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List of Abbreviations:

Department of Social Services (DSS)

Department of Human Services (DHS)
Department of Education and Training (DET)
Department of Employment (DE)
Settlements Grants Programme (SGP)
NSW Department of Education and Communities (NSWDEC)
Community Language Allowance Scheme (CLAS)
Community Relations Commission and Principles of Multiculturalism Act 2000 (CRCPM ACT
Settlement Services International (SSI)
Community Migrant Resource Centre (CMRC)
Parramatta Community Justice Clinic (PCJC)
Thai Welfare Association (TWA)
Australian Chinese Community Association (ACCA)

To analyse and compare services provided for migrants in the areas of

Parramatta & Haymarket.
In this essay, services that are provided for migrants to settle into an area include, the actual
settlement services, to providing support financially and legally throughout the early stages of the
migrants new life in Australia. These are created and reinforced by the three levels of government,
Federal Government, NSW State Government and the Local Councils of the City of Parramatta and
the City of Sydney. They are also reinforced by non-government organisations that receive
government funding and also charities who have adapted to care for migrants in addition to the
general community in their respective areas.
Aim 1: Identify government strategies/policies that aid migrants in settling
The Federal government has delegated the responsibility of assembling these such policies to four
main departments, DSS, DHS, DET and DE. Firstly, under the DDSs policy, The Multicultural
Access and Equity policy1 The DSS becomes one of the most important departments as its duty is
not only to provide all of the main information about support services as seen in their publication
Beginning A New Life in Australia. One key programme the DSS have created is the SGP2.
Published in their overview, It aims to assist eligible clients to become self-reliant and participate
equitably, while maximising the productivity of our diversity and the economic well-being of clients
by enabling them to become fully functioning members of society as soon as possible and thereby
minimise longer-term reliance on social services. Eligible clients include humanitarian entrants,
family migrants with low levels of English proficiency and dependants of skilled migrants in rural
and regional areas with low English proficiency.3. Given its $183.22 million budget4, the
programme is apt to ensure they achieve their four main goals5 and provide settlement services to
migrants. This funding is in turn spread across a variety of organisations across Australia. For
example, the funding from this programme has allowed NSW government to create their NSW
Settlement Program6. In addition to this they also monitor other departments and non-government
support agencies.
Secondly, the DHS serves to provide a variety of financial support for migrants. Overall, this
department aids in ensuring that both financially and occupationally speaking migrants are
supported7. Similarly, the DET created the Australian Migrant English Programme, ensuring that
510 Hours of English classes are being provided through a variety of institutes8. From Navitas
English to TAFE, they provide it free of charge to most migrants who have humanitarian, skilled
and business visas. They also provide funding to select schools under their English as a second
language program. Employment support is provided by the DE. Jobactive9 seeks to not only tailor
services to each individual that will act as a constant stream of support that aids them in finding a
job and also connections to other government initiatives and programmes such as the Skills For
Education & Employment Program and AMEP.
On a state level, the NSW government provides four main programs that aid migrants to settle.
Firstly, they have a visa nomination program. Secondly, online english classes are provided, through
their AMES programme10 run under the NSWDEC. NSWDEC have also created the CLAS11, that
provides those working in the public sector (with minimum english proficiency) the opportunity to
gain financial support. Lastly, under the CRCPM ACT 200012 the government recognises that

importance of a multicultural community and thus provide funding and sponsorships to select
organisations across NSW to ensure that each different race is supported no matter their origin13.
Finally, on a council level the City of Parramatta council and the City of Sydney Council both
provide multilingual community service directories on their websites and in their libraries.
Parramatta also provides grants to organisations such as the Shakti Refugee and Migrant Womens
Support Group New South Wales14, to aid them in building support 'drop-in' centres around
Parramatta. Haymarket also provides language identification cards through their partnership with
May Murray Neighbourhood Centre15. Their library also provides newspapers in a variety of
languages from Chinese, Thai, Indonesian and english and a large multilingual book collection16.
The City of Sydney Council also provides programs for refugees and asylum seekers17, which in its
self acts a grants programs for select organisations to provide food and support for these
individuals. Similar to Parramatta council, under the Haymarket councils principles18 they ensure
that they participate in cultural events and spread a positive message about all the different cultures.
Aim 2: Analyse the effectiveness of the policies in Parramatta and Haymarket
In order to analyse the effectiveness of the government services, it was important to view the nongovernment organisations to identify, firstly where funding was being distributed and secondly
assessing if this funding is adequate in supporting migrants.
Firstly, on a municipal level, Parramatta and Haymarket Libraries reflect both councils ability to be
effective in providing the basic supportive measures for migrants. In Parramatta, the services
outlined in page 19 of their Resident Guide to Council Services supported by Thuongs
explanation of the libraries many services including multiple levels of english classes, Justice of
Peace services and their noticeboard collection of flyers encouraging learning english and gaining
jobs (appendix 2.6 - 2.8 and 1.1 - 1.3.)The demographics inside the library also reflected a
predominant amount of Indian and Chinese individuals, including the some elderly individuals.
Unlike the library, the Parramatta Elderly Centre was not migrant friendly,in the way that it was
not a multilingual area, as seen in fig.1.1, the notice board is primarily in english. The
demographics of this centre was also predominantly caucasian indicating that the elderly migrants
themselves were not approaching this centre as a place to find support in joining the community
rather visiting the library instead.
In Haymarket, the councils principles and also elements of the CRCPM ACT 200019 are
demonstrated through the embrace of the Chinese culture. Images of their culture as seen in fig.1.6.
to bilingual signs (fig.1.3 - fig.1.5) and relevant information and messages for migrants on
noticeboards (fig.1.2). Unlike Parramatta library, Haymarket Library does not provide english
classes, however as Beth said they refer them to the TAFE as they provide classes for all different
levels of english proficiencies, incorporating the AMEP into their courses. She also stated that as the
community mainly composed of Chinese people, they mainly have organisations within themselves
that support each other rather than aid from council branches like the library. AMES does have
workplace programs available in Haymarket, this benefits specifically those on a skilled visa
however this was not an avenue advertised or referred to by Council employees.
Moreover, non-government organisations fulfil the government initiatives and are primarily run
through the DSS SGP. In Parramatta there were six organisations that provided some sort of
support for migrants, two of which are funded by the SGP, the SSI and CMRC. According to
Bahram Mia from CMRC, SSI along with the Red Cross receive one of the largest amounts of

funding, as their main focus is ensuring the settlement process is successful in the first 6 to 12
months of their life in Australia. They also provide services in Parramatta to aid migrants both live
day to day and participate in the community (appendix.1.5, 2.1., 1.9., 1.7. 1.8.) Bahram described
this service as one that spoon feeds the migrants, transporting them everywhere the minute
they get off the plane or boat. He stated that whilst they provide them quite well with a
residence and the basic necessities, they lack the knowledge to act independently. Secondly, CMRC
provides migrants with assistance after their time with SSI, to provide them with the ability to live
independently through their programmes as outlined in their presentation. They use a combination
of government funding and donations to make specifically targeted programs for the youth, young
adults and mothers; as well as programs for all different types of visas, including support for those
who do not have working rights. They do so effectively as seen in both Bahrams comments and the
work produced (Seeing Summer) via their youth program.
Furthermore, charities such as The Salvation Army (fig.2.1), Uniting Church and programs such as
the baby monitoring services held at Chemist Warehouse (fig.2.3) and PCJC, all indicate that within
Parramatta other organisations are supplementing the non-government funded and government
services, in either giving free food or english classes to the community. However, Bahram stated
that Some of the things they are not happy with is travel costs lack of affordable housing, lack
of employment opportunities and the procedure surrounding visa applications. With these issues
highlighted and taken from perspectives of migrants it is clear that whilst programmes such as
AMEP and AMES are being utilised across the community (seen in appendix.1.2. and 1.3 pg 1 and
2), it has indicated that programs such as Jobactive20 and CLAS21 are either not being utilised or
are not accessible for the migrants in Parramatta, impacting the overall effectiveness of the
governments policies.
Furthermore in Haymarket there are little non-government organisations that are funded by the
government, as both the local government and the state government funds organisations outside of
Haymarket, in other areas of the city. There are two main agencies catering for the two largest races
in Haymarket; are the TWA and the ACCA. As seen in Thailand in Australia, the Thai Welfare
Association has for a long time now set up a good support system for the thai people in Haymarket,
similarly this well rooted type of organisation is seen even more so in the ACCA. In addition to the
City of Sydney has put in place centres such as the Asylum Seekers Centre22 and Startss23 to
compliment the already preexisting and well accepted organisations. Whilst there arent many
organisations in Haymarket, they are placed in a close vicinity to Haymarket. As Raphael stated that
the Ultimo Community Centre, a Navitas English College and the nearest SGP provider being
Uniting Care Harris Community Centre are all in close proximity to Haymarket. Thus without the
surrounding areas aid, the government policies would be ineffective as little government policy
exists in the area. Rather, as seen through the councils community service directory, independent
organisations aid the majority of migrants in Haymarket.
Aim 3: Contrast the suburbs of Parramatta and Haymarket and identify which race of
migrants are more supported
In Parramatta, there is a young population (table.3.2.) with 34.9% of them between the ages of 25 to
34. In addition to this, the predominant races of both first and second generation individuals being
Indian and Chinese (Fig.3.1). However, also noted by Bahram that more recently, there have been
an increase in Iranian and Afghan young men and women. As seen in table.3.1. there is a total of 12,
235 migrants out of the 28,602 living in Parramatta24 making up a large majority that needs to be
supported. Similarly, as seen in fig.3.6 and 3.7., in Haymarket the two predominant races are

Chinese and Thai, they add to the 4000 total migrants residing in Haymarket (table.3.4) The
demographic however in Haymarket being lower than Parramatta with 50.8% of the population
aged 20-29 years (table.3.3). Thus, between the two areas there are six possible races of migrants
that can be considered to be the most supported, in the sense that they are, socioeconomically
speaking, stable and on par with surrounding areas.
The combination of the underlying premise of the governments settlement services is to ensure
that the majority of migrants gain an occupation, made a stable living and the four aspects highlight
the more supported suburb. Income quartiles (fig,3.4.) and (fig.3.8), levels of education (fig.3.3)
and (fig.3.9.), proficiency in english (fig.3.3.and fig.4.3) and employment (fig.4.1and fig.3.5.), it
becomes clear that Parramatta is a lot more stable in these areas. Whilst Haymarket does have a
larger percentage of the population in education institutions and tertiary education (fig.3.9.) this can
simply be put down to the fact that there are a higher percentages of skilled visas residing in
Haymarket25. In all others areas Haymarket is less stable (fig. 4.1. & fig.3.8.), these graphs
highlighting that the DHS and DE programs also are not utilised in this area and also whilst AMES
services are provided it is clear that they are not utilised both through the fact that they are not
advertised so abundantly like Parramatta and also are not referred to the migrants as options, as seen
my interview with Beth they refer migrants to TAFE instead. Even though fig.3.9. highlights a large
proportion of the population do attend tertiary or technical institutions, it can be seen that in fig.4.3.
it has not been as effective as it has been in parramatta (fig. 3.2.). This in turn highlights how even
the services available to the migrants are not as effective as Parramatta nor is there any evidence of
supplementary classes as seen in Parramatta (appendix 2.6 - 2.8 and 1.1 - 1.3.)
In Parramatta, the Indian migrants are most supported seen firstly through the growth in these
specific race indicating a strong community base welcoming and supporting new migrants as well
as statistics26 (fig.5.6). Highlighting the deep rooted nature of their residence in Parramatta and in
turn the effective nature of the support available in the area. Even with more updated data the
government and the community seems to be able to cope and adapt to changes, as seen in the
adaption of programs by CMRC and the local councils recent grants programmes regarding Shakti
Refugee and Migrant Womens Support Group27.
In conclusion, there are a variety of schemes and initiatives that have been created by the levels of
government, these have been more effective in Parramatta as they have been in Haymarket and in
turn have also lead Parramatta to be the more supported suburb with particular mention to the
Indian migrants in that suburb who are the most supported given the history and the population
density of the race in Parramatta indicating that there are effective services provided to the migrants
in Parramatta. These conclusions of the three aims prove that hypothesis number one was correct,
however hypothesis two and three were incorrect. In the way that they highlighted Haymarket as the
more supported suburb, having more government schemes than Parramatta that were more
effective. Hypothesis two especially highlighted incorrectly the idea of funding being placed
towards rebuilding parramatta CBD. The government policies are present in both areas nevertheless
more utilised and encouraged by the community and local government in Parramatta then

1 Australian

Government Department of Social Services. Multicultural Access and Equity. 22 June

2015. Viewed: 30/06/15
2 Australian

Government Department of Social Services. Settlement Services. 5 September 2014.

Viewed: 30/06/15
3 Australian

Government Department of Social Services. Settlement Services Guidelines Overview.

May 2014. Viewed: 30/06/15


Ibid. The four main goals are Casework/coordination and settlement service delivery, Community
coordination and development, Youth settlement services and Support for ethno-specific

Settlement Services International. Free Community-based legal help reaches new arrivals.
(14/02/15) Settlement Services International. Retrieved from:

The DHS provides financial support in the form of Crisis Payments, Special Benefits (this helps
those who are in severe financial need because of reasons out of their control) and also programs
such as the 'Skills for Education and Employment' program. A program to help develop speaking,
reading, writing or basic maths skills to improve the chances of getting and keeping a job.
Australian Government Department of Human Services. Support For New Arrivals To Australia.
Viewed: 29/06/15
8The Adult

Migrant English Program (AMEP) provides up to 510 hours of English language tuition
to eligible migrants and humanitarian entrants to help them learn foundation English language and
settlement skills to enable them to participate socially and economically in Australian society.
Australian Government Department of Education and Training. Skill support for individuals: Adult
Migrant English Program. 2014. Viewed: 29/06/15

The Australian Governments new employment services system jobactive replaced Job Services
Australia on 1 July 2015. Jobactive helps job seekers find and keep a job and help employers find
the staff they need, through a network of jobactive providers. Jobactive helps job seekers to find and
keep a job and helps employers find staff: Jobactive providers assist eligible job seekers to find and
keep a job and ensure employers are receiving candidates that meet their business needs. Work for
the Dole Coordinators will source appropriate Work for the Dole places and projects with not-forprofit organisations, the New Enterprise Incentive Scheme supports job seekers to start up and run a
viable small business and Harvest Labour Services and the National Harvest Labour Information
Service support the harvest requirements of growers in the horticulture industry.
Australian Government Department of Employment. Jobactive. 2 July 2015. Viewed: 08/07/15


is an agency of the NSW State Government and is part of the NSW Department of
Education and Communities. Established in 1951, NSW AMES has taught English to over 1.5
million people in the classroom, in the workplace, online and via distance education.
NSW Government. Department of Education and Communities. AMES. Viewed:29/06/15 http://

CLAS is an allowance paid to selected NSW public sector employees who have a basic level of
competency in a language other than English and who work in locations where their language can
be used to assist clients.
NSW Government. Community Language Allowance Scheme (CLAS). Viewed: 29/06/15 http://

NSW Government. Principles of Multiculturalism. Viewed: 29/06/15




City of Parramatta Council. Community Grants. Viewed: 28/05/15 http://

City of Sydney Council. Multilingual Community Resources and Tools. Viewed: 28/05/15 http://

In addition to this, they also carry the largest Chinese language book collection of any public
library in Australia.
City Of Sydney Council. Haymarket Library. Viewed: 28/05/15 http://

Refugees and asylum seekers are provided with free access to a range of City facilities and
services as part of the project, including the use of public swimming pools and library branches
with wifi and computer access.
City of Sydney Council. Refugees and Asylum Seekers. Viewed: 28/05/15 http://

The council has six core objectives: Celebrate and value diversity, Participation and access,
Responsive services and support, An inclusive Council, Leadership and advocacy, Sustain the
global city. They implement these into the variety of programs and initiatives to assist people from
culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities, such as Haymarket.
City of Sydney Council. Multicultural Communities. Viewed: 28/05/15 http://

NSW Government. Principles of Multiculturalism. Op.Cit.

20 Australian

Government Department of Employment. Jobactive. Op.Cit.


NSW Government. Community Language Allowance Scheme (CLAS). . Op.Cit.


City of Sydney Council. Refugees and Asylum Seekers. Op.Cit.




Population and household forecasts, 2011 to 2036, prepared by .id, the population experts,
January 2014. Available:

Glenn. Immigration in the past 5 years - focus on NSW. (24/10/11) Viewed: 20/02/15 http://

Glenn. The story of culturally diverse communities Indians in Parramatta. (26/04/14) Viewed:

City of Parramatta Council. Community Grants. Op.Cit.