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B767/22/301

Intro to Autoflight

Boeing 767-200/300

Introduction to Autoflight
System
Training manual

For training purposes only


LEVEL 3

ATA 22

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Intro to Autoflight

Training manual

This publication was created by Sabena technics training department, Brussels-Belgium, following ATA 104 specifications.
The information in this publication is furnished for informational
and training use only, and is subject to change without notice.
Sabena technics training assumes no responsibility for any
errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this publication.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of Sabena technics training.

Contact address for



course registrations
course schedule information
Sabena technics training
training@sabenatechnics.com

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. AUTOFLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM GENERAL...........................................6
1.1. FMCS/AFCS Systems...............................................................................6
1.2. Yaw Damper System...............................................................................8
1.3. Automatic Stabilizer Trim and Mach Trim..............................................10
1.4. Autopilot/Flight Director System............................................................12
1.5. Thrust Management Computer.............................................................14
1.6. Maintenance Monitor System...............................................................16
2. FLIGHT CONTROLS INTRODUCTION.....................................................18
2.1. Actuators and Servos............................................................................20
2.2. Flight Controls/Autoflight Interface.......................................................22
2.3. Hydraulic Distribution...........................................................................24
2.4. Hydraulic shutoff Valves Control and Indication.....................................26
2.5. Wing Shutoff Valves.............................................................................28
2.6. Tail Shutoff Valves.................................................................................30

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
AUTOFLIGHT INTERFACE SIMPLIFIED....................................................................................... 23
AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM................................................................................... 13
AUTO STAB, TRIM & MACH TRIM SYSTEMS............................................................................ 11
FLIGHT CONTROLS INTRODUCTION........................................................................................ 19
FLIGHT CONTROL ACTUATORS & SERVOS.............................................................................. 21
FMCS/AFCS SYSTEMS............................................................................................................... 7
HYDRAULIC DISTRIBUTION..................................................................................................... 25
HYD SHUTOFF VALVES - CONTROL & INDICATION.................................................................. 27
MAINTENANCE MONITOR SYSTEM......................................................................................... 17
TAIL SHUTOFF VALVES............................................................................................................ 31
THRUST MANAGEMENT COMPUTER FUNCTION..................................................................... 15
WING SHUTOFF VALVES.......................................................................................................... 29
YAW DAMPER SYSTEM............................................................................................................. 9

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


A/T
AFCS
AFDS
CDU
CONF
CONT
EADI
EFIS
FCC
FMA
FMC
FMCS
GEN
HYD
INOP
LCCA
LVDT
MCDP
MCP
PCA
PDU
PTU
STAB
THSP
TMC
TMS
UNSCHED
VAL
VLV
VNAV

Auto/Thrust
Auto Flight Control System
Autopilot Flight Director System
Control Display Unit
Configuration
Control
Electronic Attitude Director Indicator
Electronic Flight Instrument System
Flight Control Computers
Flight Mode Annunciator
Flight Management Computer
Flight Management Computer System
Generator
Hydraulic(ally)
Inoperation
Lateral Central Control Actuator
Lineair Variable difference Transformer
Maintenance Control and Display Panel
Mode Control Panel
Power Control Actuators
Power Drive Unit
Power Transfer Unit
Stabilizer
Thrust Mode Select Panel
Thrust Management Computer
Thrust Management System
Unscheduled
Valve
Valve
Vertical Navigation

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1. AUTOFLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM GENERAL.


1.1. FMCS/AFCS Systems.
The flight management computer system (FMCS) and autoflight control
system (AFCS) are shown along with the subsystems and major elements that
comprise these systems. Interfaces and relationships between the individual
elements are not shown.
The primary elements of the FMCS are two flight management computers
(FMC) and two control and display units (CDU). The CDUs provide
pilot interface with the flight management computer system. The flight
management computers gather the necessary sensor data, perform
computations and drive displays and other systems to navigate and guide the
airplane.
The autoflight control system (AFCS) automatically controls the airplanes
surfaces and engine thrust as required. Two subsystems, the autopilot-flight
director system (AFDS) and the thrust management system (TMS) provide the
primary surface and throttle control respectively.
The AFDS has three flight control computers and an AFCS mode control
panel. A single computer, the thrust management computer (TMC) controls
the throttles and calculates thrust limits. The TMS and AFDS use the AFCS
mode control panel to provide an interface with the flight crew. The TMS also
includes a thrust mode select panel for selecting the thrust limit mode.
The yaw damper system and an automatic stabilizer trim system provide dutch
roll damping and pitch trim respectively.
The maintenance control and display panel (MCDP) provides a central location
for storage and display of fault data for the FMCS, AFDS, and TMS via the
flight management, flight control, and thrust management computers. It also
provides ground test control and display for the autopilot-flight director and
thrust management systems.
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FMCS/AFCS SYSTEMS
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1.2. Yaw Damper System.


Purpose.
The yaw dampers move the rudder to dampen dutch roll, improve ride quality
and to provide automatic turn coordination.
Installation.
Two yaw damper modules are installed moving two separate control actuators.
The actuators operate independently and their outputs combine to move the
rudder. There is no feedback to the rudder pedals from yaw damper operation.
Operation.
The yaw damper module uses inputs from the air data computers,
inertial reference units, flight management computer system and the modal
suppression accelerometers to compute commands which provide corrective
rudder action through the yaw damper actuators.
System Status.
The yaw damper system may be tested while on the ground from the
flight compartment. Proper operation is confirmed by appropriate INOP
annunciation and rudder movement. The INOP lights on the yaw damper
control panel indicate disengagement of the yaw damper.

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YAW DAMPER SYSTEM


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1.3. Automatic Stabilizer Trim and Mach Trim.


Purpose.
The stabilizer is automatically trimmed using commands generated by the
autopilot and the mach trim systems.
Operation.
A/P stabilizer trim commands are generated when prolonged elevator
deflection beyond the trim threshold occurs. The consequent change of
stabilizer position reduces elevator deflection and drag.
Mach trim operates if the A/P is not engaged and there is no manual electric
trim command. As mach increases the stabilizer leading edge moves down.
The pilot can override any automatic trim or mach trim command by applying
opposite column force.
Indicators and Annunciation.
Two stabilizer position indicators are located on the aisle stand.
An UNSCHED STAB TRIM (amber) light indicates when the stabilizer is
trimming without a command to trim.

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AUTO STAB, TRIM & MACH TRIM SYSTEMS

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1.4. Autopilot/Flight Director System.


General.
The autopilot and flight director system (AFDS) provides automatic guidance
and control of the airplane ailerons, elevators, and, for autoland, the rudder. It
also provides the guidance processing for the flight director displays.
Engagement and mode selection of the autopilot and flight director are
accomplished through the AFCS mode control panel.
Annunciation and Display.
Each electronic attitude director indicator (EADI) displays flight director
commands and an AFDS flight mode annunciator (FMA).
The FMA indentifies AFDS status, roll/pitch arm and engaged modes.
The autoland status annunciators identify the system capability and limitation
status for autoland operations. The AFCS mode control panel has mode
selector switch annunciation and reference readouts.
A red A/P DISC light and an amber AUTOPILOT caution light gives visual alerts
for A/P warnings and cautions.

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AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM


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1.5. Thrust Management Computer.


Purpose.
The thrust management computer (TMC) acts as a thrust limit computer and
an autothrottle computer. These functions each have different modes, which
are selected and annunciated in different places.
Thrust Limit Functions.
The thrust limit modes are selected on the Thrust Mode Select Panel (TMSP) or
by the FMC in VNAV mode. They are annunciated on EICAS.
The thrust limit functions are always engaged. The value of the thrust
limit is annunciated on EICAS and used as an upper limit for autothrottle
computations.
Autothrottle Functions.
The autothrottle modes are selected on the AFCS Mode Control Panel (MCP)
or by the FMC in VNAV mode. They are annunciated on the EADI via EFIS.
The autothrottle functions will not be engaged in a mode unless the AFCS
MCP is in the A/T ARM position and a mode has been selected on the AFCS
MCP. These functions will be used to position the throttles.

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THRUST MANAGEMENT COMPUTER FUNCTION


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1.6. Maintenance Monitor System.


Purpose.
The maintenance monitor system combines flight fault storage and ground
test functions for the autopilot flight director system, thrust management
system, and flight management system.
Installation.
One maintenance control and display panel (MCDP) is installed in the main
equipment center. It is directly connected to the flight control computers,
flight management computers, and the thrust management computer.
Through these computers much of the airplane avionics can be tested.
Operation.
The MCDP is normally off. It turns on automatically at touchdown, and the
connected computers send information about failures that occurred during
the flight. This failure information is stored in the MCDP memory, and the
maintenance technician can use it for fault isolation. The MCDP can also
perform ground tests, which allow the technician to check proper operation of
the autoflight systems.
The MCDP is operated using the switches and readout on its front panel.
It may also be operated from the flight compartment using a carry-on remote
control panel. The MCDP readout is displayed on the EICAS CONF/MCDP
page. This page may be displayed in flight if the EICAS flight test switch is in
the flight test position.

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MAINTENANCE MONITOR SYSTEM


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2. FLIGHT CONTROLS INTRODUCTION.


Flight control systems can be grouped as primary or secondary control systems.
Primary flight controls are those which are used to provide continuous control
of the airplane about the pitch, roll and yaw axes,
and include the aileron, rudder, elevator and spoiler systems.
Secondary flight controls are those used intermittently, to modify the basic
aerodynamic configuration of the airplane to improve its performance at a
particular flight condition, and include the leading edge slat, trailing edge flap,
spoiler (when used as air or ground speedbrakes) and stabilizer trim systems.
The aileron and spoiler systems provide control about the roll axis through
differential operation (up on one wing and down on the other).
The leading edge slat, trailing edge flap and spoiler (when raised symmetrically
on both wings) systems modify wing lift characteristics.
The elevator system provides control about the pitch axis and stabilizer
position is varied to trim the airplane about the pitch axis. The rudder provides
control about the yaw axis.

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FLIGHT CONTROLS INTRODUCTION


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2.1. Actuators and Servos.


All primary flight controls are driven by hydraulically operated Power Control
Actuators (PCA) with no manual reversion capability. A total of twenty nine
actuators are employed with eight in the aileron system, twelve in the spoiler
system, six in the elevator system and three in the rudder system. In addition
the aileron system has three additional control actuators (LCCA) to power the
wing cable systems to the PCAs located at the aileron.
Nine autopilot servos, three on each axis, provide triple redundancy required
for category three autoland capability. The aileron servos are part of the
LCCAs with the three elevator and three rudder servos as individual units.
Two yaw damper servos provide rudder inputs independent of pilot/autoflight
control inputs.
The trailing edge flaps and leading edge slats which are secondary flight
controls, are operated by power drive units (PDU). The PDU will rotate torque
tubes to power two rotary actuators (mechanical) at each control surface.

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FLIGHT CONTROL ACTUATORS & SERVOS


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2.2. Flight Controls/Autoflight Interface.


Flight control computers (3) use the autoflight (A/P) servos to control airplane
movement. FCC interfaces the thrust management computer (TMC),
flight management computer (FMC), maintenance control and display panel
(MCDP) with the specific A/P servo needed for airplane axis movement.
FCC then commands the control valves in the appropriate servos to allow
hydraulic pressure to move the output cranks. Output cranks connect to
mechanical linkage for power control actuator (PCA) input. LVDTs in each
servo compare surface position versus servo position for the information
needed to null commanded control valve inputs.
Manual/electric overrides are available for each system.

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AUTOFLIGHT INTERFACE SIMPLIFIED


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2.3. Hydraulic Distribution.


Three hydraulic systems operate power control actuators in the primary flight
control systems which include the aileron, elevator, rudder and spoiler systems.
The secondary flight control systems are powered by a combination of one,
two or three hydraulic systems.
The stabilizer trim system is normally powered by the left and center hydraulic
systems. A Power Transfer Unit (PTU) can provide right hydraulic system power
to operate the left stabilizer trim system.
An elevator feel computer and yaw damper servo are powered by the left
hydraulic system with identical components powered by the center hydraulic
system.
The rudder ratio changer, the leading edge slats and trailing edge flap systems
are powered by one hydraulic system.
Roll (LCCA), pitch (elevator) and yaw (rollout guidance) autopilot actuators are
powered by each of the three hydraulic systems.
Hydraulic shutoff valves control pressure to all flight control systems except the
flaps, slats and stabilizer systems.
The ram air turbine pump in the center hydraulic system can power all center
hydraulic system flight controls except the flap and slat systems.

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HYDRAULIC DISTRIBUTION
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2.4. Hydraulic shutoff Valves Control and


Indication.
Six control switches are located on the HYD/GEN FIELD CONT panel (P61).
The switches are intended for ground use only and are normally on.
These alternate action switches contain white on lights that are illuminated
whenever the switch is in the open position.
Each control switch is guarded by a cover which will not close in the switch off
position (switch protruding).
The shutoff valve position is monitored by switch lights and EICAS messages.
An amber light in the lower half of the control switch illuminates as soon as
the valve moves from the fully open position.
An amber EICAS advisory message appears on the upper display when a
shutoff valve is not open (i.e. L WING HYD VAL). More than one valve not
open will provide a single FLT. CONT VALS message.

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HYD SHUTOFF VALVES - CONTROL & INDICATION


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2.5. Wing Shutoff Valves.


Control switches are located on the HYD/GEN FIELD CONT panel (P61).
Each switch is powered through a separate circuit breaker.
The power source is 28 Vdc.
Pushing the alternate action control switch to the ON position connects power
to the open side of the motor. Internal limit switches stop the motor when
the valve reaches the open position and position the switch contacts to the
ready-to-close position (as shown). Valves are normally ON.
Pushing the alternate action control switch to the OFF position connects
power to the close side of the motor. Internal limit switches stop the motor
when the valve reaches the closed position and position the switch contacts to
the ready-to-open position.
An amber light inside the switch illuminates when the valve leaves the
fully open position. A separate switch operated by the valve shaft and cam
positions the amber light switch contacts to the VLV NOT OPEN position when
the valve is not fully open. Power is from Master Dim and Test.
EICAS messages are displayed concurrently upon illumination of the amber
light. Power is from Master Dim and Test.
Wing shutoff valves isolate aileron and spoiler components.

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WING SHUTOFF VALVES


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2.6. Tail Shutoff Valves.


Operation of the alternate action control switch is the same as discussed
under Wing Shutoff Valve.
Tail shutoff valves isolate components in the rudder, elevator and yaw damper
systems. Hydraulic power is not isolated to the stabilizer trim system.

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TAIL SHUTOFF VALVES


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