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1) Piping

a) Specifying Lines
i) Geometry: Diameter, Schedule
ii) Material: Steel, Plastic, Flexible Tubing
iii) Connections: Flanged, Sanitary Clamp, Screwed
iv) Special Considerations: Surface Roughness, Slope, Insulation
2) Instrumentation
a) ISA S5.1 Symbols, Tag Nomenclature
b) Input or Output? Discrete or Analog?
i) Voltage
(1) High-side Sourcing Output
(2) Low-side Sinking Input
(3) Relay/Ladder Logic
(4) PWMTypes
(5) 0-10V
ii) Current
(1) 4-20mA
(2) HART, Fieldbus
iii) Instrument Air
c) Valves (HV, FCV, TCV, XV, PSV, PCV)
i) Types
(1) Diaphragm
(2) Butterfly
(3) Ball and V-Ball
(4) Safety and Relief (PSV)
(5) Regulators (PCV)
(6) Check
(7) Globe, Gate, Plug
(8) Manifolds: Block and Bleed, Change Over
ii) Discrete or Analog Actuation?
(1) Electro-Pneumatic Solenoid Valves (XY)
(2) Electro-Pneumatic Positioner (FY, TY)
(3) Electrical Actuators, Servo Motors
iii) Fail Position
iv) Feedback
(1) Limit Switches, Registers (ZSC, ZSO)
(2) State Table
d) Motors (PMP, AGT, BLW)
i) Positive Displacement, Peristaltic, or Centrifugal
ii) HOA Switch (HS, XC)
iii) VFD (SIC, XI, XA, XC, IA, JI)
iv) Tachometer (SE)
e) Heat Exchangers, Cooling Towers (HX)
f) Transmitters and Switches
i) Flow (FE, FIT)
(1) Differential Producer: Pitot, Orifice, Venturi

(2) Inertial: Coriolis


(3) Positive Displacement: Rotary, Bellows
(4) Velocity: Magnetic, Vortex, Turbine, Ultrasonic
ii) Level (LE, LIT, LS, LG, LA)
(1) Resistance, Conductivity, Capacitance
(2) Optical, Ultrasonic, Radar, Laser
(3) Differential Pressure, Bubbler, Vibration
(4) Strapping Tables, Geometry, Displacements
iii) Weight (WE, WIT)
iv) Pressure (PE, PIT, PDT, PS, PA)
v) Temperature (TE, TIT, TA)
vi) pH, DO, Turbidity, Density, Viscosity, GC and other Analyzers (AE, AIT)
vii) E-Stop Hand Switches (HS, XA)
g) Interlock Conditions
h) Depicting Control Loops (FIC, LIC, PIC, TIC)
3) Batch
a) Unit Operation or Unit Procedure?
b) Batch Phases
i) Process Fluid
ii) Flow Path
iii) Sequential Flow Chart; Steps and Transitions
iv) State Tables
4) Possible Batch Topics
a) Clean-In-Place, Sterilize-In-Place
b) Skidded equipment
c) Disk Stack Centrifuge
d) Tangential Flow Filtration
e) Single-use Bioreactors