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Partial
Sums

Many
times
it
is
easier
to
break
apart

addends.
Often
it
makes
sense
to
break

them
apart
by
their
place
value.
Consider

248
+
345

248
=
200
+
40
+
8

When subtracting, we can count back to find

the difference of two numbers. In many

situations, it is easier to count up.

345
=
300
+
40
+
5

345
=
500
+
80
+
13
=
593

Sometimes
we
might
use
partial
sums
in

different
ways
to
make
an
easier
problem.

Consider
484
+
276

484
=
400
+
84

276
=
260
+
16

345
=
660
+
100
=
760

other. The difference is 300 + 21 + 36 or 357.

(above)

Multiplication:
Area/Array

The
area/array
model
for
multiplication
and

the
distributive
property
are
used
to
solve

multiplication
problems

13
x
4
=

(10
x
4)
+
(3
x
4)
=

40
+
12
=

52

This
is
the
same

model
without

grid
lines.
It
is

considered
an

open
model.

40
+
12
=
52

Addition:
Adjusting

We
can
adjust
addends
to
make
them
easier

to
work
with.
We
can
adjust
by
giving
a

value
from
one
addend
to
another.

Consider
326
+
274.
We
can
take
1
from
326

and
give
it
to
274.

More
Friendly

Problem

326
+
274

-1
+1

325
+
275
=
600

389 and give it to 173 to make 200.

More
Friendly

Problem

173
+
389

+
27
-27

200
+
362
=
562

digit factors. This supports development of

algorithms later, as well as mental

mathematics. Consider 29 x 14

We can count back from one number to the

other. The difference is -300 (land at 236), -36

(land at 200), 21 (end at 179).

Subtraction: Adjusting

problems. 4,000 563 can be challenging to

regroup. But the difference between these

numbers is the same as the difference between

3,999 562. Now, we dont need to regroup.

(Original problem)

4,000 - 563 =

(Compensation)

- 1

- 1

Multiplication:
Multiples
of
10

Understanding
why
we
add
zeros.

20
x
40
=

3
x
6
=
18

(2
x
10)
x
(4
x
10)
=

3
x
6
tens
=
18
tens

2
x
4
x
10
x
10
=

3
x
60
=
180

8
x
100
=
800

Students move from area/array models

(other side) to working with numbers.

Consider 26 x 45, we can break apart each

factor by its place value.

26 = (20 + 6) We can then multiply each

45 = (40 + 5) of the parts and add them

back together.

(20 x 40) + (20 x 5) + (40 x 6) + (6 x 5)

800 + 100 + 240 + 30

900 + 240 + 30

1,140 + 30

2 6

x 4 5

= 1,170

So,

1,170

It might seem like a lot of numbers above. But,

when we think about it, the multiplication is quite

simple. This understanding develops mental math,

the traditional algorithm, and algebraic concepts

including factoring polynomials.

Sometimes, it makes sense to work with different

parts. Consider 51 x 21. We might think of

21 as 10 + 10 + 1:

(51 x 10) + (51 x 10) + (51 x 1)

510 + 510 + 51

1,020 + 51

So, 51 x 21 = 1,071

1,071

Another example, consider 4 x 327. We can

break 327 into (300 + 20 + 7) then multiply.

4 x 300 = 1,200

4 x 20 = 80

+ 4 x 7 = 28

So, 4 x 327 = 1,308

1,308

advantage of so that computation is efficient.

Doubling and halving is an example. When

multiplying, we can double one factor and halve

the other. The product is unchanged. This makes

some numbers easier to work with. Consider 16

x 25

Developing

Computational

Fluency

Grade
4

+ 8) and then double 25. So, 16 x 25 is the

same as 8 x 50.

Division

4 grade students are beginning to develop an

understanding of division with larger numbers.

One approach is to take groups of numbers,

usually friendly numbers out.

th

Consider
this:

We
have
252
buttons
to
put
in
4
boxes.
How

many
buttons
can
we
put
in
each
box?
(252
4)

We
can
put
50
in
each
box
(4
x
50)
=
200

We
can
put
10
in
each
box
(4
x
10)
=
40

We
can
put
3
in
each
box
(4
x
3)
=
12

63
252

So,
we
can
put
63
buttons
in
each
box.

252
4
=
63

Another
approach
is
to
break
apart
the
dividend

into
friendly
numbers.
Consider
252
4.
We

could
break
252
into
(240
+
12)
and
divide
each

by
4.

60
+
3
=
63

240
4
=
60

So,
252
4
=
63

12
4
=
3

Howard County Public School System

methods for developing computational

fluency. For more information about

computation and elementary mathematics

visit http://smart.wikispaces.hcpss.org

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