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• Introduction
• Sewer
• Types of Sewer 3-4
• Sewage 4
• Sewage system
• Types of Sewer System
• Components of Sewer System
○ Sewer
○ Manhole
○ Drop Manhole
○ Pumping Station
• Design of Sewer System
12 - 15
• Design Procedure
16 - 17
• Design Data
• Conclusion
• Comments 19
• Reference 19
• Design of Wet Well
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We use water supply system in order to provide easy availability
of water for drinking , washing etc. when this water is used it
becomes waste water called "sewage". Proper system is required
for the collection of waste water and conveying it to the point of
disposal with or without treatment called as "sewerage

On the east side it has Upper Chenab canal and Jhelum road. It has
allocation of two parks, graveyard as well. In the east direction there is
a treatment plant and disposal station.

Maximum reduce level is 100.8 and minimum is 98.0.



Total # of residence covered:

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A pipe or system of pipes used to
remove human waste and to provide


A large, underground pipe or drain used

for conveying waste water and sewage.
The Local Authority is usually
responsible for the sewers, which
collect the effluent from various drains,
the drains being the responsibility of the land owners.

• A Sanitary Sewer (also called a foul
sewer) is a type of underground
carriage system, (the 'system of
sewers' is called sewerage), for
transporting sewage from houses or
industry to treatment or disposal. In
some areas, sanitary sewers are
separate sewer systems specifically
for the carrying of domestic and
industrial wastewater, and are operated separately and
independently of storm drains, which carry the runoff of rain
and other water which wash into city

• A Storm Sewer is designed to drain excess

rain and ground water from paved streets,
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parking lots, sidewalks, and roofs. Storm drains vary in

design from small residential dry wells to large municipal
• A Combined Sewer is a type of sewer system that collects
sanitary sewage and storm water runoff in a single pipe
system. Combined sewers can cause serious water pollution
problems due to combined sewer overflows, which are
caused by large variations in flow between dry and wet

Sewage is water-carried wastes, in
either solution or suspension that flow
away from a community. Also known
as wastewater flows; sewage is the
used water supply of the community.
It is more than 99.9% pure water and
is characterized by its volume or rate
of flow, its physical condition, its
chemical constituents, and the
bacteriological organisms that it
contains. Depending on their origin, wastewater can be classed
as sanitary, commercial, industrial, or surface runoff.

The spent water from residences and institutions, carrying body

wastes, washing water, food preparation wastes, laundry wastes,
and other waste products of normal living, are classed as
domestic or sanitary sewage. Liquid-carried wastes from stores
and service establishments serving the immediate community,
termed commercial wastes, are included in the sanitary or
domestic sewage category if their characteristics are similar to
household flows. Wastes that result from an industrial process or
the production or manufacture of goods are classed as industrial
wastes. Their flows and strengths are usually more varied,
intense, and concentrated than those of sanitary sewage.

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Sewage System transports sewage through cities and other

inhabited areas to
sewage treatment
plants to protect
public health and
prevent disease.
Sewage is treated
to control water
pollution before
discharge to
surface waters.

Collection: -
A sewage system
may convey the
wastewater by gravity to a sewage treatment plant. Where
pipeline excavation is difficult because of rock or there is limited
topographic relief (i.e., due to flat terrain), gravity collection
systems may not be practical and the sewage must be pumped
through a pipeline to the treatment plant. In low-lying
communities, wastewater may be conveyed by vacuum. Pipelines
range in size from pipes of six inches (150 mm) in diameter to
concrete-lined tunnels of up to thirty feet (10 m) in diameter.

Sewage can also be collected by low pressure pumps and

vacuum systems. A low pressure system uses a small grinder
pump located at each point of connection, typically a house or
business. Vacuum sewer systems use differential atmospheric
pressure to move the liquid to a central vacuum station. Typically
a vacuum sewer station can service approximately 1,200 homes
before it becomes more cost-effective to build another station.

Design and analysis of collection systems: -

Design and sizing of sewage collection systems considers
population served, commercial and industrial flows, flow peaking
characteristics and wet weather flows. Combined sewer systems
are designed to transport both storm water runoff and sewage in
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the same pipe. Besides the projected sewage flow, the size and
characteristics of the watershed are the overriding design
considerations for combined sewers. Often, combined sewers
cannot handle the volume of runoff, resulting in combined sewer
overflows and causing water pollution problems in nearby water

Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to transport

sewage alone. In communities served by separate sanitary
sewers, another pipe system is constructed to convey storm
water runoff directly to surface waters. Most municipal sewer
systems constructed today are separate sewer systems.

Although separate sewer systems are intended to transport only

sewage, all sewer systems have some degree of inflow and
infiltration of surface water and groundwater, which can lead to
sanitary sewer overflows. Inflow and infiltration is highly affected
by antecedent moisture conditions, which also represents an
important design consideration in these systems.

A sewer bed is a piece of land typically used by a municipality for

the dumping of raw sewage. Usually raw sewage was brought by
truck or drawn by horses to be dumped, but the practice stopped
back in the 1940s.

Type of sewer systems:

• Separate system:

If the storm water is carried separately from domestic and

industrial waste water.

• Combined system:

It is the system in which the sewer carries both sanitary and

storm water.

• Partially combined system:

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If some portion of storm water or surface runoff is allowed to be

carried along with sanitary sewage. It is economical. We will
design partially combined system.

Components of Sewage System: -

Sewer: -
A pipe or system of pipes used to remove
human waste and to provide drainage.

Manhole: -
A manhole (alternatively utility hole,
maintenance hole, inspection chamber or
access chamber) is the top opening to an underground utility
vault used to house an access point for
making connections or performing
maintenance on underground and buried
public utility and other services including
sewers, telephone, electricity, storm drains
and gas. It is protected by a manhole
cover, also known as a 'biscuit', a plug
designed to prevent accidental or
unauthorized access to the manhole.

They are vertical openings provided in sewerage system.

Purpose: cleaning, inspection, house connection etc.

Provision at: change in sewer direction, diameter, slope, at the junction.
Manhole Spacing (WASA):

225-375mm Not >100m

450-750mm Not>120m

>750mm Not>150m

Drop Manhole:
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When lateral or sub main join in a deeper sewer , excavation is

saved by keeping the upper sewer at a reasonable grade and
making the vertical drop at the manhole. It is constructed when
the drop is more than 0.6m.
Otherwise an ordinary
manhole is built but the
bottom is so arranged that
the incoming sewage falls in a
sloping channel without

Pumping stations: -
Pumping stations are facilities
including pumps and equipment for
pumping fluids from one place to
another. They are used for a variety of
infrastructure systems, such as the
supply of water to canals, the drainage
of low-lying land, and the removal of
sewage to processing sites.

A pumping station is, by definition, an

integral part of a Pumped-storage
hydroelectricity installation.

They are used to elevate and transport waste water when:

• Continuation of gravity flow is no longer feasible.

• Basements are deep.
• Any obstacle lies in the path of sewer.
• Receiving stream is higher than the sewer.
• Sewage is to be delivered to an above ground treatment
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It is the waste water that enters sewers through poor joints,
cracked pipes, walls and covers of man holes. Infiltration is
almost nonexistent in dry weather but increases during rainy
season. WASA uses the following infiltration rate for design of
sewer system.

Sewer dia infiltration

225mm to 600mm 5% of average sewage flow
>600mm 10% of ASF

The lowest inside level at
any cross section of a
sewer pipe is known as the
invert level at that cross

Sewer must be designed

and laid at a specific slope
to attain self cleansing
velocities. The required
slopes are achieved
through calculation of invert levels of the sewer at various

Invert level = NGSL/Road level-Depth of sewer-Thickness of

sewer-Dia of sewer

Components of Sewage Pumping Stations: -

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(i) Screens:
used to
screen out
large floating
matter that
can damage
(ii) Dry Well:
Used to house
the pump.
(iii) Wet Well: to

Consideration: -
(i) More than 1 pump should be provided to cope with
available discharge, two pumps for small pumping
stations and more than two for large pumping stations
should be used out of which one is for min. flow, one is
for avg. flow and one for max. Flow.
(ii) Total pumping capacity of pumping station must be
equal to the peak sewage flow.
(iii) Stand by pump must be provided at the pumping
station. Its capacity should be at least 50% of peak
sewage flow.
(iv) Alternate sources of power must be there at pumping
station. (Either power from two different feeders or a
diesel operated pumps).
(v) Pumps should be of self priming type and should be of
self priming type and should operate under positive
suction head.
(vi) Each pump should have individual intake.
(vii) Screens with 50mm opening should be provided at
pump station to avoid entrance of big particles in
(viii) Size of dry well should be sufficient to house pumping
machinery and for working.
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(ix) Dry wells are provided with sump pump which are
usually reciprocating pumps to pump out sewage leaks
in dry wells.
(x) Sluice valve must be provided at suction and delivery
side of pump and non-return valve at the delivery side
(to reduce back hammer effect)
(xi) Detention time in the wet well should not be more than
30min to avoid septic conditions.


Design flow:
Average sewage flow is calculated on the basis of water
consumption and population.
Average sewage flow Q (m3/c/d) average water
= 0.8 ×
Qdesign = 2 peak factor Q + infiltration (10%) + storm water
× ×
(100% of peak flow)
Design equation:
Manning's formula is used for the sewer flowing
under gravity.

2 1
V = × R 3 ×S 2

V = Velocity of flow , m/sec
R = Hydraulic mean depth =
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When pipe is flowing or half full.

S = Slope of the sewer

n = coefficient of roughness for pipes.

(We use n=0.013 for RCC pipes)

Minimum self cleansing velocity:

For partially combined sewer = 0.7
Maximum velocity:
Not > 2.4 m/sec
To avoid excessive abrasion, to avoid steep slope.
Minimum sewer size:
225mm for lateral (WASA, PHED)
To avoid choking of sewer with bigger size objects thrown
through manholes.
Minimum cover:
1 m earth covers on sewer crown. To avoid damage
from live loads on sewer.
1 manhole per 2 plots.

Plant Location: -
1) General: - The following items shall be considered when
selecting a plant site:
a) Proximity to residential areas.
b) Direction of prevailing winds.
c) Necessary routing to provide accessibility by all weather
d) Area available for expansion.
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e) Local zoning requirements.

f) Local soil characteristics, geology and topography available
to minimize pumping.
g) Access to receiving stream.
h) Compatibility of treatment process with the present and
planned future land use, including noise, potential odors, air
quality, and anticipated sludge processing and disposal

2) Critical Sites: - Where a site must be used which is

critical with respect to specific criterion appropriate measures
shall be taken to minimize adverse impacts.
3) Flood Protection: - The treatment works structures,
electrical and mechanical equipment shall be protected from
physical damage by the maximum 100 year flood. Treatment
works shall remain fully operational during the 25 year flood.
This requirement applies to new construction and to existing
facilities undergoing major modification. Flood plain
regulations of State and Federal agencies shall be considered.
4) Plant Accessibility: - All plant facilities shall be
accessible by all weather roads.

Quality of Effluent: -
The required degree of wastewater treatment shall be
established by reference to applicable effluent criteria issued
by the Division of Water Pollution Control for all projects
involving new plants, new discharge locations or major

Design: -
The goal of the preparers of this Design Criteria is to promote
the simplest treatment scheme available that will meet the
requirements of the permit while providing maximum ease of
operation. While cost comparisons are important, long term
operability and reliability should be an overriding influence in
developing new sewerage collection and treatment works.

Type of Treatment: -
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1) As a minimum, the following items shall be considered in the

selection of the type of treatment: -
a) Present and future effluent requirements.
b) Location and local topography of the plant site.
c) The effects of industrial wastes likely to be encountered.
d) Ultimate disposal of sludge.
e) System capital costs.
f) System operating and maintenance costs and basic
energy requirements.
g) Existing unit process performance and capacity.
h) Process complexity governing operating personnel
i) Environmental impact on present and future adjacent land
2) The plant design shall provide the necessary flexibility to
perform satisfactorily within the expected range of waste
characteristics and volumes

a) Preparation of Hydraulic Statement: -
➢ Find the present population of the project area. Then
find the design population from the given design
period. Afterwards find average sewage flow for the
design population, select peak factor for you project
area from given table.
➢ Draw the layout of the sewer system keeping in view the
layout of the roads and streets (represent each sewer
with a line and manhole with a dot).
➢ Number the manholes and identify each sewer line (like
M2M2, M2M3 etc.).
➢ Allocate plots or area to each sewer line.
➢ Measure the length of each sewer line as per scale of
your map. Also show direction of flow in sewer lines with
an arrow.
➢ By adopting per capita sewage flow as 70% of water
consumption, calculate average sewage flow and
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infiltration for each sewer line. For this design problem

take infiltration as 10% of average sewage flow.
➢ Calculate peak sewage flow and finally the design flow
for the sewer lines.
➢ Using the method of back calculation, find appropriate
dia and slope for you sewer assuming that the sewer is
flowing full. For back calculation choose a suitable
design table with a suitable self cleansing velocity (0.6
➢ Use graph from the book of EW STEEL to find the depth
of flow and actual velocity at design flow.
➢ If actual velocity and depth of flow are satisfactory then
the dia and slope of the pipe are considered as final. If
the velocity is less than self cleansing velocity then
increase the slope of the sewer.
➢ In the end find the invert levels for the all the sewers
and complete the table of calculations called “hydraulic
statement”. (NOTE: a lot of care should be exercised in
calculating the invert levels otherwise the whole scheme
may fail due to incorrect levels)
➢ Draw the profiles or L-sections for all the sewer lines.
a) Design of Pumping Station: -
Purpose: -
These are required to elevate and transport
wastewater when: -
(i) Continuation of gravity flow is no more feasible and
there is need to raise the HGL of sewer.
(ii) Any obstacle lies in the path of sewer e.g. a river,
canal etc.
(iii) Receiving stream is higher than the sewer.

Pumps for Sewage: -

Centrifugal, single suction non-clogging type pumps are
normally used. These have impeller, having 2 or 3 vanes.
Pump suction pipe is usually larger than the discharge pipe
by about 25%.

Smallest discharge pipe = 75mm

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Smallest suction pipe = 100mm (4”)


No. of Plots = 281

No. of Apartments = 3
No. of Flats = 3
Design Period = 20 years

Present (2009) At design period

Persons/Plot 7 10
Persons/Apartment 400 600
Persons/Flat 200 400

Present Population = (7×28) + (400×3) + (200×3)

= 3767
Annual Population growth rate = 1.98% (for Pakistan)
Density Population (2029) Pd = Pp [1 + 1.98/100 ]-20
= 5575
& from Table
Pd = (10×281) + (600×3) + (400×3) = 5810 (Use this value)
Per Capita Water Consumption = Reg. No. + 300 lpcd
= 403 lpcd

Average Sewage Flow = Pd × PCWC × 0.8/1000 = 1873

= 0.02168 m3/sec
Peak Factor = 4
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• This sewerage system is designed keeping in view WASA
• Minimum pipe size is 225mm.
• Minimum cover is maintained as 1m throughout design.
• We use RCC pipes. They are strong and long lasting. They
are best to bear backfill loads. Giving high 3- edge bearing
test strength value.
• Velocity is taken as 0.7 m/s according to WASA criteria for
partially combined sewer.
• The diameter of pipes used in the design of the housing
scheme should have been in the multiple of 75mm, but we
did not use the diameters of pipes in multiples of 75mm,
because these are not locally available.
• In the Sewer Profile that we have drawn there is only one
Drop Manhole i.e. M16

• Water Supply and Sewerage by EW Steel and McGhee.
• Design Aid (provide by the teacher).
• WASA design criteria.

Design of Pumping station

• No of pumps = 2
• Capacity of the Pump = 7492 m3/day
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• Pump must run for at least 5-min

• Cycle time must not be less than 5 minutes but preferably
20 min.
• Peak Factor is 4
Known data

Avg. sewage flow, Qavg = 1873 m3/day = 1.30 m3/min

Peak sewage flow, Qmax = P = 7492 m3/day = 5.20


V = tmin × P / 4 = 20 × 5.20 / 4 = 26 m3

At Qavg, Running Time : t = V/(P - Qavg)

t = V/ (P - Qavg)

t = 26 / (5.20 – 1.30)

t = 6.67 min > 5 min (OK)

Cycle Time = V/ (P-Qavg) + V/Qavg

= 26 / (5.20-1.30) + 26 / (1.30)

= 26.7min > 20 min (OK)

Min. Cycle Time = 4 × V /P

= 4 × 26 / 5.20

= 20 min (OK)

Detention Time = t = V/Q

= 26 / 1.3
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= 20 min (OK)

Let Depth = d = 2.5 m

Consider wet well as circular,

=> V = (π/4) × D2 x d

26 = (π/4) × D2 × 2.5

=> D = 3.64 m


Depth of wet well = d = 2.5m

Dia of wet well = D = 3.64m