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Behavior

Assessment System for Children


Second Edition (BASC-2)
February 26, 2013
TEST PRESENTATION BY:
Jaime Kerr, Melissa Martin, & Katerina Mrkva

Introduction
Jaime

Kat

Melissa

All

Melissa

Jaime

Description of Test
Purpose & Use
Scales, Scores, Theory

Administration, Scoring, Interpretation


Overview of Psychometric Properties

Standardization Sample and Norms

Reliability & Validity of each subscale

Strengths & Limitations

Summary & Conclusions

Overview of Test

* BASC rst published in 1992; BASC-2 published in 2004


* Authors Cecil R. Reynolds & Randy W. Kamphaus
* Designed to facilitate the dierential diagnosis and
educational classication of a variety of emotional
and behavioural disorders of children, and to aid in
the design of treatment plans

Overview of Test
* Evaluates the behaviour and self-perceptions of children and
young adults ages 2 through 25 years
* Multimethod 5 components for individual or combined use:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Teacher Rating Scale (TRS)


Parent Rating Scale (PRS)
Self-Report of Personality (SRP)
Structured Developmental History Form (SDH)
Student Observation System (SOS)

* Multidimensional numerous aspects of behaviour and


personality, both positive (adaptive) and negative (clinical,
pathological)
4

Overview of Test
* Triangulated View of childs behavioural problems:
1. Examines behaviour in multiple settings
2. Evaluates childs emotions, personality,
and perceptions of self
3. Provides important background
information for educational
decisions or diagnosis.

Overview of Test: Use


* User qualications:

* graduate training program in psychology


* Formal academic training in administration, scoring,
interpretation of behaviour-rating and personality scales
* Supervised experience

* Uses of BASC-2:

Clinical Diagnosis
Educational Classication
Manifestation Determination
Assessment of Individuals with Limitations of Vision and
Hearing
* Program Evaluation
* Forensic Evaluation
* Research
*
*
*
*

Organization of Test
Teacher Rating Scales
Teacher Rating Scales
* Measures adaptive and problem behaviours in classroom
* 3 forms preschool (ages 2-5); child (ages 6-11); and adolescent
(ages 12-21)
* 4 point scale (Never to Almost Always)
* 10-15 minutes to complete
* Broad domains Externalizing problems, Internalizing problems,
School problems, Adaptive Skills
* Behavioral Symptoms Index general problem factor
* Optional Content Scales
* 3 Validity scales
7

Overview of Test
Parent Rating Scales
Parent Rating Scales
* Same 4 choice response format as TRS
* Same age ranges as TRS (preschool, child, adolescent)
* 10-20 minutes to complete
* Written at 4th grade reading level
* Has Activities of Daily Living scale
* Does not measure School Problems Composite
or Learning Problems and Study Skills
* 3 Validity scales
8

Composites, Primary Scales, and Content Scales


TRS and PRS
Teacher Scales
P
2-5

C
6-11

A
12-21

Parent Scales
P
2-5

C
6-11

Teacher Scales

A
12-21

PRIMARY SCALE
Adaptability

Parent Scales

P
2-5

C
6-11

A
12-21

P
2-5

C
6-11

A
12-21

COMPOSITE
*

Activities of Daily Living

Adaptive Skills

Behavioral Symptoms Index

Aggression

Externalizing Problems

Anxiety

Internalizing Problems

Attention Problems

School Problems

Atypicality

Conduct Problems

Teacher Scales

Parent Scales

P
2-5

C
6-11

A
12-21

P
2-5

C
6-11

A
12-21

Anger Control

Bullying

Depression

Functional Communication

CONTENT SCALE

Hyperactivity

Leadership

Learning Problems

Social Skills

Developmental Social
Disorders

Somatization

Emotional Self-Control

Executive Functioning

Negative Emotionality

Resiliency

100

139

139

134

160

150

Study Skills
Withdrawal

*
9

TOTAL NUMBER ITEMS

Summary of the Teacher and Parent


Rating Scale Composite Scores
Type

Externalizing
Problems

Internalizing
Problems

TRS-P

Hyperactivity
Aggression

Anxiety
Depression
Somatization

TRS-C

Hyperactivity
Aggression
Conduct Problems

Anxiety
Depression
Somatization

TRS-A

Hyperactivity
Aggression
Conduct Problems

PRS-P

PRS-C

PRS-A

School
Problems

Behavioral Symptoms
Index

Adaptive Skills

Hyperactivity, Aggression
Depression , Attention
Problems, Atypicality,
Withdrawal

Adaptability
Social Skills
Functional
Communication

Learning Problems,
Attention Problems

Hyperactivity, Aggression
Depression , Attention
Problems, Atypicality,
Withdrawal

Adaptability, Social Skills,


Leadership, Study Skills,
Functional
Communication

Anxiety
Depression
Somatization

Attention
Problems,
Learning Problems

Hyperactivity, Aggression
Depression , Attention
Problems, Atypicality,
Withdrawal

Adaptability, Social Skills,


Leadership, Study Skills,
Functional
Communication

Hyperactivity
Aggression

Anxiety
Depression
Somatization

--

Hyperactivity, Aggression
Depression , Attention
Problems, Atypicality,
Withdrawal

Adaptability, Social Skills,


Activities of Daily Living,
Functional
Communication

Hyperactivity
Aggression
Conduct Problems

Anxiety
Depression
Somatization

Hyperactivity, Aggression
Depression , Attention
Problems, Atypicality,
Withdrawal

Adaptability, Social Skills,


Leadership, Activities of
Daily Living, Functional
Communication

Hyperactivity
Aggression
Conduct Problems

Anxiety
Depression
Somatization

Hyperactivity, Aggression
Depression , Attention
Problems, Atypicality,
Withdrawal

Adaptability, Social Skills,


Leadership, Activities of
Daily Living,
Functional
Communication

--

--

--
10

Organization of Test:
Self Report of Personality Scale
True False and 4 point scale answers
20-30 minutes to complete
Written at 3rd grade reading level
Three age levels child (ages 8-11), adolescent (ages 12-21),
young adults attending postsecondary school (ages 18-25)
* Additional Inattention/Hyperactivity and Personal
Adjustment composite score
* Emotional Symptoms Index instead of
Behavioral Symptoms Index
* Optional Content Scales
*
*
*
*

11

Composites, Primary Scales, and Content Scales in


Self Report Scale
SCALE

SELF REPORT
C
8-11

A
12-21

COL
18-25

SCALE

PRIMARY SCALE
Alcohol Abuse

SELF REPORT
C
8-11

A
12-21

COL
18-25

Anxiety

COMPOSITE

Attention Problems

Emotional Symptoms Index

Attitude to School

Inattention/Hyperactivity

Attitude to Teachers

Internalizing Problems

Atypicality

Personal Adjustment

Depression

School Problems

Hyperactivity

Interpersonal Relations

Locus of Control

Relations with Parents

School Adjustment
*

Self-Reliance

Sensation Seeking
Sense of Inadequacy

Social Stress

SELF REPORT
C
8-11

A
12-21

COL
18-25

Anger Control

Ego Strength

Mania

Test Anxiety

176

185

CONTENT SCALE

Self-Esteem

Somatization

SCALE

TOTAL NUMBER OF ITEMS


12

139

Summary of the Self Report of


Personality Composite Scales
Scale

School Problems

Internalizing
Problems

Inattention/
Hyperactivity

Emotional
Symptoms Index

Personal Adjustment

SRP-C

Attitude to School
Attitude to Teachers

Atypicality
Locus of Control
Social Stress
Anxiety
Depression
Sense of Inadequacy

Attention Problems
Hyperactivity

Social Stress
Anxiety
Depression
Sense of Inadequacy
Self-Esteem
Self-Reliance

Relations with Parents


Interpersonal Relations
Self-Esteem
Self-Reliance

SRP-A

Attitude to School
Attitude to Teachers
Sensation Seeking

Atypicality
Locus of Control
Social Stress
Anxiety
Depression
Sense of Inadequacy
Somatization

Attention Problems
Hyperactivity

Social Stress
Anxiety
Depression
Sense of Inadequacy
Self-Esteem
Self-Reliance

Relations with Parents


Interpersonal Relations
Self-Esteem
Self-Reliance

Atypicality
Locus of Control
Social Stress
Anxiety
Depression
Sense of Inadequacy
Somatization

Attention Problems
Hyperactivity

Social Stress
Anxiety
Depression
Sense of Inadequacy
Self-Esteem
Self-Reliance

Relations with Parents


Interpersonal Relations
Self-Esteem
Self-Reliance

SRP-COL
--

13

Organization of Test:
Score Classications
* T scores, Percentiles, 90% Condence Intervals
* T scores not normalized
Classications:
1. At Risk:
* between 1-2 SD from mean
* signicant problems that, while requiring treatment, may not
be severe enough to warrant diagnosis monitor carefully

2. Clinically Signicant:
* 2 SD or more from mean
* high level of maladaptive behaviour or absence

of adaptive behaviour
14

Organization of Test:
Score Classications
CLASSIFICATION
Adaptive Scales

Clinical Scales

T-Score Range

Very High

Clinically Signicant

70 and above

High

At-Risk

60-69

Average

Average

41-59

At-Risk

Low

31-40

Clinically Signicant

Very Low

30 and below

15

BASC-2: Administration

* Designed for ease of administration


* Responses can be recorded next to items directly on
form
* Clinician can separate form to reveal inner page
where items are scored
* Important to establish rapport when administering
BASC-2

BASC-2: Scoring
* Items are scored either by paper and pencil or scoring software
* For paper/pencil the inner page contains scores as well as tables
and graphic proles
* Scaled scores and composite scores (T scores and percentiles)
* Sum item scores -> compute raw scores -> compute composite
scores -> identify high/low scale scores -> compare composite
scores -> complete summary table and chart
* Variety of norm samples for comparison included
* General samples (male or female or combined)
* Clinical Samples (male or female or combined)
* Learning disability and ADHD specic norms

BASC-2: Interpretation
* The nature of BASC-2 requires a detailed look at the
results prole to determine if they are in any way
compromised
* Results may be skewed due to non-cooperativeness,
positive/negative response sets, reading problems etc.

* Unique indexes of the BASC-2 to assess issues in


responses

Psychometric Properties: Overveiw


* Reliability
* Test-Retest
* Interrator
* Internal Consistency

* Validity
* Criterion- Concurrent
* Construct- Convergent and Discriminant
* Content

Validity Indices
Index

Description

F Index

Measure of respondents tendency to be excessively negative


faking bad

L Index

Measure of respondents tendency to give an extremely positive


picture of him/herself
faking good

V Index

Basic check for the validity of SRP scores through nonsensical


statements

Response Pattern
Index

Identies forms that may be invalid due to inattentive responding

Consistency Index

Identies cases where respondent gives dierent responses to


items that should be answered similarly

Norm Samples
* Each BASC-2 rating scale and self-report form oers a
choice of the following norms:
* General Norms large national sample, recommended for
general use
* Clinical Norms helpful when childs problem is extreme
* Learning disability and ADHD group form ages 6 through 18
* Ages 19 21 who are still attending high school

* Combined (male and female) and separate Male/


Female norms for General and Clinical populations
21

Standardization and Norms


Development of the BASC-2
Standardization of the BASC-2 Teacher Rating Scales (TRS),
Parent Rating Scales (PRS), and Self-Report of Personality
(SRP) occurred from August 2002 to May 2004
Cases were collected from over 375 sites in 257 cities and 40
states in settings that included public and private schools,
mental health clinics and hospitals, and preschools and
daycares

GENERAL - POPULATION NORM


SAMPLES
* Primary goal was to have a large representative sample of children
from all over the United States in regards to gender, socioeconomic
status, race, ethnicity, geographical residence, and educational
programming.
* Secondary goal was to allow maximum overlap in the norm samples
in order for the norms of the TRS, PRS, and SRP to be comparable
* Classroom-based data collection was used as well as forms
completed by parents. Forms with more than 10% of items
unscoreable were excluded as well as those that were missing three
or more responses on a single scale

Demographic Characteristics (General


Population Norm Samples)
SEX AND AGE LEVEL
* Equal number of females and males in each age group

Demographic Characteristics (General


Population Norm Samples)
SEX AND RACE ETHNICITY
* Highest proportion of subjects were white, followed
by Hispanic, African American, and other

Demographic Characteristics (General


Population Norm Samples)
SEX AND MOTHERS EDUCATION
* A majority of subjects were shown to have mothers
who have a minimum of a high school education

Demographic Characteristics (General


Population Norm Samples)
SEX AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION
* Highest rates of participation came from the South,
followed by the West, North Central, and Northeast

Representation of the SRP College


Norm Sample
* 708 college level students from ages 18 to 25 who
were attending various colleges, universities, and
technical schools throughout the U.S. completed the
SRP

CLINICAL NORM SAMPLES


* These samples consist of children ages 4 to 18 whose
parents have identied them as having been
diagnosed or classied with one or more emotional,
behavioral, or physical problems.

CLINICAL NORM SAMPLES


REPRESENTATION OF THE CLINICAL NORM SAMPLES
* These Clinical norm samples include high numbers of students with specic
disorders. Norms and distinct score proles have been created for each of these
disability subgroups as well as the overall Clinical norms.

CLINICAL NORM SAMPLES


REPRESENTATION OF THE CLINICAL NORM SAMPLES
* On the TRS and PRS, females tended to be rated higher on
Adaptability, Social Skills, and Functional Communication. Males
were generally were rated higher on Hyperactivity, Aggression,
Atypicality, and Attention Problems.
* On the SRP, females rated themselves higher on Anxiety and
Somatization. Males gave themselves higher ratings on Attitude to
School, Attitude to Teachers, and Sensation Seeking.

Teacher Rating Scale (TRS)


Reliability
1. Internal Consistency:
* Coecient alpha
* General Norms Samples:
* Composite score reliabilities very high middle .80s to .90s
* Middle .90s for the Behavioral Symptoms Index (BSI) and Externalizing Problems
Composite, Low to middle .90s for School Problems and Adaptive Skills composites, and
High .80s and low .90s for the Internalizing Problems Composite
* The individual scales showed a high reliability with a median value of .84. The most
reliable scales are Hyperactivity, Aggression, Conduct Problems, Attention Problems, and
Learning Problems
* Individual scales also show high reliability with a median value of .84.
* The most reliable scales are Hyperactivity, Aggression, Conduct Problems, Attention
Problems, and Learning Problems
* Adaptive Skills composite had scales with reliabilities in the .80s to low .90s, with a range
of .76 to .82.
* Internalizing Problems scales showed a range from the middle .70s to upper .80s

Teacher Rating Scale (TRS)


Reliability
* Clinical Norms:
* Summary:
* BSI, Externalizing Problems, Internalizing Problems, and Adaptive Skills
composites are nearly equal to the General norm samples. Clinical-sample
reliabilities are slightly higher for Aggression, Anxiety, Depression, and
Adaptability and slightly lower for Learning Problems and Leadership
* LD and ADHD subgroups showed a smaller dispersion of scores which created
lower reliability due to range restrictions. This is likely due to shared behavior
patterns among these groups.
Overall, internal consistency reliabilities of the BASC-2 composites and scales are high
and consistent among females and males in general and clinical groups.
Therefore, composite and scale scores are dependable estimates of their
behavioral dimensions.

Teacher Rating Scale (TRS)


Reliability
2. Test-Retest Reliability:
* Teachers were able to rate the same child twice within a time interval of 8 to 65 days in
both the general and clinical groups. The demographic characteristics of the children
in this study were similar to those in the General norm samples.

* Composite scales for test-retest reliability are generally in the middle .80s to the
low .90s with the exception of Internalizing Problems on the adolescent level
(.78). These patterns of correlations are similar to the patterns in the coecient
alpha reliabilities.
* The clinical scales with the highest test-retest correlations are Hyperactivity,
Aggression, and Attention Problems. Atypicality and Withdrawal also have high
test-retest correlations at the preschool and child levels only. The lowest test-
retest correlations for the clinical scales are for Anxiety and Somatization.

Teacher Rating Scale (TRS)


Reliability
3. Interrater Reliability:
* Dierent raters were used to evaluate the same student and
the scores were compared. The interrater reliability indicates
the level of agreement in teachers perceptions of a childs
behavior and the degree of similarity to which they interpret
the items in the TRS

* In general, these correlations are lower than the alpha and


test-retest reliability studies. Median reliability estimates
for preschool are .65, .56 for child, and .53 for adolescent.
* The reliabilities vary widely across the scales, from .19 to .82.

Teacher Rater Scale (TRS)


Validity
1.

Empirical Support
* Scale Intercorrelations and Factor Structure
* At all TRS levels, scores with the highest intercorrelations are the externalizing-behavior scales
(Hyperactivity, Aggression, and Conduct Problems) and Attention Problems. The adaptive
scales have higher correlations than the clinical scales.
* Factor Analysis
* Covariance Structure Analysis (CSA) shows that the Externalizing Problems factor centers on a
behavioral dimension that is common with the criteria for Hyperactivity, Aggression, and
Conduct Problems scales. The Internalizing Problems factor associates with a higher-order
behavioral dimension associated with Depression, Atypicality, and Withdrawal Scales. Anxiety
and Somatization scales were less of a contribution
* Principle Axis Factor Analysis found the same analyses that show that Externalizing Problems
are dened by Aggression, Hyperactivity, and Conduct Problems, with smaller emphasis on
Depression, Attention Problems, and Adaptability. An Internalizing Problems factor also
showed to be reected primarily on the Depression and Anxiety scales with lesser emphasis on
Withdrawal, Somatization, and Atypicality.

Teacher Rater Scale (TRS)


Validity
2. Patterns of Correlations of TRS Scores
* Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (ASEBA)
* The TRS and ASEBA were completed for 46 children ages 2 to 5 years old, 57 children ages 6-11,
and 39 adolsecents ages 12 to 18 years old.
* The samples appear to show somewhat smaller proportions of children with behavior
problems than what the population reects. Externalizing problems are rated more
consistently across instruments than internalizing problems.
* Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTSR-R)
* Correlations between scales that measure similar dimensions are generally higher among the
child sample than the adolescent sample. Most scales were moderate to highly correlated
with the exception of of the BASC-2 Anxiety Scale for children (.35) and adolescent (.26)
samples.
* Original BASC Teacher Rating Scales
* Correlations between the BASC and BASC-2 scales are extremely high, the lowest was .83. Lower
correlations typically came from scales that had the most item changes.

Teacher Rater Scale (TRS)


Validity
3. Proles of Clinical Groups
* The proles of the mean scale scores were reviewed for those school-aged children who have
been identied with behavioral or emotional problems
* Each diagnostic group were similar to one another in the child and adolescent proles.
* Highest average scale scores in the ADHD group are Hyperactivity, Depression, Attention Problems, School
Problems, and Atypicality
* The proles of the Emotional/Behavioral Disturbance (EBD) group were higher than the ADHD group. The
highest scores were on Agression, Depression, and Atypicality.
* Some of the most elevated proles are those children and adolescents who were identied with bipolar or
depression disorders. All of their clinical scales were signicantly elevated.
* Children and adolescents with a hearing impairment (HI) or speech/language disorder (SLD) contained
average score proles that with no signicant increases or decreases. Adolescents in this category did have
a moderate elevation on the Learning Problems scale
* Children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or motor impairment (MI) both
show the highest scales in Atypicality, Withdrawal, Adaptability, Social Skills, and Functional Communication.

Parent Rating Scale - Reliability


Internal Consistency - Coecient alpha
* General Norms Samples:
* Composite score reliabilities high middle .80s to .90s
* Individual scales also high, but lower than Teacher Rating
Scale
* Median values - .80 to .83 at preschool; .83 to .87 at child; .83
to .86 at adolescent
* Activities of Daily Living lowest (e.g. .65 for males ages 4-5)

* Clinical Norms:
* Range from high .70s to mid 90s
* Median scale reliabilities higher than for General norms at
preschool/child levels (mid to high .80s)
44

Parent Rating Scale - Reliability


Test-Retest Reliability
* Sample of children (clinical, general) similar demographically to
norm samples 87 preschool, 77 child, 88 adolescent
* Rated by parent twice over 9 70 day period
* Behaviour not expected to change greatly, but still potential for
bias and child changes
* Reliabilities for composites in low .80s to .90s, except
Internalizing problems at child level (.78)
* Reliabilities for individual scales median .77 (preschool), .84
(child), .81 (adolescent)
* Activities of Daily living lowest coecent alpha, one of highest
test-retests
45

Parent Rating Scale - Reliability


Interrater Reliability
* Dierent caregivers who provided ratings at same point in
time
* Rated between 0 70 days apart
* Median reliabilities are .74 (preschool), .69 (child), .77
(adolescent)
* Lower than coecient alpha and test-retest
* Highest clinical Withdrawal at preschool (.78), Anxiety at
child (.80), and Conduct Problems at adolescent (.80)
* Lowest clinical Aggression at preschool and child (both .
53), Somatization at child (.53) and adolescent (.55)
46

Parent Rating Scale - Validity

47

Parent Rating Scale - Validity


* Correlations with other measures of behaviour:
Parent Rating Scale vs.

Correlation

Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Child


Behavior Checklist

Similarly named scales correlate highly (e.g. BSI with


ASEBA Total Problems Index .73 to .84). Externalizing
problems - .74 to .83
Internalizing problems somewhat lower - .65 to .75

Conners Parent Rating Scale Revised

Moderately to highly correlated, expect anxiety scales


(.41 and .35). BASC-2 focuses on general nervousness,
fear, worry; Conners on emotionality, withdrawal,
timidity

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning

Moderately to highly correlated

Original BASC

Extremely high (.90 or higher for most)

48

Self-Report of Personality (SRP):


Reliability
Internal Consistency
* General Norm Sample: alphas across age range mid to high .
80s for composites
* Somatization (.61-.74); self-reliance (.68-.74)

* Clinical Norm Sample: mid to high alphas (mid .80s to mid .


90s)
* Attitude to teachers children (.67-.80) adolescents (.75-.82);
sensation seeking adolescents (.64-.80); somatization adolescents (.
69-.74); self-reliance (.63-.76)

SRP: Reliability
Test-Retest
* 13- 66 days between test administrations
* Individuals had similar demographics to the norm
sample
* Moderate alphas for the composites: high .70s to
low .80s
* Scaled means alphas: child .71, adolescent .75 and
college .84

SRP: Validity
Criterion Validity
SRP vs.

Correlation

ASEBA Youth Self-Report and Conners-


Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale

moderate to strong. r=.65 +

Childrens Depression Inventory

.69 (adolescents) and .29 (child)

Revised Childrens manifest Anxiety Scales .60 and .49 (child and adolescent)
Brief Symptom Inventory and Beck
Depression Inventory-II

BSI ~.50 and BDI .60 (college)

MMPI-2

81 and .69 anxiety scales, .56 and .67


depression, -.61 and -.54 self-esteem and
parent/family, alcohol .52 abuse scales
.35 somatization (college)

BASC

Low (.51 median for children and .68 for


adolescents)

SRP: Validity
Construct Validity
* Extensive exploratory and conrmatory factor analysis
* 4 factor analysis: School Problems, Internalizing problems,
Personal adjustment, Inattention/hyperactivity

SRP: Validity
Factor Loadings

SRP: Validity

* Clinical and adaptive scales correlate positively within


each other and negatively between each other.
* Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity

* Intercorrelations at the child level are higher then


adolescent or college levels
* Scales are moderately correlated with each other

BASC-2: Strengths
* Broad age range
* Unique scales (attitude towards school and parent-
child relations)
* Well founded normative sample
* Generally good reliability
* Ease of administration and scoring
* Items address heterogeneity in behaviours and
symptoms

BASC-2: Strengths
* Overlapping norms allow for information from
multiple sources to be compared
* Available in English and Spanish
* Audiorecordings of questions available to
compensate for literacy issues
* Validity indexes help to reduce potentially biased
responses

BASC-2: Weaknessess
* Lack of information about the developmental history and
direct observation portions of the BASC-2
* Weaker reliability in the SRP in comparison the the TRS and
PRS
* English and Spanish versions of the BASC-2 only, in need of
other languages such as French in Canada
* Scores are not normally distributed
* Dicult to determine how accurately the clinical sample
represents the U.S. demographic
* No Canadian norms
* Norms need to be updated (10+ years old)
* Constructs are variable and prone to change need
to exercise care in diagnosis and interpretation

Conclusion
* BASC-2 has strong psychometric properties
* Well researched
* Important tool for assessing the behavioural and emotional
concerns in children and young adults
* Multimethod & Multidimensional
* Only one piece of a comprehensive assessment
* Should not use this as only tool to diagnose
* Still need to directly observe child in environment
* Limitations to external and self-report ratings of
behaviour
* Future investigations clinical importance and
relevance of BASC-S in diagnosis and classication
58

References
Frick, P. J., Barry, C. T., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2010). Clinical assessment of child and adolescent personality and
behavior. (3rd ed., p. 511). New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media. Retrieved from http://
books.google.ca/books?id=eHgvr3KZJFwC&pg=PA110&lpg=PA110&dq=BASC-2
interpretation&source=bl&ots=D1uSR2MO2-&sig=mgnKUNNiEupY8S8F74KUKn-
Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children (second edition). Mental
Measurements Yearbook, 17, Retrieved fromhttp://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/
ehost/detail?vid=3&sid=143978f4-6eab-4583-82ba-20f9163fc4e4@sessionmgr12&hid=18&bdata=
JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ
(2007). Basc-2 behavioral and emotional screening system. Mental Measurements Yearbook, 18, Retrieved from
http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/ehost/detailvid=3&sid=143978f4-6eab-4583-82ba-
20f9163fc4e4@sessionmgr12&hid=18&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ