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Principles of the WCDMA


System
GSM-to-UMTS Training Series_V1.0
www.huawei.com

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Interleaving
Interleaving is used to disarrange symbol correlation and reduce the impact

caused by fast fading and interference of the channel.


11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 ...
...

...
... 452
452 453
453 454
454

Ist interleaving
A4

A5

A6

....

A7

B0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

1
9
17
25
.
.
449

2
10
18
26
.
.
450

3
11
19
27
.
.
451

4
12
20
28
.
.
452

5
13
21
29
.
.
453

6
14
22
30
.
.
454

7
15
23
31
.
.
455

8
16
24
32
.
.
456

C0

C1

C2

....

2nd interleaving

{A4,B0}
{A4,B0} {A5,B1}
{A5,B1} {A6,B2}
{A6,B2} {A7,B3}
{A7,B3} {B4,C0}
{B4,C0} {B5,C1}
{B5,C1} {B6,C2}
{B6,C2}
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C3

{B7,C3}
{B7,C3}

Spreading Principle
Users who need to send information: UE1, UE2 and UE3

UE1 uses c1 for spreading: UE1 x c1


UE2 uses c2 for spreading: UE2 x c2
UE3 uses c3 for spreading: UE3 x c3
c1, c2 and c3 are orthogonal to each other
Information sent: UE1 x c1 + UE2 x c2 + UE3 x c3

Source
coding

Channel

Interleaving
Spreading
coding and

Scrambling

Modulation

interleaving

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RF
emission

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De-spreading Principle
UE1 uses c1 for de-spreading.

(UE1 x c1 + UE2 x c2 + UE3 x c3) x c1

= UE1 x (c1 x c1) + UE2 x (c2 x c1) + UE3 x (c3 x c1)


= UE1 x 1 + UE2 x 0 + UE3 x 0
= UE1
In the same way, UE2 uses c2 for de-spreading and UE3

uses c3 for de-spreading to get their own signals.

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Spreading and De-spreading (DS-CDMA)


Symbol

Data

-1
Chip

Spreading
1

Spreading code

-1
1

Spreading signal
= Data x Code word

-1

Despreading

Spreading code

-1
Data
= Spreading signal x
Code word

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1
-1

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Spreading Principle
UE1:

____________
1

1
UE2:
c1:
1 1
c2:
1 1
UE1c1:
1
UE2c2:
1
UE1c1 UE2c2:
2
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_____________
1
1 1 1 1

1
1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

2 0

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2 0

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De-spreading Principle
UE1c1 UE2c2
UE1 de-spreading with c1:

De-spreading result:

-2 0

-2

+2 0 +2
-1 +1 -1

+1 -1 +1

-1

+1

+2 0

-2 0

+2

+4

Integral:
Decision:

-2

-4

+4/4 = +1

-4/4 = -1

UE2 de-spreading with c2: +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1

De-spreading result:

-4

Integral:
Decision :

-2

-4/4 = -1

-2

0 +2

0 +2

+4
+4/4 = +1

Question: How to generate those orthogonal codes like c1


and c2?
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If error codes occur in the propagation process


UE1 c1 + UE2 c2:

2 0

0 2 0

UE1 c1 + UE2 c2 error code: 2

2 0

1 2 0

UE1 uses c1 for de-spreading: c1 1 1 1 1


1
De-spreading result:

Integral detection:

2 0

Normalization:

0 2 0

+6/4=1.5

Integral detection:
Normalization:

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2 0

4
- 4/4= -1

UE1 uses c2 for de-spreading: c2 1 1 1 1


1
De-spreading result:

1 1 1

2
2/4= 0.5

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1 1 1

0 2 0

4
4/4=1

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