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Integration (Mathematics: 2-unit)

Copyright Enoch Lau 2003

Dec 2002 (re-pub Apr 2003)

Integration (Mathematics: 2-unit)


Trapezoidal Rule
b

f (x )dx 2 h( f (a ) + f (b) + 2 f (between))


1

[Note: This is not a formal definition.]

where h =

ba
.
n

Simpsons Rule
b

f (x )dx 3 ( y
h

+ y n + 2( y 2 + y 4 + ...) + 4( y1 + y3 + ...))

Four Odd Two Even


Indefinite Integrals

x n +1
Note that n 1
+c
n +1
Increase the power by 1 and then divide by the new power.

x n dx =

(ax + b )
n
(ax + b) = a(n + 1)

n +1

+c

Note that n 1

Increase the power by 1 and then divide by the new power and the coefficient of x. It only
works for linear expressions inside the brackets.
Definite Integrals
b

f (x )dx = [F (x )]

= F (b ) F (a )

where F(x) is the primitive of f(x).

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