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Running head: INTRAVENOUS STARTS

Module 2: Assessing/Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Presented to
Eva W. Stephens, DNP, APRN, FNP-BC

GNRS 5311
Educator: Program Evaluation

Group 3

June 21, 2015

THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS MEDICAL BRANCH AT GALVESTON


SCHOOL OF NURSING

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Introduction
Our group has created a teaching plan for students pursuing their Bachelors of Science in
Nursing. This plan is focused on teaching the student how to insert an intravenous (IV) line,
utilizing a clean technique. We will discuss in-classroom educational objectives, provide
assessment plans that outline specific methods used to evaluate the anticipated learning outcome,
and provide a table for assessment measure. In addition, we will describe how grades will be
determined through a method that is unique from evaluating the predicted educational outcome.
Finally, this teaching plan will have examples of how the assessment goal would differ if we
interchanged to an online versus a clinical format.
Educational Objectives
1. Explain rationale for IV fluids and medications and the procedure for initiating IV
therapy.
2. Student will recognize signs and symptoms of IV complications (i.e. phlebitis,
infiltration).
3. Student will identify contraindications that may affect IV insertion site such as:
Dialysis access site,
History of mastectomy,
History of trauma or impaired venous drainage to extremity,
Prior history of IV complications.
4. The student will be able to state four clinical factors/conditions the may be affected by IV
fluid administration.
5. Prepare supplies needed prior to starting IV.
6. Student will demonstrate proper hand-washing technique.
7. The learner will identify veins found on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of upper
extremities, in the non-dominant arm.
8. The student will demonstrate the correct procedure for initiating an IV.
9. Develop teaching plan for self-care practices, preventing infection, and other
complications.

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Assessment Plans
1. Perform the IV start task one-on-one
Checklist to accurately perform an IV start:

State the university policy on IV starts


Gather the correct supplies (clean gloves, appropriate size IV catheter, saline
flush, non-latex tourniquet, dressing, gauze, alcohol wipes, medical tape, sharps
container, sterile pad)
Introduce yourself to the patient
Wash hands
Look for a prominent vein
Place tourniquet
Palpate the vein
Disinfect IV site
Prepare catheter for insertion
Insert the needle and look for a flashback of blood in the catheter hub
Remove and discard the needle while maintaining pressure on the vein/skin
Flush the line and check for blood return
Secure the IV with tape and the dressing

Rubric for IV start task one-on-one:


Exceeds Expectations
90-100%
Meets Expectations
75-90%
Below Expectations
<75%

Demonstrates excellence in IV starts; performs all tasks on


the check list accurately; shows evidence in understanding
all major concepts
Demonstrates the majority of the steps of an IV start
accurately; shows evidence in understanding most of the
major concepts
Unable to perform half of the check list accurately; has
mostly shallow grasp or no understanding of the material

2. Professional Paper Rubric


Self-care practices: proper hand hygiene, wear gloves, etc.

25%

Preventing infection: antisepsis with chlorhexidine gluconate,


accessing an IV, how long the IV can be in the site, etc.

25%

Possible complications: phlebitis, infiltration, mechanical, etc.

25%

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Introduction, conclusion, APA format, 5-6 pages

25%

Evaluation Measures
Formative Assessments
Hand washing stations with glow germ to
evaluate effectiveness and understanding to
minimize infection transmission.
Draw an illustration that includes vein
location and proper access sites to
represent students understanding (10%).
Explain rational for IV fluids and
medications in two sentences identifying
the main point of the lecture at the end of
class (1%).

Summative Assessments

PowerPoint Presentation involving


rationales, contraindications and potential
complications of IV initiation and
administration. Performed with a partner
to the class. 5-8 minutes per partnership,
references within 5 years, and APA (25%).

Class discussion identifying the clinical


factors/conditions that may be affected by
IV fluid administration. Individual
participation necessary (2%).
Professional Paper. With a group of 3-4
students, develop a teaching plan for selfcare practices, preventing infection, and
other common or potential complications
of IV insertion, maintenance and
discontinuation. 3-5 pages, references
within 5 years, APA (25%).
Each student will explain the procedure for
initiating IV therapy to three different
students (1%).
Each student will practice gathering and
preparing supplies prior to starting IV.
Each student will describe signs and
symptoms of IV complications and what
actions to take in 2-3 sentences identifying
the main point of lecture at the end of class
(1%).
Perform self and peer evaluations (10%).
Grade Determination

Individual skills check off including


gathering supplies, educating the patient
and properly inserting the IV. Emphasis on
education, maintaining proper technique
and infection control (25%).

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The learning outcomes utilized above provide various tools to determine progress,
understand comprehension and improve student learning (Billings, 2012). This is mainly
accomplished through the formative evaluation processes, which has low or no point value. This
process gives us information for learning and helps students and faculty identify strengths,
weaknesses, and target areas that need work on a regular basis throughout the course (Billings,
2012). It serves as practice for the students and allows faculty to check for and address
comprehension problems immediately. While utilizing the indicators of learning outcomes, the
students knowledge and skills are evaluated and becomes one of the areas where strengths and
weaknesses are identified. The information generated will guide teachers in making decisions
about future instruction.
The first formative assessments are a hands-on and drawing activity. These assist in student
visualization of verbal instruction and repetitive recall. Having students provide a 2-3 sentence
summary as they leave class allows the teacher to assess understanding of key concepts.
Facilitating class discussion on a chosen topic convey much about students learning and
understanding of basic concepts. Our goal is to build knowledge and develop critical and creative
thinking skills. Utilizing practice presentations and peer review allows students to better
understand the content, improve their presentation skills, and hold each other accountable.
Evaluation of the learning content is obtained utilizing methods of summative evaluation,
which takes assessment to a higher, more complex level (The Glossary of Education Reform,
2014). The grades generated are a major source of data for assessment. Summative evaluation is
an assessment of learning at the end of an instructional unit. Our evaluation tools contain a
higher point value used to assess whether students have learned what they were expected to learn
over time. These are recorded as scores and factored into a students permanent academic

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record. Our summative tools encompass three learning styles that integrate the learning
processes discussed to that point through different learning techniques.
Online vs. Clinical Format
Inherent in the chosen subject of IVs is the clinical skill of actually being able to
successfully start an IV. Although a student can obtain theoretical knowledge from online
teaching methods, it is much more complicated to develop psychomotor skills this way. Several
options exist to insure that the student is able to learn and demonstrate competency in
psychomotor skills. One example had designed online clinical courses with a preceptor. This
preceptor is generally a qualified clinician who practices in the students geographical area and
serves to facilitate the application of the online course in a clinical setting (Friesth, 2012).
Alternatively, students from online courses can be required to attend an intensive study period on
campus to integrate theory and practice (Bouchoucha, Wikander, & Wilkin, 2013).
There is little information available in the literature on learning clinic skills in an online
nursing course. While research in the area of evaluation in online nursing education has shown
positive learning outcomes, much of the research is perceived knowledge versus actual learning
(Russell, 2015). Further research is needed to evaluate the psychomotor skills and outcomes
from online nursing courses (Russell, 2015). One can turn to results from other disciplines such
as physical therapy, which also requires the development of psychomotor skills. In a recent
study, physical therapy students who received online video instruction for both examination and
treatment skills attained performance ratings that were similar to those of students who received
instructions face-to-face (Duijn, Swanick, & Donald, 2014). However, as the development of
psychomotor skills is critical in nursing education, it is crucial that research documenting the
development and evaluation of these skills in online courses be documented.

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One of the proposed evaluation techniques for the chosen subject is to use a one-on-one
evaluation technique. Whereas the teaching/learning aspect for starting IVs could be conducted
as part of the online course, the actual evaluation is best done with a face-to-face evaluation.
There is not enough current research to support valid online evaluation of psychomotor
techniques. However, this evaluation could still be done as part of an online course using the
concepts of a preceptor geographically near the student being evaluated or as part of a
study/evaluation period done on campus. The second form of evaluation for the chosen subject
is the evaluation of a paper written by the students. This could easily be handled in on online
format for a course in nursing education.
Conclusion
The student should be able to meet each objective listed above by the time they have
completed this educational plan on how to insert an IV line. Through face-to-face evaluation, it
allows the teacher to assess if the student has mastered the technique on how to insert an IV, and
the professional paper illustrates if the student understands self-care practices, preventing
infections, and complications of an IV line. These two evaluation methods are important in
determining if the student is successful in this teaching plan.

References
Billings, D. (2012). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier
Saunders.

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Bouchoucha, S., Wikander, L., & Wilkin, C. (2013). Assessment of simulated clinical skills and
distance students: can we do it better? Nurse Education Today, 33, 944-948. doi:
10.1016/j.nedt.2012.11.008
Duijn, A.J. V., Swanick, K., & Donald, E.K. (2014). Student learning of cervical psychomotor
skills via online video instruction versus traditional face-to face learning. Journal of
Physical Therapy Education, 28(1), 94-102.
Eberly Center: Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation (2015). What is the difference
between formative and summative assessment? Retrieved from
https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/basics/formative-summative.html
Friesth, B.M. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance. In D.M. Billings & J.A. Halstead
(Eds), Teaching in nursing, a guide for faculty (pp. 386-421). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Perry, A., Potter, P., & Ostendorf, W. (2014). Clinical Nursing Skills & Techniques (8th ed.). St.
Louis: Mosby.
Russell, B.H. (2015). The who, what, and how of evaluation within online nursing education:
state of the evidence. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(1), 13-21. doi:10.3928/01484201412228-02
The Glossary of Education Reform (2014). Summative assessment. Retrieved from
http://edglossary.org/summative-assessment