146289

190
bar

10146290

X (LS)

X (LS)

P
b4

b5

b6

b1

b2

b3

See concrete pump schematic

P3

P4

P2

MP1

P1

a6

b6

a5

b5

a4

b4

a3

b3

a2

b2

MP2

a1

b1

Rev. 102298

SAIE 10079-2/2

Change

HOME

BOOM #1 (MAIN)
350/160 x 2730

Water
pump

330 bar

P regulator
High
pressure
filter

High
pressure
filter

20 bar
P

A1

A
MP5

0.9
1.6

T
Emergency
stop
manifold

310
bar

0.9
1.6
2
1

2
1

X3

5.5
bar

Boom hydraulic pump

Training Manual

28

S 58 SX

BOOM #4 (TIP)
160/80 x 1110

SLEWING (LEFT - RIGHT)

BOOM #3
240/120 x 1500

BOOM #2
320/200 x 2200

BOOM #1 (MAIN)
400/180 x 3450

Water pump

HP water pump

HOME
EB

260 bar

A1
250 bar

330 bar

A2

A1

320 bar

310 bar

320 bar

A1

1.0 mm

EA
250 bar

330 bar

A2

A2

B1

330 bar

260 bar

A1

1.0 mm

B2

270 bar

320 bar

A2

0 - 16
bar

B1

250 bar

240 bar

A1

EA
1.0 mm

1.0 mm

B2

330 bar

B1
320 bar

B2

B1

EB

1.0 mm

340 bar

EB
1.0 mm

B2

B1

1.0 mm

1.0 mm

EA

water tank

EB

EA

250 bar

water
output

HP
water
output

14 bar

T
B

240 bar

P1

T1
0.55 mm

LS T

T2

300 bar

300 bar
R1

360 bar

A
A
280 bar

20
bar

B
180 bar

230 bar

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
S 58, 61 SX boom
page 1 0f 2

T2

20 bar

initials

Change
Update to match GmbH rev. Add "61."

MP3 P2

P3

Emergency stop
manifold
MP1

P1

350
bar

1.5
bar

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

Rev. 102502

See concrete pump


schematic

w/estop manifold 10181606 (12V) or 10181607 (24V)


from Gmbh print #10185941

SAIE 10197-1/2

T1

High pressure filter

MP2
T

310 bar

M
A11VO
170 l/m

5 bar
M1

Training Manual

29

S 58 SX
Driver Side
HOME

Outrigger Slewing Cylinder


130/60 x 445

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


130/70 x 800

Rear

Rear

A1

B1

Front

A2

B2

Outrigger Roller
22 x 33

Outrigger Extension Cable

Front

A3

B3

A4

B4

P
P1

350
bar

210
bar

210
bar
200
bar

T1

200
bar

T2

200
bar

350
bar
210
bar

200
bar

310
bar

210
bar

C
T

A4

B4

A3

B3

A2

Rear

B1

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC
S 58, 61 SX
page 2 of 2

Outrigger Slewing Cylinder


130/60 x 445

A1

B2

Rear

Front

Outrigger Jacking Cylinders


130/70 x 800

Note:
Pressures are set to the
accuracy of the gauge as
received from the
manufacturer.

Front

Outrigger Extension Cable

Outrigger Roller
22 x 33

SAIE 10197-2/2
Rev. 102502

Change
Update to match GmbH rev. Add "61."

initials

Passenger Side

Training Manual

30