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Basik 'Algebra

Tmma Majhmatikn
Panepistmio Ajhnn
Ajna 2013

Perieqmena
1
1.1 . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 modulo n . . . .
1.3
1.3 Zn . . . .
1.4 Euler . . .

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1
1
10
16
16
17
23

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R[x]
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33
33
43
51
55
56
66
68
74
93

3
3.1 . . . . . .
3.1 Sn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Lagrange . . . . . . . . .
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 -
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 - . . . . . . . . . . .

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111
111
117
118
124
130
136
145
149
159

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2
2.1 . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 C[x]
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Keflaio 1

Akraioi
1.1

Diairetthta


N = {0, 1, 2, }
,
Z = { , 1, 0, 1, }
,
Z>0 = {m Z : m > 0}
,
Q={

m
: m, n Z, n 6= 0}
n


C = {a + bi : a, b R}
.
1.1.1. ( ) - N
.
1.1.2. a, b Z. c C b = ac, a
b ( a b). : a|b.
1.1.3. a|0, a Z. 0|0.

1.1.4.

(i) a|b b|c, a|c.

(ii) a|b a|c, a|xb + yc x, y Z.


(iii) a|b b|a, a = b.
. (iii). a|b b|a c, d Z b = ac
a = bd.
(1.1.1)

b = bdc.

b = 0 b|a, a = 0. b 6= 0 (1.1.1)
1 = dc, d = 1. a = b.
2
1.1.5. p > 1 ,
1 p.
1.1.6. 2, 3, 5, 7 . . . .
1.1.7. > 1 .
. .
. . M > 1
. M 6= 0.
M , m . m , c, d
1 < c < m 1 < d < m. m c, d
M . c, d > 1. c, d .
m = cd . m M .
2
1.1.8. () .
.
{p1 , , p }.

N = p1 p2 p + 1.
N > 1 (1.1.7), pi |N i {1, 2, , }.
pi |p1 p2 p ,
pi |N p1 p2 p .
2

pi |1, .

1.1.9. ( ). a, b Z
a > 0. q, r Z
b = qa + r,

0 6 r < a.

1.1 3
1.1.10. r b
a.
44 = 7 6 + 2 ( 2).
1.1.9.
M = {b ta : t Z}.
M N,
, r. b aq = r, r M . r > 0. r > a.
b aq > a

b (q + 1)a > 0

b (q + 1)a M.

r ,
b (q + 1)a > r,

r a > r.
, r < a.
.
b = qa + r,

06r<a

b1 = q1 a + r1 ,

0 6 r1 < a,

q, r, q1 , r1 Z. ,
(q q1 )a = r1 r

a < r1 r < a.

a < (q q1 )a < a.
a > 0,
1 < q1 q < 1,
q q1 = 0 q = q1 r = r1 .

q q1 Z.
2

1.1.11. a, b Z a > 0. q, r Z

b = qa + r,
0 6 r < |a|.
1.1.12. a, b Z .
a b ( d = (a, b)). x, y Z d = ax + by.

.
M = {ax + by > 0 : x, y Z}.
M (a2 + b2 > 0) N,
, d.
x, y Z.

d = ax + by,

1. d|a d|b.
q, r Z
a = qd + r,

0 6 r < d.


r = a qd = a q(ax + by) = a(1 qx) + b(qy).
r 6= 0, r M ( a b) r > d
( d ). , 0 6 r < d. r = 0, a = qd,
d|a. d|b.
2. c|a c|b, c|d.
c|a c|b, c|ax+by = d.
d a b.
. d, d1 a b. d|a, d|b. d1
a b, d|d1 . d1 |d ( d1 |a, d1 |b), d = d1 (
d, d1 > 0)
2
1.1.13. (.) p a, b Z. p|ab, p|a p|b.
. p a. p ,
d = (p, a).
1.1.12 x, y Z
1 = px + ay.

b = bpx + aby.
2

p|bpx p|aby, p|b.

1.1.14. ( ). a Z, a > 1.
p1 , pm
a = p1 p2 pm
( ).

1.1 5

. ( 1.1.7).
. p1 , . . . , pm , q1 , . . . , qn
a = p1 p2 pm = q1 qn .
m 6 n m.
m = 1
p1 = q1 q2 qn ,
p1 qj , q1 . q1
q1 > 1, p1 = q1 .
1 = q2 qn .
n = 1.
m > 1.
p1 pm = q1 qn ,

p2 pm = q2 qn .
m 1 = n 1 q2 , . . . , qn
p2 , . . . pn .
2
1.1.15. (i) 1.1.14 a Z, a 6= 0, 1

a = 1 pa1 1 pamm ,
pi ai .
(ii) a, b Z (a, b > 0)
a = pa1 1 pamm

b = pb11 pbmm ,
pi ai .
.
(i) (a, b), a, b Z,
(ii) x, y Z (a, b) = ax + by.

6
(i) b = aq + r, (a, b) = (r, a).

1.1.16.

, (a, b)|a (a, b) = b, (a, b)|r. (a, b)|a


(a, b)|r, (a, b)|(r, a). (r, a)|(a, b). (a, b) = (r, a).
(ii) a > 0. ,
b

= aq + r,

= rq1 + r1 ,

06r<a

r
..
.

= r1 q2 + r2 ,

0 6 r1 < r

rn2

= rn1 qn + rn ,

rn1

0 6 r2 < r1

0 6 rn < rn1

rn qn+1 + 0.

(i)
(a, b) = (r, a) = (r, r1 ) = (rn , 0) = rn ,
.
(iii)
a > r > r1 > r2 >
rn+1 = 0.
1.1.17. a = 65 b = 418.
,
418

2 165 + 88

165

1 88 + 77

88

1 77 + 11

77

7 11 + 0.

x, y Z
11 = 165x + 418y.
,
11

88 1 77 = 88 1(165 1 88)

2 88 1 165 = 2(418 2 165) 1 165

165(5) + 418 2.

(x, y) (5, 2).

1.1 7
1.1.18. x, y .
d = a(x tb) + b(y + ta), t Z.

1.

1
= p
1 p

= p1 1 p ,

pi pi 6= pj i 6= j i , i N. |
i 6 i i.
. |. Z = .
= p11 p N.

1 +1
+
.
p
p1 1 p = p

, i = i +i
i, i 6 i .
, i 6 i i.
= p11 p ,
i = i i N. = |.

2. 1.
(, ) = p11 p ,
i = min{i , i } i.
. 1 .
2

3. 2
/ Q.

. 2 Q 2 = m
n , m, n Z, n 6= 0.
(m, n) = 1 ( ).
p p|n. m2 = 2n2 p|n, p|m2 . p
, p|m. p|m p|n, p|(m, n). p|1,
2
. n = 1. 2 = m Z, .
4. a, b, c Z (a, b) = 1. .
(i) a|bc, a|c.

8
(ii) a|c b|c, ab|c.
. (i). (a, b) = 1, x, y Z
1 = ax + by,

c = acx + bxy.
a|acx a|bc. ,
a|acx + bcy = c.
(ii). a|c b|c, ab|acx ab|bcy. ,
ab|acx + bcy = c.
2
5. a, b, c Z>0 a3 |b7 . a|b3 .
.
a = pa1 1 pa

b = pb11 pb ,
pi pi 6= pj i 6= j ai , bi N.
3a
1
a3 = p3a
1 p

7b
1
b7 = p7b
1 p .

a3 |b7 1, 3ai 6 7bi .


ai 6

7
bi 6 bi ,
3

i. 1 a|b3 .
6. (m, n) = 1, (m + n, mn) = 1.
. p p|(m + n, mn).
p|m + n

(1.1.2)

p|mn.

1.1 9
p (1.1.2)
p|m

p|n.

p|m p|m + n, p|n. p|m p|n,


p|(m, n) = 1,
. p|n , (m+n, mn) =
1.
2
7. (p, p+2, p+4), p, p+2, p+4
.
. p = 3 (3, 5, 7). p > 3, p
. p = 3q p = 3q + 1
p = 3q + 2, q N. p 6= 3q, p 6= 3 .
p = 3q + 1.
p + 2 = 3q + 1 + 2 = 3(q + 1),
.
p = 3q + 2.
p + 4 = 3q + 2 + 4 = 3(q + 2),
2

.
8. (3n + 1, 10n + 3), n N.
.
10n + 3

3(3n + 1) + n

3n + 1

3n+1

1 n + 0.

(3n + 1, 10n + 3) = 1.
9. a, b, n Z>0 , n > 1. ,
(na 1, nb 1) = nd 1,
d = (a, b).

10

.
b

= aq + r,

= rq1 + r1 ,

r
..
.

= r1 q2 + r2 ,

06r<a
0 6 r1 < r

rn2

= rn1 qn + rn ,

rn1

0 6 r2 < r1

0 6 rn < rn1

rn qn+1 + 0.

. b = aq + r
Q = nr

nqa 1
= nr (na(q1) + na + 1),
na 1

Q Z. ,
nb 1 = Q (na 1) + (nr 1).
,
nb1

Q (na 1) + nr 1

na 1

Q1 (nr 1) + nr1 1

nr 1 =
..
.

Q2 (nr1 1) + nr2 1

nrm2

= Qm (nrm1 1) + nrm 1

nrm1

= Qm+1 (nrm 1) + 0.

(na 1, nb 1) = nrm 1,
rm = (a, b).

1.2

Isotimec

1.2.1. a, b, n Z. a, b modulo n (
modulo n), n|a b. a bmodn.
1.2.2.

(i) 13 mod5, 5|13 3.

(ii) 13 2mod5, 5|13 (2)

1.2 11

1.2.3.

(i)
a bmodn a bmod(n).

( n > 0.)
(ii) n = 0,
a bmod0 a = b.
1.2.4. a, b, c, n Z. .
(i) a amodn
(ii) a bmodn b amodn
(iii) a bmodn b cmodn, a cmodn.
. (ii) a b .
1.2.5. a, b, n Z, n 6= 0. a bmodn a b
n.
. q1 , q2 , r1 , r2 Z,
a = q1 n + r1 ,

0 6 r1 < |n|

b = q2 n + r2 ,

0 6 r2 < |n|

a b = (q1 q2 ) n + r1 r2 ,

0 6 |r1 r2 | < |n|.

a bmodn n|a b n|r1 r2 r1 r2 = 0

( n < (r1 r2 ) < n)

a bmodn r1 = r2 .
2
1.2.6. a, b, c, n Z. .
(i) a bmodn c dmodn, a + c (b + d)modn.
(ii) a bmodn c dmodn, a c (b d)modn.
(iii) a bmodn, a b modn, Z>0 .

12

. (i).
a bmodn

n|a b

c dmodn

n|c d.

,
n|a b + c d

n|a + c (b + d).

,
a + c (b + d)modn
(ii). n|a b n|c d. ,
ac bd = ac bc + bc bd = (a b)c + b(c d).

n|(a b)c + b(c d),



n|ac bd.

a c (b d)modn.
2

(iii). (ii).
.
ac (bd)modn,

c 6= 0,


a bmodn.
,
5 2 2 2mod6.

5 = 2mod6.

1.2 13

1. 4n + 3, n Z
.
. a, n, b N
4n + 3 = a2 + b2 .

3 (a2 + b2 )mod4.

(1.2.1)

a = 0, 1, 2, 3mod4

( ),

a2 = 02 , 12 , 22 , 32 mod4,

a2 = 0, 1, 0, 1mod4.
,
a2 0, 1mod4,

b2 0, 1mod4.

a2 + b2 0, 1, 2mod4.
a2 + b2 3mod4,
(1.2.1).
2
2. n N
11|33n 5n .
. ,
33n 5n = (33 )n 5n = 27n 5n 5n 5n mod11.

33n 5n 0mod11,

11|33n 5n .
2

14
3. x, y Z
x2 5y 2 = 13.

(1.2.2)

. mod5 x, y Z (1.2.2).

x2 13mod5,

x2 3mod5.

(1.2.3)
,
x

0, 1, 2, 3, 4mod5

02 , 12 , 22 , 32 , 42 mod5

x2

0, 1, 4, 4, 1mod5.

x2 0, 1, 4mod4,
x2 3mod5,
(1.2.3).
2
4.
3m + 3n + 1 (m, n N)
.
.
3m + 3n + 1 = x2

(1.2.4)

(x N).

mod8.
x2 = 0, 1, 4mod8.

(1.2.5)
,
x

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7mod8

x2

0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49mod8

0, 1, 4, 1, 0, 1, 4, 1mod8

0, 1, 4mod8.

1.2 15


3m 1, 3mod8.
m. m = 1 3m 1, 3mod8.
,
3m+1 = 3 3m 3, 9mod8.

3m+1 1, 3mod8.

3m + 3n + 1 1 + 1 + 1, 1 + 3 + 1, 3 + 3 + 1mod8.

3m + 3n + 1 3, 5, 7mod8,
(1.2.4) (1.2.5).

5. n N
21|4n+2 + 52n+1 .
. ,
4n+2 + 52n+1

42 4n + 5(52 )n

16 4n + 5(25)n

16 4n + 5 4n mod21.


16 4n + 5 4n = 21 4n ,

21|4n+2 + 52n+1 .
2
6. n N
10n + 3 4n+2 4mod9.
. ,
10n 1mod9.

9|3 4n+2 3,

3|4n+2 1.

4n+2 1mod3
n+2

3|4

1.

(4 1mod3).
2

16

1.3

Oi akraioi modulo n

1.3

1.3.1. A . A
A A. X A A, (a, a0 ) X a x a0 a a0 (
X).
1.3.2. A 6= 0 X A A (X A). X
, .
(i) a x a0 ().
(ii) a x b, b x a ().
(iii) a x b b x c, a x c ().
1.3.3. X A. a A.
a
[a] = {x A : x a}.
a [a].
1.3.4.

(i) A 6= 0. A .
a b a = b.

. [a] = a
(ii) A R2 .
P Q |OP | = |OQ|,
P, Q O . . [P ] = |OP | O.
(iii) A = Z n Z>0 . Z.
a b n|a b.

a b a bmodn.
1.2.4 .
a, [a]n [a],
[a]n = {x Z : x = amodn} = {a + n, Z}.

1.3 modulo n 17
() n = 2.
[0] = {x Z : x 0}.

x 0 x 0mod2 x = 2, Z.

[0] = {2 : Z}

( ).

,
[1] = {2 + 1 : Z}

( ).

[5] = [1].
() n = 3. ,
[0] =

{3 : Z}

[1] =

{3 + 1 : Z}

[2] =

{3 + 2 : Z}.

1.3.5. X A a, b A.
.
(i) [a] = [b] a b.
(ii) [a] [b] = a  b
. (i). [a] = [b]. a [a] = [b],
a b.
a b x [a]. x a a b,
x b. x [b] [a] [b].
[b] [a]. [a] = [b].
(ii) [a] [b] = . a b. a [a] a [b].
a [a] [b], .
a  b x [a] [b]. x [a] x [b], x a
x b. a x x b, a b, .
2
1.3

Zn

1.3.6.
Zn = {[a]n : a Z}
modulo n.

18

1.3.7.
Zn = {[0]n , [1]n , [2]n , , [n 1]n }.
1.3.8. 0 6 i, j 6 n 1 i 6= j [i]n 6= [j]n .
1.3.7.
{[0]n , [1]n , [2]n , , [n 1]n } Zn
Zn .
[a] Zn . q, r Z
a = qn + r,

0 6 r 6 n 1.
2

[a]n = [r]n .
1.3.9. ,
Z2 = {[0]2 , [1]2 },

[0]2 = {2 : Z}

[1]2 = {1 + 2 : Z}.

Z2 = {[1]2 , [2]2 }

Z3 = {[0]3 , [1]3 , [2]3 }.


,
Z3 = {[1]3 , [6]3 , [8]3 }.
1.3.10. a0 , a1 , , an1 Z ai imodn.
Zn = {[a0 ]n , [a1 ]n , , [an1 ]n }.

1.3.11. [a], [b] Zn . ,


Zn Zn Zn ,
+ : ([a], [b]) [a + b]

: ([a], [b]) [a b].


1.3.12. .

1.3 modulo n 19
. a, a0 , b, b0 Z [a] = [a0 ] [b] = [b0 ]. [a+b] = [a0 +b0 ].

(1.3.1)

n|a a0

n|b b0 .

,
n|(a + b) (a0 + b0 ),

a + b = (a0 + b0 )modn.

[a + b] = [a0 + b0 ].
Zn .
(1.3.1) 1.2.6,
ab = (a0 b0 )modn.

[ab] = [a0 b0 ],
.
1.3.13. Z6 ,
(i) [8] + [4] = [6] = [0].
(ii) [2] [4] = [8] = [2].
(iii) [2] + [7] = [5] = [1].
1.3.14. a, b, c Z. Zn .
1. ([a] + [b]) + [c] = [a] + ([b] + [c]).
2. [a] + [0] = [0] + [a] = [a].
3. [a] + [a] = [a] + [a] = [0].
4. [a] + [b] = [b] + [a].
5. [a]([b][c]) = ([a][b])[c].
6. [a]([b] + [c]) = [a][b] + [a][c].
7. ([a] + [b])[c] = [a][c] + ([b][c).
8. [1][a] = [a][1] = [a].

20
9. [a][b] = [b][a].
. .
. Z6
[2][3] = [6] = [0],
[2][4] = [2][1].
[4] 6= [1]. .
1.3.15. [a] Zn , [a0 ] Zn ,

[a][a0 ] = [a0 ][a] = [1].


[a0 ] [a] Zn .
1.3.16.

(i) Z10
[3][7] = [7][3] = [21] = 1.

[3] [7] .
(ii) Z10 [2] . , [a0 ] Z10

[2][a0 ] = [1].

[2a0 ] = [1],

2a0 1mod10.

2a0 = 1 + 10, Z.
( 2a0 , 1 + 10
).
1.3.17. [a] Zn (a, n) = 1.
. [a] Zn . [a0 ] Zn
[a][a0 ] = 1.

[aa0 ] = 1

aa0 = 1modn.

,
aa0 = 1 + n, ( Z).

1.3 modulo n 21

(a, n)|1,

(a, n) = 1.
, (a, n) = 1. x, y Z
1 = ax + ny.
,
[1] = [ax + ny].
,
[1]

[a][x] + [n][y]

[a][x] + [0][y]

[a][x] + [0]

[a][x].

,
[1] = [a][x],
2

[a] .

1.3.18. [a] Zn , .
. [a], [b], [c] Zn
[a][b] = [1]

[a][c] = [1].

,
[c]

[c][1] = [c]([a][b])

([c][a])[b] = ([a][c])[b]

[1][b] = [b]
2

1. [5] Z36 .

22
. (5, 36) = 1, [5] Z36 .
,
36

57+1

5 1 + 0.

1 = 5(7) + 36,

[1] = 5[7],
[5] [7] = [29].

2. x Z,
8x 11mod15.
. (8, 15) = 1, [8] Z15 .
,
15

18+7

17+1

7 1 + 0.

1 = 8 1 7 = 8 1(15 1 8) = 8(2) + 15(1).


[8] Z15 [2]. ,
8x 11mod15 [8][x] = [11].
[8]
[2]([8][x]) = [2][11] [x] = [22] = [7].

x = 7 + 15.
2
3.
(1.3.2)

[a][x] = [b]

Zn (a, n)|b.

1.4 Euler 23
. x Z (1.3.2). ,
[ax] = [b] ax = b + n

( Z).

(a, n)|a (a, n)|n, (a, n)|b.


, (a, n)|b. x, y Z
(a, n) = ay + nz.

(a,n)

Z,
b = ax + nz1 ,

x, z1 Z.
[b] = [ax] = [a][x].
2

1.4

H sunrthsh tou Euler

1.4.1. : Z>0 Z>0


(n) = {a Z : 1 6 a 6 n, (a, n) = 1}.
(10) = 4, (12) = 4.
[a] Zn

(a, n) = 1.


U (Zn ) = {[a] Zn : [a] },

(n) = |U (Zn )| (= U (Zn )).


1.4.2. Euler .
(i) p Z>0 , (p) = p p1 .
(ii) m, n Z>0 (m, n) = 1, (m n) = (m) (n).

1 2
(iii) Z>0 = p
6 pj i 6= j,
1 p2 p , pi pi =
 


1
1
1
1 1

1
() = (p1 p1
) (p p
1
.
)= 1
p1
p

24
1.4.3. (100) = (22 52 ) = (22 2)(52 5) = 40.
1.4.4. a, b, n Z (a, n) = (b, n) = 1, (ab, n) = 1.
. p p|(ab, n). p|ab p
, p|a p|b. ,
p|a p|n

p|b p|n.

p|(a, n)

p|(b, n).

,
p|1, .
2
1.4.2. (i). 1 6 6 p
(, p ) 6= 1 p = p q , q =
1, 2, . . . p1 . (p) = p p1 .
(ii). (m, n) = 1,
|U (Zmn )| = |U (Zn )| |U (Zm )| = |U (Zn | |U (Zm )|.
: Zmn Zm Zn ,
([a]mn ) = ([a]m , [a]n ).
.
, [a]mn = [b]mn . mn|a b, m|a b n|a b.
[a]m = [b]m [a]n = [b]n .
. 1 1 .
,
([a]mn ) = ([b]mn ),

([a]m , [a]n ) = ([b]m , [b]n ).



[a]m = [b]m

[a]n = [b]n ,

m|a b

n|a b.

(m, n) = 1, m n|a b, [a]mn = [b]mn ,


1 1.
: Zmn Zm Zn 1 1 |Zmn | = |Zm Zn |(= mn < ),
.
U (Zmn ) Zmn .
(Zmn )) U (Zm ) U (Zn ).
(U

1.4 Euler 25
, [a]mn U (Zmn ), (a, mn) = 1. (a, m)|(a, mn), (a, m) = 1. [a]m U (Zm ). [a]n U (Zn ).
: U (Zmn ) U (Zm ) U (Zn )
mn ) = ([a]m , [a]n ).
([a]
1 1 .

1 1, .

. , ([x]n , [y]m ) U (Zm ) U (Zn ). (x, m) =


(y, n) = 1. [a]mn Zmn
([a]m , [a]n ) = ([x]m , [y]n ),

[a]m = [x]m

[a]n = [y]n .

a xmodm (x, m) = 1, (a, m) = 1.


(a, n) = 1. 1.4.4 (a, mn) = 1, [a]mn U (Zmn ).
(iii). (ii) (i) ,

1 2
(p
1 p2 p )

1
= (p
1 )(p2 ) (p )
1

(p11 p1
)(p2 p21 ) (p
)
p
1

 2



1
1
1
= 1
1
1
.
p1
p1
p

2
1.4.5. (Euler) Z n Z>0 (, n) = 1.
(n) = 1modn.
( (100) = 40 (17, 100) = 1, 1740 1mod100.
1740 0,1.)
1.4.6. ( Fermat) Z p .
(i) ,
p modp.
(ii) p - ,
p1 1modp.
( 2011 mod2011, Z (2011 ).)

26
.(ii). Euler n = p.
(i) p - , (, p) = 1, Euler
p1 1modp p modp
. p | , = 0modp p = 0modp.
Euler.

U ((Zn ) = {[1 ], [2 ], , [ ]},


= (n). [] U (Zn ).
A = {[i ] : i = 1, 2, . . . , }.
A = U (Zn ). A U (Zn ).
[], [] U (Zn ), [] U (Zn ). , (, n) =
1 (, n) = 1, 1.4.4 (, n) = 1. [] U (Zn ).
A U (Zn ) .
|A| = , [i ] 6= [j ], [i ] 6= [j ]. [i ] = [j ].

n|i j n|(i j ).
(, n) = 1,
n|i j .
[i ] = [j ], A = U (Zn ).
U (Zn ).
[1 ][2 ] [ ] = [1 ][2 ] [ ].

[ 1 2 ] = [1 2 ].
[1 ][2 ] [ ] ( [x], [y]
U (Zn ), [xy] U (Zn )), [] = [1], 1modn.
(n) = 1modn.
2

1. 191000 14.
.
(1.4.1)

19 5mod14 191000 51000 mod14.

1.4 Euler 27

(14) = (2 7) = (2) (7) = 6.


1000 = 166 6 + 4,
51000 = (56 )166 54 1166 54 mod14,
Euler. 1.4.1
,
191000 54 mod14.

54 = (52 )2 112 mod14 (3)2 mod14 9mod14.


191000 14 9.

2. n N
n49 nmod1547.
. 1547 = 7 13 17.
. 1547 = 7 13 17
n49 nmod7,
n49 nmod13,

n49 nmod17.
Fermat p = 7,
n7 = nmod7,

n49 (n7 )7 nmod7.


Fermat p = 13,
n13 = nmod13.
49 = 3 13 + 10 ,
n49 (n13 )3 n10 n3 n10 n13 nmod13.

n49 nmod17.
2

28
3. n N
(n + 1)9 + 4n5 1mod5.
. Fermat,
n5 nmod5

(n + 1)5 (n + 1)mod5.

,
(n + 1)9 = (n + 1)5 (n + 1)4 (n + 1)(n + 1)4 (n + 1)5 (n + 1)mod5.
Fermat 4 1mod5,
4n5 4nmod5 nmod5.

(n + 1)9 + 4n5 (n + 1) + (n)mod5 1mod5.


2
4. n N.
n12 + 12n 5mod11

n 2mod11

n 9mod11.

.
12 1mod11 12n 1mod11.
Fermat p = 11,
n11 nmod11 n12 n2 mod11,

n12 + 12n (n2 + 1)mod11.

n12 + 12n 5mod11 n2 + 1 5mod11


n2 4 0mod11
11|n2 4
11|(n 2)(n + 2).
11
11|(n 2)

11|n + 2.

1.4 Euler 29

n 2mod11

n 2mod11.

n 2mod11

n 9mod11.
2

5.
7n 1mod20 n = 0mod4.
.
n = 4m + r, 0 6 r < 4.
74 = 2401,
74 = 1mod20,

7n = (74 )m 7r 7r mod20.

(1.4.2)

7n 1mod20 7r 1mod20.

r = 0 (1.4.2) . r = 1, 2, 3
(1.4.2) .
7n 1mod20 r = 0 n 0mod4.
2
1.4.7. (20) = (4 5) = (4) (5) = 2 4 = 8.
(7, 20) = 1. Euler
78 mod20.
74 1mod20 . ,
(, n) = 1, (n)
1modn.
6. p p = 3mod4. Z
(1.4.3)

2 1modp.

. Z, (1.4.3). .

30
() p|. (1.4.3) p| 1,
() p - . p = 4+3, Z (p = 3mod4). N = p1
2 = 2+1
( ). (1.4.3)
(2 )N (1)N modp 2n (1)N modp.

(1.4.4)

p1 (1)N modp.

N , (1)N = 1, (1.4.4)
p1 1modp.
p - , Fermat
p1 1modp.

1 1modp p = 2,
p = 3mod4.

1.4.8. p = 5 (p 1mod4).
22 1mod5.
7. Z (, 72) = 1.
12 1mod72.
. 72 = 23 32 . (23 , 32 ) = 1,

12 1mod8

12 1mod9.
(, 72) = 1, (, 8) = 1. Euler
(8) = 23 22 = 4,
(8) 1mod8 4 1mod8.

12 = (4 )3 13 mod8 1mod8.
(, 9) = 1 (9) = 32 3 = 6, Euler

(9) 1mod9 6 = 1mod9.

12 = 1mod9.
2

1.4 Euler 31
8. n Z>0 .
(2n) = 2(n)

. (2n) = 2(n) n .
(2, n) = 1
(2n) = (2) (n) = (n).

(n) = 2(n) (n) = 0,


.
, n . n = 2 m, Z>0 m .
(2n)

(2+1 m) = (2+1 )(m)

(2+1 2 ) (m) = 2 (m),

(2+1 , m) = 1.
,
2(n)

(2n) = 2(n).

2(2 m) = 2(2 )(m)

2(2 21 ) (m)

2 21 (m)

2 (m)
2

Keflaio 2

Daktlioi
2.1

Akeraec perioqc kai smata

2.1.1. A A A A.
2.1.2. (i) + : Z Z Z, (a, b) 7 a + b
: Z Z Z, (a, b) 7 a b Z.
(ii) Zn ,
+ : Zn Zn Zn ,

([a], [b]) 7 [a + b]

: Zn Zn Zn ,

([a], [b]) 7 [a b].

( .)
(iii) Z2 Z2 Z2 ,
([a], [b]) 7 [c],

c = max{a, b}.

( ). ,
([0], [1]) 7 [1]

([2], [1]) 7 [2],


[1] 6= [2].

34
(iv) Mn (R) n n R

Mn (R) Mn (R) 7 Mn (R),

(A, B) 7 A + B

Mn (R) Mn (R) 7 Mn (R),

(A, B) 7 A B.

.
2.1.3. R .
R R 7 R,

(a, b) 7 a + b,

R R 7 R,

(a, b) 7 a b,

R ,
a, b, c R.
(i) (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

( )

(ii) 0R R a+0R = 0R +a = a
(iii) a R, a0 R a+a0 = 0R = a0 +a
(iv) a + b = b + a

( )
( )

()

(v) (a b) c = a (b c)
(vi) a(b + c) = a b + a c
(vii) (a + b) c = a c + b c

( )
()
()

. a0 (iii) a ( a).
2.1.4. Z a b = a b a b = ab.
Z . a b = b a,
a, b Z.
2.1.5. R , a, b R
a b = b a.
2.1.6. R 1R R, 1R a = a 1R
a R, R ( 1R ).
2.1.7.
( 1).

(i) Q, Z, R, C -

2.1 35
(ii) Zn ( [1]).
(iii) Mn (R) ,

1Mn (R) =

1 0
0 1
.. ..
. .
0 0

..
.

0
0
..
.

Mn (R).

(iv) Q[ 2] = {a + b 2 : a, b Q} (
R).
a, b, c, d Q,

(a + b 2) + (c + d 2) = a + c + (b + d) 2 Q[ 2]

(a + b 2) (c + d 2) = ac + 2bd + (ad + bc) 2 Q[ 2],

( ac + 2bd, ad + bc Q). Q[ 2]
.

Q[
2]

( R Q[ 2]).
(v) Z[] = {a + b C : a, b Z}, 2 = 1
( 1). , a, b, c, d Z
(a + b) + (c + d) = a + c + (b + d) Z[]

(a + b) (c + d) = (ac bd) + (ad + bc) Z[],


+ C Z[].
(vi) V R-
L(V ) = {f : V V : f }.
L(V ),
+ : L(V ) L(V ) L(V ),
: L(V ) L(V ) L(V ).
f, g L(V ) v V ,
(f + g)(v) = f (v) + g(v)

36

(f g)(v) = f (g(v)).
L(V ) ( )
( 1v : V V, v 7 v 0 ). f (g +h) = f g +f h.
,
f (g + h)(v)

= f ((g + h)(v)) = f (g(v) + h(v))


= f (g(v)) + f (h(v)) = f g(v) + f h(v)
=

(f g + f h)(v),

v V . f (g + h) = f g + f h.
.
2.1.8. +, L(V ), ( )
f + g, f g L(V ), f, g (V ).
2.1.9. R . .
(i) 0R ( (ii) 2.1.3.).
(ii) a R, a0 ( (iii) 2.1.3.).
(iii) a, b, c R a + b = a + c, b = c.
(iv) a R, (a) = a.
(v) 0R a = a 0R = 0R , a R.
(vi) (a + b) = (a) + (b), a, b R.
(vii) (a) b = a(b) = (ab), a, b R.
(viii) (a)(b) = ab, a, b R.
. (i). 0R , 00R
0R + a = a + 0R = a = 00R + a = a + 00R ,
a R. a = 00R ,
0R + 00R = 00R 0R = 00R .
(ii). a0 , a00
a + a0 = 0R = a + a00 .

2.1 37

,
a00 = a00 + 0R = a00 + (a + a0 ) = (a00 + a) + a0 = 0R + a0 = a0 .
(iii). a, b, c R a + b = a + c. ( + )
a0 + (a + b) = a0 + (a + c),

(a0 + a) + b = (a0 + a) + c 0R + b = 0R + c b = c.
(iv). (iii) 1.2.1.,
a + (a) = (a) + a = 0R
( ) (a).
(v). 0R + 0R = 0R ,
(0R + 0R ) a = 0R a 0R a + 0R a = 0R a + 0R 0R a = 0R .
(vi). ,
(a + b) + ((a) + (b))

(a + b) + ((b) + (a))

((a + b) + (b)) + (a)

(a + (b + (b))) + (a)

(a + 0R ) + (a)

a + (a) = 0R .

(a + b) = (a) + (b).
(v). ,
a + (a) = 0R

(a + (a)) b = 0R b

ab + (a)b = 0R

(a)b = (ab).

a(b) = (ab).
(vi). (v) b -b (iv).

2.1.10. R (1R ).
r R , r0 R
rr0 = r0 r = 1R .
r0 r ( r0 = r1 ).
R U (R).

38
2.1.11. r R , r0 R
.
,
r r0 = r0 r = 1R

r r00 = r00 r = 1R

(r, r0 , r00 R).

,
r00 = 1R r00 = (r0 r) r00 = r0 (rr00 ) = r0 (1R ) = r0 .
2
2.1.12.

(i) U (Z) = {1, 1}, U (R) = R r {0}.

(ii) U (Zn ) = {[a] Zn : (a, n) = 1}. , U (Z10 ) = {[1], [3], [7], [9]}.
2.1.13.
U (Z[]) = {1, 1, },

Z[] = {a + b : a, b Z}.
,
{1, 1, } U (Z[]).
( () = 1, .) a + b U (Z[]),
a, b Z. c, d Z (a + b)(c + d) = 1.
,
|(a + b)| |(c + d| =
2

(a2 + b2 )(c2 + d2 )

1.

|(a + b)| |(c + d|

a2 + b2 = 1 ( a2 + b2 , c2 + d2 Z>0 ). a2 + b2 = 1 a, b Z
a = 1

b=0

a=0

b = 1.
2

a + b = 1, .
2.1.14.

U (Q[ 2]) = Q[ 2] r {0},

Q[ 2] = {a + b 2 : a, b Q}.

2.1 39

a, b Q a + b 2 = 0 a= b = 0. ,

a + b 2 = 0, b 6= 0, 2 = ab Q, ( 2
/ Q).

a + b 2 Q[ 2] a + b 2 6= 0. a + b 2
. ,

ab 2
ab 2
1

= 2
=
a 2b2
a+b 2
(a + b 2)(a b 2)

a
b
=
+ 2
2 Q[ 2],
a2 2b2
a 2b2

a2 2b2 6= 0 ( a2 2b2 = 0 2 , )
a, b, a2 2b2 Q.
2
2.1.15. R . R ( )
,
(i) R ,
(ii) R 1R 6= 0R
(iii) a, b 0R , ab = 0R , a = 0R b = 0R .
2.1.16. (i) Z, Q, R, C .

(ii) Z[] Q[ 2] ( ) .
(iii) Z[6] . Z6 [2][3] = [6] = [0],
[2] 6= 0 [3] 6= 0.
(iv) F (R, R) = {f : R R }. ,
+ : F (R, R) F (R, R) F (R, R),

(f, g) 7 f + g, (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x)

+ : F (R, R) F (R, R) F (R, R),

(f, g) 7 f g, (f g)(x) = f (x)g(x).


F (R, R) 1 : R R, x 7 1.
F (R, R) , f, g : R R
f, g 6= 0 f g = 0.
2.1.17. n N. Zn n
n = 0.

40
. Zn . n 6= 1 ( Z1 = {[0]}
). n > 1 n = ab, a, b N. , [n] = [ab],
[0] = [a][b]. Zn , [a] = [0] [b] = [0], n|a n|b.
n = a n = b, n .
, n = [0]. Z0 = Z .
n . n > 1, [1] 6= [0]. Zn
[a][b] = [0], (a, b Z). ,
[ab] = [0] n|ab
n n|a n|b, [a] = [0] [b] = [0].

2.1.18. R ,
(i) R ,
(ii) 1R 6= 0R ,
(iii) r R, r 6= 0 .
2.1.19. .
. , ab = 0R (a, b R) a 6= 0. a1 R
( a). ,
a1 (ab) = 0R (a1 a) b = 0R 1R b = 0r b = 0R .
2
2.1.20. (i) Q, R, C , Z .

(ii) Q[ 2]= {a + b 2 R : a, b Q} . ( 2.1.14.


U (Q[ 2]) = Q[ 2] r {0}.)
2.1.21. n N. Zn n .
. Zn . n 6= 0 (Z0 = Z ) n 6= 1 (Z1 = {[0]}
). 2.1.19. Zn , n
n = 0. n .
, n . n > 1 [1] 6= [0]. Zn
n n (, n) = 1,
= 1, 2, . . . , n 1. U (Zn ) = Zn r {[0]}, Zn .
2
2.1.22.
R, .

(i) Mn (R) , n > 2. n = 1, Mn (R) =

2.1 41

(ii) Z[ 2] = {a + b 2 :
a, b Z} ,

,
1/2

/
Z[
2].
,

a,
b

Z[
2]

a
+
b
2=0a=b=

0. 1/2 Z[ 2],

1
=a+b 2
2

(a, b Z),

1
2a 1 + 2b 2 = 0 2a 1 = 2b = 0 a = ,
2

2
. a, b, c, d R. ,


a + b + (c + d) = (a + c) + (c + d) = (a + b) + c + d
. a + b + c + d. , a = b = c = d
4a.
2.1.23. R , r R m Z.

(m)
r + r + + r
mr = 0R

(r) + (r) + + (r)


(m)

,
m > 0
m = 0
m < 0

r, s R m, n Z .
(i) (m + n)r = mr + nr.
(ii) m(nr) = (mn)r.
(iii) (m)r = m(r) = (mr).
(iv) m(r + s) = mr + ms.
2.1.24. R , r R m Z>0 . ,
rm = r r r (m ).
r R m Z>0 .
(i) rm+n = rm rn
(ii) (rm )n = rmn .

(r0 = 1R ).

42
. a, b, c, d R. ,


a + b(cd) = (ab)(cd) = (ab)c d
. abcd. , a = b = c = d
a4 .
2.1.25. R . R
(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ,
a, b R.
.
(a + b)2 = (a + b)(a + b) = a(a + b) + b(a + b) = a2 + ab = ba + b2 .
,
(a + b)2

= a2 + 2ab + b2 a2 + ab + ab + b2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

ab + ab

2ab ba = ba

( a, b R)

R (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 , a, b R.
2
2.1.26. R , a, b R n N, n > 2. ab = ba,
ni  
X
n ni i
(2.1.1)
(a + b)n = an +
a b + bn ,
i
i=1

 
n
n!
=
i
(n i)!i!

(! = 1 2 ( 1) ).

.
  
 

n
n
n+1
+
=
i
i1
i

(i = 2, . . . n 1).

. n. n = 2,
(a + b)2

(a + b)(a + b) = a(a + b) + b(a + b)

a2 + ab + ba + b2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ,

ab = ba, a, b R.
(2.1.1.). n + 1.
,
(a + b)n+1

=
=

(a + b)(a + b)n
n1
n1
X n
X n
n+1
n+1i i
n
n
a
+
a
b + ab + ba +
ani bi+1 + bn+1 .
i
i
i=1
i=1

2.1 43
, an+1 1,
an+1i bi
  
 

n
n
n+1
+
=
(1 < i < n),
i
i1
i
abn

1+

n
n1


=1+n=


n+1
,
n

ban
 


n
n+1
1+
=n+1=
1
1
bn+1 1. (2.1.1.) n + 1
n.
2
2.1.27. R 3r = 0, r R.

(r + s)3 = r3 + s3 ,
r, s R.
. R
 
 
3 2
3
(r + s)3 = r3 +
r s+
rs2 + s3
1
2
= r3 + 3r2 s + 3rs + s3
= r3 + s3 .
2
2.1

2.1.28. : A A A A B A.
B , b1 , b2 B b1 b2 B.
2.1.29. : A A A B A B 6= ,
: B B B : b1 0 b2 = b1 b2 . ( , 0 =
.)
2.1.30.

(i) Z,
2Z = {2m : m Z}

44

(ii)
2Z + 1 = {2m + 1 : m Z}
, .
2.1.31. R S R
R. S R,
S R.
2.1.32.

(i) Z Q, R, C.

(ii) 2Z Z.
(iii) N Z, ( ).
2.1.33. S R S, R 6= . R
S .
(i) a + b R a, b R.
(ii) ab R a, b R.
(iii) a R a R.
. R S. (i) (ii)
. 0R = 0S . , a R,
a + 0R = a

a + 0S = a.

a + 0s = a + 0R 0s = 0R ,
. a R ,
(a) + (a) = 0S (a) + (a) = 0R ,
(a) R.
(i),(ii) (iii). (i) (ii) R
S. 0R . R 6=
a R, (iii) -a R. (i) a + (a) R. 0S R.
0R = 0S . a R ,
a + (a) = (a) + a = 0R .
(a) R (iii).
R, S R S.
2

2.1 45
2.1.34. S R S, R 6= . R
S a, b R a b R ab R.
. a R. a a R, 0 R. 0 a R, a R.
a, b R,
a b R a (b) R a + b R.
(2.1.33.), R S.

1.
Z[] = {a + b : a, b Z}
( Gauss) C.
. a, b, c, d Z. ,
(a + b) (c + d) = (a c) + (b d) Z[]

(a + b)(c + d) = (ac bd) + (ab + bc) Z[].


Z[] 6= , Z[] C.
2.

Z[ 2] = {a + b 2 : a, b Z}

R.

. , Z[ 2] 6= . a, b, c, d Z. ,

(a + b 2) (c + d 2) = (a c) + (b d) 2 Z[ 2]

(a + b 2)(c + d 2) = (ac + 2bd) + (ab + bc) 2 Z[ 2].

Z[ 2] R.

3.

R = {a + b3 2 : a, b Z}

R.
. ,
R,




. , 3 2 R, ( 3 2)( 3 2) = 3 4
/ R.
2

46
4. S = {[0], [4], [8]} Z12 .
. [a] [b] S [a][b] S
[a], [b] S. [4] (1S = [4]).
2
2.1.35. S R.
(i) 0S = 0R ( 2.1.33.).
(ii) S R , 1R = 1S (
4, 1S 6= 1Z12 ).
(iii) a S S, a R
( 4, a = [4] S).
(iv) R S
. , R = Z S = 2Z.
(v) R S 1R = 1S . S
S, s R
.
5. R = M2 (R)

S=

0
0


:R .

S R.
. S 6= . ,

 
0 0
0

0
0

0
0



0
0


=

=

0
0

0
0


S


S.

S M2 (R). S



0 0
1S =
.
0 1
,


0
0


0
1
0
0

/ U (M2 (R))
0
1


U (S).

2.1 47

6.


R=


m

Q
:
m

Z,
a,
b

N
.
2a 3b

(i) R Q.
(ii) R Q
1
3.
(iii) R ;

1
2

. (i). 0 R, R 6= . m Z, a, b, c, d N.
,
m
n
m2c 3d n2a 3b
c b =
R
a
b
2 3
2 3
2a+c 3b+d

m
n
mn

= a+c b+d R.
2a 3b 2c 3b
2 3
R Q.
(ii). S Q 12 , 31 S. S
1 = 12 + 21 , 1 S, 1 S.

1 1 1 S.
Z S. S
 a
 b
1
1
1
1
=
S

=
S
a
b
2
2
3
3
0
(a, b) N. ( a = 0, 21 = 1 S.) ,
m=

1 1
S
2a 3b

( S). R S.
(iii). R . 5 R (m = 5, a =
b = 0). 5 R. ,
. R
1
5 ( 5 Q). R Q
1R = 1Q = 1. ,
1
m
= a b
5
2 3

(m Z, a, b N).

,
5m = 2m 3b
.

(5

)
=
5|2a

5|3b ,
2

48
7. n Z>0



.

[a] [b]
[0] [c]

A M2 (Zn ) : A =

T2 (Zn ) =

(i) T2 (Zn ) M2 (Zn ).


(ii) T2 (Zn ) ;
(iii)
|U (T2 (Zn )| = n (n)2 ,
Euler.
. (i). , 2.1.34., T2 (Zn ) M2 (Zn ).
(ii). ,


[2]
[0]

[3]
[4]



[1]
[0]

[2]
[3]



[1]
[0]

[2]
[3]

[2]
[0]

[13]
[12]

[2]
[0]

[3]
[4]

[2]
[0]

[11]
[12]

[2]
[0]

[11]
[12]

,


[2]
[0]

[13]
[12]


6=


,

T2 (Zn ) .
(iii).

A=

[a] [b]
[0] [c]


M2 (Zn ).

A U (M2 (Zn )) B U (M2 (Zn )),




[1] [0]
AB = BA =
.
[0] [1]
x, y, z Z


[a] [b]
[x]
[0] [c]
[0]

[y]
[z]


=

[1]
[0]

[0]
[1]

[ax]
[0]

[ay + bz]
[cz]


=

[1]
[0]

[0]
[1]


.

2.1 49

,
[ax] = [cz] = [1],

[a][x] = [c][z] = 1.
[a], [c] U (Zn ). [a], [c] U (Zn ),
 0

[a ] [y]
B=
,
[0] [c0 ]
[y] = [a0 ][c0 ][b], [a0 ] [a] [c0 ] [c]
Zn ,


[1] [0]
AB = BA =
.
[0] [1]
,


[a] [b]
A=
U (M2 (Zn ))
[0] [c]

[a], [c] U (Zn )

[b]

,
|U (M2 (Zn )| = |U (Zn )|2 |Zn | = (n)2 n.
2
8. R r R. r , rm = 0
m Z>0 .
(i) Z30 Z60 .
(ii) Zn , n > 1
n .
(ii) R .
R R.
. (i). [a] Z30 [a]m = 0, m Z>0 . [am ] = [0],
30|am . 30 = 2 3 5,
2|am , 3|am , 5|am .
2, 3, 5 ,
2|a, 3|a, 5|a.
30|a ( 2, 3, 5 ). [a] = [0], Z30
, [0].

50
[a] Z60 [a]m = 0, m Z>0 . [am ] = [0],
60|am . 60 = 22 3 5,
2|am , 3|am , 5|am .
2, 3, 5 ,
2|a, 3|a, 5|a.
30|a ( 2, 3, 5 ). [a] = [0] [a] = [30]
( Z60 ). [30] ([30]2 = [900] = [0]).
Z60 , [0] [30].
(ii). Zn , n > 1 .
n = pn1 1 pn ,
n
= p1 p2 p

N = max{n1 , n }.

[]N = [N ] = [0],
n|N . [] = [0], n|.
n = = pn1 1 pn .
, p p2 |n. n
n = p1 p2 p (pi ). [] Zn
[]m = [0].
[m ] = [0] n|m pi |,
i. p1 , p2 , . . . , pn ,
p1 p2 pn |.
[n]|, [] = [0].
(iii). r, s R rm = sn = 0 m, n Z>0 .
N (R) = {x R : x = 0, Z>0 }.
N (R) 6= , 0R N (R). rs N (R).
,
(rs)m = rm sm = 0R sm = 0R ,

2.2 51
R .
r N (R). ,
(r)m = (1)m rm = 0R .
r + s N (R). R ,
(2.1.2)

(r + s)m+n = rm+n +

m+n1
X 
i=1


m + n m+ni i
r
s + sm+n .
i

,
rm+n = rm rn = 0 rn = 0

sm+n = sm sn = sm 0 = 0.
i > n,

rm+ni si = rm+ni 0 = 0.

i 6 n, m + n i > m
rm+ni si = 0 si = 0.
(2.1.2) (r+s)m+n = 0, r+s N (R).
.
2

2.2

Polunuma kai poluwnumikc sunartseic

2.2.1. R 1R . R 1R = 1R ,

(i) R R.
(ii) x R rx = xr, r R.
(iii) R
r0 + r1 x + r2 x2 + + rm xm (ri R).
(iv)
r0 + r1 x + r2 x2 + + rm xm = s0 + s1 x + r2 x2 + + sn xn (ri , si R), m 6 n,

r0 = s0 , r1 = s1 , . . . , rm = sm , . . . , sm+1 = = sn = 0R .
R = R[x].

52

( .)
2.2.2.

(i) 0R[x] = 0R ( R R[x]).

(ii) 0R x = 0R , Z>0 .
(iii) f (x), g(x) R[x],
f (x) = f0 + f1 x + + fm xm (fi R),
g(x) = g0 + g1 x + + gm xm (gi R)
( m ).
(iv) R[x] . f (x), g(x) ,
f (x) + g(x) = f0 + g0 + (f1 + g1 )x + + (fm + gm )xm .
f (x) = f0 + f1 x + + fm xm g(x) = g0 + g1 x + + gn xn ,
f (x) g(x) = c1 x + c2 x2 + cm+n xm+n ,

c =

fi gi .

i=0

2.2.1.
(v) R (1R ). R[x] ( (iv) ).

2.2.3. p , p| pi , i = 1, 2, . . . , p 1.

. = pi , Z.
p! = i!(p 1)!.
p|p!,
p|i!(p 1)!.
p , p - i!, p - (p i)!, i = 1, 2, . . . , p 1. , p|.

2.2.4. p . R pr = 0R
r R.
(r + s)p = rp + rs ,
r, s R.

2.2 53
. R ,
(r + s)

p1  
X
p pi i
r +
r
s + sp
i
i=1

rp rs ,

2.2.3.

2.2.5. p . f (x) Zp [x]


(f (x))p = f (xp ),

(f0 + f1 x + + fm xm )p = f0 + f1 xp + + fm (xp )m .
( Z3 [x], ([1] + [1]x + [2]x5 )3 = [1] + [1]x3 + [2]x15 ).
. 2.2.4,
(f0 + f1 x + + fm xm )p

(f0 )p + (f1 x)p + + (fm xm )p

p
f0p + f1p xp + + fm
(xm )p .

i, fip = fi (fi Zp ,
Fermat).
2
2.2.6. R 1R . R[x]
1R[x] = 1R . x0 = 1. f (x) R[x] f (x) 6= 0

f (x) = f0 x0 + f1 x+ + fm xm , fi R, fm 6= 0.
f (x) 6= 0, fm 6= 0 f (x) m
f (x) ( m = degf (x)). f (x) 6= 0 (
R[x]), degf (x) = , < n n N + n =
n N. , f (x) R[x], degf (x) 6 2,
f (x) = 0 f (x) 6= 0 degf (x) = 0, 1, 2, . . ..
2.2.7. R f (x), g(x) R[x].
.
(i)
deg(f (x) + g(x)) 6 max{degf (x), degg(x)}.
, fm gn f (x), g(x)
fm xm + gn xn 6= 0, .

54

(ii)
deg(f (x)g(x)) 6 degf (x) + degg(x).
, fm gn f (x), g(x)
fm gn 6= 0, .
2

. 2.2.6.
2.2.8. Z2 [x] 6 3;
. , f (x) Z2 [x], degf (x) 6 3
f (x) = f0 + f1 x + f2 x2 + f3 x3 (fi Z2 ).
fi , 24 .

2.2.9. R . .
(i) R[x] .
(ii) f (x), g(x) R[x],
deg(f (x)g(x)) = degf (x) + degg(x).
(iii) U (R[x]) = U (R).
. (i). R[x] 1R[x] = 1R . R
, 1R 6= 0R . , 1R[x] 6= 0R[x] . R ,
R[x]. f (x), g(x) R[x] f (x), g(x) 6= 0(= 0R ). fm , gm
f (x), g(x) . fm , gn 6= 0 R ,
fm gn 6= 0. f (x), g(x) .
, f (x) g(x) 6= 0, R[x] .
(ii). (2.2.7).
(ii). U (R) U (R[x]) , R
R[x] 1R = 1R[x] .
, f (x) U (R[x]). g(x) U (R[x]) ,
f (x) g(x)

deg(f (x)g(x))

deg1

degf (x) + degg(x)

degf (x) = degg(x)

0.

f (x), g(x) R f (x) g(x) = 1, f (x) U (R).

2.2 55
2.2.10. Z4 [x] ( ),
([2]x + [1])(2[x] + [1]) = [4]x2 + [4]x + [1] = [1].
, [2]x + [1] U (Z4 [x]) ( ).
2
2.2.11. (i) 2.2.9,
R .
Z4 [x],
([2]x + [1])([2]x + [1]) = [1],
[2][x] + [1] U (Z4 [x]) [2][x] + [1]
/ Z4 .

(ii) R . f (x) R[x] ,


(x + 1)2011 + (x2 + 1)40 = f (x)30 .
, deg(x + 1)2011 = 2011, deg(x2 + 1)40 = 80. ,
deg((x + 1)2011 + (x2 + 1)40 ) = 2011.
,
degf (x)30 = 2011 30degf (x) = 2011,
( 2.2.9).

2.2

2.2.12. R 1R f (x) R[x],


f (x) = f0 + f1 r + fm rm R.
f : R R f(r) = f (r). f
f (x). F (R, R) = {g : R R} (
g : R R). : R[x] F (R, R), (f (x)) = f.
2.2.13. 1 1.
, p R = Zp . f1 (x) = xp x Zp [x] f2 (x) = 0.
r Zp , f1 (r) = rp r = 0 ( Fermat). ,
(f1 (x)) = (f2 (x)),

f1 (x) 6= f2 (x).

. R ( R = R
R = C), 1 1.

56

2.3

Diairetthta poluwnmwn

2.3.1. R 1R . a(x), b(x) R[x].


a(x) b(x) R[x], c(x) R[x] b(x) = a(x)c(x). (
a(x)|b(x).)
2.3.2. R 1R . .
(i) f (x), a(x), b(x) R[x], f (x)|a(x) f (x)|b(x),
f (x)|a(x)g(x) + b(x)h(x),
g(x), h(x) R[x].
(ii) a(x), b(x), c(x) R[x] a(x)|b(x), b(x)|c(x), a(x)|c(x).
(iii) R a(x), b(x) R[x] a(x)|b(x), dega(x) 6 degb(x).
(iv) R a(x), b(x) R[x] a(x)|b(x) b(x)|a(x),
u U (R) b(x) = ua(x).
. (i),(ii) (iii) ( (iii) (ii)
2.2.9).
(iv) a(x)|b(x) b(x)|a(x) c(x), d(x) R[x],
b(x) = c(x)a(x)

a(x) = d(x)b(x).

b(x) = c(x)d(x)b(x).
b(x) 6= 0. R , R[x] ,
1 = c(x)d(x), c(x) U (R[x]). (iii) 2.2.9
c(x) = u U (R). b(x) = 0, b(x)|a(x), a(x) = 0
.
2
.
[3]x2 [4]x + [5] Z7 [x],

3x2 4x + 5 Z7 [x].
( 3 = [3].)
2.3.3. R 1R . p(x) R[x]
degp(x) > 1 a(x), b(x) R[x]
p(x) = a(x)b(x)

dega(x) > 1, degb(x) > 1.

2.3 57
2.3.4. (i) R , p(x) R[x] degp(x) =
1 R[x] ( (ii) 2.2.9).
(ii) Z4 [x] 2x + 1 Z4 [x] ,
2x + 1 = 1 (2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(2x + 1)(2x + 1)
( 2.2.10).
(iii) 5x + 1 Z6 [x] Z6 [x],
5x + 1 = (2x + 1)(3x + 1).
(iv) x2 + 1 R[x] R[x], x2 + 1 C[x]
C[x],
x2 + 1 = (x = )(x ).
(v) x4 + x2 + 1 Z2 [x] Z2 [x],
(x2 + x + 1)2 = x4 + x2 + 1.
(vi) p xp + a Zp [x] ,
xp + a = xp + ap = (x + a)p ,
Fermat
2.2.4 R = Zp [x].
2.3.5. ( .) F f (x), g(x)
F (x) g(x) 6= 0. q(x), r(x) F (x)
f (x) = q(x) g(x) + r(x), degr(x) < degg(x).
. . degf (x) < degg(x). f (x) = 0 f (x) + f (x).
degf (x) > degg(x).
f (x) = f0 + f1 x + f2 x2 + + fn xn

g(x) = g0 + g1 x + g2 x2 + + gn xn , gm 6= 0.
degf (x). degf (x) = 0,
f (x) = f0 = (f0 g01 )g0 + 0.

58
(g(x) = g0 degg(x) 6 degf (x).) f (x)
< n.
1
h(x) = f (x) xnm fn gm
g(x) F [x].
h(x) xn
1
fn fn gm
gm = fn fn = 0.

degh(x) < n. q1 (x), r1 (x) F [x]


h(x) = q1 (x) g(x) + r(x), degr(x) < degg(x).

1
f (x) = (xnm fn gm
)g(x) + r(x).

.
f (x) = q(x)g(x) + r(x), degr(x) < degg(x)

f (x) = q1 (x)g(x) + r1 (x), degr1 (x) < degg(x).

(q(x) q1 (x))g(x) = r1 (x) r(x).


q(x) q1 (x) 6= 0,
deg(r1 (x) r(x)) = deg(q(x) q1 (x)) + degg(x) > degg(x),
degr(x) < degg(x) degr1 (x) < degg(x).

2.3.6. f (x), g(x) Z5 [x] f (x) = x4 + 4x2 + x + 1 g(x) =


2x2 + 1. Z5 21 = 3, 2 3 = 6 Z5 (
2 = [2] Z5 ).
f (x) = (3x2 + 3)g(x) + x 2.
2.3.7. (i) f (x) R[x] 1. F f (x) F [x]
c F , c1 f (x) .
(ii) F f (x), g(x) F [x], .
d(x) F [x] f (x) g(x)
.
() d(x)|f (x) d(x)|g(x) F (x)
() c(x) F [x] c(x)|f (x) c(x)|g(x), c(x)|d(x).

2.3 59
2.3.8. f (x), g(x) F (x) .
f (x), g(x). a(x), b(x) F [x]
(f (x), g(x)) = a(x)f (x) + b(x)g(x).
.
I = {a(x)f (x) + b(x)g(x) : a(x), b(x) F [x]}.
I > 0 ( f (x) 6= 0 g(x) 6= 0). d(x) I
d(x) 6= 0.
d(x) = a(x)f (x) + b(x)g(x),

(2.3.1)

a(x), b(x) F [x].


1. d(x)|f (x) d(x)|g(x).
q(x), r(x) F [x]
f (x) = q(x)d(x) + r(x), degr(x) < degd(x).

r(x)

f (x) q(x)(a(x)f (x) + b(x)g(x))

(1 q(x)a(x))f (x) + (q(x)b(x))g(x).

r(x) 6= 0, r(x) I degr(x) < degd(x) . r(x) = 0


d(x)|f (x). d(x)|g(x).
2. c(x)|f (x) c(x)|g(x). c(x)|d(x). c(x)|f (x)
c(x)|g(x) (2.3.1) c(x)|d(x).
d(x) 6= 0 dn dn 6= 0. F
, dn . d(x) d1
n d(x).
d1
n d(x) .
d1
n d(x) () () 2.3.7(ii).
1
1
d1
n d(x) = (dn a(x)) f (x) + (dn b(x)) g(x).

. d1 (x) d2 (x) () () 2.3.7(ii). d1 (x)|a(x), d1 (x)|b(x)


d2 (x) , () 2.3.7(ii) d1 (x)|d2 (x). d2 (x)|d1 (x). F
u F , u 6= 0 d2 (x) = ud1 (x). d1 (x), d2 (x) ,
u = 1. d2 (x) = d1 (x).
2
2.3.9. F , p(x), a(x), b(x) F [x] p(x) . p(x)|a(x)b(x),
p(x)|a(x) p(x)|b(x).

60
. p(x) - a(x). p(x) , (p(x), a(x)) =
1. 2.3.8 f (x), g(x) F [x]
1 = f (x)p(x) + g(x)a(x).
,
b(x) = b(x)f (x)p(x) + g(x)a(x)b(x).
p(x)|a(x)b(x)g(x) p(x)|b(x)f (x)p(x), p(x)|b(x).

2.3.10. F f (x) F [x] .


p1 (x), p2 (x), . . . , pn (x) F [x]
f (x) = p1 (x)p2 (x) pn (x).

f (x) = q1 (x)q2 (x) qm (x),
qi . m = n
ci F r {0} qi (x) = ci pi (x).
.
M = {f (x) F [x] : degf (x) > 1 f (x) }.
M 6= f (x) M . f (x)
( , ),
f (x) = a(x)b(x), dega(x) > 1, degb(x) > 1.
F ,
degf (x) = dega(x) + degb(x).
, dega(x), degb(x) < degf (x), a(x), b(x)
/ M . a(x), b(x)
a(x), b(x)
/ M , a(x) b(x)
. f (x) = a(x)b(x), .
. ,
(2.3.2)

p1 (x)p2 (x) pn (x) = q1 (x)q2 (x) qm (x).

n > m n. (2.3.2)
2.3.9, pj (x)|qj (x) j ( pj (x) ).
p1 (x)|q1 (x). q1 (x) degp1 (x) > 1, ci F r {0}
q1 (x) = c1 p1 (x).
p1 (x)p2 (x) pn (x) = c1 p1 (x)q2 (x) qm (x).

(2.3.3)

p2 (x) pn (x) = c1 q2 (x) qm (x).

(2.3.2) .

2.3 61

1. F a(x), b(x) F [x] (a(x), b(x)) = 1.


() a(x)|f (x) b(x)|f (x), a(x)b(x)|f (x) .
() a(x)|b(x)f (x), a(x)|f (x).
()
(a(x)b(x), f (x)) = (a(x), f (x))(b(x), f (x)).
. (). (a(x), b(x)) = 1 g(x), h(x) F [x]
1 = g(x)a(x) + h(x)b(x).
,
f (x) = f (x)g(x)a(x) + f (x)h(x)b(x).

(2.3.4)

a(x)|f (x), a(x)|a(x), b(x)|f (x) b(x)|b(x). a(x)b(x)|f (x).


(). (2.3.4) a(x)|b(x)f (x), a(x)|f (x).
().
(b(x), f (x))|a(x)

(a(x), f (x))|f (x).

(a(x), f (x))|(a(x)b(x), f (x)).


,
(b(x), f (x))|(a(x)b(x), f (x)).
(a(x), b(x)) = 1, (a(x), f (x))|a(x) (b(x), f (x))|b(x),
((a(x), f (x)), (b(x), f (x))) = 1.
()
(a(x), f (x)) (b(x), f (x))|(a(x)b(x), f (x)).

(a(x)b(x), f (x))|a(x)b(x)
a(x), b(x) ,
(a(x)b(x), f (x)) = d1 (x) d2 (x),
d1 (x)|a(x) d2 (x)|b(x). , d1 (x)|a(x) d2 (x)|f (x),
d1 (x)|(a(x), f (x)).

62


d2 (x)|(b(x), f (x)).

d1 (x)d2 (x)|(a(x), f (x)) (b(x), f (x)).


2
2. F .
() F [x].
() F . n N
F [x] > n.
. ().
( 1.1.8) .
(). n N F [x]
n. F ,
{f (x) F [x] : degf (x) < n}
,
{f (x) F [x] : f (x) }

{p1 (x), p2 (x), . . . , pm (x)}.

P (x) = p1 (x)p2 (x) pm (x) + 1.


degP (x) > 1, 2.3.10 P (x) ,
Pi (x)|P (x) i. pi (x)|1, .
2
n

3. p . Zp Zp xp x Zp [x] , n N;
. Fermat p = , Zp .
,
 n1 p
n
p = p
= p = .
2
4. f (x) R[x] 3
(f (x), x2 + 1) 6= 1

(f (x), x2 3x + 2) 6= 1.

2.3 63
. x2 + 1 R[x] R[x], R[x]
c c(x2 + 1), c R \ {0}. (f (x), x2 + 1) 6= 1,
(f (x), x2 + 1) = x2 + 1.
(2.3.5)

x2 + 1|f (x)

( R[x]).

x2 3x + 2 = (x 1)(x 2),

x 1

(f (x), x2 3x + 2) =

2
(x 1)(x 2) = x 3x + 2
(f (x), x2 3x + 2) = x2 3x + 2,
(2.3.6)

x2 3x + 2|f (x).

(2.3.5), (2.3.6) (x2 + 1, x2 3x + 2) = 1,


(x2 + 1)(x2 3x + 2)|f (x), degf (x) > 4, .
(
x1
(f (x), x2 3x + 2) =
x2
(f (x), x2 3x + 2) = x 1. x 1|f (x), x2 + 1|f (x)
(x 1, x2 + 1) = 1,
(x 1)(x2 + 1)|f (x).
degf (x) = 3 f (x) ,
f (x) = (x 1)(x2 + 1).
(f (x), x2 3x + 2) = x 2,
f (x) = (x 2)(x2 + 1).
2
5. p f (x) = xp x + 1 Zp [x].
() f (x) Zp .
() F Zp .
(i) 1F = 1Zp pr = 0 r F .

64
(ii) F f (x), p f (x)
. (). Fermat p = , Zp .

f () = p + 1 = + 1 = 1 6= 0
(1 = [1] Zp 1 6= 0 ).
().(i). Zp F Zp F (Zp F ).
R = Zp S = F , R S. ,
1S s = s 1S = s,
s S.
1S 1R = 1R = 1R 1R (1S 1R ) 1R = 0S = 0R .
1S 1R 6= 0R , 1R = 0R , , R .
1R = 1S .
. S
R, 1R = 1S .
r F ,
pr

= r + r + + r
=

1F r + 1F r + + 1F r

(1F + 1F + + 1F ) r

(1Zp + 1Zp +1Zp ) r

0Zp r = 0F r = 0F .

(ii). 2.2.4, .
R pr = 0 r R ( p ).
(r + s)p = rp + sp r, s R.
f (x),
(2.3.7)

f () = p + 1 = 0.

+ 1F f (x). ,
f ( + 1F )

( + 1F )p ( + 1F ) + 1

( + 1F )p

= p + 1pF
= p + 1F = 0,

2.3 65

2.2.4,
(2.3.7).
, + 1, . . . , + (p 1)
, + i = + j, i, j {0, 1, . . . , p 1} i = j.
2
6. f (x), g(x) Z7 [x],
f (x) = 4x4 + 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x + 5

g(x) = 3x3 + 5x2 + 6x.

(f (x), g(x)) a(x), b(x) Z7 [x]


(f (x), g(x)) = a(x)f (x) + b(x)g(x).
. ,
f (x)

(6x)g(x) + 5x2 + 4x + 5

g(x)

(2x + 5)(5x2 + 4x + 5) + 4x + 3

5x2 + 4x + 5

(3x + 4)(4x + 3) + 0.

(f (x), g(x)) = 41 (4x + 3), 41 4


Z7 , 41 = 2. (f (x), g(x)) = x + 6.
,
4x + 3

g(x) (2x + 5)(5x2 + 4x + 5)

g(x) (2x + 5)(f (x) (6x)g(x))

(2x 5) f (x) + (1 + (2x + 5)6x) g(x).

41 = 2 ,
x + 6 = 2(2x 5)f (x) + 2[1 + (2x + 5)6x]g(x),
a(x) = 2(2x 5) b(x) = 2[1 + (2x + 5)6x].

7. p f (x), g(x) Zp [x],


f (x) = x4 + 2x3 + 4x2 + 8x + 9

g(x) = x2 + 2x + 3.

p, (f (x), g(x)) = 2.
. (f (x), g(x))|g(x). degg(x) = 2 g(x)
.
,
(f (x), g(x)) = 2 (f (x), g(x)) = g(x) g(x)|f (x).

66

,
f (x) = (x2 + 1)g(x) + 6x + 6.

g(x)|f (x) 6x + 6 = 0 ( Zp [x]) p = 2 p = 3


2
8. f (x), g(x) C[x],
f (x) = x(x4 1)

g(x) = x9 1.

(g(x), f (x)) (x), (x)


x2011 1 = (x) f (x) + (x) g(x).
. ,
x9 1

x5 x =

(x5 x)(x4 + 1) + x 1
(x 1)(x4 + x3 + x2 + x) + 0.

(x5 x, x9 1) = x 1.
,
x 1 = x9 1 + (x4 1)(x5 x).
x2010 + x2009 + + x + 1, (x) (x).

2.4

Rzec poluwnmwn

2.4.1. R 1R f (x) R[x].


r R f (x), f (r) = 0.
2.4.2. F . f (x) F [x]
x f () . ,
x |f (x) f () = 0.
. ,
f (x) = q(x)(x ) + r(x), degr(x) < deg(x ).
, r(x) = c F . x = ,
f () = q() 0 + r().
r(x) = f ().

2.4 67
2.4.3. F f (x) F [x] 2 3. f (x) F [x]
F .
. f (x) F [x] degf (x) = 2 3. f (x) ,
2.4.2 F .
, degf (x) = 2 3 f (x) F .
f (x) (x), (x) F [x]
f (x) = (x)(x).

deg(x) + deg(x) = degf (x) = 2 3,

deg(x) = 1

deg(x) = 1.

f (x) , .

2.4.4. F f (x) F [x] degf (x) = n > 1. f (x)


n F .
2

. n.

2.4.5. (i) x3 x Z6 [x] 6 Z6 .


2.4.4 R F .
(ii) f (x) = x3 +x+1 Z3 [x] .
,
f (1) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 = 0
Z3 [x]. 2.4.2 Z3 [x] , x 1|f (x).
,
x3 + x + 1 = (x 1)(x2 + x + 2),
x 1 . x2 + x + 2 Z3 [x] 2
Z3 , 2.4.3 x2 + x + 2
Z3 [x].
(iii) xp + Zp [x] .
Fermat p = .
xp + = xp + p = (x + )p .
2

68

2.4

C[x] R[x]

2.4.6. ( .) f (x) C[x]


C.
2.4.7. f (x) C[x] . c, z1 , z2 , . . . , zn (n =
degf (x))
f (x) = c(x z1 )(x z2 ) (x zn ).
(zi .)
. degf (x).

2.4.8. C[x] .
. z = a + b C (a, b R) z
z = a b z z. z1 , z2 C .
(i) z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 .
(ii) z1 z2 = z1 z2 .
f (x) = fn xn + + f1 x + f0 C[x] f (x) = fn xn + + f1 x + f0 .
f (x), g(x) C[x] .
(i) f (x) + g(x) = f (x) + g(x).
(ii) f (x)g(x) = f (x)g(x).
2.4.9. f (x), g(x) R[x]. f (x)|g(x) C[x] f (x)|g(x)
R[x].
. f (x)|g(x) C[x]. h(x) C[x]
(2.4.1)

g(x) = h(x)f (x).

,
g(x) = h(x)f (x) g(x) = h(x) f (x).
,
(2.4.2)

g(x) = h(x) f (x).

(2.4.1) (2.4.2) h(x) = h(x) (


). h(x) R[x].
2
2.4.10. f (x) R[x]. z C f (x) z C
f (x).

2.4 69
. f (z) = 0. f (z) = 0 = 0. f (z) = f (z) = 0, f (x) R[x].
z f (x).
2
2.4.11. f (x) R[x] R[x]
(i) degf (x) = 1
(ii) f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, = d2 4ac < 0.
. f (x) = ax2 + bx + c R[x]. 2.4.3, f (x)
R[x] ,
= d2 4ac < 0.
f (x) R[x] degf (x) > 3. f (x) .
2.4.10 ,
f (x) = c(x %1 ) (x % )(x z1 ) (x zm )(x z 1 ) (x z m ),
%1 , . . . , % R, z1 , . . . , zm C \ R, c C. ,
(x z )(x z ) = x2 (z + z )x + zi z R[x],
z + z R z z R. ,
x2 (z + z ) + z z |f (x),
C[x], x2 (z + z ) + z z R[x] f (x) R[x]. 2.4.9
x2 (z + z ) + z z |f (x)
2

R[x].

2.4.12. f (x) R[x] .


2.4.13. n Z>0 .
(2.4.3)

x2 + x + 1|(x + 1)n + xn + 1 R[x] n = 2 4mod6.

. .
x2 + x + 1|(x + 1)n + xn + 1 R[x] f (a) = 0,
f (x) = (x + 1)n + xn + 1 a x2 + x + 1.
, f (a) = 0. x2 + x + 1 C a a.
f (a) = 0 f (a) = 0 f (a) = 0.

70

x a|f (x)

x a|f (x)

C[x]. a 6= a,
(x a)(x a)|f (x),

x2 + x + 1|f (x)
C[x]. 2.4.9
x2 + x + 1|f (x)
R[x]. .
(2.4.3). f (a) = 0.
a2 + a + 1 a + 1 = a2

f (a) = (a + 1)n + an + 1 = (1)n a2n + 1.


a2 + a + 1 = 0, a3 = 1 (x3 1 = (x 1)(x2 + x + 1)).
.
(i) n = 6, Z>0 . ,
f (a) = (a3 )4 + (a3 )2 + 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 6= 0.
(ii) n = 6 + 1, Z>0 . ,
f (a) = (a3 )4 a2 + (a3 )2 a + 1 = a2 + a + 1 = 2a + 1 6= 0.
(iii) n = 6 + 2, Z>0 . ,
f (a) = (a3 )4+1 a + (a3 )2 a2 + 1 = a = a2 + 1 = 0.
..
.
..
.
f (a) = 0 n = 2 4mod6.

2.4 71
2.4.14. (R, +, ) (S, , ) .

R S = {(r, s) : r R, s S}
.
(r, )  (r0 , s0 ) = (r + r0 , s s0 )
(r, )

(r0 , s0 ) = (r r0 , s s0 )

R S
R S.
2.4.15. Z4 Z3 ,
([2]4 , [1]3 )  ([2]4 , [2]3 ) = ([4]4 , [3]3 ) = ([0]4 , [0]3 ).
. R S .
(r, s) + (r0 , s0 ) = (r + r0 , s + s0 )
,
R S.
(r, s) (r0 , s0 ) = (rr0 , ss0 ).

1. f (x) Z[x] m Z,
f (m) .
. f (x) Z[x] m Z f (m) = p
. Z,
m + p mmodp.
n Z>0 ,
(m + p)n mn modp,

f (m + p) f (m)modp.

f (m + p) 0modp
, m + p p. f (m + p) ,
f (m + p) = p Z. f (x) p Z[x] ,
f (x) = p , degf (x) > 0.
2

72
2. p .
() ,
xp x x(x 1) (x (p 1)).

(2.4.4)

() , (p 1)! 1modp ( Wilson).


() 98! 101.
.(). Fermat p = Zp .
Zp f (x) = xp x, x |xp x
Zp . x, x 1, x 2, . . . , x (p 1) Zp [x]
,
x(x 1)(x 2) (x (p 1))|xp x.

degx(x 1) (x (p 1)) = deg(xp x),


c Zp [x]
xp x = c x(x 1) (x (p 1)).
, c = 1.
(). p = 2 , 1 1mod2.
(2.4.4) 1 Zp ,
x (2.4.4)
(1)(2) ((p 1)) = (1)p1 1 2 (p 1) Zp .
,
1 = (1)p1 1 2 (p 1).
p , (1)p1 = 1,
1 = 1 2 (p 1)
Zp . Z 1 = (p 1)!.
(). 101 , Wilson
100! 1mod101,

[1 2 98 99 100] = [1]
Z101 .
(2.4.5)

[1][2] [98][99][100] = [1]

2.4 73
Z101 . [1][2] [98] = [98!].
[99][100] [50].
[50] (2.4.5) , [98!] = [50] .
50.
2
2

3. p . xp xp Zp [x].
p

. 2.2.5 g(x) Zp [x], (g(x)) =


g(xp ).
2

(xp x)p = (xp )p xp = xp xp = f (x).


(2.4.4)
xp x x(x 1) (x (p 1)).

f (x) = xp (x 1)p (x (p 1))p

( ).
2

4. p
f (x) = (x2 + x + 1)p (x2 + x + 1) Zp [x].
() xp x|f (x) Zp [x].
() f (x) Zp [x] p = 2 p = 3.
. (). . f (x) Zp [x] 2.2.5
,
f (x)

= x2p + xp + 1 x2 x 1
= x2p + xp x2 x
=

(xp x)(xp + x) + xp x

(xp x)(xp + x + 1).

xp x|f (x) Zp [x].


. . Zp , f () = 0. ( f () = 0
, , .)
(). p = 2. f (x) = x(x 1)(x2 + x + 1). x2 + x + 1 Z2 [x]
Z2 (02 + 0 + 1 = 1 6= 2, 12 + 1 + 1 = 3 6= 2).
2.4.3 x2 + x + 1 .
f (x) = x(x 1)(x2 + x + 1).

74
p = 3. f (x) = x(x 1)(x + 1)(x3 + x + 1). 13 + 1 + 1 =
3 = 0, x3 + x + 1 Z3 [x] x 1 Z3 [x].
,
x3 + x + 1 = (x 1)(x2 + x + 2).
x2 + x + 2 Z3 [x] Z3 [x],
Z3 [x].
f (x) = x(x 1)2 (x + 1)(x2 + x + 2)
2

Z3 [x].

2.5

Omomorfismo kai idedh

2.5.1. R S . S
(i) (r + r0 ) = (r) + (r0 ) r, r0 R
(ii) (rr0 ) = (r)(r0 ) r, r0 R,
R S.

(i) 1-1,
(ii) ,
(iii) 1-1 .
R S R S ( R, S
).
2.5.2.

(i)

R=

a
b

b
a



S = C. : R S


a b

= a + b
b a
.

2.5 75

,

  0
a b
a

+
b a
b0

b0
a0



a + a0
b + b0
0
(b + b ) a + a0


=



= a + a0 + (b + b0 )
(a + b) + (a0 + b0 )


 0
a b
a
=
+
b a
b0

b0
a0





a
b

b
a



a0
b0

b0
a0




=

aa0 bb0
ab0 + ba0
0
0
(ab + ba ) aa0 bb0



= aa0 bb0 + (ab0 + ba0 )


(a + b)(a0 + b0 )

  0
a b
a
=

b a
b0

b0
a0


.

( ) 1-1,


 0

a b
a
b0

=
b a
b0 a0

a + b = a0 + b0 a = a0

b = b0

a
b

b
a


=

a0
b0

b0
a0


.

(ii) : C C (a + b) = a b (a, b R)
.

(a + b + a0 + b0 ) = (a + b) + (a0 + b0 )

((a + b)(a0 + b0 )) = (a + b)(a0 + b0 ).


1-1 .
(iii)

Z[ 2] = {a + b 2 : a, b Z}.

: Z[ 2] Z[ 2] (a + b 2) = a b 2 .

76


. ,
a + b 2 =

a0 + b0 2. (a + b 2) = (a0 + b0 2). ,

a b 2 = a0 b0 2 a a0 = (b b0 ) 2,
b0 b 6= 0,

a a0
Q,
b b0
. b0 b = 0, a a0 = 0. ,





= a + a0 + (b + b0 ) 2
(a + b 2) + (a0 + b0 2)

= a + a0 (b + b0 ) 2

= a b 2 + a 0 b0 2

= (a + b 2) + (a0 + b0 2)
2=


(a + b 2)(a0 + b0 2)
=
=
=
=



aa0 + 2bb0 + (ab0 + ba0 ) 2

aa0 + 2bb0 (ab0 + ba0 ) 2

(a b 2)(a0 b0 2)

(a + b 2)(a0 + b0 2)

1-1 .
(iv) (m, n) = 1, Zmn Zm Zn .
: Zmn Zm Zn ,
([a]mn ) = ([a]m , [a]n ).
. , [a]mn =
[b]mn , mn|a b, m|a b n|a b, [a]m = [b]m [a]n = [b]n .
,
([a]m , [a]n ) = ([b]m , [b]n ),

([a]mn ) = ([b]mn ).
,
([a]mn + [a0 ]mn )

= ([a + a0 ]mn ) = ([a + a0 ]m , [a + a0 ]n )


=

([a]m + [a0 ]m , [a]n + [a0 ]n )

([a]m , [a]n ) + ([a0 ]m , [a0 ]n )

= ([a]mn ) + ([a0 ]mn ).

2.5 77

,
([a]mn [a0 ]mn ) = ([a]mn )([a0 ]mn ).
1-1. , ([a]mn ) = ([a0 ]mn ). ,
([a]m , [a]n ) = ([a0 ]m , [a0 ]n ).
, [a]m = [a0 ]m [a]n = [a0 ]n . m|a a0 n|a a0 .
(m, n) = 1, mn|a a0 . , [a]mn = [b]mn .
. : Zmn Zm Zn 1-1
|Zmn | = |Zm Zn | = m n < .
.
(v) : Z Zm , (a) = [a] .
,
[a + a0 ] = [a] + [a0 ]

[aa0 ] = [a][a0 ].
.
(vi) R pr = 0 r R p.
: R R, (r) = rp .
2.2.4 r, s R (r + s)p = rp + sp . ,
(r + s) = (r) + (s).
,
(rs) = (rs)p = rp sp
R .
Zp [x] Zp [x], f (x) 7 f (x)p ,
p .
2
2.5.3. : R S . .

78
(i) r1 , . . . , rn R
(r1 + + rn ) = (r1 ) + + (rn )

(r1 rn ) = (r1 ) (rn ).

,
(nr) = n(r)
n Z, r R
(rn ) = (r)n
n Z>0 r R
(ii) (0R ) = 0S .
(iii) (r) = (r) r R.
(iv) R 1R , S
1S = (1R ).
. (i). .
(ii). ,
0R + 0 R

0R

(0R + 0R )

(0R )

(0R ) + (0R )

(0R )

(0R )

0S

( S)
(iii). ,
a + (a)
(a + (a))
(a) + (a)
(a)

0R

= (0R )
= (0R ) = 0S
= (a).

(iv). : R S s S. ,
r R (r) = s. ,
(1R ) s = (1R ) (r) = (1R r) = (r) = s.
, s(1R ) = s. S (1R ).

2.5 79

2.5.4.

(i) 2Z 3Z .

, : 2Z 3Z . (2)
3, (2) = 3m, m Z. ,
(4) = (2 + 2) = (2) + (2) = 3m + 3m = 6m

(4) = (22 ) = (2)2 = (3m)2 = 9m2 .


,
6m = 9m2 m(3m 2) = 0 m = 0,
/ Z. (z) = 0, (0) = 0. 1-1,
32
.
(ii) C R .
: C R . 2 = 1 C,
(2 ) = (1) ()2 = (1) = 1.
((1) = 1, 1-1 C R.) () R,
.
2
2.5.5. : R S .

Ker = {r R : (r) = 0S }.
2.5.6.

(i) : Z Zn (m) = [m], -

Ker = {m Z : [m] = [0]} = {m Z : n|m} = nZ.


(ii) F F . : F [x] F (f (x)) = f ()

Ker = {f (x) F [x] : f () = 0} = {(x )g(x) : g(x) F [x]}.
(iii) F . : F [x] F F (f (x)) = (f (0), f (1))

Ker = {f (x) F [x] : f (0) = f (1) = 0} = {x(x 1)g(x) : g(x) F [x]},
.
f (0) = f (1) = 0 x|f (x)

x(x 1)|f (x)

x 1|f (x)
(

(x, x 1) = 1)

f (x) = x(x 1)g(x), g(x) F [x].

80

(iv)

R=

a
0

b
c


M2 (Z) : a, b, c Z .



: R Z,

a b
0 c


=c





a b
Ker =
M2 (Z) : a, b Z .
0 0
2.5.7. : R S . 1-1
ker = {0R }.
. 1-1 Ker. ,
() = 0S = (0R ) = 0R ,
1-1. ker = {0R }.
, ker = {0R } () = (), , R. ,
() () = 0S ( ) = 0S

ker ={0R }

= 0R = .
2

2.5.8. : R S .
.
(i) ker 6= .
(ii) a, b Ker a b ker .
(iii) a Ker r R, ra Ker ar Ker.
. Ker R.
. (i). (0R ) = 0S , 0R ker .
(ii). (a) = (b) = 0S . ,
(a b) = (a) (b) = 0S a b Ker.
(iii). (a) = 0S .
(ra) = (r)(a) = (r)0S = 0S ra Ker.
ar Ker.

2.5 81
2.5.9. R I R. I R
.
(i) I 6= .
(ii) a, b I, a b I.
(iii) r R a I, ra I ar I.
2.5.10. : R S ker
R.
2.5.11.
1. 2.5.6 .
() nZ Z.
() {f (x) F [x] : f (a) = 0} F (x).

() {f (x) F [x] : f (0) = f (1) = 0 F (x).



a b
()
M2 (Z) : a, b Z .
0 0


a b
()
M2 (Z) : a, b, c Z} .
0 c
2. R , I = R J = {0R } ( )
.
(i)

a
R=
0

b
c


M2 (Z) : a, b, c Z



I=

0
0

I R.


0 0
, I =
6 ,
I.
0 0

 

0 b
0 b0

,
I. ,
0 0
0 0

 
 

0 b
0 b0
0 b b0

=
I.
0 0
0 0
0
0




a b
0 b0

R
I. ,
0 c
0 0


 

a b
0 b0
0 ab0
=
I
0 0
0 0
0 c

b
0


M2 (Z) : b Z .

82

b0
0

0
0



a
0

b
c

0
0

b0 c
0


I.

I R


a b
: R Z Z,
= (a, c).
0 c
,


a b
0 c


+

a0
0

b0
c0

!


=
=

a + a0
0

b + b0
c + c0

(a + a0 , c + c0 )

(a, c) + (a0 , c0 )

  0
a b
a
=
+
0 c
0
=

b0
c0

a b
0 c



a0
0

b0
c0

!


=
=

aa0
0

ab0 + bc0
cc0

(aa0 , cc0 )

(a, c)(a0 , c0 )

 0
a b
a
=
0 c
0
=



Ker =

=

b0
c0


.

. ,


a b
M2 (Z) : (a, c) = 0
0 c


0 b
M2 (Z) = I.
0 0

I R.
2.5.12. R 1R R.
{r : r R} R
< >.
2.5.13.

1. < >, = 1R .

2 < > . ,

2.5 83
() < >6= ( 0R = 0R < >).
() r, s < > (r, s R),
r s = (r s) < > .
() r < > r0 R,
r0 (r) = (r0 r) < >

(r)r0 = r0 (r) = (r0 r) < >


( R ).
2.5.14.

(i) R = Z m Z. , < m >= mZ.

(ii) F f (x) F [x]. ,


< f (x) >= {g(x)f (x) : g(x) F [x]}.
(iii) F F . F [x] ,
< x >= {g(x)(x ) : g(x) F [x]} = {f (x) F [x] : f () = 0}.
2.5.15. Z F [x], F
.
. I F [x]. I = {0}, I =< 0 >. I 6= {0}.
f (x) I, f (x) 6= 0. f (x) F [x] f (x) I degf (x)
(f (x) 6= 0). I =< f (x) >.
< f (x) > I , g(x)f (x) I I .
g(x) I. q(x), r(x) F [x]
g(x) = q(x)f (x) + r(x), degr(x) < degf (x).
,
r(x) = g(x) q(x)f (x) I,
g(x), f (x) I I . r(x) 6= 0 degr(x) < degf (x) r(x) I
, degf (x) . r(x) = 0,
g(x) = q(x) f (x) < f (x) > .
I < f (x) >.
2
I Z. I = {0}, I =< 0 >= 0Z .
I 6= {0} 6= 0, I. ,
0 = I (0, I).

84
, I , I . b
I. I =< b >= bZ
c I. q, r Z
c = bq + r, o 6 r < b.
b I bq I c I, c bq I. r I.
r < b b I, r = 0. c = bq,
I =< b >.
2
2.5.16. I R R.
. , Z Q, ,
1
1
/ Q.
2 1= 2
2.5.17. I, J R. ,
I + J = {a + b R : a I, b J}.
I + J I J.
2.5.18. R I, J R. I + J
.
. I + J 6= . , 0R = 0R + 0R I + J.
a, a0 I b, b0 I. ,
a + b (a0 + b0 ) = (a a0 ) + (b b0 ) I + J,
I, J a a0 I, b b0 J. r R, a I b I. I, J
ra I rb J. ,
r(a + b) = ra + rb I + J.
(a + b)r I + J.

2.5.19. I I + J J I + J.
, a I. 0 J,
a = a + 0 I + J.
b J, 0 I
b = 0 + b I + J.
, I, J I + J.

2.5.20. R I, J R. I J
R.
. , a, b I J. a b I a b J.
a b I J. a I J r R. I, J R, ar
ra I J.
2

2.5 85

1. R, S, T .
(i) : R S 1 : S R .
(ii) : R S : S T : R T
.
. (i). : R S , 1-1 . 1 = h : S
R 1-1 (h(s) = r s = (r)). 1 = h
. , s1 , s2 S. r1 , r2 R

(r1 ) = s1

(r2 ) = s2 .
,
h(s1 + s2 ) = h((r1 ) + (r2 )) = h((r1 + r2 )) = r1 + r2 = h(s1 ) + h(s2 )

h(s1 s2 ) = h((r1 ) (r2 )) = h((r1 r2 )) = r1 r2 = h(s1 ) (s2 ).


(ii). r1 , r2 R. ,
( )(r1 + r2 )

= ((r1 + r2 ))
= ((r1 ) + (r2 ))
= ((r1 ) + ((r2 )
=

( )(r1 ) + ( )(r2 )

( )(r1 r2 )

((r1 r2 ))

((r1 )(r2 ))

((r1 )((r2 )

( )(r1 )( )(r2 ).
2

. : R S : S T , : R T
. , , 1-1.
1-1. ,
( )(r1 )
((r1 ))
(r1 )
r1

( )(r2 )

= ((r2 ))
= (r2 )
= r2 ,

86
1-1,
1-1.
, . . t T .
s S (s) = t. r R
(r) = s. ,
( )(r) = ((r)) = (s) = t.
2.


R=


M2 (Z) : , Z .

R w Z Z.
. : R Z Z


0

= (, ).
0
. ,



1 0
2
A1 =
R

A2 =
0 1
0

0
2


R.

,

(A1 + A2 )

=

=
=

1
0

0
1

1 + 2
0


+

2 0
0 2




0
1 + 2

(1 + 2 , 1 + 2 )

(, 1 ) + (2 , 2 )



1 0
2
=
+
0 1
0

0
2

= (A1 ) + (A2 )


(A1 A2 )



2
0

0
2



(, 1 )(2 , 2 )

 
1 0
2
=

0 1
0

0
2

1
0

0
1

(1 2 , 1 2 )

1 2
0

0
1 2

(A1 )(A2 ).

2.5 87
1-1.


0 0
1 1 Ker =
.
0 0
,

Ker =







0
0

=
=
=


= (0, 0)


0
R : (, ) = (0, 0)



0
R : = 0, = 0


0
.
0
0

R:

 . , (y1 , y2 ) Z Z.

0
R
0


0

= (y1 , y2 ).
0


0

R (, ) = (y1 , y2 ).
0



=

y1
0

0
y2

. . R w Z Z.

88
3. : R S .
(i) R 1R , S .
(ii) R , S .
. (i). s S. r R (r) = s. ,
s(r) = (r)(1R ) = (r1R ) = (r) = s.
,
(1R )s = (1R )(r) = (1R r) = (r) = s.
1S = (1R ).
(ii). s1 , s2 S. s1 s2 = s2 s1 .
r1 , r2 R
(r1 ) = s1

(r2 ) = s2 .
,
s1 s2 = (r1 )(r2 ) = (r1 r2 ) = (r2 r1 ) = (r2 )(r1 ) = s2 s1 ,
R .

4. R, S .
(i) R , S .
(ii) R , S .
. (i). : R S R .
S . 3, S
. s1 , s2 S s1 s2 = 0. s1 = 0 s2 = 0.
r1 , r2 R (r1 ) = s1 (r2 ) = s2 . ,
s1 s2 = 0 (r1 )(r2 ) = 0 (r1 r2 ) = 0.
,
(r1 r2 ) = (0) r1 r2 = 0 r1 = 0

r2 = 0,

1-1,
R .
(ii). s S s 6= 0. s .
r R (r) = s. r = 0, s = (r) = (0) = 0,
, r 6= 0. R r0 R rr0 = 1R
r0 r = 1R . ,
s(r0 ) = (r)(r0 ) = (rr0 ) = (1R ) = 1S

2.5 89

(r0 )s = (r0 )(r) = (r0 r) = (1R ) = 1S ,



3(i).
2
5. .
(i) 2Z Z.
(ii) C R R.



0
(iii) R =
M2 (Z) : Z Z.
0 0



0
(iv) R =
M2 (Z) : Z Z.
0 0




(v) R =
M2 (Z) : , Z
2




S=
M2 (Z) : , Z .
2
. (i). : Z 2Z . Z
, 2Z , . Z  2Z.
(ii). C , R R . ,
(1, 0)(0, 1) = (0, 0),
(1, 0) 6= (0, 0) (0, 1) 6= (0, 0). C  R R.
(iii).



0
M2 (Z) : Z
R=
= Z.
0 0


:RZ
,

 
0

+
0 0
0



0
0



0
0

0
0


=




=

+
0

0
0

0
0

0
0


= .


= + =


= =

0
0

0
0




+
0

 

0
0


.

0
0

90

,


0
0

0
0 0



0
=
M2 (Z) : = 0
0 0


0 0
=
.
0 0

Ker =

M2 (Z) :


=0



0
1-1. y Z.
R
0 0




0
0

= y.
R = y. 0 0
0 0


 

0
y 0
=
0 0
0 0
.


0
0

1
0



0
0

2
0

0
0

(iv). Z ,

=


1 6= 2 , 1 , 2 6= 0. R =

. ,

0
0

0
0

0
0


,



M2 (Z) : Z 

Z.
(v).
R S .
R
= Z[ 2] = { + 2 : , Z}.




: Z[ 2] R

( + 2) =
.
2

+ 2, + 2 Z 2. ,





( + 2) + ( + 2)
= ( + ) + ( + 2)


+
+
=
2( + ) +

 



=
+
2
2

= ( + 2) + ( + 2).

2.5 91

,



=
( + 2)( + 2)
=
=




+ 2 + 2 + 2


( + 2) + ( + ) 2


+ 2
+
2( + ) + 2

( + 2)( + 2)

+ 2
+
2( + ) + 2

=
=





.

( + 2)( + 2) = ( + 2)( + 2).



Ker =
=
=
=

+ 2 Z[ 2] : ( + 2) =

 



=
+ 2 Z[ 2] :
2



+ 2 Z[ 2] : = 0, = 0

{0 + 2}.


0
0

0
0



0
0

0
0




 1-1. .

x y
R. + 2 Z[ 2]
2y x



x y
( + 2) =
.
2y x

+ 2 Z[ 2]

 


x y
=
.
2
2y x

+ 2 Z[ 2]
=x

= y.

92

+ 2 = x + y 2. ,



x y
(x + y 2) =
.
2y x

2]. R  S,

R
Z[
=

Z[ 2]  S. Z[ 2] ,
R- ( ) R .
(. .)
S .


 

2 2
2 2
0 0
=
,
2 2
2 2
0 0

 


 

2 2
0 0
2 2
0 0

6=

6=
.
2
2 2
0 0
2 2
0 0
6. I Z 20Z I 2Z.
. 2.5.15, I =< m >. ,
20Z I 2Z < 20 >< m >< 2 >
< 20 >< m >
m|20

< m >< 2 >

2|m.

20. m =
2, 4, 10, 20. < 2 >=< 2 >, < 4 >=< 4 >, < 10 >=< 10 >, <
20 >=< 20 >. I =< 2 >, < 4 >, < 10 >, < 20 >.
2
7. f (x) R[x]
< f (x) >= {g(x) R[x] : g(0) = g(3 4i) = 0}.
. g(x) R[x]. ,
g(0) = 0 x|g(x)

g(3 4i) = 0 g(3 + 4i) = 0


x (3 4i)|g(x)

( )

x (3 + 4i)|g(x) C[x].

(x 3 + 4i, x 3 4i) = 1,
(x (3 4i))(x (3 + 4i))|g(x) C[x] x2 6x + 25|g(x) C[x].

2.6 93
x2 6x + 25, g(x) R[x], 2.4.9
x2 6x + 25|g(x) R[x].

x(x2 6x + 25)|g(x) R[x] g(x) {f (x) R[x] : f (0) = f (3 4i) = 0}.

{f (x) R[x] : f (0) = f (3 4i) = 0} =< x(x2 6x + 25) > .


2
8. m, n Z>0 . Z ,
< m > + < n >=< d >, d = (m, n).
. a, b Z
d = am + bn.
d < m > + < n >. < d >< m > + < n > ( < m > + <
n > ). , d|m < m >< d >. < n >< d >.
< m > + < n >< d > ( < d > ).
2

2.6

Daktlioc phlko

R I R.
R/I.
2.6.1. R I R. R
.
a bmodI a b I.
2.6.2. .
,
(i) a amodI, a R a a = 0R I.
(ii) a bmodI, a b I I (a b) I .
,
b a I b amodI.
(iii) a bmodI b cmodI, a b I b c I. I ,

(a b) + (b c) = a c I.

94
2.6.3. a R
[a]

{b R : b amodI}

= {b R : b a I}.
,
b amodI b a = c I.
,
b = a + c, c I.
,
[a] = {a + c R : c I}.
,
[a] = a + I.
2.6.4. R/I = {a + I : a R}. R/I
R moduloI.
2.6.5. R = Z I =< n >, R/I = Zn .
2.6.6. R/I .
+ : R/I R/I R/I

(a + I) + (b + I) = (a + b) + I.

: R/I R/I R/I

(a + I)(b + I) = ab + I.
R , R/I . R
, R/I .
. . ,
a + I = a0 + I b + I = b0 + I. a a0 I b b0 I. ,
(a a0 ) + (b b0 ) I

(a + b) (a0 + b0 ) I.

,
a + b a0 + b0 modI a + b + I = a0 + b0 + I.

2.6 95

. .
, a + I = a0 + I b + I = b0 + I. a a0 I
b b0 I. ,
ab a0 b0 = ab ab0 + ab0 a0 b0 = a(b b0 ) + (a a0 )b0 I,
I . ,
ab a0 b0 modI ab + I = a0 b0 + I.
(
). ,
((a + I)(b + I)) (c + I)

(ab + I)(c + I)

(ab)c + I

= a(bc) + I
=

(a + I) ((b + I)(c + I)) ,

R.
R/I .
a, b R ab = ba. ,
(a + I)(b + I) = (b + I)(a + I)
R/I. ,
R R/I .
1R R, R/I 1R + I.

2.6.7. R = Z2 [x]
I =< x3 + 1 >= {g(x)(x3 + 1) : g(x) Z2 [x]}.
,
(x4 + x3 ) + I = x + 1 + I.
,
x4 + x3 (x + 1) = (x + 1)(x3 + 1) I.
( x4 + x3 (x + 1) x3 + 1.)
2.6.8. F , p(x) F [x] I =< p(x) >.
F [x]/I p(x) F [x] .

96
. F [x]/I . p(x) F [x]
.
(2.6.1)

p(x) = a(x)b(x), a(x), b(x) F [x].

degp(x) = dega(x) + degb(x).

(2.6.2)

(2.6.1) a(x)b(x) + I = I ( a(x)b(x) = p(x) I). ,


(a(x) + I)(b(x) + I) = I = 0R/I .
R/I , R/I ,
a(x) + I = I

b(x) + I = I.

a(x) I =< p(x) >

b(x) I =< p(x) > .

p(x)|a(x)

p(x)|b(x).

degp(x) 6 dega(x)

degp(x) 6 degb(x).

degb(x) = 0.

,
,
,
(2.6.2) ,
dega(x) = 0

p(x) = a(x)b(x), a(x) 6= 0 b(x) 6= 0.


, p(x) F [x] . F [x]/I
1R + I.
1R + I 6= 0R + I ( 1F [x]/I 6= 0F [x]/I ).
, 1R I = p(x). ,
p(x)|1R degp(x) = 0,
degp(x) > 0 p(x) . f (x) + I F [x]/I f (x) + I 6=
0F [x]/I . f (x)
/ I, p(x) - f (x). p(x) ,
(f (x), p(x)) = 1F [x] . a(x), b(x) F [x]
1 = a(x)f (x) + b(x)p(x).
b(x)p(x) I, b(x)p(x) + I = I.
1+I

(a(x)f (x) + I) + (b(x)p(x) + I)

= a(x)f (x) + I
= (a(x) + I)(f (x) + I).
f (x) + I .

2.6 97
2.6.9. (i) F p(x) F [x] .
() 2.6.8
f (x)+ < p(x) > f (x)+ < p(x) >6=< p(x) >, .
(ii) f (x) F [x]. .
() p(x) - f (x).
() (p(x), f (x)) = 1.
() f (x) + I = f (x)+ < p(x) > F [x]/ < p(x) >.
2.6.10. : R S . Ker
R. R/Ker . R/Ker S;
R/Ker S .
2.6.11. ( ) : R S
. R/Ker S .
.
: R/Ker Im, (r + Ker) = (r).
. ,
r + Ker = r0 + Ker. , r r0 Ker,
(r r0 )
0

(r) (r )
(r)
(r + Ker)

0S

0S

= (r0 )
= (r0 + Ker).

. , r1 + Ker, r2 + Ker
R/Ker. ,
((r1 + Ker) + (r2 + Ker))

= (r1 + r2 + Ker)
=

(r1 + r2 ) = (r1 ) + (r2 )

(r1 + Ker) + (r2 + Ker).

,
((r1 + Ker) (r2 + Ker)) = (r1 + Ker) (r2 + Ker).
. , r + Ker Ker. ,
(r + Ker) = 0S (r) = 0S r Ker r + Ker = 0R/Ker .

Ker = {0R/Ker },
1-1. .
.
2

98

1. R I R. R/I
ab ba I.
. ,
(a + I)(b + I) = (b + I)(a + I) ab + I = ba + I ab ba I.
R/I ab ba I.

2. R = Z2 [x] I =< x2 + 1 >. R/I .


. Z2 [x]/ < x2 +1 > .
Z2 [x]/ < x2 + 1 > , .
Z2 [x], x2 + 1 = (x + 1)2 . ,
(x + 1+ < x2 + 1)(x + 1+ < x2 + 1 >)

(x + 1)2 + < x2 + 1 >

x2 + 1+ < x2 + 1 >

< x2 + 1 > (x2 + 1 < x2 + 1 >)

0Z2 [x]/<x2 +1> .

x + 1+ < x2 + 1 >6= 0Z2 [x]/<x2 +1> ,

x + 1+ < x2 + 1 >6=< x2 + 1 >,


x + 1 <
/ x2 + 1 >. , x + 1 < x2 + 1 > g(x) Z2 [x]

x + 1 = g(x)(x2 + 1).
Z2 [x] ,
1 = degg(x) + 2,
.
x+1+ < x2 +1 >= 0Z2 [x]/<x2 +1>

(x+1+ < x2 +1)(x+1+ < x2 +1 >) = 0Z2 [x]/<x2 +1> .

Z2 [x]/ < x2 + 1 > .

3. p(x) = x2 + 1 Z3 [x] I =< p(x) >.


(i) Z3 [x]/I 9 .
(ii) x4 + x + 1 + I x4 + 2 + I
.

2.6 99

. (i) Z3 ,
[0]2 + [1]

[1] 6= [0]

[2] 6= [0]

[5] 6= [0]

[1] + [1]
[2] + [1]

p(x) Z3 . degp(x) = 2, p(x) Z3 [x]


, 2.6.8, Z3 [x]/ < p(x) > .
f (x)+I Z3 [x]/I. q(x), r(x) Z3 [x]

f (x) = q(x)p(x) + r(x), degr(x) < degp(x).


p(x) = x2 + 1, degr(x) < 2. f (x) r(x) I,
f (x) + I = r(x) + I.
r(x) = ax + b (a, b Z3 ),




Z3 [x]/I 6 3 3 = 9.


, f (x) Z3 [x]
r(x) Z3 [x] degr(x) < 2 f (x) + I = r(x) + I.
f (x) + I = r(x) + I, degr(x) < 2

f (x) + I = r1 (x) + I, degr1 (x) < 2


,
r(x) + I = r1 (x) + I r(x) r1 (x) I(=< x2 + 1 >).
deg(r(x) r1 (x)) < 2, r(x) r1 (x) = 0.
(ii). ,
x4 + x + 1

(x2 1)(x2 + 1) + x + 2

x2 + 1

(x + 1)(x + 2) 1

x+2

((x + 2))(1) + 0.

(x4 +x+1, x2 +1) = 1. 2.6.9(ii) x4 +x+


1 + I . .

1 = (x + 1)(x4 + x + 1) + ((x + 1)(x2 1) 1)(x2 + 1).

100

1 + I = (x + 1)(x4 + x + 1) + I
Z3 [x] ( I =< x2 + 1 >).
1 + I = ((x + 1) + I)(x4 + x + 1 + I),
x4 + x + 1 + I x + 1 + I.
x4 + 2 = (x2 1)(x2 + 1).
Z3 [x]/ < x2 + 1 >
x4 + 2+ < x2 + 1 >=< x2 + 1 >= 0Z3 [x]/<x2 +1> .
x4 + 2+ < x2 + 1 > .

4. F a F .
F [x]/ < x a >
= F.
.
: F [x] F, (f (x)) = f (a).
. Ker =< x a >. Ker < x a >
. (f (x)) = 0. f (a) = 0, x a|f (x) F [x].
f (x) < x a >. , Ker =< x a >. .

F [x]/ < x a >
= F.
2
5.

R=

a
0

b
a


M2 (Z) : a, b Z .



I=

0
0

b
0


M2 (Z) : b Z .

R R/I
= Z.
.

: R Z,

a
0

b
a


= a.

2.6 101
. Ker
R. ,



0 b
Ker =
:bZ ,
0 0
I R. ,
R/I
2
= Z (Ker = I Im = Z).
6. f (x) F [x] .
R[x]/ < f (x) >
=C

f (x) = x2 + ax + b, a2 4b < 0.

. R[x]/ < f (x) >


= C. 2.6.8
R[x]/ < f (x) > f (x) R[x] .
f (x) R[x]
(
x a,
aR
f (x) =
x2 + ax + b, a, b R, a2 4b < 0
f (x) = x a, a R. 4,
R[x]/ < x a >
= R.
f (x) = x2 + ax + b, a2 4b < 0.
a2 4b < 0, R[x]/ < x2 + ax + b >
= C. z C
x2 + ax + b. z x2 + ax + b ( a, b R) z 6= z
a2 4b < 0.
: R[x] C, (f (x)) = f (z).
. Ker =< x2 +ax+b >. f (x) F [x].
,
f (x) Ker f (z) = 0 f (z) = f (z) = 0.

x z|f (x) C[x]

x z|f (x) C[x].

z 6= z ,
(x z)(x z) | f (x) C[x]
x2 + ax + b
2

x + ax + b

| f (x) C[x]
| f (x) R[x] ( x2 + ax + b, f (x) R[x]).

102
Ker =< x2 + ax + b >.
,
R[x]/ < x2 + ax + b >
= C.
.

R[x]/ < x2 + 1 >


= R[x]/ < x2 + x + 1 >
= C.
2

7. f (x) R[x]
I = {g(x) R[x] : g(2 + 5i) = g(0) = 0} =< f (x) > .
R[x]/ < f (x) > ;
. g(x) I. ,
g(0) = 0 x|g(x) R[x].
,
g(2+5i) = 0 g(25i) = 0 x(2+5i)|g(x) C[x]

x(25i)|g(x) C[x].

(x (2 5i), x (2 + 5i)) = 1,
x2 4x + 29|g(x) C[x].
x2 4x+29, g(x) R[x], 2.4.9 x2 4x+29|g(x)
R[x]. ,
g(x) I x2 4x + 29|g(x) R[x]

x|g(x) R[x].

f (x) = x3 4x2 +29x. I =< f (x) >.


I =< f (x) >, f (x) = x3 4x2 + 29x = x(x2 4x + 29). ,
a = x+ < f (x) >, b = x2 4x + 29+ < f (x) > R[x]/ < f (x) > .
,
a b = f (x)+ < f (x) >=< f (x) >= 0R[x]/<f (x)> ,
a 6= 0, f (x) - x b 6= 0, f (x) - x2 4x + 29. R[x]/ < f (x) >
.
2
8. f (x) = x2 + x + 1 Z5 [x] I =< f (x) >.
(i) Z5 [x]/ < f (x) > 25 .

2.6 103
(ii) ( ) x3 + x + 1+ < f (x) >
Z5 [x]/ < f (x) >
. (i). a(x) Z5 , a2 + a + 1 6= 0 ( ,
a = 3, a2 + a + 1 = 9 + 3 + 1 = 13 = 3 6= 0 Z5 ). deg(x2 + x + 1) = 2
Z5 (5 ), f (x) Z5 [x] .
2.6.8 Z5 [x]/ < f (x) > ( Z5 ).
g(x) < f (x) >. h(x) Z5 [x] degh(x) 6
1,
h(x)+ < f (x) >= g(x)+ < f (x) > .


[x]
= 52 = 25.
, h(x) = ax + b Z5 [x], Zf5(x)

. ,
g(x) = q(x)f (x) + r(x), degr(x) < degf (x) = 2.
,
g(x)+ < f (x) >= r(x)+ < f (x) >,
g(x)r(x) = q(x)f (x) < f (x) >.
. h1 (x), h2 (x) Z5 [x] degh1 (x), degh2 (x) 6 1
h1 (x)+ < f (x) >= h2 (x)+ < f (x) > .
,
f (x) | h1 (x) h2 (x)

(Z5

)
= h1 (x) h2 (x) = 0,

deg(h1 (x) h2 (x)) < 2.


(ii). ,
x3 + x + 1

(x2 + x + 1)(x 1) + x + 2

x2 + x + 1 = (x + 2)(x 1) + 3
3 = x2 + x + 1 (x + 2)(x 1)


= x2 + x + 1 (x3 + x + 1) (x2 + x + 1)(x 1) (x 1)
=

(x2 + x + 1)(1 + (x 1)2 ) + (x3 + x + 1)(x + 1).

3 Z5 , 2 ,
(2.6.3)

1 = 2(x2 + x + 1)(1 + (x 1)2 ) + (x3 + x + 1)(2x + 2).

Z5 / < f (x) > (2.6.3) ,



1+ < f (x) >= (x3 + x + 1)+ < f (x) > ((2x + 2)+ < f (x) >) .
Z5 / < f (x) > , x3 +x+1+ < f (x) >
2x + 2+ < f (x) >.
2

104

9. f (x) Q[x] a + b 2, a, b Q.

(i) a b 2.

(ii) Q[x]/ < x2 2 >w Q[ 2].

. (i). Q[ 2] = {a + b 2 C : a, b Q} (
C

: Q[ 2] Q[ 2], a + b 2 7 a b 2.

. ,
. ,


(a1 + b1 2) + (a2 + b2 2)
= (a1 + a2 + (b1 + b2 ) 2)

= a1 + a2 (b1 + b2 ) 2

= a1 b1 2 + a2 b2 2

= (a1 + b1 2) + (a2 + b2 2)


(a1 + b1 2)(a2 + b2 2)

= (a1 a2 + 2b1 b2 + (a1 b2 + a2 b1 ) 2)

= a1 a2 + 2b1 b2 (a1 b2 + a2 b1 ) 2

= (a1 b1 2)(a2 b2 2)

= (a1 + b1 2)(a2 + b2 2).


f (x) = fn xn + + f1 x + f0 Q[x]

f (a + b 2) = 0,

a, b Q. ,

fn (a + b 2)n + + f1 (a + b 2) + f0 = 0.
,

n

(fn ) (a + b 2) + + (f1 )(a + b 2) + (f0 ) = (0)

fn (a b 2)n + + f1 (a b 2) + f0 = 0

f (a b 2) = 0.
(ii).

: Q[x] Q[ 2], f (x) 7 f ( 2).

2.6 105
,

. ,

a
+
b
2

Q[
2].

a
+
b
x

Q[x]

f (a + b x) = a + b 2.
,

Ker = {f (x) Q[x] : f ( 2) = 0}.

f ( 2) = 0 f ( 2) = f ( 2) = 0

x ( 2) | f (x) Q[ 2][x]

x 2 | f (x) Q[ 2][x]

(x ( 2))(x 2) | f (x) Q[ 2][x]

x2 2 | f (x) Q[ 2][x]

x2 2 | f (x) Q[x],

2.4.9.
a(x), b(x) Q[x], a(x) | b(x) Q[x] a(x) | b(x)
Q[ 2][x]. ,
f (x) Ker x2 2 | f (x) Q[x],
Ker =< x2
2 >. ,
Q[x]/ < x2 2 >w Q[ 2].
2
P
10. F . c = aF a.
. |F | = 2, F = {0F , 1F } c = 1F . |F | > 2.
c = 0. a F, a 6= 0F , a 6= 1F . F r {0F }
F . ,
b (F r {0}) = F r {0}.
,
b c = c (b 1)c = 0

(b16=0)

c = 0.
2

11. f (x) Z2 [x] 5,


(f (x), x3 + x + 1) 6= 1

(f (x), x2 + 1) 6= 1.

. ,
(f (x), x3 + x + 1) 6= 1 x3 + x + 1 | f (x),

106
x3 + x + 1 Z2 [x]. Z2 [x],
(f (x), x2 + 1) = (f (x), (x + 1)2 ) 6= 1 x + 1 | f (x).

x(x + 1)(x + x + 1)
(x + 1)(x3 + x + 1) | f (x) begg(x) = 5 f (x) =

(x + 1)2 (x3 + x + 1)
2
12. f (x) = xp + x + 1 Zp [x] Zp , p .
. Zp ,
f () = p + a + 1 = 2 + 1
2

13. R S R. S
R, 1S , .



0 0
(i) R = M2 (R), S =
, R .
0



1 0
(ii) R = M2 (R), S =
, R .
0

(iii) R = Z[ 2], S = { + 2, }.

(iv) R = Z[ 2], S = { + 2, , }.
(v) R = Z[i], S = { = i : a 0mod10, b 0mod10}.
(vi) R = F (R, R) = {f : R R}, S = {f F (R, R) : f (1) = 1} ;
(vii) R = Z12 , S = {[0], [4], [8]}.


0
0

0
1

. (i). , S 6= ,
S. s1 , s2 S, s1 =




0 0
0 0
, s2 =
, , R. ,
0
0

 
 

0 0
0 0
0
0
s1 s2 =

=
S, R.
0
0
0


s1 s2 =

0
0



0
0


=

0
0


S, R.

2.6 107
S R. ,


 
 
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
S2 S1 =
=
=
0
0
0
0

0
S . S1 =
0


0 0
S2 =


= S1 S2 .

. 1S


 
0 0
0 0
0
S1 S2 = S2
=
0
0
0




0 0
0 0
=
= = 1.
0
0

,

1S =

0
0

0
1


= S2 .

,


S S 0 = 1S

0
0

0
0

0
1

0 0
0 1

0
. S =
0
S1


S1 = S1 .


=

0
0

0
1

, S0 =

0
0

0
0


,

= 1 = 1 .

, S 0 = S 1 . ( ).


0 0
(ii). ,

/ S ( 0S = 0R ). ,
0 0




1 0
1 0
S1 =
, S2 =
,
0
0

S1 S2 =

0
0

/ S.

(iii).
S 6= , 2 2 S. s1 = 1 + 1 2, s2 =

2 + 2 2 S. ,

s1 s2 = (1 + 1 2) (2 + 2 2) = (1 2 ) + (1 2 ) 2 S

108
(1 2 Z, b1 b2 )

s1 s2 = (1 + 1 2)(2 + 2 2) = (1 2 + 21 2 ) + (1 2 + 2 1 ) 2 S
(1 2 + 21 2 Z 1 2 + 2 1 ). S R.
,
s2 s1

(2 + 2 2)(1 + 1 2) = (2 1 + 22 1 ) + (2 1 + 1 2 )

= (1 2 + 21 2 ) + (1 2 + 2 1 ) 2 = s1 s2 ,

S . 1 R
S. , s =
+ 2, s 1 = 1 s = s. S Z[ 2] R R .
S . S .
. ,
2 S, 21 =

1
1
1 2

/ Z, 2 2 S, =

/ S.
2
4
2 2

(iv). S 6= (2 + 2 2 S). s1 = 1 + 1 2, s2 = 2 + 2 2 S. ,

s1 s2 = (1 2 ) + (1 2 ) 2 S

s1 s2 = (1 2 + 21 2 ) + (1 2 + 2 1 ) 2 S.

S R. S (s1 s2 = s2 s1 ).
S . ,

(2 + 2 2)( + 2) = (2 + 2)

(2 + 4) + (2 + 2) 2 = 2 + 2 2
2 + 2

1,

. S 1S , .
(v). s1 = 1 + 1 i, s2 = 2 + 2 i S. ,
s1 s2 = (1 2 ) + (1 2 ) i S
( 1 2 0mod10 b1 b1 0mod10)
s1 s2 = (1 2 1 2 ) + (1 2 + 1 2 )i S.

2.6 109
S R. s1 s2 = s2 s1 , S
. S . ,
(10 + 10i)( + i)

10 + 10i

(10 10) + (10 + 10)i

10 + 10i

10 + 10

10

1,

. S 1S .
(vi). f, g S. f (1) = 1 = g(1). , f g
/ S. ,
(f g)(1) = f (1) g(1) = 0.
S .
(vii). ,
[] [], [] [] S, [], [] S

[][] = [][],
S . [4] . ,
[4][4] = [16] = [4],
[4][8] = [32] = [8],
[8][8] = [64] = [4].
S , . S
, S .
2

Keflaio 3

Omdec
,
Rn , , ,
.

3.1

Paradegmata omdwn kai summetrikc omdec

3.1.1. (i) f : Rn Rn d(x, y) =


d(f (x), f (y)) x, y Rn , d(x, y)
x, y .
(ii) M 6= , M Rn . f : Rn Rn , f (M ) = M
M . M S(M ).
3.1.2. (. M M .)
A
 A
(i) 
A
1
S(M ) = {1, %}, 1 : R2 R2 , 1(x) = x, % : R2 R2
1.
(ii)

1
S(M ) = {1, %1 , %2 , }, %i i
180o .

112

A
 A
(iii) . 
A
2
1 3
S(M ) = {1, %1 , %2 , %3 , 1 , 2 }, %i i (i = 1, 2, 3)
i 120 i . %2 %1 = 2 . ,
A
A
A
 A
 A
 A


A
%1

A
%2

A
= 2
2
2
2
1 3
1 3
1 3
(iv) . S(M ) = {1, %1 , , %5 , 1 , , 4 }, %i
i i 72 i (i
).
(v) ( ). S(M ) (iv).





(vi) 
S(M ) = {1, i , i1 , i2 , i2 , }, i 1 .
.
1

S(M ) = {1, %1 , %2 , }
3.1.3. f M f (1) = 4, f (2) = 2, f (3) = 3, f (4) =
1;
,
d(1, 2) 6= d(f (1), f (2)) = d(4, 2).
3.1.4. G G G G, (a, b) 7 a ? b G.
(G, ?) .
(i) (a ? b) ? c = a (b ? c), a, b, c G ( ).
(ii) e G a ? e = e ? a = a, a G ( ).
(iii) a G, a0 G a ? a0 = a0 ? a = e (
).

3.1 113
a ? b = b ? a, a, b G G .
3.1.5. (G, ?) .
(i) e . , e1 , e2 G
ei ? a = a ? e i ,
a G, e1 = e1 ? e2 = e2 .
(ii) a G . ,
a ? a 0 = a0 ? a = e

a ? a00 = a00 ? a = e,

a00 = e ? a00 = (a0 ? a) ? a00 = a0 ? (a ? a00 ) = a0 ? e = a0 .


(iii) a, b G , (a ? b)1 = b1 ? a1 . ,
(a ? b) ? (b1 ? a1 )

a ? ((b ? b1 ) ? a1 )

a ? (e ? a1 )

a ? a1 = e.

(. c, d G (G ) c ? d = e, c = d1 .)
3.1.6.
1. Z, Q, R, C
( 0). {1, 1}, Q r {0}, R r
{0}, Cr{0} (
1).
2. , (R, +, ) (R, +) ( 0R ). (R, +, ) 1R , (U (R), ) (
) ( 1R ). U (R) =
R. , R = Zn , (Zn , +) (U (Zn ), )
. R = Mn (F ), F (Mn (F ), +) (U (Mn (F )), ) . ,
U (Mn (F )) = {A Mn (F ) : detA 6= 0}.
. GLn (F ) = U (Mn (F )), GLn (F ) .
3. X 6= 0 .
S(X) = {f : X X : f 1 1 }.
, S(X) . ,

114

()
(f g) h = f (g h),
f, g, h S(X).
() 1x : X X 1x (x) = x x X,
f 1x = 1x f = f,
f S(X).
() f S(X), f 1-1 f 1 : X X.
f 1 1-1 , f 1 S(X)
f 1 f = f f 1 = 1x .
4. E = {z C : |z| = 1} .
E . ,
() z1 , z2 E, |z1 z2 | = |z1 ||z2 | = 1. z1 z2 E.
() z1 (z2 z3 ) = (z1 z2 )z3 , zi E.
() 1 z = z 1 = z, z E.
() z E z 6= 0 z1 ( C)

1
= 1 = 1 = 1.
z |z|
1

1
z

E. z

1
z

= 1.

5. n Z>0 . En = {z C : z n = 1}. En
( ). , |En | = n
2
( n- 1 z = cos 2
n + isin n , = 0, 1, . . . , n 1).
z0 , , zn1 De Moivre zn = 1
. z En |En | > n. C
xn 1 C[x] n, |En | 6 n. |En | = n.
6. a, b R, a 6= 0.
Ta,b : R R, Ta,b (x) = ax + b.
G = {Ta,b : a, b R, a 6= 0}.
G . Ta,b Tc,d G. ,
Ta,b Tc,d (x)

Ta,b (Tc,d (x)) = Ta,b (cx + d)

a(cx + d) + b = acx + ad + b.

3.1 115
a 6= 0, c 6= 0, ac 6= 0.
Ta,b Tc,d (x) = Tac,ad+b G.
,
(Ta,b Tc,d ) Te,f = Tac,ad+b Te,f = Tace,acf +ad+b

(Ta,b (Tc,d Te,f ) = Ta,b Tce,cf +d = Tace,acf +ad+b


. T1,0 T1,0 (x) = x
x R,
T1,0 Ta,b = Ta,b T1,0 = Ta,b
Ta,b G. Ta,b Ta1 ,ba1 . ,
Ta,b Ta1 ,ba1 = Ta1 ,ba1 Ta,b = T1,0 .
7. G = R r {1} a ? b = a + b + ab. (G, ?) .
a, b R r {1} a ? b = 1,
a + b + ab

= 1

a + b + ab + 1

(a + 1)(b + 1)

a=1

b = 1.

? G. a, b, c G. ,
(a ? b) ? c = (a + b + ab) ? c = a + b + ab + c + ac + bc + abc

a ? (b ? c) = a ? (b + c + bc) = a + b + c + bc + ab + ac + abc.
,
(a ? b) ? c = a ? (b ? c).
e = 0,
a ? e = e ? a = a,
a
. a0 R r {1}
a G. a G. a0 = 1+a

a ? a0 = a0 ? a = 0.
3.1.7. R a ? b = a + b + ab
1 .

116

8.
G = {A Mn (R) : AAt = At A = In }.
G .
A, B G.
AAt = At A = In

BB t = B t B = In .

,
(AB)(AB)t = ABB t At = AIn At = AAt = In .
,
(AB)t (AB) = In .
AB G, G. A, B, C
G,
(AB)C = A(BC)

( ).

In G In A = AIn = A. A G. A
A1 G. A1 = At (AAt = At A = In )
(A1 )(A1 )t = At (At )t = In .
,
(A1 )t (A1 ) = In .
9. M Rn , M 6= .
S(M ) = {f : Rn Rn : f }.
S(M ) .
f, g S(M ), f g S(M ). 1 : Rn Rn
S(M ) f 1 = 1 f = f , f S(M ).
f S(M ), f ( f
1-1 ) f 1 S(M ).
3 X 6=
S(X) = {f : X X : f 1 1 },
S(X) .
S(X) X .

3.1 117
Sn

3.1

3.1.8.
Sn = {f : {1, 2, . . . , n} {1, 2, . . . , n} : f 1 1 }
. Sn (Sn = S(X), X =
{1, 2, . . . , n} n. Sn
({1, 2, . . . , n}). .


1
2
3

n
=
.
(1) (2) (3) (n)
3.1.9.


1
3

2
2

3
1

S3 .

( S3 (1) = 3, (2) = 2, (3) = 1.)


3.1.10. (i)
 
1
S1 =
= {1},
1

 
1 2
1
S2 =
,
1 2
2

 
1 2 3
S3 =
,
1 2 3

 

1 2
= 1,
,
2 1
 
 
 
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
1
,
,
,
2 1 3
3 2 1
1 3 2
3


1
2
3

n
(ii) =
.
(1) (2) (3) (n)




1 2 3
1 2 3
=

=
,
2 1 3
3 2 1


=

1
2

2
1

2
1



 
1

3
3

2
2

3
1


=

1
3

2
1

3
2

1
(1)

3
1

4
2

2
1

3
2

 
1
,
2


,

1 3 3, 2 2 1, 3 1 2.
(iii) 1 =


=

3
1

1
3

2
4

4
2

2
4

1
5

5
3

3
5


4
2


5
1
1
5

2
(2)


,
2
4

5
3


.

(3)

n
(n)


.

2
3

3
1


.

118
(iv) n > 3, Sn . ,



1 2 3 4 n
1 2 3
=

=
2 1 3 4 n
1 3 2

4
4

n
n


,

(3) = ((3)) = (2) = 1

(3) = ((3)) = (3) = 2.


, (3) 6= (3), 6= .

3.1.11. Sn = n!.


1
2
3
(n 1)
n
. =
. (1) n
(1) (2) (3) (n 1) (n)
.
(2) n 1 , (2) 6= (1) ( 1 1).
(3) n 2 , (3) 6= (2), (3) 6= (1).
(n 1) 2
(n) 1 . ,

Sn = n(n 1) 3 2 1 = n!.
2


3.1.12. S3 = 3! = 6, S4 = 24.
3.1

( )

3.1.13. Sn ( )
a1 , a2 , , am {1, 2, , n},
(a1 ) = a2 , (a2 ) = a3 , (a3 ) = a4 , , (am1 ) = am , (am ) = a1

(i) = i i {1, 2, 3, , n} r {a1 , , am }.


m . = (a1 , a2 , , am ).


1 2 3 4
3.1.14. (i) = (4 2 1 3) S4 =
.
3 1 4 2


1 2 3 4 5
(ii) = (4 2 1 3) S5 =
.
3 1 4 2 5

3.1 119

(iii) =

1
2

2
1

3
4

4
3


S4 .

3.1.15. ai (a1 , a2 , , am )
. ,
= (4 2 1 3) = (2 1 3 4) = (1 3 4 2) = (3 4 2 1),
(4 2 1 3) 6= (2 1 3 4). ,
(a1 a2 a3 am ) = (a2 a3 am an ) = (a3 am a1 a2 ) = = (am a1 a2 am1 ).
= (4 2 1 3) = (2 1 3 4), (4 2 1 3) 4 7 2, (2 1 3 4)
4 7 1 (4 2 1 3) 6= (2 1 3 4).
3.1.16. = (a1 a2 am1 am ), 1
1 = (am am1 a2 a1 ).
3.1.17. Sn m. ,
(i) m = 1
(ii) 6= 1, = 1, 2, , m 1.
. = (a1 a2 a3 am ). , (a1 ) = a2 ,
2 (a1 ) = ((a1 )) = (a2 ) = a3 .
,
n1 (a1 ) = ( n2 (a1 )) = (am1 ) = am .
,
, 2 , , m1 6= 1.
,
m (a1 ) = ( m1 (a1 )) = (am ) = a1 .
,
m (ai ) = ai , i = 1, 2, , m.
, m = 1 ( (b) = b, b 6= a1 , , am ).
3.1.18. , Sn . , ,
{i : (i) 6= i} {j : (j) 6= i} = .

120
3.1.19. , . ,
,
(i) 6= i (i) = i
3.1.20.

1 2
=
3 2

(i) 6= i (i) = i.

(i)
3
5

4
4

5
1

1
1

2
4

3
3

4
2

5
5

{j : (j) 6= i} = {2, 4}.

,
{i : (i) 6= i} = {1, 3, 5}
(ii)

=

1
3

2
2

3
5

4
4

5
1

1
4

2
2

3
3

4
1

5
5

, (1) 6= 1 (1) 6= 1.
n > 3 Sn . .
3.1.21. , Sn . , = .
. i {1, 2, , n}. .
1. (i) = i. (i) = (i).
(3.1.1)

((i)) 6= (i).

, ((i)) 6= (i), ((i)) = (i).


1-1, (i) = i. ,
((i)) = (i) = i = (i),
(3.1.1). (i) = (i), (i) = i,
(i) = (i).
2. (i) 6= i. , , (i) = i.
1 ( , ),
(i) = (i).
2
3.1.22. Sn ,
= 1 2 n ,
i .

3.1 121
3.1.23. (a1 a2 a ), (b1 b2 b )
{a1 , a2 , , a } {b1 , b2 , , b } = .
3.1.22. a1 {1, 2, , n}
Ba1 = { t (a1 ) : t N} ( t = 0 0 = 1).
Ba1 {1, 2, , n}, s, t 0 6 s 6 t s (a1 ) = t (a1 ).
t1 > 0 . t (a1 ) = a1 . ,
s (a1 ) = t (a1 ) 0 6 s 6 t, s1 (a1 ) = t1 (a1 ), t1 .
,
Ba1 = {a1 , (a1 ), 2 (a1 ), , t1 1 (a1 )}.
a2 {1, 2, , n} r Ba1 . ,
Ba2 = {a2 , (a2 ), 2 (a2 ), , t2 1 (a2 )}.
Ba1 , , Bam {1, 2, , n}
(i) Bai Baj = , i 6= j
(ii) Ba1 Ba2 Bam = {1, 2, , n}
(ii) . (i), t (ai ) = s (aj ), t 6 s, ai = st (aj ) Baj ,
.
i = (ai (ai ) 2 (ai ) ti 1 (ai ))
( ti (ai ) = 1). 1 , , m (i).
(ii), = 1 2 m .
i .
0

1 2 m = 1 2 m ,
0

1 , , m 1 , , m > 2.
0
m = m0 i = i , i.
0
M = max{m, m }. M = 1 . M > 2
0
0
0
1 2 m = 1 2 m . i 1, i
{1, 2, , n} 1 (i) 6= i. 1 , 2 , , m , j (i) = i,
j 6= 1. ,
1 2 m (i) = 1 (i) 6= i.

1 2 m 6= i,

122
0

q q (i) 6= i. 1 = q ( ).
0
0
0
q = 1. 1 2 m = 1 2 m ,
0

2 m = 2 m .
2

.
3.1.24.

1. S9 ,

1 2 3 4 5
=
3 4 5 2 9

6
8

7
6

8
7

9
1


.

a1 = 1. ,
(1) = 3, (3) = 5, (5) = 9, (9) = 1.
,
Ba1 = {1, 3, 5, 9}

1 = (1 3 5 9).

a2 = 2 ,
(2) = 4, (4) = 2.
,
Ba2 = {2, 4}

2 = (2 4).

a3 = 6,
(6) = 8, (8) = 7, (7) = 6.
,
Ba3 = {6, 8, 7}

3 = (6 8 7).

= 1 2 3 = (1 3 5 9)(2 4)(6 8 7).


2
2.
= (1 2 3)(2 3 4)(3 4 5)(4 5 6)(5 6 7) S7 .
. ,
(1) = 2, (2) = 1, (3) = 3, (4) = 4, (5) = 5, (6) = 7, (7) = 7.
= (1 2)(3)(4)(5)(6 7) = (1 2)(6 7).
. 1 Sn .
3. [a] Zn . : Zn Zn , n > 1, ([b]) = [ab].

3.1 123
(i) (a, n) = 1,
(ii) n = 9 a = 4 2011
.
.(i). (a, n) = d > 1. ,
h n i h n i h a i
= a
=
n = [0].

d
d
d
,
h n i
([0]) = ([0])

= ([0]),
d
n
d 6= 0 d > 1. 1-1 ( ).
, (a, n) = 1. Zn .
1-1. , ([b1 ]) = ([b2 ]) . ,
[ab1 ] = [ab2 ] n|ab1 ab2 n|a(b1 b2 )

((a,n)=1)

n|b1 b2 [b1 ] = [b2 ].

. 1-1 Zn .
(ii). n = 9 a = 4 ,

1 2
=
4 8

3
3

4
7

5
2

6
6

7
1

8
5

9
9


.

( [5] = [4 5] = [20] = [2].) ,


(1) = 4, (4) = 7, (7) = 1,
(2) = 8, (8) = 5, (5) = 2

(3) = 3, (6) = 6, (9) = 9.


,
= (1 4 7)(2 8 5).
,
2011

2011 = ((1 4 7)(2 8 5))

= (1 4 7)2011 (2 8 5)2011 .

3.1.17, (1 4 7)3 = 1,
(1 4 7)2011 = (1 4 7)2010 (1 4 7) = (1 4 7)3

670

= 1670 (1 4 7) = (1 4 7).

, (2 8 5)2011 = (2 8 5). ,
2011 = (1 4 7)(2 8 5).
2

124

3.1

3.1.25. G g G. m Z>0 g m = 1 (
G), G
|g| = m. m g .
3.1.26. (i) Sn . = 1
j 6= 1, j = 1, 2, . . . , 1 . || = .
(ii) G = R r {0} . 2 ,
1 2.
(iii) U (Z8 ) = Z8 .
Z8 . ,
U (Z8 ) = {[1], [3], [5], [7]} = {[a] Z8 : (a, 8) = 1}.
,
[1]
1

g
|g|

[3]
2

[5]
2

[7]
,
2

32 = 9 = 1mod8, [3]2 = [1] ([3] 6= [1]).


1 ,
g S3
|g|

1
1

(1 2)
2

(1 3)
2

(2 3)
2

(1 2 3)
3

(2 1 3)
3

(iv) En = {z C : z n = 1} .
n = 4,
g
|g|

1
2

1
1

i
4

i
,
4

i2 = 1 6= 1, i3 = i 6= 1, i4 = 1.
3.1.27. G g G. |g| = < .
.
(i) m Z>0 . g m = 1 |m.
(ii) m Z>0 . |g m | =

(,m)

3.1 125
. (i). q, r Z
m = q + r, 0 6 r < . ,
g m = (g )q g r = 1q g r = g r .
g m = 1, g r = 1 0 6 r < , = |g| r = 0. |m,
r = 0 g m = 1.
(ii). ,
m

(g m ) (,m) = (g ) (,m) = 1 (,m) = 1.


,
(3.1.2)

|g m | 6

.
(, m)

(g m )s = 1, s Z>0 . g ms = 1, (i) |ms. ,




m


s.

(, m) (, m)



m

,
= 1,
(,m) (,m)

s
(3.1.3)
6 s.

(, m)
(, m)
(3.1.2) (3.1.3) |g m | =

(,m)

3.1.28. s Sn 8,
50
=

8
8
= = 4.
(50, 8)
2

3.1.29. , Sn 1 , 2 .
| | = (1 , 2 ).
3.1.30. Sn , = 1 2 n , i
1 , 2 , , n , || = (1 , 2 , , n ).
( 3.1.29, .)
3.1.29. = (1 , 2 ). ,
( ) = = 1 1 = 1
( 1 2 .) , | | 6 .

126
( )s = 1. ,
s s = 1 s = s = ( 1 )s .
, 1 , s
( 1 )s . , s = ( 1 )s s , ( 1 )s ,
. s = 1 ( 1 )s = 1. |||s, 1 |s.
s = 1, 2 |s. (1 , 2 ) s. | | = (1 , 2 ).
2
3.1.31.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
=
3 5 1 9 7 6 8

8
2

9
4


S9

50 .
. . ,
(1) = 3, (3) = 1,
(2) = 5, (5) = 7, (7) = 8, (8) = 2,
(4) = 9, (9) = 4
(6) = 6. ,
= (1 3)(2 5 7 8)(4 9).

3.1.30, || = (2 4 2) = 4. 3.1.27
50
4
=
= 2.
2
(50,4)

1. 1 2 n i . = 1
i 6 2.
. = 1 .
1
= (1 2 m )1 = m
21 11 .


() i i i1 i .
(a1 a2 a )1 = (a a1 a2 a1 ).
() i , i i1 (
).

3.1 127
1
() 1 , 2 , , m 11 , 21 , , m
.

,
1 1
1 2 m = m
m1 11 .

3.1.22 i = q1 q {1, 2, , m}.


1
3.1.23 i 21 , 31 , cdots, m
.
1
2
1 = 1 , 1 = 1. 1 1 2.
i .
, i 1 2. i2 = 1, i1 = i . ,
= 1 m ,

1
1 = (1 m )1 = m
21 11 = m 2 1 = 1 2 m = ,

. g G g 2 = 1 gg = 1,
g 1 g = g 1 .
2.
3.1.32. 12 = 1, 1 . 1 1
2. 1 1 = 1.
= 1 = 2 .
2. G a, b G. ,
(i) |a| = |a1 |.
(ii) |b1 ab| = |a|.
(iii) |ab| = |ba|.
(iv) b1 a2 b = a3 a 6= 1, |a| > 5.
. (i). ,
as = 1 (as )1 = 1 (a1 )s = 1.
,
as = 1 (a1 )s = 1,
|a| = |a1 |.
(ii). ,
(b1 ab)2 = b1 abb1 ab = b1 a2 b.

128

,
(b1 ab)s = b1 as b,
s Z>0 . ,
(b1 ab)s = 1 b1 as b = 1 as = 1,

(b1 ab)s = 1 as = 1.
, |b1 ab| = |a|.
(iii). ,
(ii)

b1 (ba)b = ab |ba| = |ab|.


(iv). a = || < . b1 a2 b = a3 ,
|a2 | = |a3 |

=
(, 2) = (, 3).
(, 2)
(, 3)

, 2 - 3 - . a > 1, > 5.

3. G a G |a| = 2. ab = ba,
a G.
. b G. 2,
|b1 ab| = |a|, |b1 ab| = 2. b1 ab = a, ab = ba.
2
4.

(i) 2 S4 ;
(ii) 3 S5 ;
. Sn
= 1 2 n , i , || = (1 , 2 , , n ).
(i). S4 2 2 2
2. 6 + 3 = 9 2.
(ii). S5 || = 3 3
3 + 3 > 5 2 3. = (a1 a2 a3 ).
A n
 ,
A n , 1 6 6 n.

{a1 , a2 , a3 } {1, 2, , 5} 53 = 10 .
. (b1 b2 b3 ) (b1 b2 b3 ) = (a1 a2 a3 );
,
(a1 a2 a3 ) 6= (a2 a1 a3 ),

3.1 129
(a1 a2 a3 ) = (a2 a3 a1 ) = (a3 a1 a2 ),
(a2 a1 a3 ) = (a1 a3 a2 ) = (a3 a2 a1 ).

5
3

2 = 20 S5 3.

5. S10 14, i {1, 2, , 10}


(i) = i.
. S10 14,
= 1 2 m ,
i i i , 14 = {1 , , m }.
1 6 i 6 10, 1 + 2 + + m = 10. ( 1- .) 7|14 i 7|i ,
i = 7. 1 = 7. 2|14, j 2|j . j 6= 1,
1 < 14.
P2|2 . 2 = 2. ( 2 > 4, 1 + 2 > 10.)
1 = 7, 2 = 2
i = 10, m = 3 3 = 1. = 1 2 3
3 = (i),
i
/ {a1 , , a7 } {b1 , b2 },
1 = (a1 a2 a7 ), 2 = (b1 b2 ).
{a1 , , a7 } {b1 , b2 } = ,
2

i .
6. G g G r {1} 2. G .
. a, b G. (ab)2 = 1. ,
abab = 1 ba = a1 b1 = ab,

a2 = b2 = 1.
7. G A G |A| >
a, a0 A g = aa0 .

|G|
2 .

g G,

. B = {a1 g G : a A}. g G.
1
|B| > |G|
g 1-1.
2 . f : A B f (a) = a
, a1 , a2 A f (a1 ) = f (a2 ). ,
1
1
1
a1
1 g = a2 g a1 = a2 a1 = a2 .

f . |B| = |A| >


a0 A a1 g B (a A)

|G|
2 .

A B 6= .

a1 g = a0 g = aa0 .
2

130

8. .
(i) 3.
(ii) G , , G 3 = 3 , = .
(iii) G , , G 3 = 3 5 = 5 , = .
(iv) {|| : S6 } 6.
. (i). . a G |a| = 3,
|a2 | =

3
=3
(3, 2)

a 6= a2 .

( a = a2 , a = 1 3.)
. G m(< ), G (m)
m
.
m. |a | =
(,m)
(ii). . G = S3 = (1 2 3), = (2 1 3). 6= ,
3 = 3 = 1.
(iii). . m, n Z 1 = 3m + 5n. ,
= 1 = (3 )m (5 )n = ( 3 )m ( 5 )n = 3m+5n = .
(iv). . S6 , = 1 2 m . || = (1 , 2 , , m ), i i .
(1 , 2 , , m ) Zm
>0 .
, 1 > 2 > > m . ,
6 = 6 (6), 6 = 5 + 1 (5), 6 = 4 + 2 (4), 6 = 4 + 1 + 1 (4),
6 = 3+3 (3), 6 = 3+2+1 (6), 6 = 3+1+1+1 (3), 6 = 2+2+2 (2), 6 = 2+2+1+1 (2),
6 = 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 (2), 6 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 (1).
( .) max {|| : S6 } 6.

3.2

Upoomdec kai to jerhma tou Lagrange

3.2.1. (G, ?) . H G
(G, ?), h1 ? h2 H h1 , h2 H.
3.2.2. H G ,
? : H H H, (h1 , h2 ) 7 h1 h2 .

3.2 Lagrange 131


3.2.3. (G, ?) H G . H
(G, ?), (H, ?) .
. H G, H G. G
(G, ?).
3.2.4. H G. .
(i) 1H = 1G ( H G ).
(ii) h H. h H h
G.
3.2.5. (i) G = Z ( ). N , .
(ii) Z Q, Z R, Z C, Q R.
(iii) R r {0} ( ) C r {0}.
(iv) En = {z C : z n = 1}. , En C r {0}.
3.2.6. G H G, H 6= . .
(i) H G.
(ii) h1 , h2 H, h1 h2 H h1
1 H.
(iii) h1 , h2 H, h1 h1
2 H.
. (i) (ii). .
(ii) (iii). h1 , h2 H. h1 , h1
H.
2
, h1 h1
2 H.
(iii) (i). h H (H 6= ). hh1 H, 1G H.
h H. 1G H, 1G h1 H, h1 H.
1 1
h1 , h2 H. h1 h1
H, h1 h2 H, H
2 H, h1 (h2 )
.
, h1 , h2 , h3 H,
h1 (h2 h3 ) = (h1 h2 )h3 ,
H G G . H G.

3.2.7. (i) G = GL2 (R) = {A M2 (R) : detA 6= 0}.


G ( G = U (M2 (R)).
H = SL2 (R) = {A M2 (R) : detA = 1}. SL2 (R) GL2 (R).
, A, B SL2 (R). detA = detB = 1. ,
det(AB) = (detA)(detB) = 1 AB SL2 (R)

132

detA1 =

1
= 1 A1 SL2 (R).
detA

(ii) G = Sn H = { Sn : (n) = n}. H Sn .


, , Sn . , (n) = n, (n) = n. H 6= ,
(n) = ( (n)) = (n) = n.
H. ,
(n) = n 1 (n) = n,
1 H. H Sn .
(iii) G H = {g G : g 2 = 1}. H G.
, H 6= , 1 H. g1 , g2 H. g12 = g22 = 1. G
,
(g1 g2 )2 = g12 = g22 = 1,
g1 g2 H. g H. g 2 = 1,
(g 1 )2 = (g 2 )1 = 1.
g 1 H.
. G H = {g G : g 2 = 1}
.
G = S3 . H = {1, (1 2), (1 3), (2 3)}. ,
(1 2)(1 3) = (1 3 2)
/ H, H  G. H .
(iv) G
Z(G) = {a G : ag = ga, a G}.
( Z(G) G.) Z(G) G.
, Z(G) 6= , 1g = g1(= g) g G. 1 Z(G).
a, b Z(G).
ag = ga

bg = gb

g G.

,
(ab)g = a(bg) = a(gb) = (agb) = (gab) = g(ab).
ab Z(G). a Z(G). ag = ga g G . ,
(ag)1 = (ga)1 g 1 a1 = a1 g 1 ,

3.2 Lagrange 133


g G. g 1
g ,
(g 1 )1 a1 = a1 (g 1 )1 ga1 = a1 g.
, a1 Z(G).
. Z(Sn ) = {1}, n > 3. Z(G) = G G .



0
Z(GL2 (R)) =
GL2 (R) : R, 6= 0 .
0
(v) m, n Z>0 En = {z C : z n = 1}. Em En m|n.
2
, Em En . z = cos 2
m + isin m . (
n
(3.1.6)(5) ), z En m . z En z = 1,
3.1.27 m|n.

, m|n. Em En ( a C am = 1, an = (am )n/m .


, Em 6= (1 Em ). a, b Em . am = bm = 1,
(ab)m = am bm = 1,
ab Em . a Em . ,
am = 1 am = 1 (a1 )m = 1.
a1 Em .
. Em , En ,
Em En ( m|n) Em En .
3.2.8. (Lagrange.) G H G. |H| | |G|.
3.2.9. G g G. |g| | |G| g n = 1,
n = |G|.
3.2.10. (Euler.) , m Z (, m) = 1. (m) 1modm.
3.2.8. G
|H| . G H G. a, b G.

a b b1 a.
. ,
(i) a a a G, a1 a = 1 H.
(ii) a b,
b1 a H (b1 a)1 H a1 (b1 )1 = a1 b H.
b a.

134
(iii) a b b c, b1 a H c1 b H. ,
(c1 b)(b1 a) = c1 a H,
a c.
[a] = {g G : g a} ( a),
(i) [a] = [b] a b b1 a H.
(ii) a  b, [a] [b] = .
S
G = aA [a] ( ) A G. a G,
aH = {ah : h G}.
[a] = aH. , [a] = {g G : g a}
g a a1 g H h H g = ah.
,
G=

(3.2.1)

aH, a A.


(3.2.2)

|aH| = |H|,

g G.

, f : H aH, f (h) = ah 1-1 ( f (h1 ) = f (h2 )


ah1 = ah2 h1 = h2 ) .
G . (3.2.1) ,
G = a1 H a2 H a H
(3.3.2), |ai H| = |H| i. ,
|G| = |a1 H| + + |a H| = |H| + + |H| = |H|.
|H| | |G|.
2
3.2.9 .
G g G. g , |g| = . ,
< g >= {g m G : m Z}

(g 0 = 1).

, < g > G. , g m1 < G > g m2 < G > ,


(g m1 )(g m2 )1 = g m1 g m2 = g m1 m2 < G > .
< g > G.

3.2 Lagrange 135


3.2.11. | < g > | = .
. ,
| < g > | = {1, g, g 2 , , g 1 }.
( = |g|).
. g m < g >. g = 1, g m = g r ,
r m . g m = g r {1, g, g 2 , , g 1 },
| < g > | {1, g, g 2 , , g 1 }.
2
3.2.9. G , g
( , i, j Z>0 g i = g j g ij = 1).
3.2.11 | < g > | = |g| = . Lagrange,
| < g > | | |G|, | |G|. | n g = 1, g n = 1.
2
3.2.10. U (Zm )
Zm ( Zm ). |U (Zm )| =
(m). ,
U (Zm ) = {[] Zm : (, m) = 1}.
3.2.9, [](m) = [1], (m) 1modm ( (, m) = 1).
2
G g G. < g >= {g m : m Z}
G.
3.2.12. < g > G g.
3.2.13. G , g G G =< g >.
,
3.2.14. g G |g| = < , | < g > | = .
g .
3.2.15. ( Lagrange.) G
H G,
G = a1 H a2 H a H.
( |G| = |H|) H G.
= [G : H]
G = S4 H = { S4 : (4) = 4}. H G ( 3.2.7(ii) ).
,
4!
|G|
=
= 4.
[G : H] =
|H|
3!

136
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 (3.2.1).

S4 = H (1 4)H (2 4)H (3 4)H (a1 = 1, a2 = (1 4), a3 = (2 4), a4 = (3 4)).


,
H, (4) = 4,
(1 4), (4) = 1,
(2 4), (4) = 2,
(3 4), (4) = 3.
( 4 .)
1
1
a1
/ H.
i aj ai aj (4) 6= 4, ai aj
,
S4 a1 H a4 H

|S4 | = |a1 H| + + |a4 H|
( |a1 H| + + |a4 H|

( )
=
3! + 3! + 3! + 3! = 4! = 24),
S4 = a1 H a4 H.
2

3.2

3.2.16. Sn
2, = (i j).
3.2.17. .
. .
. ,
(3.2.3)

(a1 a2 a1 a ) = (a1 a )(a1 a1 ) (a1 a3 )(a1 a2 ).


2

3.2.18. Sn .
(i) ,
(ii) ,

3.2 Lagrange 137


3.2.19. = (1 2 3) = (1 2)(1 3).



1 2 3 4 5 6 7
=
S7 .
7 3 6 1 2 5 4
,
= (1 7 4)(2 3 6 5).
(3.2.3) ,
= ((1 4)(1 7)) ((2 5)(2 6)(2 3)) .
.
3.2.20.
, .
3.2.21. Sn .
.
= 1 2 s ,

(3.2.4)
i i
(3.2.5)
j j.

1 0
n = 3 A = I3 = 0 1
0 0

= 1 2 t ,
s tmod2. A Mn (R) (A)

(i)- i- A. ,
0
0 , = (1 2) ,
1

0 1 0
(I3 ) = 1 0 0
0 0 1

= (2 1 3) ,

1
(I3 ) =
0

0
0
1

1
0 .
0

(In ) In In
. B
detB = detA. ,
det(In ) = (1)s

138

(3.2.4)
det(In ) = (1)t
(3.2.5). ,
(1)s = (1)t s tmod2.
2
3.2.22. An = { Sn : }. ,
A1 = {1}, A2 = {1}, A3 = {1, (1 2 3), (2 1 3)}.
= (1 2 3 4)
/ A4 , = (1 4)(1 3)(1 2).


1 2 3 4
=
A4 , = (1 4)(2 3).
4 3 2 1
3.2.23. An Sn n > 2, |An | = 21 |Sn | = 12 n!.
. , An .
= 1 2 s ,
i i
= 1 2 t ,
j j s, t . ,
= 1 2 s 1 2 t An ,
s + t . ,
1 = (1 2 s )1 = s1 21 11 = s 2 1 An ,
s . An Sn .
|An | = 12 |Sn | = 21 n!.
Bn = { Sn : }.
3.2.18, Sn = An Bn . 3.2.22 Sn = An Bn
.
|Sn | = |An | + |Bn |.
|An | = |Bn |.
f : An Bn , f () = (1 2).

3.2 Lagrange 139


An , (1 2) Bn . f () = f ( ),
(1 2) = (1 2) = ,
f 1-1. Bn . (1 2) An
f ((1 2) ) = (1 2)(1 2) = .
f . |An | = |Bn |.

3.2.24. (i) (1 2) .
(ii) Sn
Sn = An (An ).

1. ;
(i) Z
(ii) Zn
(iii) En
(iv) U (Z5 )
(v) U (Z8 )
(vi) S3

1
(vii)
0

m
1


M2 (Z) : m Z

. (i). Z ,
Z =< 1 >= {m 1 : m Z}.
(ii). Zn ,
Zn =< [1] >= {m[1] = [m] : m Z}.
2
(iii). z1 = cos 2
n + isin n .

En = {1, z1 , z12 , , z1n1 }.


En En =< z1 >.

140
(iv). |U (Z5 )| = (5) = 4. Z5
4. = [2] U (Z5 ) . ,
2 = [2]2 = [4], 3 = [2]3 = [8] = [3], 4 = [2]4 = [16] = [1].
|| = 4 = 2. U (Z5 )
2, U (Z5 ) =< [2] >.
(v).
3.2.25. G , G .
, G =< g > a, b G. a = g m b = g n
m, n Z. ,
ab = g m g n = g m+n = g n g m = ba.
U (Z8 ) = {[1], [3], [5], [7]}.
g U (Z8 )
|g|

[1]
1

[3]
2

[5]
2

[7]
2

4 = U (Z8 ) (
), Z8 .
(vi). G g G, |g| =< g >. S3
( ).
(vii). ,

 
m
1 m
1 1
=
0 1
0 1



1 m
m Z.
M2 (Z) : m Z .
0 1


2. G H G, K G.
(i) H K G.
(ii) |H| = m, |K| = n, (m, n) = 1, H K = {1}.
. , H K H H K K. Lagrange
,
|H K| | m

|H K| | n.
,
|H K| | (m, n) |H K| = 1 H K = {1}.
2

3.2 Lagrange 141


3. G H G, K G.
(i) H K, [G : H] = [G : K][K : H].
(ii) [G : H K] [G : H][G : K].
. (i). H G, H K K G H K.
|G|
|G|
, [G : K] = |K|
[K : H] = |K|
Lagrange [G : H] = |H|
|H| .
,
G
G
[G : H]
H
[G : K] =
=
= K
.
K
[K : H]
H
,
[G : H] = [G : K][K : H].
(ii). (i) ,
[G : H K] = [G : H][H : H K].
[H : H K] [G : K].
: {h(H K)} {gK : g G}, (h(H K)) = hK.
1-1.
, h1 (H K) = h2 (H K). h1
2 h1 H K. ,
h1
2 h1 K h1 K = h2 K.
.
1
1
h1 K = h2 K (hi H). h1
2 h1 K. h2 h1 H, h2 h1
H K. h1 (H K) = h2 (H K) . 1-1.
2

4. G , a, b G ab = ba, |a| = m, |b| = n, (m, n) = 1.


|ab| = m n.
. ab = ba,
(ab)mn = amn bmn = (am )n (bm )n = 1 1 = 1.
|ab| > m n.
(ab)s = 1, s Z>0 . as bs = 1, as = bs < a > < b >.
3.2.9 |as | | | < a > |, |as | | m. as = bs <
b >, |as | | n. ,
|as | | (m, n) |as | = 1.
as = bs = 1. m | s n | s. (m, n) = 1, mn | s,
|ab| > mn. |ab| = mn.
2

142
5. G p .
(i) a, b G |a| = |b| = p. ,
< a > < b >= {1}

< a >=< b > .

(ii) G p p 1.
(iii) |G| = 33, G 3 .
. (i). < a > < b >< a > | < a > | = p,
Lagrange ,
| < a > < b > | | | < a > | | < a > < b > | = 1 p.
| < a > < b > | = 1, < a > < b >= {1}. | < a > < b > | = p.
< a > < b >< a > | < a > < b > | = | < a > |.
< a > < b >=< a >, < a >< b >. < a >=< b >.
(ii). a G p 6= 1 < a >
p ( 3.2.9). Gp = {g G : |g| = p}.
,
[
Gp =
(< a > 1).
aGp


[
Gp =
(< a > 1),
aGp

A Gp . < a > 1 p 1 ,
Gp p 1.
(iii). g G, g 6= 1. |g| | 33, |g| = 33, 11, 3.
g G, |g| = 33. h = g 00
33
33
=
= 3.
(33, 11)
11
g G, g 6= 1 11. , |Gr{1}| =
10. 32 = 10, .
2
6. G 2m.
(i) G 2.
(ii) G 2 .

3.2 Lagrange 143


(iii) m G ,
2.
. (i) (ii).
3.2.26. () a, b G a = b a1 = b1 .
() a G |a| = |a1 |.
() a G a 6= a1 |a| > 2.
|G| = 2m, G 2. A = {g G : |g| > 2}.
g A g 1 A. |A| = .

{g G : |g| = 2} = G r A r {1}.




{g G : |g| = 2} = .
(iii). a, b G, a 6= b |a| = |b| = 2.
H = {1, a, b, ab}.
|H| = 4 ( ab = a b = 1, ).
( G ) H G.
Lagrange 4|2m, m .
2
. (iii) , G
H G.
, 2 S3 (1 2), (1 3), (2 3) {1, (1 2), (1 3), (2 3)}
S3 .
7. G H G [G : H] = n < . g G
m Z, 1 6 m 6 n g m H.
. {aH : a G} [G : H] = n < ,
H, gH, g 2 H, , g n H . g i H = g j H
0 6 i, j 6 n, i > j. g ij H 1 6 i j 6 n.
2
8. Sn , = 1 2 m , i i i.

m
X
(i 1)
i=1

m
X
(i 1) .
i=1

144

. ,
(a1 a2 a1 a ) = (a1 a )(a1 a1 ) (a1 a3 )(a1 a2 ).
- ( 1) .
Pm
, = i=1 (i 1).
2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7
9. =
S7 .
4 7 5 2 6 3 1
(i) .
(ii) m Z < m > A7 .
. (i). = (1 4 2 7)(3 5 6).
= ((1 7)(1 2)(1 4)) ((3 6)(3 5))
, 5 5 .
(ii). ,
< m > A7 < m > A7 m A7 ( A7 ).
,
m A7 m 5m ,
= 5m . ,
< m > A7 m .
2

10. =

1
5

3
1

5 6 7
6 7 3


S7 .

(i) , .
(ii) , (1 5)(5 6)(6 7) < >;
. (i). ( )
( ) = (2 4)

( ) = (4 2).

( ) = (2 4). ( ) =
(1 5 6 7 3). ( ) = (4 2). = (1 5 6 7 3)(2 4). ,
(1 5 6 7 3) = (1 3)(1 7)(1 6)(1 5) A7

3.3 - 145

(1 5 6 7 3)(2 4) = (1 3)(1 7)(1 6)(1 5)(2 4)


/ A7 .
= 2, = 4.
(ii). A7 , < > A7 . (1 5)(5 6)(6 7) ,
(1 5)(5 6)(6 7)
/ A7 . (1 5)(5 6)(6 7) < >.
2
11. 6 A6 .
. 6 S6 .
= 1 2 m ,
i ,
|| = (1 , 2 , , m ),
i i . S6 6
() = (a1 a2 a6 ) 6
() = (a1 a2 a3 )(b1 b2 ) 3 2.
,
(a1 a2 a6 )
/ A6 ,

(a1 a2 a6 ) = (a1 a6 )(a1 a5 )(a1 a4 )(a1 a3 )(a1 a2 )


(5 , 5 )
(a1 a2 a3 )(b1 b2 ) = (a1 a3 )(a1 a2 )(b1 b2 )
/ A6
(3 , 3 ).

3.2.27. S6 6. , G
|G| = n < m|n, m 6= n,
m.

3.3

Omomorfismo omdwn - perisstera gia kuklikc omdec

.
3.3.1. (G, ) (H, ) . f : G H ,
(i) f (a b) = f (a) f (b) a, b G.,

146

(ii) 1-1.
(iii) ,
(iv) , 1-1
. ab a b f (a)f (b)
f (a) f (b).
3.3.2. (i) : R S .
( + ). ,
Z Zn , a 7 [a] ([a + b] = [a] + [b],
a, b G).
(ii) Z nZ (n 6= 0), a 7 an .
.
Z nZ (n 6= 0), a 7 2an ,
.
(iii) : Z En , (a) = z ,
2
2
+ isin
En
n
n
. ,
z = cos

(a + b) = z a+b = z a z b = (a)(b).
. En =< z >, .
(iv) : Zn En (n > 0), ([a]) = z a , z (iii) ( )
. ,
[a] = [b] n | a b

(n=|En |)

z ab = 1 z a = z b .

, En =< z >. .
,
([a + b]) = z a+b = z a z b = ([a])([b]).
(v) : (R, ) (R, +), (x) = ln(x) (ln(xy) = lnx +
lny).
(vi) Sn . ,
(
1,

sign() =
1,
Sn ( ),
sign : Sn {1, 1} = E2 , (n > 2). ,

3.3 - 147

() ,
() ,
() ( ).
2
3.3.3. : G H . ,
Ker = {g G : (g) = 1}

( )

Im = {(g) H : g G}

( ).

3.3.4. : G H . ,
(i) Ker G.
(ii) Im H.
(iii) 1-1 Ker = {1}.
3.3.5. : G H . ,
(i) (1G ) = 1H .
(ii) (a1 ) = (a)1 a G.
(iii) (am ) = (a)m m Z.
, (i) a G,
a 1G = a (a 1G ) = (a) (a)(1G ) = (a) (1G ) = 1H .
(ii) a G,
aa1 = 1G (aa1 ) = (1G ) (a)(a1 ) = 1H (a1 ) = ((a))1 .
3.3.4. (ii).
Im 6= , (1G ) = 1H , 1H Im.
a, b Im. (ga ) = a (gb ) = b ga , gb G. ,
ab = (ga )(gb ) = (ga gb ) Im.
a Im. a = (ga ) ga G. ,
a1 = ((ga ))1 = (ga1 ) Im.
2

148
3.3.6. (i) : Z En
3.3.2(iii) Ker =< n >= nZ. ,
z a = 1 |z| | a n|a.
(ii) : R C r {0},
(a) = cos(2a) + isin(2a)
. ,
Im = E = {z C : |z| = 1},
|z| z C. R 2
.
(iii) : Z24 S5 , ([a]) = a , = (1 3)(2 4 5). ,
Ker =< [] >. Im =< >.
, || = (2, 3) = 6 ((1 3)(2 4 5)
). [a] = [b]. ,
24 | a b 6 | a b a = b .
( a+b = b ). ,
Ker = {[a] Z24 : a = 1} = {[a] Z24 : || | a} = {[a] Z24 : | a} =< [b] >

Im = { a : [a] Z24 } = { a : a Z} =< > .


2
3.3.7. (G1 , ), (G2 , ~) . G1 G2 (
) .
(g1 , g2 ) (g10 , g20 ) = (g1 g1 ~ g20 ).
(G1 G2 , ) G1 , G2 .
3.3.8. 1G1 G2 = (1G1 , 1G2 ), (g1 , g2 )1 = (g11 , g21 ).
3.3.9. (Cayley) G . G
Sn .

3.3 - 149
. g G. Lg : G G, Lg (a) = ga
a G. Lg 1-1 . , Lg (a) = Lg (a0 ) ,
ga = ga0 a = a0 .
Lg : G G 1-1 |G| < , G . ( G
a G , Lg (g 1 a) = g(g 1 a) = a.) Lg
G, Lg S(G) = Sn = G.

: G S(G), (g) = Lg .
( S(G) ). ,
(g1 g2 ) = Lg1 g2 (g1 )(g2 ) = Lg1 Lg2 . ,
Lg1 Lg2 (a) = Lg1 (g2 a) = g1 (g2 a) = (g1 g2 )a = Lg1 g2 (a).
Ker = {g G : Lg = 1S(G) }. ,
Lg = 1S(G) Lg (a) = 1S(G) (a) a G ga = a g = 1G .
2

, Ker = {1G }.
3.3.10. G =< g >, |G| = 3. G = {1, g, g 2 }.


1 g g2
L1 = G G
,
1 g g2

Lg =
L2g =
G'

 
1
1,
2

1
g2
2
3

1
g

g
g2

g2
1 = g3


,


g
g2
.
1 = g3 g = g4
 

3
1 2 3
,
S3 .
1
3 1 2
2

3.3

3.3.11.

(i) Z.

(ii) n Zn .
. (i). G =< a > .
: Z G, () = a .

150
. ,
0

( + 0 ) = a+ = a a = () (0 ).
. 1-1. Ker. ,
() = 1G a = 1G .
G =< a > = 0. Ker = {0}.
(ii). G =< a > n.
: Zn G, ([]) = a .
0

. , [] = [0 ] a = a an = 1G .
,
0

([] + [0 ]) = a+ = a a = ([]) ([0 ]).


. 1-1. ,
[] Ker a = 1G n | |a| = n.
Ker = {[0]}, 1-1.

3.3.12.
.
3.3.13. .
. G H G, H 6= {1G }. m Z
am H, m 6= 0. am H. ,
m, am H. H =< am >. , < am > H
am H H G. H < am >. a H.
q, r N
= qm + r, 0 6 r < m.
,
ar = a aqm = a (am )q < am > .
m, r = 0. , = qm a = (am )q <
am >, a < am >.
2
3.3.14. m
G, H G |H| = m.

3.3 - 151
. G =< a > , |G| = n m|n.
H G, |H| = m. H =< an/m >.
(|a| = n) ,
n
n
|an/m | =
n = n = m.
(n, m )
m
|H| = m. K G, |K| = m. K =< an/m >.
3.3.13, K , K =< a >, Z.
|K| = m,
(a )m = 1 am = 1 n | m

n
| a < an/m > .
m

K < an/m > |K| = | < an/m >= m < , K =< an/m >.
2
G
G .
G.
H, K G
K K K
/
|
\
H
H
H H K L G H L K, L 6= H, L 6= K.
G |G| < ,

G = Z18 .
G = Z18
18 = 2 32
(Z, Zn )
/ \
< [2] > < [3] >
\
/ \
< [6] > < [9] >
\
/
{[0]}
G = Zpq2 (p, q) .
G = Zpq2
/ \
< [p] > < [q] >
\
/ \
< [pq] > < [q 2 ] >
\
/
{[0]}
G = Zp3 p .

152
G = Zp3
|
< [p] >
|
< [p2 ] >
|
{[0]}

1. : G H .
(i) g G, |(g)| | |g|.
(ii) H m, G
m.
(iii) (|G|, |H|) = 1, (g) = 1H g G.

1 2 3
(iv) G = S6 H = S3 . Ker, =
2 3 4

4
5

5
1

. (i). |g| = n (n < |G| < ). ,


gn

1G (g n ) = (1G ) = 1H

(g)n

1 |(g)| | n |(g)| | |g|.

(ii). h H. g G h = (g).
(i), |h| | |g|. ,
|g| = m |h|, m Z>0 .

(3.3.1)
g m . ,
|g m | =

|g|
(|g|, m)

(3.3.1)

|g|
m

(3.3.1)

|h|.

(iii). g G. (i) |(g)| | |g|. |g| | |G|,

(3.3.2)

|(g)| | |G|.

,
(3.3.3)

|(g)| | |H|.

6
6


.

3.3 - 153

(3.3.2) (3.3.3) ,
|(g)| | (|G|, |H|) |(g)| | 1 (g) = 1H .
(iv). = (1 2 3 4 5).
|| = 5. (i) |()| | 5. ,
|()| | |S3 | |()| | 6.
,
|()| = 1 () = 1.
2
2. : Z24 Z20 , ([m]24 ) = [5m]20 . .
(i) .
(ii) .
(iii) Ker =< [4]24 >.
(iv) Im =< [5]20 >.
. (i). [m]24 = [m0 ]24 . ,
24 | m m0 4 | m m0 20 | 5(m m0 ) [5m]20 = [5m0 ]20 .
(ii). ,
([a]24 + [b]24 )

= ([a + b]24 ) = [5(a + b)]20


=

[5a]20 + [5b]20

= ([a]24 ) + ([b]24 ).
(iii). , Ker = {[a]24 : ([a]24 ) = [0]20 }. ,
([a]24 ) = [0]20 [5a]20 = [0]20 20 | 5a 4 | a.
, [a]24 < [4]24 >.
(iv). ,
Im = {[b]20 Z20 : [a]24 Z24 , ([a]24 ) = [b]20 }.
,
([a]24 ) = [5a]20 .
, Im =< [5]20 >.

154
3. Z Z.
(i) ;
(ii) ;
(iii) ;
(iv) ;
. : Z Z . ,
(m) = (1 + + 1) = (1) + + (1) = m(1),
m > 0. , (m) = m(1), m 6 0. ,
(m) = m(1),
m Z. : Z Z a Z
(m) = ma. , a Z. ,
a : Z Z, a (m) = ma.
,
a (m + n) = (m + n)a = ma + na = a (m) + a (n).
(i).
a Kera = {0} a 6= 0.
(ii).
a Ima = Z < a >= Z a = 1 a = 1.
(iii).
a a a = 1 a = 1.
(iv). ,
a (1 1) = a (1)a (1) a = a2 a = 0 a = 1.
, a a = 0 a = 1. ,
a = 0 a = 1 .
2
4. G, H m, n .
(i) G H (m, n).
(ii) G = Z24 H = Z20 .
G H.

3.3 - 155
. (i). G =< g > H =< h >. : G H
. (g) = g a , 0 6 a < n. (H = {1, h, h2 , . . . , hn1 }.)
g m = 1G . ,
(g)m = (g m ) = (1G ) = 1H ,

(ha )m = 1H ham = 1.
n | am. d = (m, n).
nd | a. ,
(3.3.4)

a=

n
d

n m
| am
d ( d , d Z).

n m
d, d

n
i, i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , (d 1).
d

i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , (d 1)
n

i (g ) = h d i , ( Z).
0

i . , g = g . ,
m
n n
n
n
m | 0 m | i( 0 )
n | i( 0 ) n | i( 0 ).
d d
d
d
d
,
n

h d i = h d i .
i .
i 6= j i 6= j, 0 6 i, j 6 d1. , i = j , 0 6 i, j 6 d1.
,
n
i (g) = j (g) hn/di = hn/dj n | (i j) i = j,
d
0 6 i, j 6 d 1.
G H i . ,
i : G H . (3.3.4), = i
i = 0, 1 , d 1,
(g ) = ha = hn/di .
(ii). , m = 24, n =
20, d = (24, 20) = 4, nd = 20
4 = 5. i = 0, 1, 2, 3. ,
4 Z24 Z20 , .
0

0 ([]24 ) = [0]20

1 ([]24 ) = [5]20

2 ([]24 ) = [10]20

3 ([]24 ) = [15]20

. 2 = 1 .

156
5. n
(i) G Sn , Sn ,
(ii) Sn G, Sn .
.
3.3.15. : G H .
(i) G , H .
(ii) 1-1 H , 1 (H)( G) .
(i). h, h0 H. G , g, g 0 G
h = (g), h0 = (g 0 ). ,
hh0 = (g)(g 0 ) = (gg 0 ) = (g 0 )(g) = h0 h.
H .
(i). 3.3.15(i), : G Sn G
Sn . n = 1, 2.
(ii). 3.3.15(ii) Sn = 1 (G) , n = 1, 2. 2
6. G = {2m 3n Q : m, n Z}
Z Z.
. ,
: G Z Z, (2m 3n ) = (m, n).
. ,
0

2m 3n = 2m 3n m = m0 , n = n0 (m, n) = (m0 , n0 ).
. ,
0

(2m 3n 2m 3n )

(2m+m 3n+n ) = (m + m0 , n + n0 )

(m, n) + (m0 , n0 ) = (2m 3n )(2m 3n ).

. 1-1. ,
Ker = {2m 3n : (m, n) = (0, 0)} = {1}.
G ' Z Z.

3.3 - 157
7. : Z Z Z, (x, y) = 28x + 49y .
Im;
. ,
((x, y) + (x0 , y 0 ))

= (x + x0 , y + y 0 )
=

28(x + x0 ) + 49(y + y 0 )

(28x + 49y) + (28x0 + 49y 0 )

(x, y) + (x0 , y 0 ).

Im = {28x + 49y : x, y Z} =< d >,

(3.3.5)

d = (28, 49) = 7. , Im =< 7 >= 7Z.


. (3.3.5)
. ,
{28x + 49y : x, y Z} < d >,
a, b d = 28a + 49b
{28x + 49y : x, y Z} < d >,
2

7 | 28 7 | 49.
8. G =< a > 36 H =< a32 >.
(i) m;
(ii) g G < g >= H
. (i). ,
|H| = |a32 | =

|a|
36
36
=
=
= 9.
(|a|, 32)
(36, 32)
4

(ii). ,
< g >= H |g| = H |g| = 9.
() , ()
3.3.14. g = a , Z,
|g| = 9 |a | = 9

36
= 9 (36, ) = 4 = 4n,
(36, )

(m, 9) = 1.
. {0, 1, . . . , 35}
(m, 9) = 1.
2

158
9. G H, K G.
H K;
. |H K| = d, d = (|H|, |K|). m | n,
Hm G |Hm | = m ( 3.3.14).
H K H, Lagrange |H K| | |H|.
H K K, |H K| | |K|. ,
|H K| | (|H|, |K|).
, H K Hd , d = (m, n). d | |H| Hd H.
Hd K. Hd H K. H K = Hd .
10. G 100, G =< a >
(i) < a28 >=< a36 >;
(ii) < a22 > < a55 >.
. (i). G 3.3.14 ,
< a28 > =
100
=
(100, 28)

< a36 > | < a28 > | = | < a36 > |


100
25 = 25.
(100, 36)

< a28 >=< a36 >.


(ii). 9 ,
| < a22 > < a55 > | = (| < a22 |, | < a55 > |).
,
| < a22 > | =

100
= 50
(100, 22)

| < a55 > | =

100
= 20.
(100, 55)

,
| < a22 > < a55 > | = 10.
< a22 > < a55 >=< a10 >,
| < a22 > < a55 > | = 10 = | < a10 > |
G 3.3.14.
11.



[1] [m]
G=
GL2 (Z18 ), [m] Z18 .
[0] [1]

3.4 - 159

. ,

: Z18 G, ([m]) =

[1] [m]
[0] [1]


.

. G ' Z18
18. G
( 
)


[1] [m]
G : [m] H H Z18 .
[0] [1]
,
H = Z18 , < [2] >, < [3] >, < [6] >, < [9] >, < [0] > .
2

3.4

Kanonikc upoomdec - omda phlko

Zn = {[a] : a Z}
(3.4.1)

Zn Zn Zn , ([a], [b]) 7 [a + b].

,
[a] = {a + n : Z} = a + nZ.
(3.4.1)
(a + nZ, b + nZ) 7 (a + b) + nZ.
. G , H G G/H = {aH : a G}.
(3.4.2)

G/H G/H G/H : (aH, bH) 7 abH

G/H ; (3.4.2) .
.
3.4.1. G S G ( G) a, b G. ,
aSb = {asb : s S} G.
3.4.2. b = 1G S G, () aS.
3.4.3. H G. .
(i) (3.4.2) .
(ii) g G , g 1 Hg H.

160
(iii) g G , g 1 Hg = H.
(iv) g G , gH = Hg.
. (i) (ii). a1 H = a2 H b1 H = b2 H. a1 b1 H = a2 b2 H.
,
(3.4.3)

1
1 1
a1
2 a1 H b2 b1 H b2 a2 a1 b1 H.

g G h H. g 1 hg H. (3.4.3) a1
2 a1 = h
b1 = b2 = g g 1 hg H.
(ii) (iii). g 1 Hg H g G. g 1 g
,
(g 1 )1 Hg 1 H gHg 1 H gH Hg H g 1 Hg.
g 1 Hg = H.
(iii) (iv). .
(iv) (i). a1
2 a1 H gH = Hg g G, h H
1
1
b1
2 (a2 a1 ) = h b2 .

,
1
1
b1
2 a2 a1 b1 = hb2 b1 H,

h H, b1
2 b1 H H G. (3.4.3), (3.4.2)
.
2
. gH = Hg gh = hg g G
h H. g G h H h0 H
gh = h0 g.
3.4.4. G H G. H G
( H  G) ( )
3.4.3.
3.4.5.

1. G , H G .

2. : G H . Ker  G.
, g G h Ker. g 1 hg Ker.
,
(g 1 hg)

= (g 1 )(h)(g) = (g 1 )1H (g)


= (g 1 )(g) = (g)1 (g) = 1H .

g 1 hg Ker.

3.4 - 161
3. An  Sn

(An = { An : }).

An Sn . Sn An . 1
1 , . 1 An
Sn An . An  Sn .
. An  Sn 2. ,
An = Ker(sign), sign : Sn {1, 1} .
4. H = {1, (1 2)} S3 .
1 (1 2)
/ H S3 .
= (1 3). ,
(1 3)1 (1 2)(1 3) = (1 3)(1 2)(1 3) = (2 3)
/ H.
5. H =< > S4 , = (1 2 3 4) .
g 1 g
/ H g S4 H.
g = (1 2) = = (1 2 3 4),
(1 2)1 (1 2 3 4)(1 2) = (2 1 3 4).

H =< >= {1, , 2 , 3 }


4. ,
2

(1 2 3 4)(1 2 3 4) = (1 3)(2 4)

= 1 = (4 3 2 1)

(2 1 3 4)
/ H, H .
6. H = { S4 : (4) = 4} .
h H. h H h(1) 6= 1. ,
= (1 4)1 h(1 4) = (1 4)h(1 4).
h(4) = 4 (4) 6= 4,
/ H. , (4) = 4
(1 4)(4) = h(1 4)(4), 1 = h(1) .




7. H =
: 6= 0
0




GL2 (R) =
: , , , R, 6= 0

.

162

,
g 1 hg =

8. SL2 (R) =

1
1

0
1



1
0

1
1



1
1

0
1


=

2
1

1
0

/ H.


: = 1 GL2 (R).

, SL2 (R) = Kerdet, det : GL2 (R) R r {0}


. det Kerdet = SL2 (R).
2, SL2 (R)  GL2 (R).
2
H  G.
(3.4.4)

G/H G/H G/H : (aH, bH) 7 abH

. G/H .
3.4.6. H  G. (3.4.4) G/H .
. ,
(aH) ((bH)(cH)) = (aH)(bcH) = a(bc)H
((aH)(bH)) (cH) = (ab)H(cH) = (ab)cH.
a(bc) = (ab)c, G/H.
aH G/H ,
(aH)(1G H) = (1G h)(aH) = aH.
( 1G H = H, 1G H.)
, a H,
(aH)(a1 H) = aa1 H = H

(a1 H)(aH) = aa1 H = H.


2
3.4.7. ( .) : G H .
: G/Ker Im, (g Ker) = (g)
.

3.4 - 163
. Ker  G. G/Ker
(g1 Ker) = (g2 Ker).
Im  H.
. ,
g1 Ker = g2 Ker
g21 g1

Ker

(g21 g1 )

1H

(g1 )

1H

(g1 )

= (g2 ).

(g2 )

. ,
((g1 Ker)(g2 Ker))

= (g1 g2 Ker)
=

(g1 g2 )

(g1 )(g2 )

(g1 Ker)(g1 Ker).

1-1. , .
2
3.4.8. N G. N
: G G0 ( G0 ).
. : G G/N, (g) = gN .
Ker = N .
2

1. Q/Z
.
. ,
a + Z = b + Z a b Z.
,

8
3

+Z=

2
3

+ Z.
1
1
1
+ Z, 2 + Z, 3 + Z,
2
2
2

. Q/Z .

164

a
b

+ Z Q/Z, a, b Z, b 6= 0. ,
a
b


+ Z = a + Z = Z (= Q/Z).

Q/Z .

2. G =< a > 12 H G, |H| = 3.


(i) H G/H.
(ii) m Z am H.
. (i). d | |G|
G d ( G ). ,
H =< a4 >= {1, a4 , a8 }.

(3.4.5)

G , G . H  G, G/H .
,
12
|G|
=
= 4.
|G/H| =
|H|
3
,
G/H = {H, aH, a2 H, a3 H}.
, H, aH, a2 H, a3 H ( ,
a2 H = a3 H a3+2 H a1 h a H, ). (3.4.5)
,
aH
a2 H
a3 H

= {a, a5 , a9 },
= {a2 , a6 , a10 },
= {a3 , a7 , a11 }.

(ii). G/H,
am H am H = H (aH)m = 1G/H |aH| | m.
|aH| = 4 ( aH
(aH) = H a H. = 4, H = {1, a4 , a8 }.
,
|aH| | m 4 | m.
2

3.4 - 165
3. H Z(G), G Z(G) = {a G : ag = ga g G}
G. H  G.
. Z(G) G. H Z(G), H G. g G h H.
,
g 1 hg = hg 1 g = h H ( g 1 h = hg 1 ).
H  G.

4. H Z(G). G/H , G .
. 3, H G, G/H . G/H =< aH >.
g1 , g2 G. g1 g2 = g2 g1 ( G ).
, g1 H G/H, g1 H = am H m Z>0 . ,
g1 g1 H = am H

g1 = am h1 ,

h1 H. g2 = an h2 , h2 H. ,
g1 g2 = am h1 an h2

HZ(G)

am an h1 h2 = am+n h1 h2 .

,
g2 g1 = an h2 am h1 = am+n h1 h2 .
2

g1 g2 = g2 g1 .
5. |G| = 210, N  G, |N | = 7.
(i) g 30 N g G.
(i) g 7 N , g N .
. (i). N  G, G/N ( ). ,
|G/N | =

(3.4.6)

210
|G|
=
= 30.
|N |
7

g G,
(gN )30 = 1G/N g 30 N = N g 30 N.
(ii). ,
g 7 N g 7 N = N (gN )7 = N = 1G/N .
G/N , |gN | | 7. (3.4.6) |gN | | 30.
(7, 30) = 1,
|gN | = 1 gN = 1G/N = N g N.
2

166
6. H  G, K  G.
(i) H K  G.
(ii) H K = {1}, h = h h H K.
. (i). H G K G. H K G. a H K
g G. a H H  G,
g 1 ag H.
,
g 1 ag K,

g 1 ag H K.
, H K  G.
(ii). h H K. 1 h H, H  G ( K). ,
h1 (1 h) H, H G. , h1 1 h K ( h1 1 h K).
,
h1 1 h H K = {1} h1 1 h = 1 h = h.
2
7. ( Cayley .) G
p | |G|, p . g G |g| = p.
. G
.
. |G|.
< |G|. p , p | |G|. a G, a 6= 1.
.
1. p | |a|. g = a

|a|
p

p.

2. p - |a|. G/ < a > ( , G ).


,
|G/ < a > | < |G| ( a 6= 1).
G/ < a > p | |G/ < a > |, p | |G| p - a.
b < a > G/ < a > p. ,
(b < a >)p =< a > bp < a > .
bp = 1, b G p. , |b| = 1 p. |b| = 1, b = 1
b < a > G/ < a > 1 ( p).

3.4 - 167
bp 6= 1, b|a| G p. ,
(b|a| )p = (bp )|a| = 1, bp < a > .
, b|a| = 1 p. ,
b < a > p G/ < a >.
p - |a|.
2

b|a| 6= 1, b|a| = p.

8. : S5 G Ker =< >, =


(2 3 4 5);
. < > S5 . ,
(1 2)1 (2 3 4 5)(1 2) = (1 3 4 5) <
/ >,
< > (1) = 1 ( )
< >= {1, , 2 , 3 }, 2 = (2 4)(3 5), 3 = 1 = (5 4 3 2).
2
9. G m Z>0 H G |H| = m.
H  G.
. g G, g 1 Hg G |g 1 Hg| = |H|.
, g 1 Hg 6= , H 6= . g 1 h1 g, g 1 h2 g g 1 Hg. ,
g 1 h1 gg 1 h2 g = g 1 (h1 h2 )g g 1 Hg,
H G. ,
1 1
1
(g 1 h1 g)1 = g 1 h1
) = g 1 h1
Hg,
1 (g
1 g g

H G. f : H g 1 Hg,
, f (h1 ) = f (h2 ). ,

f (h) = g 1 hg 1-1 .

g 1 h1 g = g 1 h2 g h1 = h2 .
f 1-1. f . ,
g 1 Hg G |g 1 Hg| = |H|
g 1 Hg = H g G. H  G.
2
10. .
(i) R/Z ' E, E = {z C : |z| = 1}.
(ii) R/ < 2 >' E.

168

. (i).
: R E, (r) = cos(2r) + isin(2r)
. , Im = E. ,
Ker = {r R : cos(2r) + isin(2r) = 1} = Z
, R/Z ' E.
(ii). ,
: R E, (r) = cosr + isinr
R/ < 2 >' E.

11. SLn (R) = {A GLn (R) : detA = 1}


GLn (R) = {A Mn (R) : detA 6= 0} GLn (R)/SLn (R) ' R r {0}.
. det : GLn (R) R r {0}, detA = A
detAB = (detA)(detB) Kerdet = SLn (R).
SLn (R) GLn (R) SLn (R)  GLn (R). det .
, a R r {0} ,

1
det
= a.

.
..

1
,
GLn (R)/SLn (R) ' R r {0}.
2
12. m, n Z>0 . , Zn / < [m] >' Zm .
. . : Zn Zm , [a]n 7 [a]m .
. ,
[a]n = [b]n n | a b m | a b [a]m = [b]m .
. ,
([a]n + [b]n ) = ([a + b]n ) = [a + b]m = [a]m + [b]m = ([a]n ) + ([b]n ).

3.4 - 169
. ,
Ker = {[a]n : [a]m = [0]m } = {[a]n : m | a} =< [m]n > .
, Zn / < [m] >' Zm .
. Zm .
. G N G, G/N . , G
N  G. G =< a >, G/N =< aN >. , g G
g = a Z. ,
gN = a N = (aN ) .
Zn / < [m] > .
. ,


Zn
Zn
n


< [m] > = | < [m] > | = n = m = Zm ,
m
2

.
13.

(i) : G H K H. 1 (K) =


{g G : (g) K} G.
(ii) : G Zn , G .
d n N  G [G : N ] = d.
. (ii) G.
. (i). 1 (K) G. , 1 (K) 6= (1G
1 (K) (1G ) = 1H K). (a), (b) K. ,
(a)(b) K

(KH)

(ab) K ab 1 (K).

a 1 (K). ,
(a) K

(KH)

(a)1 K (a1 ) K a1 1 (K).

a 1 (K). (a) K. g G ,
(g 1 ag) = (g)1 (a)(g) K,
K  H. g 1 ag 1 (K), 1 (K)  G.
(ii). Zn nd | n, K Zn |K| = nd .
N = 1 (K). (i) N  G ( K  Zn Zn ).
[G : N ] = d. ,
G/Ker ' Zn ,

170



G/Ker = n,
, [G : Ker] = n. ,
(3.4.7)

[G : Ker] = [G : N ][N : Ker].

K N/Ker . ,
N/Ker '
K. ,
n
[N : Ker] = |K| = .
d
(3.4.7) [G : N ] = d.

14. : G H .
(i) 1-1 |G| = 77, H .
(ii) |G| = 20, |H| = 26, |Im| = 1 2.
. (i). ,
G/Ker ' Im = H ( ).
1-1, |Ker| > 1 ( ).
,
|G/Ker| = 1, 7, 11.
|H| = 1, 7, 11, H ( 7, 11 ), H .
(ii). Im H, Lagrange ,
|Im| | |H| |Im| | 26.
G/Ker ' Im ,
|Im| | |G| |Im| | 20.
2

|Im| = 1 2.

15. G a G, a : G G, a (g) = a1 ga.


.
(i) a .
(ii) InnG = {a : a G} .
(iii) G/Z(G) ' InnG

(Z(G) = {a G : ag = ga g G}).

3.4 - 171

. (i). ,
a (g1 g2 ) = a1 (g1 g2 )a = (a1 g1 a)(a1 g2 a) = a (g1 )a (g2 ),
.
a 1-1. , g Kera . ,
a1 ga = 1G g = 1G Kera = {1G }.
1-1.
a . , g 0 G. , a (ag 0 a1 ) = g 0 .
(ii). InnG 6= . a , b InnG. ,
(a b )(g)

a (b (g)) = a (b1 gb)

a1 b1 gba = (ba)1 gba

ba (g)

g G. ,
a b = ba Inn(G).

(3.4.8)

1
a Inn(G). , 1
a = a1 InnG. , a (a (g)) = g (
1
a a ). ,

a (1
a (g))
1
a (g)

= g a1 1
a (g)a = g
= aga1 = (a1 )1 ga1
= a1 (g)

g G.
(iii). : G InnG, (a) = a1
Ker = Z(G). ,
(ab) = (ab)1 = b1 a1

(3.4.8)

a1 b1 = (a)(b).

((a1 ) = a ). ,
Ker = {a G : a1 = IG },
IG : G G, IG (a) = a. ,
a1

IG a1 (g) = g g G

g a Z(G).

aga

, G/Z(G) ' InnG.

172
16. n Z>0 9n = 1mod14
. , [9] U (Z14 ) (9, 14) = 1.
[9] U (Z14 ).
[9]2

[81] = [11] 6= [1]

[99] = [1]

[9]

[9] = 3. ,

g n = 1mod14 (n Z>0 ) n Z>0 3.


( .)

17. G n5 n, n > 1. H G
|H| = 30.
. G , 30 | |G|, 30 | n5 n.
, 30 = 2 3 5 2, 3, 5
,
2 | n5 n, 3 | n5 n, 5 | n5 n.
2 | n5 n. Fermat
3 | n5 n (n5 = n3 n2 nn2 n3 nmod3).
Fermat p = 5 5 | n5 n.
2
18. .
(i) G G Z4 ' Z40 Z2 .
(ii) 2, .
(iii) : Z10 S4 , ([2]) = 1
. (i). G. ,
|G Z4 | = |Z40 Z2 |,
|G| = 20. G Z4 6 20 ( 4 | 20).
([1]40 , [0]2 ) Z40 Z2 40, ,
: H K h H, |h| = |(h)|.
(ii). a, b G |a| = |b| = 2, a 6= b. ,
< a >= {1, a}, < b >= {1, b}.
G d | |G|,
H |H| = d. G . ,
< a >=< b > a {1, b} a = 1 b a = b

3.4 - 173
( |a| =
6 1), .
. ( .) G 3
6, G .
, G . a G |a| = 6, | < a > | = 6
G 6. < a >
3 6, . , < a >= {1, a, a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 }
1, 6, 3, 2, 3, 6. 6 (
|a|
).
|a4 | =
(|a|,4|)
(iii). ,
([2]) S4 |([2])| | |S4 | |([2])| | 24.
|[2]| = 5, |([2])| | 5. (24, 5) = 1, |([2])| = 1,
([2]) = 1.
2