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© Gar Heymanns Veg KG Liitemburger Svase 2e9, 0-50509 Kein AD 2000-Merkblatt Ics 23,020.30 October 2000 edition Manufacture and. ‘AD 2000-Merkblatt testing of Design and construction pressure vessels HP 1 stnriorm ho “hrootsgemeinechat Drucker” (AD) Testu ar to aepteavon oe AD-2000 boy of rogulaine andthe produ guidlines se covered by AO 2000 erat Tho AD 2000-Markblter conten sefoty requirements to be met under rormel operating condor above-rerma loadings art be ‘epected dung th operation ofthe pressure vessel, his shal be taken nt account by mecting spec requirements. {thre are any cvergenaes rom the requementsof his AD 2000-Mekblat. shal be possible ro prove that the stander of safety of iis Body of egulatons hasbeen maniained by ter means, e9. by mater es test, sess analy, aperaing exerionce. Fachverband Darptesso,Bertr- und Ronlfungsbeu 0. (EDBR), Daseldat Heuptverbane der gewerblahen Bortegenasserschatton eV, Sankt Augusin Verband der ChanischenIndistie (VC), Fran Ain Verband Deutscher Meschnen- und Anlagenbaue.V. (VDMAY, Fachgemehnsohat Veravenstectnlsche Maschinen {nd Apparat, Franken \oroin Dutscnor Fisentaenioute (VDE), Ddssolaert VOB PowerTech eW.,Eosen verban ser Tecbisenen Obeonecrungs-vereine eV. (VarOW, Essen. The above sssociatons continuously update th AD 2000-Markbiter i line wth echnical progress. Peaso adress any proposals for ts othe pubser, Verband der Technischen Uberwachungs-Vereine » P.O. Box 103834, D-45038 Essen. Contents 0 Foreword 8 Peaks and valleys 1 Scope 4 Local deviations below the minimum wall thickness 2 Design and construction ‘Appendix 1: Explanatory notes re 3 0 Foreword 2 Design and construction The AD 2000 body of regulations can be applied to satisty the basic safely requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive, principally for the conformity assessment in accordance with Modules “G” and “B + F° ‘Tho AD 2000 body of regulations's structured along the lines ‘of a self-contained concept. if other tochnical rules are usec in accordance with the state of the art to solve related prob- ‘ems, itis assumed that the overall concept has been taken Into account, ‘The AD 2000 body of regulations can be used as appropriate for other modules of the Pressure Equipment Directive or for different sectors of the law. Responsibilty for testing is as ‘specified inthe provisions ofthe relevant sector ofthe law. 1 Scope This AD 2000-Merkblatt contains provisions for the design and construction of welded pressure vessels, or parts thereof and the associated tests The welds in a pressure vessel are covered by DIN 8562 — “Welding in the construction of vessels and containers; metal ‘containers; welding principles”. 2.1. Pressure vessel users or production engineers com- tmissioned by them shall ensure that the construction of 2 pressure vessel also makes it possible for periodic tests to bbe carried out where thase are required by, or provided for in national regulations. 2.2 At the design and build stages, users or production engineers commissioned by them shall take into considera tion attack by corrosion, especially in crevices. 2.3. If butt welds have to be made on parts ofcfferent wall ‘thickness, the provisions set out in 2.7 and 2.8 of AD 2000- Merkblatt HP 5/1 shall be complied with. 24 Lapped joints with fillet welds") connecting shell ele ‘ments, ends and tubes to each other, shall only be made in FT See BN ID pan tale ho 23 [AD 2009 orbiter are praacedby copyright The his of we, patel fey tansagon eproducon, exact of Bae vananiatny Dhol ‘mocharical means and ehrege nda erova seams, even of exacts ar aeerd Be auto. Cat Heyes Verag has oon a feasonable ‘Poseurs ic once the ecctoxy cf ilo warlcton but rgrela hat a0 rgponebity can be ascoted fr any aver. omtasn or Macauacy In canes 3 doubt or esate ta latest eaten ofthe Gaman foe an ic val AD 2000-Merkblatt Pogo 2 AD Z0004entia HP 1, 10.2000 een the form of citcurnferential weles in individual cases up towall thicknessos of 8 mm if both sides of the lap joint are welded. 2.8 Projection welds are acceptable up to a wall thickness of 8 mm, 2.6 _In the case of torispharical ends made of cold-formed forritic steel which are not heat-treated as specified in 2.5 of ‘AD 2000-Merkbiatt HP 7/2, It is not permitted to heat the ‘metal to temperatures between 550 and 750°C or to carty ‘out welding in the region of the knuckle. 2.7 _Incases where pressure vessels are subjectedio vibra- tions caused, for example, by compressors mounted on them, a direct connection between the source of the vi tions and the wall ofthe pressure vessel using feet, pedostals cr other rigid connecting parts shall be avoided. ifthe point cof connection has been so designed that stress peaks are avoided or if suitable measures have boon adopted to dam- en the vibration, the use of support plates may be dispensed with 2.8 Allowance shall be made for increases in stress due to ‘additional forces as specified 4.5 of AD 2000-Morkbiatt BO, 2.9 Prossure-boaring welds shall be able to be tested at least once during fabrication using the appropriate non- destructive test. It should be borne in mind at the design stage that joints mace by welding from one side can be difi= cult to evaluate. 2.10 Where stresses occur due to vibration, referto the pro- duction requirements specified in AD 2000-Merkblatter 51 and 82 2.11 Tho mean external diameter of cylindrical pressure ‘vessels, calculated from the circumference dimension, shall ‘not deviate from the dimensions speciied by more than 215%. 2 (Ones ~ Das 2.42 Outotroundness 2 \Onu—Pes). 199 expressed in % shal not exceed the values shown below. Table 1. Permitted out-of roundness Watanicknesst0- ‘Maxamum pesmitod lametor rato ‘out-ofoundness whon expos to Interal pressure | extemal pressure jeenel oes $1050.01 20% 91> 0 <04 15% D> 04 1.0% ‘When determining out-of-oundness, the elastic deformation ‘cue to deadweight shall be deductod. Even individual bulges ‘and dents shall lie within the permitted tolerance levels. Itis also required that such bulges and donts folow a fat course ‘and that heir depth, measured as a deviation from the normal Ccurvatute or from the line of the shel, does not exceed 1% of their length or breadtn. 2.13 Departure from a straight line shall not exceed 0,5% of the cylindrical length, 2.14 The manufacturer shalltest compliance wit the requ rements set out in 2.11 and 2.13. 2.48 In tho case of pressure vessels with an outside dis- meter > 1200 mm and where 5/0 wall-thickness-to-diameter ratios > 0,01, in the case of exposure to extoral pressure starting with extemal diameters > 200 mm and regardless of the walsthickness-to-diamoter rato, the measured values shal be entered in a dimension record sheet. 3. Peaks and valleys 3.1. Peaks and valleys f are dotermined by measuring the ‘oross-sectionsl profle in the area of longitudinal welds, by using suitable test aids atthe point of maximum shape dovia- tion or alternatively in the mice of each shell element and additionally approximately 100 mm from the ends as long as ro points having a marked shape doviation are visible ‘The measuring length shal be tis D,, however, it need not generally be longer than 500 rm. 3.2. In the case of exposute to internal pressure, for peaks and valleys fh = 10 mm is pormitied whore Dy/(s5cz) < 40 ‘and h = 5 mmis permitted where D,/(s,~c2) = 40 provided the following conditions do not give any lower values: = The values according to table 2 apply without detalled proof; in the case of greator peaks and valleys up 10 1h = s,~¢a acceptability mey be determined by special verification according to 3.4 ~ In the event of exposure to steady internal pressure, f= s,=¢e is permissible. Table 2. Permitted peaks and valleys inthe case of expo- sure to internal pressure Peete rasmon Permitted h min mom Ss 4 15 428, <6 25 6=8,-0.<9 30 9=5,— 0 (64 — 62) Instead of (s2~ ca), (8 ~ 1 ~¢2) can also be inserted In the above expressions, 3.2. Inthe case of exposure to external pressure, the follow- ing shall apply, without detailed proof 1 ns § Gone, In the case of steady exposure to external prossure, 4 nS Foo) 34 Detailed proof Departure may be made from the values of 3.2 and 3.3 if in individual cases cetaled knowledge Ie avaiable regarcing the nature of deviations in shape 6.9. by tia with cempo- nents, stress analyses, operating experience etc 8.5 Stross-cycle assessment Where a stress-cycle assessment subject fo the otiteria of ‘AD 2000-Merkblatt $1 has fo be carried out according to ‘AD 2000-Morkblatt $2, a theoretical or experimental stress rvs as the basis of assessment. Here the respective size tf any peaks and valleys shall bo taken into account, or alter atively the sizes specified in table 2 3.6 Avoidance of cracking due to corrosion ‘Where cracking in the presence of the corrosion types named in DIN 50922 (table In explanatory notes) or cracking in ‘compressed hydrogen at ambient temperature ara io be ‘expected cue to reaction with the contents, special measures shall be taken. To avoid cracking in compressed hydrogen AD 2000-Merkblatt _at ambient temperature, the stress-reducing measures tobe taken during production according to 10 and 11 of AD 2000- Merkblatt S2 shall bo taken into account. Poaks and valley shali be restricied as far as possible and the permissible values shall be specified in the drawing, Regardless of the limits specifid in 8.2 and 8.9, these values shall be tested In the context of the design examination according to AD 2000-Merkblatt $2 clause 13. By derogation from AD 2000- Merkblatt HP 5/1 2.2, welding measures as in C assessment ‘grouns do not apply here. ‘Compliance with these values shall be confirmed in the nal testing, 4 Local deviations below the minimum wall thickness ‘Subject to the conditions set out below, local deviations below the minimurn wall thickness s aro permitted without the necessity of providing theoretical proof of strength, (1) The deviation below minimum wall thickness s shall not exceed 0,05 - s or § mm, whichever is the smaller. (2) It shall be possible to enclose the area atfected by the thickness deviation below the minimum wall thickness in a circle the maximum dlametor of which is equal to s or to 60 mm, whichever of the two values is the smaller. AD 2010 Moola HP t, 10.2000 atin Page 3 (©) The distance between to areas where the wal thick: ness fals below the minimum wal thickness and tho Gistaneo between such an arca and potential weak points e.g. nozzles shall be at least VB. ) (4) The sum of al such areas shall notbe more than 2% of the total surlac area, tn adaltion tothe atove, local deviations below the minimums wall thickness sare acceptebe (A) the diameter of the deviation is not greater than that of fnumteinforead secon permitted by AD 2000 Merkblet B., haha no, however, exceed 200 nm; the remaining wall thickness i gfeste than the plate thickness © = 0,95 specified by AD 2000-Merkblat BS forthe clameter oft area covered by the deviation below the minimum wal tricknoss. Whore i extends beyond 8» it shal however, be greater than 60% of the wall thekness which has been reduced by the amount of the design allowances Deviations below the minimum wal thickness shall be checked by tnemanutacturer and enterodinte he mension record sheet @ 5D cmon camer of pores vase AD 2000-Merkblatt Page 4 AD 2000 Heke HP 4, 10.200 wen Appendix 1 to AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 1 Explanatory notes re 3 Clause 3 covers poak-shaped, longitudinal form deviations (*peaks”) and fiat longitudinal valleys in cylingrical compo- ents which are subjected to pressure, Circumferential peaks are rare and therefore do not require general regula- tion, 1. Determination of peaks and valleys Peaks and valleys are generally determined by means of templates. Apart from templates, devices with comb-ike fee- lets for detecting the peaks have proved succestul. First of all the roundness of the component in the unaffected area shall be measured. 2 Assessment by internal pressure Peaks under intemal pressure create detormation- dent bonding stresses which increase with the height of the peak and which are of a secondary nature as they cannot increase indefinitely in ductilo materials end when over- stressed. The normal sess and elongation limits contained in the AD 2000-Merkblatter shall be taken as the eriteria forthe accep- tabity of such deviations in shape, in particular in this instance for balancing-out and restriction of plastic elonga- tion. This means that for elastically-caleulated bonding stras 808 for ductile materials, double the yieki pointispermissible, Corrosion is nat directly taken into account intally in such ‘considerations. See 4 of these explanatory notes for this ‘The caloulation of the bending stresses shall be linear and clastic in accordance with [1] for the specifications ofthis AD 2000-Merkblatt. In this way sate assessments may bo spect fiod without detailed calculations being necessary. Where in individual cases more precise evaluations should be carried ‘out, calculations using the 2nd order theory can be made [8-6}, ie. taking into account the deformation occurring on ‘exposure to prossure and reduction ofthe bending stresses, In general peaks are permissible below a third of the wall thickness as the secondary bending stresses associated with them mest the 3 S,, criterium and therefore remain limited, 06 igure 1. The verification according to AD 2000-Merkblatt 2 of the overall siress calculated elastically as the double yleld point can be cartied out using equation (31) and results for example in 500 permissible stress cycles for SIE 00, 2800 permissible stress cycles for 13 CrMO 4 4 and 3350 permissible stress cycies for H Il no other special features ‘ate present and corrosion can be oxcluded. In the case of statically-operated pressure vessels, from the Point of view of calculation, a peak helght up to three times the size is regarded as pormissible without spoctal measu: res. See figure 2. Exceeding the limit of % - (s,~cp) Is not possible without *8Fg 101 LOZ GUL = > * + Or = °3F 10) 102 kL bg ur ‘omssaid jeuroiu Apes 0} eunsodxs Jo asco |My UI syed OFSSMULEd “Z eAnBLg [unui] @o - °s) ot on s 0 vo ‘asnejoqns La 1ay ‘99g “9104, poinbos owe oN, soord moyen jqysswi9g { | aiqyssiuiod yon Publisher _Netband der Tocshon DbervachungYerine oN. E-Mail: vdtuev.essen@t-online.de hitp:/iwwwvetuev. 6 Source of supply: Carl & | Heymanns Verlag Luxemburger Strade 449, 0-50999 Kain Toletax: 0221-9 43 73 603 E-Mail: verkaut@neymanas.com