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luka dvaliSvili

dumiliT saubris tradicia qarTul mwerlobasa


da leo qiaCelis novelebSi

leo qiaCelis adrindeli novelebi da moTxrobebi TvalsaCino


gamoxatulebaa mwerlis realisturi ganwyobilebisa, Tumca maTSi calsaxa
realizmze saubari ar SeiZleba. adreul TxzulebebSive igrZnoba
evropuli modernistul-dekadenturi skolebis gavlena.
leo qiaCeli Tavisi epoqis WeSmariti Svili iyo, aqtiurad CarTuli
kulturul-politikur saqmeebSi. yovelive amis gamo mas mouwia iZulebiT
gadaadgileba ruseTis imperiis centrebSi, Semdeg ki evropaSi. es dro
mwerals uqmad ar daukargavs. igi eziara mowinave evropul kulturas,
ramac mniSvnelovani biZgi misca mis SemoqmedebaSi novaciur-modernistuli
siaxleebisadmi orientirebas.
"evropuli literaturuli siaxleebis kargad mcodne mwerali Tavis
SemoqmedebaSi garkveulwilad kars uRebs da originaluri formiT
amkvidrebs am mimdinareobisTvis niSandobliv tendenciebs da amiT
cdilobs naazrevis gamoxatvis miseuli gzis moZebnas" (a. nikoleiSvili,
2002, gv. 162).
evropuli modernistuli filosofiisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
skepticizmi mkveTrad iCens Tavs leo qiaCelis SemoqmedebaSic. mwerali
xSirad dgas arCevanis winaSe - samyaro, rogorc obieqturi realoba,
sinamdvilis Selamazebuli Wvreta, Tu sagnebi da movlenebi, rogorc
warmosaxviT SegrZnebaTa kompleqsi.
leo qiaCelis modernistul moTxrobebSi marTlac niSandoblivia
mwerlis garkveuli gataceba filosofiuri TemebiT. samyaros idumalebiT
moculi movlenebis axsnas mwerali xSirad cdilobs impresionistebisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli STabeWdilebebis zusti fiqsirebiT. mwerlis
modernistuli prozisaTvis TvalsaCinod damaxasiaTebelia "dumilis
filosofiiT" gataceba, romelic aSkarad evropuli modernistuli
literaturuli skolebis gavleniT aixsneba, kerZod ki dumilis
filosofiis mTavari ideologis, meterlinkis naazrevis gaziarebiT:
rogorc ki iZineben bageebi, iRviZeben sulebi. Tumca dumilis fenomens,
vfiqrobT, xalxur zepoirsityvierebasa da klasikuri qarTuli mwerlobis
adreul nimuSebSic gaaCndaT garkveuli tradicia.
xalxuri zepirsityvierebis zogierTi nimuSi maxvilgonivrulad
warmoaCens "dumilis filosofias", dumilis arss. mag., xalxuri leqsi: "Sav
ludsa, wiTel Rvinosa gana suyvelas sma unda, tuCze momdgarsa sityvasa
gana suyvelas Tqma unda?"
zemoTqmuli sibrZnis nimuSi Riad qadagebs Tqmamde sityvebis SerCeva-
daxarisxebas. aq naTladaa miniSnebuli sityvamomWirneobis mniSvnelobaze.
Cveni winapari gansakuTrebul pativs miagebda dinj, dafiqrebul
sityvamozomil kacs. aseT adamians brZen, darbaisel kacad Tvlidnen da mis
dumils Tu mcire saubars ufro sagulisxmod miiCnevdnen, vinem
Cveulebrivi Zalad enamWevris sityvauxvobas. dumilis filosofiis arsi
saocari srulyofilebiTa da iSviaTi sityvieri lakonizmiTaa warmoCenili
erT-erT qarTul xalxur sibrZne-gamonaTqvamSi: "vicis deda tiroda, ar
vicis icinodao". rogorc es xalxuri sentencia gvafrTxilebs, adamiani,
sjobs, Tqmamde iyos frTxilad, rameTu pirovnebas ZaluZs, Teoriulad
mainc, yovelive warTmeuli ukan daibrunos. magram yovelgvari mcdelobis
miuxedavad SeuZlebelia mTqmelma naTqvamis dafarva an uaryofa, miT
ufro ukan dabruneba, moaxerxos. qarTveli xalxis es mravalsaukunovani
sibrZne-gamocdileba yvelas sayuradRebod STambeWdavad CamoasuraTxata
udidesma qarTvelma leqsikografma da Semoqmedma sulxan-saba orbelianma.
igavSi "eniT dakodili" mTeli srulyofilebiTaa naCvenebi, Tu raoden
didi, gamousworebeli Sedegi SeiZleba mohyves uadgilod, royiod
warmoTqmul sityvas. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, qarTvel
kritikosTa didi nawilis mtkiceba, rom leo qiaCelis SemoqmedebaSi
"dumiliT saubari" mxolod evropuli modernistuli literaturuli
skolebis gavlenaao, rogorc qarTuli xalxuri saunjis nimuSebi
RaRadeben, aseTi varaudebi an swori ar aris, an seriozul gansja-
revizirebas moiTxovs.
rac Seexeba qarTul klasikur mwerlobas, gansakuTrebiT Zveli
qarTuli mwerlobis ZeglebSi sakmaod moipoveba magaliTebi imis
sailustraciod, Tu raoden pativs miagebdnen sityvamomWirneobasa da
saerTod dumilis arss. jer kidev meaTe saukuneSi brZana udidesma
qarTvelma mweralma giorgi merCulem Tavis SedevrSi "grigol xanZTelis
cxovreba": "dumili oqroa, xolo brZnad metyvelebai vercxli".
saocrad amouwuravi qarTuli enis leqsikuri fondis TiTqmis Ziris-
Ziramde mcodne mwerali, romlis sityva, rogorc TviTon brZanebs
Txzulebis mTavari personaJis Sesaxeb, "Sezavebuli iyo mariliTa da
madliTai". dumils oqros adarebs, oqros uwodebs.
amrigad, dumiliT sazogadoebis informireba ucxo ar iyo rogorc
qarTuli xalxuri zepirsityvierebisTvis, aseve klasikuri
mwerlobisTvisac.
miuxedavad zemoTqmulisa, dabejiTebiT SeiZleba imis Tqma, rom
dumils, rogorc sakomunikacio saSualebas, adamianebs Soris azrTa
gacvlis sakmaod moxerxebul sainformacio arxs, gansakuTrebuli
datvirTva gaaCnia leo qiaCelis SemoqmedebaSi. mwerlis modernistuli
moTxrobebisaTvis aseve niSandoblivia fizikurad maxinji adamianebis
idealizebis tendencia. Tumca es Tavisebureba msoflios sxva xalxebis
garkveuli jgufebisTvisac iyo damaxasiaTebeli, kerZod ki, amerikis
indielTa bevr tomSi aseTi adamianebi xSirad sakraluri mokrZalebisa da
mowiwebis saganic ki iyo. mwerali aqac cdilobs, Seuracxadi Tu naxevrad
realur-irealuri qcevebiT gamorCeuli pirovnebis fsiqikaSi wvdomas;
cdilobs maT uprognozo qcevebsa da qmedebebs garkveuli axsna mouZebnos.
aseTia novelebi: "codvis Svilebi", "stefane" da sxv.
leo qiaCelis adreuli TxzulebebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ukiduresi
skepticizmis niSnebi, romlebic mZafri nihilizmis saxiT vlindeba mwerlis
SemoqmedebaSi, aSkarad Semoqmedis did depresiul mdgomareobaze
migviTiTebs, rac udavod unda gamomdinareobdes misi cxovrebiseuli da
imdroindeli socialur-politikuri problemebidan. mwerali xSirad eWvis
qveS ayenebs bednierebis miRwevis SesaZleblobas. aseTia misi fantastikuri
xasiaTis novela "zRapari bednierebaze". mwerlis Ria miniSnebiT, amqveynad
bednierebis Zebna-Ziebas azri ar aqvs, radgan igi ar arsebobs.
bednierebis, srulyofilebisa da harmoniis SeuZlebloba mwerals
xSirad gadmocemuli aqvs igavur-alegoriuli formebiT. misi TqmiT,
siyvaruli, harmonia, mSvidobiani Tanacxovreba da Tanaarseboba amqveynad
yovlad aralealuria, iluziur-moCvenebiTi.
mwerlis fiqriT, adamianTa garkveuli nawili Tu axerxebs
erTmaneTTan megobrul, mSvidobian Tanacxovrebas, es mxolod droebiTi
movlenaa. uCinari fataluri bedi aucileblad male gamouTxris Zirs
erTobis sawyiss. Semoqmedis fiqriT, adamianebs ar ZaluZT, arc erT
SemTxvevaSi, raime cvlileba Seitanon winaswar dadgenil bedis
formaciaSi. amdenad, qarTuli sibrZne-Segoneba - rac mogiva daviTao,
yvela Seni TaviTao, - misi am rkalis Txzulebebis personaJebis mimarT ar
vrceldeba. mwerlis rwmeniT, amoucnobi da Seucvleli bedis axsna
yvelaze ufro moxerxebulia dumilis eniT. da es ZaluZT mxolod
adamianTa im nawils, romlebic sazogadoebisgan garkveulwilad gariyulia
Tavisi arasrulfasovani fizikuri Tu sulieri mdgomareobis gamo.
Semoqmedis fiqriT, swored am adamianTa umravlesoba axerxebs irealuri
samyaros Secnobas, iqidan informaciis motanas dumilis "yovlismetyveli"
eniT.
bedis fatalizaciis gancda, usityvod saubrisa da informaciis
gacvlis realuri SesaZlebloba naTlad warmoCinda mwerlis TxzulebebSi:
"codvis Svilebi", "stefane", "jadosani" da sxv.
1910 wels dawerili "codvis Svilebi" modernistuli xelovnebis
principebis mniSvnelovan gavlenas ganicdis. mkiTxveli nawarmoebis
dasawyisidanve imsWvaleba im idumali samyaros Secnobis surviliT,
romlebSic Txzulebis personaJebs uwevT cxovreba. codvis Svilebi jvebe
da bekoa, adamianebi, romlebsac bedma Tavidanve Seaqcia zurgi. avi zniT
Sepyrobili jvebe dawyevlili ojaxis Serisxuli da saSineli wyevlis
Sedegad dangreuli saxlis, naxevradgaciebuli keris Svilia. jvebes da-Zmebi
saSineli tragediis msxverplni gaxdnen, ramac kidev ufro gaumZafra
moCvenebiTi SegrZnebebi avi znisagan mouZlurebul jvebes. bedisweris
gardauvali, Seucnobeli Zala, ganrisxebuli bedis idumali da uCinari,
yvelganTanmdevi uxilavi aCrdili jvebes dabindul gonebaSi mxolod
mwerlisTvis saTvalsaCinod da intuiciani mkiTxvelis sagulisxmod ferTa
da grZnobaTa iSviaT gamas xatavs. da saubrobs sakiresaviT gaxurebuli
jvebes goneba yvelasTan: bunebasTan, adamianebTan, sulierTan, usulosTan,
xilulTan da uxilavTan. saubrobs usityvod; amRvreuli, daulagebeli,
qaoturi fiqrebiT, Tumca, ra Tqma unda, yovelive es sazogadoebisTvis
uxilavia da, rac saTvalsaCinoa, is jvebesadmi uaryofiT emociebSi
vlindeba.
martoobis demoniT devnili, sazogadoebisgan gariyuli, avi
zmanebebiTa da ubedurebis molodiniT datanjuli jvebe miekedla xalxSi
sakmaod cnobili, saSiSi da idumali saqmeebiT cnobil, wyevlis magiis
aRiarebul ostats - bekos. aseve sazogadoebisgan gariyuls, axlobelTa da
mokeTeTa ugulisyurobiT gaborotebul kacs. da am bedisa da
cxovrebisgan zurgSeqceuli kacebis usityvo dialogSi TiTqos miRweulia
urTierTgageba.
mwerali gvixatavs, rom raRac momentSi SesaZlebelia ukiduresad
antagonisturi Zalebic ki gaerTiandes, magram rogorc am patara novelis
finali gviCvenebs, es mainc mxolod droebiTi movlenaa. mwerlis azriT,
fatalizmis winaSe yoveli adamiani umweoa da mis winaaRmdeg brZolas azri
ar aqvs. sofeli wamdauwum amunaTebs jvebes - xatze xarT gadacemuli da
yvelaferi misi bralia. Tumca tragediis mizezi da arsi mkiTxvelisTvis
mainc bolomde Seucnobeli da amouxsneli rCeba. jvebe iSviaTad poulobs
Zalas gaiqces saxlidan, soflidan, TiTqosda rogorme uxilavad
moTvalTvale beds Tavi daaRwios, magram aqac aSkarad vlindeba
mwerliseuli ganwyobileba, rom pirovneba Tavisi fataluri bedis winaSe
yovlad umweo da ususuria.
sainteresoa "ganTqmuli mawyevarisa" da xatze gadamcemlis, yofili
mnaTes, bekos portreti. masSi erTdoulad arsebobs ori mrwamsis kaci:
erTi mxriv, qristianobis wes-kanonebisa da tradiciebis damcvel-
Semsrulebeli, xolo, meore mxriv, warmarTuli qarTuli kerpebis,
Selocvebisa da sxva idumali situalebisken midrekili adamiani, romlis
sulSi ori sawyisia - kanonikuri da mistiuri, aramiwieri xilvebis
realurad aRmqmeli, gamTavisebeli da praqtikul-gamoyenebiTi miznebisTvis
midrekili.
mwerali burusiT moculi irealuri pasaJebis gverdiT novelaSi
aqsovs sinamdvilis realistur epizodebs. misi TqmiT, "bekos Cveulebad
gadaqceoda wyevla da uimisod ver Zlebda". igi TviTonac ganwirulia mis
mier dasaRupad gametebuli adamianebiviT. amitom bekos tragikuli
daRupva ara marto fataluri bedidan momdinareobs, aramed misi
yoveldRiuri saqmianobidan, gaukuRmarTebuli cxovrebis wesidan.
mwerali sagangebo gulistkiviliT gvesaubreba adamianTa bunebaSi
arsebuli moyvasisadmi angarebiTi damokidebulebis Sesaxeb. umaduroba,
gamorCenis mizniT damyarebuli viTom keTilmosurne urTierToba angrevs
da aborotebs adamianis fsiqikur mdgradobas, rac mTlianobaSi orive
mxaris tragediis mizezi xdeba.
mawyevari bekos Zma da rZali xelgaSliT sargeblobdnen ukuRmarTi
ritualebiT aRebuli SemosavlebiT, xolo rogorc ki bekos uneblie
sijiutiT ojaxs ziani moadga, daunaneblad da Seucodeblad SimSiliT
sikvdilisTvis gawires da uyoymanod saxlidan gaagdes.
dumilis filosofia, dumiliT metyveleba da usityvod azris
srulyofilad gadmocemis Rrma rwmena da SesaZlebloba iSviaTi
damajereblobiT warmoaCina mweralma mravalmxriv sayuradRebo novelaSi
"stefane". SeiZleba gadauWarbeblad iTqvas, rom es Txzuleba daamSvenebda
am rkalis TxzulebaTa saukeTeso anTologiebs. rogorc prof. a.
nikoleiSvili miiCnevs, novelaSi mweralma Taviseburi formiT
daupirispira erTmaneTs "dumili da metyveleba". mkvlevari marTebulad
miuTiTebs, rom mweralma xazgasmiT, calsaxad aRiara usityvod azris
srulyofilad gadmocemis SesaZlebloba.
marTalia, stefane Tavisi mogonili ambebis egzotikuri TxrobiTaa
cnobili sofelSi, magram TviTon stefane darwmunebulia, rom yvelaze
kargi ambavi is aris, "romelic usityvod esmis yvelas". sityvebis gareSe
molaparake kacs, vfiqrobT, mweralma zedmiwevniT miusadaga Sesabamisi
profesia. stefane mebaduria, iRbliani, warmatebuli meTevze, magram
marto iRbaliT saqmis mkeTebeli kaci albaT Sors ver wava, Tu saqmeSi
profesionalizmi ar CaerTo. mebaduri, Tavisi saqmianobidan gamomdinare,
sityvaZunwi kaci unda iyos, rameTu Tevzaobis dros ar SeiZleba xmauri,
radgan Tevzi dafrTxeba da meTevzec xelmocaruli darCeba. sxva SromiTi
profesiebi, Tavisi specifikidan gamomdinare, zogjer kidevac moiTxoven
SeZaxils, simReras da sxv.
usityvod saubris Taviseburi apogeaa stefanes megobroba
Tanasoflel munj ZokosTan. isini saaTobiT sxedan erTmaneTis gverdigverd
da uTqmelad esaubrebian erTmaneTs. es aradamajerebeli epizodi saocari
damajereblobiT, sarwmunod aqvs gadmocemuli mwerals. amis magaliTad
gamodgeba Txzulebis is adgili, roca megobrebi scildebian erTmaneTs da
maTi daSoreba iseT STabeWdilebas qmnis, TiTqos orma uaxloesma adamianma
erTmaneTs bolomde, amomwuravad uTxra saTqmeli. Semdeg ki gulmSvidad
da gulsrulad gaeSura Tavis saqmeze.
rogorc warmodgenili Txzulebebidan Cans, leo qiaCeli Tavis
adreul novelebSi gansakuTrebul funqcias aniWebs e.w. garkveuli
fizikuri naklis mqone adamianebs. mwerlis fiqriT, buneba TviTon
asworebs darRveul balanss. fizikuri arasrulfasovnebis sanacvlod
TiTqos maT eZlevaT realurs iqiTa realobaSi Wvretis unari. aseTia,
magaliTad, soflis menaxire, mwvaneTvaleba tagu novelaSi "jadosani".
tagus arseba erTianad moucavs raRac idumalsa da Seucnobels.
gaurkveveli rCeba mis arsSi Cabudebul mraval sawyisTagan romeli
gadawonis erTimeores: eSmak-jadosnuri, warmarTul-mistikuri Tu dadebiT-
adamianuri. erTi SexedviT, tagus yvela erideba da gaurbis, magram Tu
mwvaneTvaleba kacma ineba, maSin mis mxedvelobiT organos ZaluZs monusxos
da daimonos yoveli. "jadosani" Taviseburi gagrZelebaa dumilis
filosofiis, usityvod yovlismomcvelad saubris SesaZleblobis rkalis
Txzulebebisa. mwvaneTvaleba tagu usityvod, TvalebiT saubrobs. Tumca
faqtia, rom yovlisSemZlea es saubari.
amrigad, jvebe da beko, stefane da Zoko, soflis mwvaneTvaleba
menaxire tagu TiTqosda sazogadoebisgan xSir SemTxvevaSi gariyul-
ignorirebulni usityvod saubrisa da gagebinebis iSviaTi niWis mqone
adamianebi arian. mwerals miaCnia da cxovrebiseuli realobac sarwmunod
adasturebs, rom zogjer garkveuli fizikuri naklis mqone adamianebSi
marTlac SeiZleba ganviTardes Cveulebrivi adamianisTvis uxilavi
specifikuri unari - ganWvritos samyaros miRmiuri realoba.
warmodgenil TxzulebebSi mwerali iSviaT codnas avlens warmarTuli
qarTuli tradiciebisa, miTebis, Selocvebis, zRaprebis da masTan
dakavSirebuli mistikuri realobebisa kerpuli panTeonis Sesaxeb. Tumca
aqve aSkarad SeiniSneba Semoqmedis gulistkivili, rom misi droindeli
qarTuli sazogadoeba metismetad erTferovani, gaunaTlebeli, xSir
SemTxvevaSi angarebian-umaduri da cru rwmenebiT metismetad Sepyrobilia.
cru rwmenebisadmi adamianTa erTi nawilis mistikuri SiSi saSualebas
aZlevs sazogadoebis meore nawils, Tavis sasargeblod gamoiyenos masis
CamorCeniloba-sibnele.
mwerali Tavis TxzulebebSi STambeWdavi ostatobiT warmoaCens
personaJebis emociebsa da gancdebs. igi adamianebis fsiqologiis iSviaT
mcodned gvevlineba. damajerebeli da xatovania rogorc sakulto
ritualebis aRwera, aseve cocxal da aracocxal arsebaTa suraTxatebi.
leo qiaCelma saintereso cxovrebiT icxovra da, Sesabamisad,
mravalferovania misi SemoqmedebiTi Tematika. dumilis filosofiis
problemisadmi miZRvnili misi Txzulebebi yovelTvis didi interesiT
waikiTxeba.

damowmebuli literatura

a. nikoleiSvili, 2002 - a. nikoleiSvili, XX saukunis qarTuli


mwerloba, quTaisi, 2002,
l. qiaCeli, 1963 - l. qiaCeli, moTxrobebi, Tb., 1963.

LUKA DVALISHVILI

TRADITIONS OF SILENT SPEAKING IN GEORGIAN WRITING


AND IN THE NOVELS OF LEO KIACHELI

There are many illustrative examples how silence is respected in history of


Georgian literature, especially in Old Georgian Monuments. In 10th century the greatest
Georgian writer, Giorgi Merchule noticed in his work ‘Life of Grigol Khantsteli ’that
‘Silence is gold and intelligible speech is silver’.
Leo Kiacheli highlighted in his earlier works Silent Speaking and possibility of
information transform and sense of fate fatalism. The writer noticed in his works the
possibility of conveying sense completely without the words. The works dedicated to the
problems of silence philosophy are always read with great interests.