Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

d{kk&12

fo"k; jlk;u 'kkL= vkn'kZ iz'u i= lsV A

le; 3 ?kaVs funfunfunfunsZ'ksZ'ksZ'ksZ'k %&%&%&%&

iw.kkZd % 75

11-11---

lHkhlHkhlHkhlHkh iz'uiz'uiz'uiz'u vfuok;vfuok;vfuok;vfuok;ZZZZ gSAgSAgSAgSA

22-22---

iz'uiz'uiz'uiz'u ØekØekØekØekadadadad 1111 lslslsls 4444 rdrdrdrd oLroLroLroLrqfu"Bqfu"Bqfu"Bqfu"B rFkkrFkkrFkkrFkk ,d&,d,d&,d,d&,d,d&,d vvvvadadadad okyokyokyokyssss gSgSgSgSAAAA

33-33---

iz'uiz'uiz'uiz'u ØekØekØekØekadadadad 5555 lslslsls 17171717 rdrdrdrd lHkhlHkhlHkhlHkh iz'ukiz'ukiz'ukiz'uksasasasa eeeesasasasa fodYifodYifodYifodYi dkdkdkdk izko/izko/izko/izko/kkukkukkukku ggggSASASASA

44-44---

iz'uiz'uiz'uiz'u ØØ-ØØ--- 5555 llllssss 14141414 rdrdrdrd 4444 vvvvadadadad vkSjvkSjvkSjvkSj 15151515 llllssss 17171717 ggggsrsrsrsrqqqq 5555 vvvvadadadad vkovkovkovkoafVrafVrafVrafVr ggggSASASASA

55-55---

4444 vvvvadksadksadksadks okysokysokysokys iz'uksiz'uksiz'uksiz'uksaaaa gsrgsrgsrgsrqqqq 'kCn'kCn'kCn'kCn lheklheklheklhek yxHkxyxHkxyxHkxyxHkx 75757575 ,o,o,o,oaaaa 5555 vvvvadksadksadksadks ddddssss fy;fy;fy;fy;ssss vf/kdrevf/kdrevf/kdrevf/kdre 'kCn'kCn'kCn'kCn lheklheklheklhek 100100100100 ddddssss yxHkxyxHkxyxHkxyxHkx gksuhgksuhgksuhgksuh pkfg;pkfg;pkfg;pkfg;sAsAsAsA

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. All questions are compulsory

2. From question no. 1 to 4 are objective in nature and each carry one mark.

3. There is internal choice in each question from 5 to 17.

4. 4 marks are alloted from question 5 to 14 and 5 marks alloted from 15 to 17.

5. Limit of answers for 4 marks is approxmately 75 words and for 5 marks upto 100 words.

iiiizz---1zz-111

fjDrfjDrfjDrfjDr LFkkukLFkkukLFkkukLFkkuksasasasa dhdhdhdh iiiiwfrZwfrZwfrZwfrZ dhft,dhft,dhft,dhft, &&&&

 

¼i½ fof'k"V pkydrk dh bdkbZ --------------------------- gSA

¼ii½ csUthu rFkk VkWywbZu dk feJ.k ,d ------------------------------- foy;u gSA

¼iii½

lkcquhdj.k fØ;k ------------------- dksfV dh vfHkfØ;k dk mnkgj.k gSA

¼iv½

¶yksjhu dk ijek.kq Øekad gSA

¼v½ v.kqla[;rk lnSo ---------------------------- gksrh gSA

 

Fill in the blanks :-

(i)

Unit of specific conductivity is

(ii)

The mixture of Benzene and Toluene is a

solution

(iii)

Saporication reaction is an example of

order of reaction

(iv)

The atomic number of Florine is

(v)

Molecularity is always a

iiiizz---2zz-222

,d,d,d,d okD;okD;okD;okD; eeeesasasasa mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj fy[ksfy[ksfy[ksfy[ksaAaAaAaA

 

¼i½ dksykWbMh d.kksa dh xfr dks D;k grs gSa \

¼ii½

gkbMªkstu ij vkWDlkbM dk QkWLQksfjd vEy }kjk vi?kVu dkSu ls izdkj dk mRizsjd dgykrk gSA

¼iii½

ok;qeaMy esa mifLFkr fo"kSyh xSlksa dks vf/k"kksf"kr djus ds fy;s iz;qDr midj.k dk uke fyf[k,A

¼iv½

d&Cykd ds rRo dks D;k dgrs gSaA

¼v½ iUnzgosa lewg ds rRoksaa dks D;k dgrs gSaA

Write answer in one sentene.

(i)

Moment of particles of colliodes is called?

(ii)

The decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide by Phospbhoric acid represents which kind of Catalyst?

(iii)

Write the name of device containing an Adsorbant which adsorbs poisonous gases from the atmosphere.

(iv)

d-blocks elements are called ?

(v)

Give one name to fifteenth group of elements.

iiiizz---3zz-333

iiiizR;zR;zR;zR;sdsdsdsd oLrqfu"BoLrqfu"BoLrqfu"BoLrqfu"B eeeesasasasa fn;fn;fn;fn;ssss x;x;x;x;ssss fodYiksfodYiksfodYiksfodYiksaaaa eeeesasasasa llllssss lghlghlghlgh mRrjmRrjmRmRrjrj fyf[k;fyf[k;fyf[k;fyf[k;ssss %&%&%&%&

 

Write the correct answer from the given options provided in every objective type question.

vvvv

fo|fo|fo|fo|qrqrqrqr dkdkdkdk lokloklokloksZRresZRresZRresZRre llllqpkyqpkydqpkyqpkyddd ggggSSSS

 

¼i½

ghjk

¼ii½ xzsQkbV

¼iii½ flfydkWu

¼vi½ vØ"Vyh; dkcZu

Best conductor of electricity is -

 

(i)

Diamond

(ii) Graphite

(iii) Silicon

(iv)

 

Amorphous Carbon

 

cccc

CuSO 4 . 5H 2 O dgykrkdgykrkdgykrkdgykrk ggggSSSS

 

¼i½

gjk dlhl

¼ii½ uhyk dlhl

 

¼iii½ lQsn dlhl

¼iv½ ftIle

 

CuSO 4 . 5H 2 O also known as -

 

(i)

Green Vitrol

(ii)

Blue Vitrol

(iii)

White Vitrol

(iv)

Gypsum

llll

fuEufyf[krfuEufyf[krfuEufyf[krfuEufyf[kr eeeesasasasa llllssss 8%88%88%88%8 dksvkfMZus'kudksvkfMZus'kudksvkfMZus'kudksvkfMZus'ku dkdkdkdk mnkgj.kmnkgj.kmnkgj.kmnkgj.k ggggSSSS

 

¼i½

KCl

¼ii½

CaF 2

¼iii½

C S Cl

¼iv½

Z n S

C.

Which is the example of 8:8 coordination in following

¼i½

KCl

¼ii½

CaF 2

¼iii½

C S Cl

¼iv½

Z n S

nnnn

foVkfeufoVkfeufoVkfeufoVkfeu B 12121212 eeeesasasasa /kkrq/kkrq/kkrq/kkrq mifLFkrmifLFkrmifLFkrmifLFkr ggggSSSS %&%&%&%&

 

¼i½

Mg

¼ii½

Fe

¼iii½

Co

¼iv½

Zn

D.

Metal present in Vitamin B 12 is

¼i½

Mg

¼ii½

Fe

¼iii½

Co

¼iv½

Zn

bbbb

llll==ww==ww C 3 H 9 N ddddssss llllaHkoaHkoaHkoaHko leko;ohleko;ohleko;ohleko;oh eeeesasasasa iiiizkFkfedzkFkfedzkFkfedzkFkfed ,ehu,ehu,ehu,ehu dhdhdhdh lllla[;ka[;ka[;ka[;k ggggSSSS %&%&%&%&

¼i½

1

¼ii½

2

¼iii½

3

¼iv½

Possible number of primary Amine isomers of formula C 3 H 9 N is

¼i½

1

¼ii½

2

¼iii½

3

¼iv½

4

iiiizz---4zz-444

LrEHkLrEHkLrEHkLrEHk ^v*^v*^v*^v* ddddssss fy;fy;fy;fy;ssss LLrELLrErEHkrEHkHkHk ^c*^c*^c*^c* llllssss pqudjpqudjpqudjpqudj lghlghlghlgh tksMtksMtksMtksM+h+h+h+h cukb;cukb;cukb;cukb;sAsAsAsA

 

vvvv

cccc

¼i½

,uhyhu

vk;fud fØLVy

¼ii½

nw/k

ZnS

 

¼iii½ NaCl

 

ik;l

 

¼iv½

Ýsady nks"k

C

6

H

5

N 2 Cl

¼v½ Mk;tksfu;e yo.k

C

6 H 5 NH 2

lgla;ksth fØLVy >kxkxkxkx

Make the correct pair from Column "A" choosing from Column "B"

 

A

B

¼i½

Aniline

Ionic Crystal

¼ii½ Milk

ZnS

¼iii½ NaCl

Emulsin

iiiizz---5zz-555

iiiizz---6zz-666

¼iv½ Frankel defect

¼v½ Diazonium salt

C 6 H 5 N 2 Cl

C

Covalent crystal Form

6 H 5 NH 2

vfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;k dhdhdhdh dksfVdksfVdksfVdksfV llllssss D;kD;kD;kD;k vfHkivfHkivfHkivfHkizk;zk;zk;zk; ggggSASASASA

fuEufyf[kr vfHkfØ;k dh dksfV crkb;sA

¼i½

¼ii½

H

2

+

I

2N O

2

5

2

2HI

4NO

2

+ O

2

What do you mean by order of a reaction?

Give the order of reaction of following reactions

(i)

H

2

+

I

2

2HI

(ii)

2N O

2

5

4NO

2

+ O

2

(OR)

vfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;k dhdhdhdh njnjnjnj dkdkdkdkssss izHkkforizHkkforizHkkforizHkkfor djudjudjudjussss okyokyokyokyssss fdUghfdUghfdUghfdUgh pkjpkjpkjpkj dkjdkjdkjdkjdksdksdksdksaaaa dkdkdkdkssss le>kb;le>kb;le>kb;le>kb;sAsAsAsA

Describe any four factors affecting rate of reaction

dkWijdkWijdkWijdkWij lYQlYQlYQlYQsVsVsVsV foy;ufoy;ufoy;ufoy;u dhdhdhdh fuEufuEufuEufuEu ddddssss lkFklkFklkFklkFk gkgkgkgksusususussss okyhokyhokyhokyh vfHkfØvfHkfØvfHkfØvfHkfØ;kvk;kvk;kvk;kvksasasasa ddddssss ddddsoysoysoysoy lehj.klehj.klehj.klehj.k fyf[k;fyf[k;fyf[k;fyf[k;sAsAsAsA

(i)

NaOH foy;u

(ii)

NH 4 OH

(iii)

KI foy;u

(iv)

KCN

Write the chemical equation only when CuSO 4 reacts with the following regents

iiiizz---7zz-777

iiiizz---8zz-888

(i)

NaOH Solution

(ii)

NH 4 OH

(iii)

KI Solution

(iv)

KCN

(OR)

dkWij ,oa yksgs ds nks izeq[k v;Ldksa ds uke o lw= fyf[k, \

Write the name and chemical formula of two ores of each of copper and Iron ?

vekvekvekveksfu;ksfu;ksfu;ksfu;k fuekZ.kfuekZ.kfuekZ.kfuekZ.k dhdhdhdh ggggSojSojSojSoj fof/kfof/kfof/kfof/k ddddssss lllla;a;a;a;a=a=a=a= dkdkdkdk ukekukekukekukekafdrafdrafdrafdr jjjjs[kkfp=s[kkfp=s[kkfp=s[kkfp= cukb;cukb;cukb;cukb;ssss ,oa,oa,oa,oa gkgkgkgksussussussus okyhokyhokyhokyh jklk;fudjklk;fudjklk;fudjklk;fud fØ;kfØ;kfØ;kfØ;k dhdhdhdh lehdj.klehdj.klehdj.klehdj.k nhft;nhft;nhft;nhft;sAsAsAsA

Draw a labelled diagram for the manufacture of NH 3 by Haber's process and write equation of the reaction taking place.

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok (OR)

yky QkWLQksjl rFkk lQsn QkWLQksjl ds pkj xq.kksa dh rqyuk dhft,A

Compare any four the properties of red phosphorus with white phosphorus.

fojfojfojfojatdatdatdatd pw.kZpw.kZpw.kZpw.kZ ddddssss pkjpkjpkjpkj mi;kmi;kmi;kmi;ksxsxsxsx nhft,nhft,nhft,nhft, AAAA

Give four uses of Bleaching powder

(OR)

Dyksjhu }kjk Qwyksa dk fojatu LFkkbZ gksrk gSA tcfd SO 2 }kjk Qwyksa dk fojatu vLFkkbZ gksrk gS D;ksa \

Decolorization of flowers by SO 2 is temporary while chlorine decolorize them permanent why ?

iiiizz---9zz-999

cuZjcuZjcuZjcuZj ddddssss milglmilglmilglmilgla;ka;ka;ka;ksthsthsthsth ;k;k;k;ksfxdsfxdsfxdsfxd ddddssss fl)kUrfl)kUrfl)kUrfl)kUr dhdhdhdh izeizeizeizeq[kq[kq[kq[k pkjpkjpkjpkj vfHkxzghrvfHkxzghrvfHkxzghrvfHkxzghr fyf[k,fyf[k,Afyf[k,fyf[k,AAA

Explain four main postulates of werner's theory of co-ordination compound.

 

(OR)

 

fuEu fyf[kr dks le>kb;sA

¼i½

vk;uu leko;ork

¼ii½ dkcZ/kkfRod ;kSfxdksa ds mi;ksx

Explain following

(i)

Ionization Isomerism.

(ii)

Uses of organo metallic compound.

iiiizz---10zz-101010

fuEufyf[krfuEufyf[krfuEufyf[krfuEufyf[kr jklk;jklk;fjklk;jklk;ffufuududdd vfHkfvfHkfØ;kvksvfHkfvfHkfØ;kvksØ;kvksØ;kvksaaaa ddddssss fy,fy,fy,fy, ddddsoysoysoysoy llehdj.kllehdj.kehdj.kehdj.k fy[kkfy[kkfy[kkfy[kksaAsaAsaAsaA

¼i½

ls.M es;j vfHkfØ;kA

¼ii½

gqUlMhdj vfHkfØ;kA

¼iii½

dkfcZy ,ehu vfHkfØ;kA

¼iv½

oqVZt vfHkfØ;kA

Write only the equation for following chemical reaction.

(i)

Sand Meyer reaction

(ii)

Hunsdicker reaction

(iii)

Carbyl amine reaction

(iv)

Wurtz reaction

D;k gksrk gS tc &

(OR)

¼i½

,fFky czksekbM dks ,Ydksgyh flYoj ukbVªkbV foy;u ds lkFk fØ;k djrk gSA

¼ii½

CHCl 3 dh fØ;k HNO 3 ds lkFk gksrh gSA

¼iii½

CHCl 3 dks lw;Z izdk'k vksj ue gok esa [kqyk NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA

¼iv½

CHCl 3 dks Ag pw.kZ ds lkFk xeZ djrs gSaA

What happens when -

 

(i)

Ethyl bromide reacts with silver nitrite in presence of alcohol

(ii)

CHCl 3 react with HNO 3

(iii)

CHCl 3 exposed in moist air and sunlight.

(iv)

CHCl 3 heated with Ag powder.

iiiizz---11zz-111111

¼i½

fQukWy ,oa ,Ydksgy esa foHksn dhft, ¼dksbZ pkj½

 

vFkok

 

¼ii½

bZFkj dh iz;ksx 'kkyk fof/k dk dsoy ukekafdr fp= cukdj vfHkfØ;k fyf[k,A

(i)

Differentiate phenol and alcohol (Any four)?

 

OR

 

(ii)

Draw labelled diagram of Lab. method of ether and write chemical reaction only.

iiiizz---12zz-121212

QkeQkeQkeQkesZfYMgkbMsZfYMgkbMsZfYMgkbMsZfYMgkbM ddddssss pkjpkjpkjpkj mi;kmi;kmi;kmi;ksxsxsxsx fyf[k;fyf[k;fyf[k;fyf[k;sAsAsAsA

Write four uses of formadehyde.

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok ¼¼¼¼OR½½½½ fuEufyf[krfuEufyf[krfuEufyf[krfuEufyf[kr jklk;fudjklk;fudjklk;fudjklk;fud fØ;kvkfØ;kvkfØ;kvkfØ;kvksasasasa dsdsdsds dsoydsoydsoydsoy lehdj.klehdj.klehdj.klehdj.k fyf[k;fyf[k;fyf[k;fyf[k;sAsAsAsA

Write followwing reactions (only equation)

iiiizz---13zz-131313

iiiizz---14zz-141414

¼i½

ifdZu vfHkfØ;kA

¼ii½

jkstueqaM vfHkfØ;kA

(i)

Parkin's reaction

(ii)

Rojanmund reaction

dkcksdkcksdkcksdkcksZgkbMªZgkbMªZgkbMªZgkbMªsVsVsVsV D;kD;kD;kD;k gkgkgkgksrssrssrssrs ggggSSaaSSaa \\\\ budbudbudbudssss dksbdksbdksbdksbZZZZ nksnksnksnks dk;dk;dk;dk;ZZZZ crkb;crkb;crkb;crkb;sAsAsAsA

What are carbohydrates ? Give their any two functions

(OR)

foVkfeu D;k gksrs gSaA foVkfeu A, C dh deh ls gksus okys jksx crkb;sA

What are vitamins ? Mention diseases caused by deficiency of vitamin A, C.

fuEufuEufuEufuEu ijijijij lllla{ksia{ksia{ksia{ksi eeeesasasasa fVIi.khfVIi.khfVIi.khfVIi.kh fyf[k,fyf[k,fyf[k,fyf[k,

¼i½

vkpk;Z pjd

¼ii½

viektZd

Write the short notes on the following

(i)

Acharya Charak

(ii)

Detergent

fuEu ij fVIi.kh fyf[k,A

¼i½

vQhe

¼ii½

(OR)

d`f=e e/kqdkjd

Write the short notes on the following

(i) Opium

(ii)

Artificial sweeteners

iiiizz---15zz-151515

llllaØe.kaØe.kaØe.kaØe.k /kkrqvks/kkrqvks/kkrqvks/kkrqvksaaaa eeeesasasasa lllladadadadqyqyqyqy ;k;k;k;kSfxdSfxdSfxdSfxd cukucukucukucukussss dhdhdhdh izoizoizoizo`fRr`fRr`fRr`fRr gkgkgkgksrhsrhsrhsrh ggggSSSS D;kD;kD;kD;ksasasasa \\\\

¼i½

ik;jks Y;wlkbV v;Ld ds iksVsf'k;e ijesxusV cukus dh fof/k dks lehdj.k lfgr nhft,A

(i)

Transition metals have tendency to form complex compound why ?

(ii)

Give the method for the preparation of pottassium permaganate with equation from pyrolusite are

 

(OR)

ySUFksukbM ,oa ,fDVukbV dh 5 fcUnqvksa esa rqyuk dhft,A

Compare any 5 points betwen lanthanides and actinides

iiiizz---16zz-161616

jkmYVjkmYVjkmYVjkmYV ddddssss fu;efu;efu;efu;e dhdhdhdh O;k[;kO;k[;kO;k[;kO;k[;k dhft,dhft,dhft,dhft, rFkkrFkkrFkkrFkk bldhbldhbldhbldh lhek,lhek,lhek,lhek,sasasasa fyffyffyfyff[k,A[k,A[k,A[k,A

Define rault's law and state it limitations.

 

(OR)

(i)

ijklj.k fdls dgrs gSaA ijklj.k ,oa ijklj.k nkc dks le>kb;sA

Explain Osmosis and Osmotic pressure ?

(ii)

Xywdksl ds ml foy;u dh lkUnzrk Kkr djks tks 6-0 xzke izfr yhVj ;wfj;k foy;u ds leijkljh gSA ¼Xywdksl dk v.kq Hkkj ¾ 180 rFkk ;wfj;k dk v.kq Hkkj ¾ 60½

Find the concentration of glucose solution which is isotonic of 6.0 = gm/ltr. Urea solution (Molecular weight of glucose is = 180 and molecular weight of Urea is = 60.)

iiiizz---17zz-171717 11-11--- dkdkdkdksyjk'ksyjk'ksyjk'ksyjk'k dkdkdkdk fu;efu;efu;efu;e D;kD;kD;kD;k ggggSSSS \\\\ bldbldbldbldssss vuqivuqivuqivuqizz;k;k;kzz;ksxsxsxsx crkb;crkb;crkb;crkb;sAsAsAsA

What is Kohlrausch's law ? give applications of Kohlrausch's law

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok (OR)

22-22--- lllla{kkj.ka{kkj.ka{kkj.ka{kkj.k D;kD;kD;kD;k gSgSgSgS \\\\ lllla{kkj.ka{kkj.ka{kkj.ka{kkj.k dhdhdhdh fo|fo|fo|fo|qrqrqrqr jklk;fudjklk;fudjklk;fudjklk;fud fØ;kfØ;kfØ;kfØ;k dkdkdkdkssss le>kb;le>kb;le>kb;le>kb;sAsAsAsA

What is corrosion ? Describe electrochemical theory of corrosion.

¼d{kk¼d{kk¼d{kk¼d{kk XII½½½½ jlk;ujlk;ujlk;ujlk;u 'kkL='kkL='kkL='kkL= vkn'kvkn'kvkn'kvkn'kZZZZ mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj llllsV&sV&sV&sV&A

iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u 1111 fjDrfjDrfjDrfjDr LFkkukLFkkukLFkkukLFkkuksasasasa dhdhdhdh iiiiwfrZwfrZwfrZwfrZ ¼v½ vkse&1 lseh & 1 ¼c½ vkn'kZ foy;u ¼n½ f}rh; dksfV ¼b½ 9 ¼b½ iw.kkZad

[ukukukuksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& iiiizR;zR;zR;zR;sdsdsdsd lghlghlghlgh mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 1$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$1 vvvvadadadad feyfeyfeyfeysaxsaxssaxaxsAsAsAsA ] iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u 2222 ,d,d,d,d okD;okD;okD;okD; eeeesasasasa mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj ¼1½ czkmuh xfr dgrs gSA

¼2½

¼3½ midj.k dk uke xSl ekLd gSA

¼4½ laØe.k rRo dgrs gSA ¼5½ fudkstu dgrs gSA

kkRed

mRizsjd dgrs gSA

[ukukukuksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& iiiizR;zR;zR;zR;sdsdsdsd lghlghlghlgh mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 1$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$1 vvvvadadadad feyfeyfeyfeysaxsaxsaxsaxsAsAsAsA ] iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u 3333 ¼v½ xzsQkbV ¼c½ uhyk dlhl ¼l½ ¼n½ Co

CsCl

¼b½

2

[ukukukuksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& iiiizR;zR;zR;zR;sdsdsdsd lghlghlghlgh mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 1$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$1 vvvvadadadad feyfeyfeyfeysaxsaxssaxaxsAsAsAsA ]

iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u 4444 ¼v½

C 6 H 5 NH 2

¼c½ ik;l

¼l½ vk;fud fØLVy ¼n½ ZnS

¼b½

C 6 H 5 N 2 Cl

[ukukukuksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& iiiizR;zR;zR;zR;sdsdsdsd lghlghlghlgh mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj ffy[kuffy[kuy[kuy[kussss ijijijij 1$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$11$1$1$1$1 vvvvadadadad feyfeyfeyfeysaxsaxsaxsaxsAsAsAsA ]

iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u 5555 ¼¼¼¼i½½½½ vfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;k dhdhdhdh dkdkdkdksfVsfVsfVsfV %&%&%&%& jklk;fudjklk;fudjklk;fudjklk;fud vfHkfØ;kdvfHkfØ;kdvfHkfØ;kdvfHkfØ;kdssss oooosxsxsxsx dkdkdkdkssss iiiizzHkkforHkkforzzHkkforHkkfor djudjudjudjussss okyokyokyokyssss fØ;kdkjdkfØ;kdkjdkfØ;kdkjdkfØ;kdkjdksasasasa dhdhdhdh lklklklkaUnzrkaUnzrkaUnzrkaUnzrk ddddssss ?kkrk?kkrk?kkrk?kkrkadkadkadkadkssss ddddssss ;k;k;k;ksxsxsxsx ddddsksksksk vfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;kvfHkfØ;k dhdhdhdh dkdkdkdksfVsfVsfVsfV dgrsdgrsdgrsdgrs gSgSgSgS &&&&

¼1½ ¼ii½ H 2 $ I 2

2H1

f}rh; dksfV dh vfHkfØ;k

¼2½

2N 2 O 5

$

4NO 2 $02

izFke dksfV dh vfHkfØ;k

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 1111 ,o,o,o,oaaaa 2222 lghlghlghlgh fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 2$22$22$22$2 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaAsaAsaAsaA ½½½½

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

vfHkfØ;k dh nj dks izHkkfor djus okys izeq[k dkjd fuEukuqlkj gS &

¼¼¼¼i½½½½

vfHkdkjdkvfHkdkjdkvfHkdkjdkvfHkdkjdksasasasa dhdhdhdh lkUnzrklkUnzrklkUnzrklkUnzrk %&%&%&%& vfHkdkjd dh lkUnzrk c<kus ij vfHkfØ;k dh nj esa o`f} gks tkrh gS

¼¼¼¼ii½½½½

fudk;fudk;fudk;fudk; dkdkdkdk rkirkirkirki %&%&%&%& fuf'pr lkaUnzrk ij rki c<+kus ls vfHkfØ;k dk osx c<+rk gSA izfr 10 0 C rki c<+kus ij osx nks xquk ;k frxquk gks tkrk gSA

¼¼¼¼iii½½½½

vfHkdkjdkvfHkdkjdkvfHkdkjdkvfHkdkjdksasasasa dhdhdhdh iiiizd`frzd`frzd`frzd`fr %&%&%&%& ftu vfHkdkjdksa esa mifLFkr cU/k ljyrk ls VwVrs gS mudh vfHkfØ;k,¡ rhoz osx ls gksrh gSA

¼¼¼¼iv½½½½

mRimRimRimRizsjdzsjdzsjdzsjd dhdhdhdh mifLFkfrmifLFkfrmifLFkfrmifLFkfr %&%&%&%& mRizsjd lfØ;.k ÅtkZ dk eku de dj nsrk

gS ftlls lfØ; v.kqvksa dk va'k c<+ tkrk gSA vkSj vfHkfØ;k dk osx c<+ tkrk gSA ¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 4444 dkjddkjddkjddkjd fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 4444 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsaAsaAsaAsaA ½½½½

iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u 6666 mmRrjmmRrjRrjRrj ¼¼¼¼i½½½½ dkijdkijdkijdkij lYQlYQlYQlYQsVsVsVsV foy;ufoy;ufoy;ufoy;u eeeesasasasa NaOH foy;ufoy;ufoy;ufoy;u feykusfeykusfeykusfeykus ijijijij &&&&

(i)

CuSO 4 +2Na0H

Cu (OH) 2 + Na 2 SO 4

(ii)

CuSO 4 +4NH 4 OH

[Cu (NH 3 ) 4 ] SO4 + 4H 2 O

(iii)

CuSO 4 +2KI

K 2 SO 4 + Cu1 2

2C u I 2

Cu 2 I 2

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& lghlghlghlgh lehjd.klehjd.klehjd.klehjd.k fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 1$1$1$11$1$1$11$1$1$11$1$1$1 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaAsaA½saAsaA½½½

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

dkWijdkWijdkWijdkWij ddddssss v;Ldkv;Ldkv;Ldkv;Ldksasasasa ddddssss ukeukeukeuke ,o,o,o,oaaaa llllw=w=w=w=

¼i½ D;wizkbV ;k :ch dkWij Cu 2 O

¼ii½ dkij ik;jkbVht C u FeS 2

¼iii½ esysdkbV Cu CO 3 Cu (OH) 2

ykykykyksgssgssgssgs dsdsdsds iiiizeq[kzeq[kzeq[kzeq[k v;Ldkv;Ldkv;Ldkv;Ldksasasasa ddddssss ukeukeukeuke ,o,o,o,oaaaa llllw=w=w=w=

¼i½ gsesVkbV Fe 2 0 3 vkDlkbM v;Ld

¼ii½ flMsjkbM FeCO 3 dkcksZusV v;Ld

¼iii½ vk;ju ik;jkbVht FeS 2 lYQkbM v;Ld

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& nknknknks&nks&nks&nks&nkssss v;Ldv;Ldv;Ldv;Ld fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2$22$22$22$2 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxssaAaA½saAaAs ½½½ budsbudsbudsbuds vfrfjDrvfrfjDrvfrfjDrvfrfjDr dkdkdkdksbsbsbsbZZZZ vU;vU;vU;vU; v;Ldv;Ldv;Ldv;Ld HkhHkhHkhHkh fy[kfy[kfy[kfy[kssss tktktktk ldrsldrsldrsldrs ggggSSaAaASSaAaA

iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u 7777 fp=fp=fp=fp=

iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u 7777 fp=fp=fp=fp= ggggsojsojsojsoj fof/kfof/kfof/kfof/k ddddssss

ggggsojsojsojsoj fof/kfof/kfof/kfof/k ddddssss }kjk}kjk}kjk}kjk vekvekvekveksfu;ksfu;ksfu;ksfu;k dkdkdkdk fuekfuekfuekfuekZ.kZ.kZ.kZ.k

vfHkfØ;k ds lehdj.k

N

2

+

3H

2

Fe

+

Mo

200 Al

2NH

3

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 2222 vvvvadadadad fp=fp=fp=fp= oooo 2222 vvvvadadadad lehdj.klehdj.klehdj.klehdj.k fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaaAsaaA½saaAsaaA½½½

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

ØØØØ

xxxxq.kq.kq.kq.k

ykyykyykyyky QkLQkQkLQkQkLQkQkLQksjlsjlsjlsjl

lQlQlQlQsnsnsnsn QkLQkQkLQkQkLQkQkLQksjlsjlsjlsjl

01

xa/k

xa/kghu

yglqu ds leku xa/k

02

CS 2 esa

vfoys;

iw.kZr% foys; gSA

03

ok;q esa

dksbZ fØ;k ugha gksrh

va/ksjs esa pedrk gSA

04

fØ;k'khyrk

de fØ;k'khy

vf/kd fØ;k'khy

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 4444 xxxxq.kkq.kkq.kkq.kksasasasa ijijijij 4444 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaA½saA½saA½saA½ bldsbldsbldsblds vfrvfrvfrvfrfjDrfjDrfjDrfjDr HkhHkhHkhHkh vU;vU;vU;vU; vUrjvUrjvUrjvUrj fy[kfy[kfy[kfy[kssss tktktktk ldrsldrsldrsldrs ggggSSaAaASSaAaA

mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj 8888 fojfojfojfojatdatdatdatd ppppw.kZw.kZw.kZw.kZ ddddssss pkjpkjpkjpkj mi;kmi;kmi;kmi;ksxsxsxsx %&%&%&%&

1-

;g eq[; :i ls :bZ] lu o ydM+h ds iYi ds fojatd esa mi;ksx gksrk gSA

2-

;g ihus ds ikuh ds 'kqf)dj.k esa mi;ksx gksrk gSA

3-

DyksjksQkeZ ds fuekZ.k esa

4-

iz;ksx'kkyk esa vkWDlh dkjd dh rjg

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 4444 mi;kmi;kmi;kmi;ksxsxsxsx fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 4444 vvvvadadadad iiiizkzkIrzkzkIrIrIr gkgkgkgkssaxssaxssaxssaxsaAsaA½saAsaA½½½

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

mRRj %& Dyksjhu }kjk Qwyksa dk foajtu vkDlhdj.k fØ;k }kjk gksrk gSA

Cl

2

+ H

2

0

2

HCl +

[0]

uotkr vkDlhtu

jaxhu Qwy $ [0] jaxghu Qwy

SO 2 ds }kjk Qwyksa dk fojatu vip;u }kjk gksrk gSA

SO

2

+ H

2

O

[

2 H

]

+ SO

3

uotkr gkbMªkstu

jaxhu Qwy $ [H ] jaxghu Qwy

pwfda vipf;r jaxghu Qwy ok;q dh vkDlhtu ds }kjk iqu% vkDlhd`r gksdj jaxhu gks tkrs gSA blh fy;s SO 2 dk fojatu vLFkk;h gksrk gSA

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& lghlghlghlgh dkj.kdkj.kdkj.kdkj.k lfgrlfgrlfgrlfgr fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 2$22$22$22$2 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksasxsasxsasxsasxsAsA½sAsA½½½

m&9m&9m&9m&9 %&%&milg%&%&

la;ksth ;ksfxdks esa vkoU/ku dh O;k[;k djus ds fy, lu~ 1893

esa ouZj us ,d fl)kUr izLrqr fd;k ftls ouZj leao; fl)kUr dgrs

gS bldh izeq[k vfHkxzghrsa fuEu fyf[kr gSA

1-

milg la;ksth ;kSfxdks esa /kkrq,sa] fo'ks"kr% laØe.k /kkrq nks izdkj dh la;kstdrk,as iznf'kZr djrh gSA

¼A½ izkFkfed la;kstdrk

¼B½ f}rh; la;kstdrk

2-

izkFkfed la;kstdrk,sa lkekU; :i ls vk;fud izdkj dh gksrh gSA rFkk

kk;uksa

}kjk larq"V gksrh gSA

3-

f}rh;d la;kstdrk,sa vu&vk;fud gksrh gS tks mnklhu v.kqvksa ;k

kk;uksa

}kjk larq"V gksrh gSA

4-

izR;sd /kkrq ijek.kw dh f}rh;d la;kstdrkvksa dh la[;k fuf'pr gksrh gSA

5-

dsUnzh; /kkrq ls f}rh;d la;kstdrk ls vkcaf/kr vk;u ;k lewg fofHkUu milg la;kstdrk la[;k ds vuq:i f}dLFkku esa fof'k"V :i lsa O;ofLFkr jgrs gSA

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& dkdkdkdksbsbsbsbZZZZ 4444 vfHkxvfHkxvfHkxvfHkx`ghr`ghr`ghr`ghr fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 4444 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaAsaA½saAsaA½½½

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

11-11--- vk;uuvk;uuvk;uuvk;uu leko;okrkleko;okrkleko;okrkleko;okrk %&%&%&%& os ;kSfxd ftuds v.kqlw= leku gksrs gS fdUrq foy;u esa vk;uu ij fHkUu&fHkUu vk;u nsrs gS vk;uu leko;oh dgykrs gSA mnkgj.kk;Z &

[

CO NH

(

3

)

5

]

Br SO

4

xgjk cSaxuh& ;g fo;yu esa SO 4 &2 vk;u nsrk gSA

[Co(NH ) SO ]Br

3

5

4

yky & ;g foy;u esa Br & vk;u nsrk gSA

22-22---

dkcdkcdkcdkcZ/kkfRodZ/kkfRodZ/kkfRodZ/kkfRod ;kSfxdk;kSfxdk;kSfxdk;kSfxdkssss dsdsdsds egRoiegRoiegRoiegRoiw.kZw.kZw.kZw.kZ mi;kmi;kmi;kmi;ksxsxsxsx fuEufuEufuEufuEu fyf[kfyf[kfyf[fyf[kkrrrr gSAgSAgSAgSA

11-11---

mRimRimRimRizsjdzsjdzsjdzsjd dsdsdsds :i:i:i:i eeeesasasasa %&%&%&%& dqN dkcZ/kkfRod ;ksfxdks dk mi;ksx mRiszjd ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gS tSls ftxyj ukVk dk mi;ksx ,sydhuks ds cgqyhdj.k esa fd;k tkrk gSA

22-22---

dkcdkcdkcdkcZfudZfudZfudZfud lllla'ya'ya'ya'ys"k.ks"k.ks"k.ks"k.k eeeesasasasa %&%&%&%& dkcZ & yhfFk;e dk mi;ksx ,ydksgy] dhVksu vkfn ds la'ys"k.k esa fd;k tkrk gSA

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& lghlghlghlgh mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2$22$22$22$2 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsAsA½sAsA½½½

mRrj 10 ¼i½ ls.Mes;j vfHkfØ;k %&

C H N Cl

6

5

2

CuCl

/

HCl

cUthucUthucUthucUthu MMk;ktkMMk;ktkk;ktkk;ktksfu;esfu;esfu;esfu;e DykDykDykDyksjkbMsjkbMsjkbMsjkbM

¼ii½ gqUlMhdj vfHkfØ;k %&

C H COOAg

6

5

+

Br

2

CCl 4

flYojflYojflYojflYoj ooooSUtkSUtkSUtkSUtks,Vs,Vs,Vs,V

C

6

H

5

Cl + N

2

DykDykDykDyksjksjksjksjkssss ooooSthuSthuSthuSthu

C H Br

6

5

+

czkczkczkczkseksekseksekssss ooooSthuSthuSthuSthu

AgBr

+

¼iii½ dkfcZy vehu vfHkfØ;k %&

CO

2

C

6

H NH + CHCl + 3 KOH

5

2

3

,uhyh,uhyhu,uhyh,uhyhuuu

¼iv½ oqVZt vfHkfØ;k

CH Br

3

+

2

N

a

+

BrCH

3

C H NC

6

5

+3

KCl

+3

H O

2

QQQQsfuysfuysfuysfuy vblkvblkvblkvblkssss lkbukbMlkbukbMlkbukbMlkbukbM ¼dkfcZy¼dkfcZy¼dkfcZy¼dkfcZy vehu½vehu½vehu½vehu½

CH

3

CH

3

+

2

N Br

a

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 4444 fØ;k,fØ;k,fØ;k,fØ;k,sasasasa lehdj.klehdj.klehdj.klehdj.k lfgrlfgrlfgrlfgr fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 4444 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxssaAaA½ssaAaA½½½

¼i½

¼¼¼¼ii½½½½

D;kD;kD;kD;k gkgkgkgksrksrksrksrk gSgSgSgSaaaa tcfdtcfdtcfdtcfd

C 2 H 5 Br++++++++AgNO 2

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

C 2 H 5 NO 2 +AgBr

CHCl

3

+

HNO

3

(

C NO

2

)

Cl

3

+

H O

2

¼¼¼¼iii½½½½

¼¼¼¼iv½½½½

2222CHCl 3 +O 2 2CHCl 6 Ag 3 +
2222CHCl 3 +O 2
2CHCl
6 Ag
3 +

2COCl 2 +HCl dkcksdkcksdkcksdkcksZfuyZfuyZfuyZfuy dyksjkbMdyksjkbMdyksjkbMdyksjkbM ¼QkLthu½¼QkLthu½¼QkLthu½¼QkLthu½

CH

CH

¼,flVyhu½¼,flVyhu½¼,flVyhu½¼,flVyhu½

+

6 AgCl

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 4444 fØ;k,fØ;k,fØ;k,fØ;k,sasasasa lehdj.klehdj.klehdj.klehdj.k lfgrlfgrlfgrlfgr fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 4444 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsaAsaA½ssaAaA½½½

mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj 11111111

xxxxq.kq.kq.kq.k

QhukyQhukyQhukyQhuky

vYdkvYdkvYdkvYdksgysgysgysgy

¼1½ izdkj

&OH lewg oSathu ukfHkd ds vlar`Ir dkcZu ls tqM+k gksrk gSA

&OH lewg ,Ydsu ds lar`Ir dkcZu ls tqM+k gksrk gSA

¼2½ izd`fr

uhys fyVel isij dks yky esa cny nsrk gs vr% ;g vEyh; izd`fr dk gSA

fyVel ds izfrmnklhu gksrk gSA

¼3½ FeCl 3 ls fØ;k

gsDlkQhukDlh vk;ju dk oSaxuh jax nsrk gSA

dksbZ fØ;k ugha gksrh A

¼4½ PCl 5 ls fØ;k

vfUre mRikn ds :i esa VªkbZ Qsfuy QkLQsV curk gSA

,fYdy DyksjkbM curk gSA

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 4444 vvvvarjarjarjarj fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 4444 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsaAsaA½saAsaA½½½

¼ii½

bZFkj cukus dh iz;ksx'kkyk fof/k %&

iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsaAsaA½saAsaA½½½ ¼ ii ½ bZFkj cukus dh iz;ksx'kkyk fof/k %&

C H OH

2

5

+

C H HSO

2

5

4

H SO

2

4

100

+

C H OH

2

5

C

140

C H HSO

2

5

C

(

C H

2

5

4

)

+

2

0

H

+

2

O

H SO

2

4

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 2222 vvvvadadadad fp=fp=fp=fp= oooo 2222 vvvvadadadad lehdj.klehdj.klehdj.klehdj.k fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsAsAsAsA ½½½½

mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj &&&& 12121212 QkeQkeQkeQkesZfYMgkjMsZfYMgkjMsZfYMgkjMsZfYMgkjM ddddssss mi;kmi;kmi;kmi;ksxsxsxsx %&%&%&%&

¼i½ jksxk.kw uk'kd o izfrjks/kd ds :i esa

¼ii½ peZ m|ksx esa peZ'kks/kd ds :i esa

¼iii½ fQuksy ds lkFk cgqyhdj.k }kjk izkIr cSdsykbV uked cgqydl dks cukus esa ftldk mi;ksx fo|qr fLop cukus esa fd;k tkrk gSA

¼iv½ QkesZyhu tks QkeZfYMgkbM dk 40 izfr'kr tyh; foy;u gS tks tSo inkFkksZ ds laj{k.k esa iz;ksx gksrk gSA

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 4444 mi;kmi;kmi;kmi;ksxsxsxsx nsusnsusnsusnsus ijijijij 4444 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaAsaA½saAsaA½½½

ifdZu vfHkfØ;k %&

C H CHO

6

5

+

(CH CO) O

3

2

CH COONa

3

jkstueqaM vfHkfØ;k &

CH COCl

3

+

H

2

Pd

BaSO 4

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

C H CH

6

5

=

CH

CH CHO

3

+

HCl

COOH

+

CH COOH

3

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& nknknknkssss fØ;k;fØ;k;fØ;k;fØ;k;sasasasa fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2$22$22$22$2 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsAsAssAA ½½½½

mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj &&&& 13131313 ikWyh gkbMªksDlh ,YMhgkbM] ikWyh gkbMªkWDlh dhVksu vkSj ,sls o`gn cgqydh; v.kq tks ty vi?kVu ij ikWyh gkbMªkWDlh ,YMhgkbM ;k ikWyh gkbMªksDlh dhVksu nsrs gSa dkcksZgkbMªsV dgykrs gSaA mnkgj.k %& Xywdkst ¼C 6 H 12 O 6 ½ QzDVksl] LVkpZ vkfn ¼1½ ÅtkZ ds L=ksr ds :i esa Xywdksl ean xfr ls vkWDlhd`r gksdj thoksa ds fy;s fofHkUu tSfod dk;Z laiUu djus ds fy;s ÅtkZ miyC/k djkrk gSA

C

6

H

12

O

6

+

6

O

2

6

CO +

2

6

H

2

O +

ÅtkZ

¼2½¼2½¼2½¼2½

¼3½¼3½¼3½¼3½

¼4½¼4½¼4½¼4½

ikSyhlsdkjkbM igys ty vi?kVu ds }kjk Xywdkst mRiUu djrk gs tks fQj vkWDlhd`r gksdj ÅtkZ nsrk gSA ÅtkZÅtkZÅtkZÅtkZ dkdkdkdk HkHkHkHkaMkj.kaMkj.kaMkj.kaMkj.k %&%&%&%& ekuo 'kjhj esa dkcksZgkbMªsV XykbZdkstu ds :i esa ÅtkZ lafpr j[krk gSA chekjh ;k miokl vkfn esa Xykbdkstu Xywdkst esa ifjofrZr gksdj ÅtkZ miyC/k djkrk gSA llllajpukajpukajpukajpuk dkdkdkdk vk/kkjvk/kkjvk/kkjvk/kkj &&&& dkcksZgkbMªsV ¼lsywdkst½ isM+] ikS/kks dks vk/kkj miyC/k djkrk gSA isM+ ikS/kks dh dksf'kdk fHkfRr lsywykst dh cuh gksrh gSA vkgkjvkgkjvkgkjvkgkj &&&& dqN dkcksZgkbMªsV tSls Xywdkst o LVkpZ Hkkstu ds :i esa dk;Z djrs gS ikpu fØ;k ds nkSjku ;s varr% Xywdkst esa ifjofrZr gksrs gSA ;g Xywdkst 'olu ds nkSjku vkWDlhd`r gskdj 'kjhj ds fy;s vko';d ÅtkZ iznku djrk gSA

esa ifjofrZr gksrs gSA ;g Xywdkst 'olu ds nkSjku vkWDlhd`r gskdj 'kjhj ds fy;s vko';d ÅtkZ
esa ifjofrZr gksrs gSA ;g Xywdkst 'olu ds nkSjku vkWDlhd`r gskdj 'kjhj ds fy;s vko';d ÅtkZ

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& ifjHkk"kkifjHkk"kkifjHkk"kkifjHkk"kk fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2222 vvvvadadadad oooo dk;Zdk;Zdk;Zdk;Z fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2222 vvvvadadadad iiiizzkIrkIrzzkIrkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsA½sAsAsA½½½ vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok foVkfeu&HkkfoVkfeu&HkkfoVkfeu&HkkfoVkfeu&Hkkstustustustu eeeesasasasa llllw{ew{ew{ew{e ek=kek=kek=kek=k eeeesasasasa vko';dvko';dvko';dvko';d oooossss dkcdkcdkcdkcZfudZfudZfudZfud inkFkZinkFkZinkFkZinkFkZ tktktktkssss ddddqNqNqNqN 'kjhj'kjhj'kjhj'kjhj fØ;kvkfØ;kvkfØ;kvkfØ;kvksasasasa dkdkdkdkssss fu;fu;fu;fu;af=raf=raf=raf=r djrsdjrsdjrsdjrs gSgSgSgSaaaa ,o,o,o,oaaaa 'kjhj'kjhj'kjhj'kjhj dkdkdkdkssss LLLLoLF;oLF;oLF;oLF; j[kusj[kusj[kusj[kus dsdsdsds fy;fy;fy;fy;ssss fuf'prfuf'prfuf'prfuf'pr chekfj;kchekfj;kchekfj;kchekfj;ksasasasa llllssss j[kkj[kkj[kkj[kk djrsdjrsdjrsdjrs gSgSgSgSaAaAaAaA foVkfeufoVkfeufoVkfeufoVkfeu A&&&& jrkSjrkSjrkSjrkSanhanhanhanh foVkfeufoVkfeufoVkfeufoVkfeu C&&&& LdohZLdohZLdohZLdohZ

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&ifjHkk"kk%&%&ifjHkk"kkifjHkk"kkifjHkk"kk fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2222 vvvvadadadad ,o,o,o,oaaaa iiiizR;zR;zR;zR;sdsdsdsd dhdhdhdh dehdehdehdeh llllssss gkgkgkgksusususussss okyokyokyokyssss jkjkjkjksxksxksxksxksasasasa ddddssss ukeukeukeuke fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 1$11$11$11$1 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsAsA½sAsA½½½ mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj &&&& 14141414

¼¼¼¼i½½½½ vkpk;Zvkpk;Zvkpk;Zvkpk;Z pjdpjdpjdpjd %&%&%&%& ;s fpfdRlk'kkL= ds firk dgs tkrs gS buds }kjk jfpr pjd lafgrk vk;qosZn dk fo'odks"k ekuk tkrk gSA tc ;wjksi esa fofHkUu fl)kaUrksa ds dkj.k 'kjhj jpuk foKkuh Hkzfer Fks rc ije fo)ku vkpk;Z pjd us 'kjhj lajpuk Hkzw.k] fuekZ.k o fodkl] Hkst"k~ foKku jDr lapkj vkfn ds fo"k; esa foLrkj ls Bksl tkudkjh izLrqr dh A blds vfrfjdr e/kqesg {k;jksx] g`n; lEca/kuh chekfj;kas dk funku o mipkj izLrqr fd;kA pjd lafgrk esa ,d yk[k tM+h&cwfV;ksa dh xq.koRrk ,oa dk;Z iz.kkyh nh gSA

¼¼¼¼ii½½½½ viektviektviektviektZdZdZdZd %&%&%&%& viektZd os jkl;kfud inkFkZ gS] tks /kwy xzhl ;k rSyh; inkFkksZ dks gVkdj oL= vkfn dks lkQ dj nsrs gS bles lkcqu

tSlk xq.k gksrk gSA buij dBksj ty dk izHkko ugha iM+rk gSA tSls& lksfM;e MksMsfly cSthu lYQksusV vkfn A

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& ¼¼¼¼i½½½½ oooo ¼¼¼¼ii½½½½ fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2$22$22$22$2 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaAsaA½saAsaA½½½

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

¼¼¼¼i½½½½

vQhevQhevQhevQhe %&%&%&%& ;g ySVsDl gksrk gS blesa 25 ,YdsykWWbM gksrs gSA tSltSltSltSls%&s%&s%&s%& ekQhZu] dksMhu] ukdksZVhu] gsjksbu vkfnA ;g nnZ fuokjd o uhan ds fy;s mi;ksxh gSA

¼¼¼¼ii½½½½

d`f=ed`f=ed`f=ed`f=e e/kqdkjde/kqdkjde/kqdkjde/kqdkjd %&%&%&%& og jkl;fud inkFkZ tks [kk| inkFkksZ esa feBkl mRiUu djus ds fy;s iz;qDr fd;s tkrs gSA d`f=e e/kqdkjd dgykrs gS tks fuEu gS &

1-

lSdsfju

mi;kmi;kmi;kmi;ksxsxsxsx

2-+

,fyVse

3-

lqØkst

¼i½

¼ii½ e/kqesg jksx ls ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa ds fy;sA

BaMs is; inkFkksZ esa feBkl iSnk djus ds fy, A

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& iiiizR;zR;zR;zR;sdsdsdsd ddddssss lghlghlghlgh mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 2$22$22$22$2 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsasa½½½sasa½

iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u &&&& 15151515

¼i½

laØe.k /kkrqvksa esa ;g xq.k ik;k tkrk gS ¼ladqy ;kSfxd cukuk½ leUo; cU/k bysDVªku ;qXe ds vknku&iznku ds dkj.k curk gSA laØe.k /kkrq vk;u bysDVªku ;qXe xzkgh dk dk;Z djrs gSA ,oa NH 3 ,H 2 O, C1, F, CN, etc fyxS.M ds :i esa dk;Z djrk gsA tks bysDVªku ;qXe dks nku djrs gS vkSj mi lg la;kstd cU/k dk fuekZ.k djrs gSA ladqy ;kSfxd cukus dh izo`fr dk dkj.k&

¼A½

budk ¼n-1½d vkfcZVy fjDr jgrk gSA

¼B½

bu ij mPp ukfHkdh; vkos'k gksrk gSA

¼ii½

ik;jksyqlkbV ¼MnO 2 ½ dks ok;qea.Myh; vkDlhtu ¼ok;q½ esa OH ds lkFk xje djus ij K 2 MnO4 ¼gjs jax dk inkFkZ½ curk gSA

MnO

2

+ 4

KOH

+

O

2

heat

2

K Mn

2

0

4

+ 2

H O

2

gjsa inkFkZ dks ty ds ds lkFk fu"df"kZr djds ¼jlk;fud vkDlhdj.k }kjk½ gjs foy;u esa Cl 2 dh /kkjk izokfgr djus ls K 2 MnO4, KMn0 4 eas ifjofrZr gks tkrs gSA lkUnzrk ,oa fØLVyhdj.k dj KMn0 4 ds fØLVy izkIr djfy, tkrs gSA

K

2

Mn0

4

+ Cl

2

2 KC1 + 2 KMnO

4

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& ¼¼¼¼i½½½½ oooo ¼¼¼¼ii½½½½ fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2$32$32$32$3 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaAsaA½saAsaA½½½

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

yyyysUFksUFksUFksUFksukbMsukbMsukbMsukbM

,fDVukbM,fDVukbM,fDVukbM,fDVukbM

1- ;s eq[; :i ls $3 rFkk ;kSfxdksa esa $2]$4 vkDlhdj.k voLFkk,a Hkh iznf'kZr djrs gSA

1- ;s $3 ds vykok vius ;kSfxdksa esa $4] $5] $6] $7 vkDlhdj.k voLFkk Hkh iznf'kZr djrs gsA

2- ladqy cukus dh izo`fr de gksrh gSA

2- ladqy cukus dh izo`fr vf/kd gksrh gSA

3- buds ;kSfxd de {kkjh; gksrs gSA

3- buds ;kSfxd vf/kd {kkjh; gksrs gSA

4- ;s vkDlks vk;u ugha cukrs

 

4- ;g vkWDlks vk;u

5- izksfefFk;e

ds

vfrfjDr

lHkh

5- lHkh ,fDVukbM jsfM;k/kehZ gksrs gSA

ySUFksukmM

ukWu

jsfM;ksa,fDVo

¼vjsfM;ks/kehZ ½ gksrs gSA

 

¼uk¼uk¼uk¼uksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& 5555 vvvvarjarjarjarj fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 5555 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksxsxsxsxsaAsaAsaAsaA bldsbldsbldsblds vfrfjDrvfrfjDrvfrfjDrvfrfjDr HHHkhHkhkhkh vvvvarjarjarjarj fy[kfy[kfy[kfy[kssss tktktktk ldrsldrsldrsldrs ggggSSaAaA½SSaAaA½½½

iiiiz'uz'uz'uz'u &&&& 16161616

jkmYVjkmYVjkmYVjkmYV dkdkdkdk fu;efu;efu;efu;e &&&&

dkdkdkdk fu;efu;efu;efu;e &&&& jkmYVjkmYVjkmYVjkmYV ddddssss fu;efu;efu;efu;e dhdhdhdh

jkmYVjkmYVjkmYVjkmYV ddddssss fu;efu;efu;efu;e dhdhdhdh lhek,Wlhek,Wlhek,Wlhek,W &&&&

1-

lkanz fo;yuksa esa foys; vkSj foyk;d ds d.kksa ds e/; izcy vU;ksU; fØ;k gksus ds dkj.k jkmYV dk fu;e ykxw ugha gksrk gSA

2-

;fn foys; foyk;d esa laxqf.kr ;k fo;ksftr gksrk gS rc ok"inkc ds voue vkisf{kr eku ls fHkUu gksrk gSA

4-

;g dsoy vkok"i'khy foys; ;qDr foy;uksa ij gh ykxw gksrk gSA

[ukukukuksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& lghlghlghlgh fu;efu;efu;efu;e fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 3333 vvvvadadadad oooo lhek,lhek,lhek,lhek,aaaa fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2222 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxss]ss

vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

og izfØ;k ftl esa 'kq} foyk;d ds de lkanz foy;u eas ls mPp lkanz foy;u esa v}ZikjxE; f>Yyh esa ls gksdj izokfgr gksrs gSA ijlj.k dgykrk gSA

ijklj.kijklj.kijklj.kijklj.k dkdkdkdk nkcnkcnkcnkc &&&& fdlh v)ZikjxE; f>Yyh ds }kjk foyk;d ds fo;yu esa cgko dks jksdus ds fy, foy;u ij yxk;k tkus okyk vfrfjDr nkc ijklj.k nkc dgykrk gSA

;wfj;k dk v.kq Hkkj & 60 xzke eksy izfr yhVj xzke v.kq lkanz.k

pawfd ;wfj;k dk foy;u Xywdkst ds foy;u ls leijkljh gS

1

10

= Xywdkst dh izfr yhVj lkanzrk

W

180180180180

1

W

=

10

180

180

=

10

= 18

=

6

60

=

1

10

XyXyXyXywdkwdkwdkwdkstststst dhdhdhdh iiiizfryhVjzfryhVjzfryhVjzfryhVj lklklklkanzrkanzrkanzrkanzrk = 18181818 xxxxzkezkezkezke

ukukukuksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& ¼i¼i¼i¼izR;zR;zR;zR;sdsdsdsd dhdhdhdh ifjHkkifjHkk"kkifjHkkifjHkk"kk"kk"kk fy[kufy[kufy[kufy[kussss ijijijij 1$11$11$11$1 vvvvadadadad oooo lokylokylolokyky lghlghlghlgh gygygygy djusdjusdjusdjus ijijijij 3333 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxs½As½As½As½A

mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj 17171717

ijijijij 3333 vvvvadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxs½As½As½As½A mRrjmRrjmRrjmRrj 17171717

vuqivuqivuqivuqiz;kz;kz;kz;ksx&sx&sx&sx&

11-11---

nqcZy fo|qr vi?kV; dh vuUr ruqrk ij vkf.od pkydrk dk fu/kkZj.k djukA

2-

fo;kstu dh ek=k Kkr djukA

3-

vYi foy; yo.kksa dh foy;rk Kkr djukA

ukukukuksVsVsVsV %&%&%&%& ifjHkk"kifjHkk"kkifjHkk"kifjHkk"kkkk fy[kusfy[kusfy[kusfy[kus ijijijij 2222 vvvvadadadad ijijijij vuqivuqivuqivuqiz;kz;kz;kz;ksxsxsxsx ijijijij 3v3v3v3vadadadad iiiizkIrzkIrzkIrzkIr gkgkgkgksaxsaxsaxsaxsAsAsAsA vFkokvFkokvFkokvFkok

lllla{kkj.ka{kkj.ka{kkj.ka{kkj.k &&&& ok;qea.My esa mifLFkr xSlksa rFkk ueh }kjk /kkrqvksa dh /kheh xfr ls voafNr ;ksfxdks esa cny tus dh izfØ;k la{kkj.k dgykrh gSA yksgs esa tax yxuk la{kkj.k dk izeq[k mnkgj.k gSA

fØ;kfof/kfØ;kfof/kfØ;kfof/kfØ;kfof/k &&&& tax yxus dh fo|qr jlk;fud fl)kar &

bl fl)kar ds vuqlkj v'kq+) yksgs dh lrg fo|qr jklk;fud lSy dh Hkkafr O;ogkj djrh gSA ,sls lsy esa 'kq) yksgk ,uksM rFkk v'kq) yksgk dSFkksM dh rjg dk;Z djrk gSA ueh ftlesa O 2 vksj CO 2 foy;s gS] fo|qr vi?kV~; dk dk;Z djrk gSA

,uksM ij &

dsFkksM ij &

H

2

Fe

O + O

2

Fe

+

2

+ 4e

+ 2e

4OH

,uksM ij cus Fe +2 vk;u OH & vk;uksa ls fØ;k djds Fe¼OH½ 2 cukrs gS] tks ok;qea.My dh vkSj O 2 }kj ueh dh mifLFkfr esa gkbMªsVsM vk;ju vkWDlkbM cukrk gSA ;gh tax gSA

2

Fe ( OH

)

2

+

1 H O

2 2

+

O

2

Fe O

2

3

.

xH O

2

tax

uksV %& la{kkj.k dh ifjHkk"kk ij 2 vad o la{kkj.k jklk;fud fØ;k fof/k ij 3 vad izkIr gksasxsA