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Jackson Solutions - Solutions to jackson's Electrodynamics. Classical Electrodynamics solutions...

Jackson Solutions - Solutions to jackson's Electrodynamics. Classical Electrodynamics solutions...

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You are on page 1of 65

Electrodynamics

Russell Bloomer1

University of Virginia

Note: There is no guarantee that these are correct, and they should not be copied

1

email: rbloomer@virginia.edu

Contents

1 Problem Set 1 1

1.1 Problem 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Problem 2: Jackson 1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.3 Problem 3: Jackson 1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.4 Problem 4: Jackson 1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 Problem Set 2 7

2.1 Problem 1: Jackson 1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.2 Problem 2: Jackson 1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.3 Problem 3: Jackson 2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.4 Problem 4: Jackson 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3 Problem Set 3 13

3.1 Problem 1: Jackson 2.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.2 Problem 2: Jackson 2.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3.3 Problem 3: Jackson 2.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3.4 Problem 4: Jackson 2.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4 Problem Set 4 19

4.1 Problem 1: Jackson 3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.2 Problem 2: Jackson 3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4.3 Problem 3: Jackson 3.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

5 Problem Set 5 23

5.1 Problem 1: Jackson 3.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

5.2 Problem 2: Jackson 4.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

6 Problem Set 6 27

6.1 Problem 1: Jackson 4.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

6.2 Problem 2: Jackson 4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

6.3 Problem 3: Distressed Simple Cubic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

7 Problem Set 7 31

7.1 Problem 1: Jackson 4.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

8 Problem Set 8 33

8.1 Problem 1: Jackson 5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

8.2 Problem 2: Semi-Infinite Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

8.3 Problem 3: Jackson 5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

8.4 Problem 4: Jackson 5.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

i

9 Problem Set 9 39

9.1 Problem 1: Jackson 5.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

9.2 Problem 2: Jackson 5.19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

9.3 Problem 3: Jackson 5.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

10 Problem Set 10 45

10.1 Problem 1: Jackson 5.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

10.2 Problem 2: Jackson 5.27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

10.3 Problem 3: Jackson 5.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

11 Problem Set 11 51

11.1 Problem 1: Jackson 6.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

11.2 Problem 2: Jackson 6.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

11.3 Problem 3: Jackson 6.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

12 Problem Set 12 55

12.1 Problem 1: Jackson 6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

12.2 Problem 2: Jackson 6.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

A Special Functions 61

ii

Chapter 1

Problem Set 1

1.1 Problem 1

Consider a vacuum diode consisting of two parallel plates of area A which are large compared to their separation

d. Neglecting edge effects, all quantities will be assumed to depend only on x a coordinate perpendicular to the plates.

Electrons are “boiled” off the cathode plate which is heated and held at potential Φ = 0. They are attracted

to the anode plate which is held at a positive potential Vo . The cloud of electrons within the gap (called the space

charge) quickly builds up to a point where it reduces field at the cathode to zero. From then on a steady current

flows between the plates.

r

4o A 2e

I = KVo3/2 where K = (1.1)

9d2 m

The charge density is

∂2V

ρ = −o ∇2 V → ρ = −o (1.2)

∂x2

because the charge density only depends on the position x. Next the velocity of the electron at any position in the

potential.

r

1 2eV

mv 2 = eV → v = (1.3)

2 m

Because this is a steady state, the current is independent of the position x.

dq dx

dq = ρAdx → = ρA → I = ρAv (1.4)

dt dt

Combining equations 3 and 41

r r

2eV I m

I = ρA →ρ=

m A 2eV

Now adding in equation 2

∂2V

r r

I m I m

ρ= → =−

A 2eV ∂x2 o A 2eV

∂x

. The differential becomes

r r

∂W I 2 −1/2 ∂V I 2 −1/2

W =− V ⇒ W ∂W = − V ∂V

∂x o A me ∂x o A me

1 If the ‘e’ on equation is lower case, it is from the homework set, but if it is upper case, it is from ‘Jackson’ 3rd ed.

1

Integrating once to find

r

1 2 2I 2 1/2

W =− V

2 o A me

Solving for W

r 2 !1/4

1 2 2I 2 1/2 8m I

W =− V →W = V 1/4

2 o A me e o A

∂V

Now reintroduce W = ∂x

2 !1/4 2 !1/4

∂V 8m I 8m I

= V 1/4 ⇒ V −1/4 ∂V = ∂x

∂x e o A e o A

Integrating

2 !1/4 2 !1/4

−1/4 8m I 4 8m I

V ∂V = ∂x ⇒ V 3/4 = x+C

e o A 3 e o A

The first boundary condition is at V (0) = 0, which determines the constant to be C = 0. The other boundary

condition is at V (d) = Vo . The equation becomes

2 !1/4

4 3/4 8m I

Vo = d

3 e o A

4 2 2 4 r 2

4 8m I I e 4 I e 4

Vo3 = d4 ⇒ = V o

3

⇒ = Vo3/2

3 e o A o A 8md4 3 o A 8m 3d

r

4o A 2e 3/2

I= Vo → I = KVo3/2 X

9d2 m

q e−αr αr

Φ= 1+ (1.5)

4πo r 2

where q is the magnitude of the electric charge, and α−1 = ao /2, ao being the Bohr radius. Find the distribution of

charge (both continuous and discrete) that will give this potential and interpret your result physically.

q e−αr

2 2 αr

ρ = −o ∇ Φ → ρ = −o ∇ 1+

4πo r 2

−αr

q e αr

= − ∇2 1+

4π r 2

1 ∂ ∂

∇2 = 2 r2

r ∂r ∂r

2

Then the charge density becomes

−αr

q 1 ∂ 2 ∂ e αr

ρ=− r 1 +

4π r2 ∂r ∂r r 2

−αr −αr

q 1 ∂ 2 ∂ e αe

=− r +

4π r2 ∂r ∂r r 2

2

αr2 −αr

q 1 ∂ −αr −αr 2 −αr ∂ 1

=− e + r e − e

4π r2 ∂r 2 ∂r r 2

3 2

q 1 2 −αr α r −αr −αr 2 2 −αr 2 −αr ∂ 1 −αr ∂ 2 ∂ 1

=− − α re + e − αe + α r e − αr e + e r

4π r2 2 ∂r r ∂r ∂r r

q α3 −αr αr2 e−αr

α 1 ∂ 2 ∂ 1

=− e − 2 e−αr + 2 + e−αr

r

4π 2 r r r2 r2 ∂r ∂r r

With ∇2 r1 = −4πδ(r), the factor in front of the delta function is 1 at the origin and 0 everywhere else. The above

equation reduces to

−q α3 −αr qα3 −αr

ρ= e − 4πδ(r) = qδ(r) − e (1.6)

4π 2 8π

The first term is a positive point charge at the origin, which would be the proton. The second term is a negative

spherically symmetry object that is decaying off rapidly after the Bohr radius, which is a good description of the

electric cloud. X

A simple capacitor is a device formed by two insulated conductors adjacent to each other. If equal and opposite charges

are placed on the conductors, there will be a certain difference potential between them. The ratio of magnitude of

the charge on one conductor to magnitude of the potential difference is called the capacitance. Using Gauss’s law,

calculate the capacitance of

(a) two large, flat, conducting sheets of area A, separated by a small distance d

The electric field outside the plate two plates is zero, because if pillbox containing both plates has no charge therefore

no electric field. Forming a pillbox around one plate by Gauss’s law has |E| = σ/2o , where σ = Q/A. There are two

plates adding constructively in between, so |E| = σ/o . The potential is then

V σ

E= =

d o

σd Qd

V = →V =

o Ao

The capacitance is then

Q Q Ao

C= = Qd → C = X

V A

d

o

Gauss’s law for a sphere is

Q 1

E=

4πo r2

The potential is then

Z a Z a

Q dr

V =− Ê · dˆ

l=− 2

b 4π o b r

Q 1 a Q 1 1

= = −

4πo r b 4πo a b

Now the capacitance

Q Q ab

C= = Q 1 1

= 4πo X

V 4πo a

− b

b−a

3

(c) two concentric conducting cylinders of length L, large compared to their radii a, b (b > a)

Using Gauss’s law for cylindrical surface is

Q 1

E=

2πo r

The potential becomes

Z b Z b

Q dr

V =− Ê · dˆ

l=−

a 2π o a r

Q b Q Q

=− ln ra = (ln b − ln a) = ln (b/a)

2πo 2πo 2πo

The capacitance is

Q Q 2πo

C= = Q

= X (1.7)

V 2πo

ln (b/a) ln (b/a)

(d) What is the inner diameter of the outer conductor in an air-filled coaxial cable whose center conductor is a

cylindrical wire of diameter 1 mm and whose capacitance is 3 × 10−11 F/m? 3 × 10−12 F/m?

Using equation 7, and rearranging it

2πo

b = ae C

−12

/3×10−11

b = 1 × e2π·8.85×10 = e1.854 = 6.38 mm X

−12

/3×10−12

b = 1 × e2π·8.85×10 = e18.54 = 1.12 × 108 mm X

Prove the mean value theorem: For charge-free space the value of the electrostatic potential at any point is equal to

the average of the potential over the surface of any sphere centered on that point.

x0 ) 3 0

Z I

1 ρ(~ 1 1 dΦ d 1

Φ(x) = d x + −Φ 0 da0 (1.8)

4πo V R 4π S R dn0 dn R

x0 ) 3 0

Z Z

1 ρ(~ 1 0 3 0

d x = d x =0 (1.9)

4πo V R 4πo V R

Using Equation 1.33 for the second part of equation 8

1 dΦ 1

= ∇Φ · n̂0

R dn0 R

From equation 1.16

1 1

∇Φ · n̂0 = − E · n̂0

R R

The second part of equation 8 becomes

I I

1 1 dΦ 0 1 1

da = − E · n̂0 da0

4π S R dn0 4π S R

4

Because this is over the surface it is independent of R, then

I

1

− E · n̂0 da0

4πR S

By the divergence theorem

I Z

1 1

− E · n̂0 da0 = x)d3 x0

ρ(~

4πR S 4πo R V

Z

1

x)d3 x0 = 0

ρ(~ (1.10)

4πo R V

d 1

= − R12 , because the differential is before the surface. At the surface the

For the last part of equation 8, dn 0 R

radius is constant so the last part of equation 8 becomes

I I

1 d 1 1

− Φ 0 da0 = Φda0 (1.11)

4π S dn R 4πR2 S

I

1

Φ(x) = Φda0 X

4πR2 S

5

6

Chapter 2

Problem Set 2

Two long, cylindrical conductors of radii a1 and a2 are parallel and separated by a distance d, which is large compared

with either radius. Show that the capacitance per unit length is given approximately by

−1

d

C ' πo ln (2.1)

a

where a is the geometrical mean of the two radii. Approximate what gauge wire (state diameter in millimeters) would

be necessary to make a two-wire transmission line with capacitance of 1.2 × 10−11 F/m in the separation of the wires

was 0.5 cm? 1.5 cm? 5.0 cm?

~ = Q r̂

E

2πo r

The potential between the two wire is

Z Z d−a2

Z d−a1

~ · d~l = Q dr dr

Φ= E +

2πo

a r a2 r

1

Q d − a2 d − a1

= ln + ln

2πo a1 a2

Q (d − a2 ) (d − a1 )

= ln

2πo a1 a2

Q

The capacitance is given by C = Φ

. Then

Q Q

C= = h i

Φ Q

ln (d−a2 )(d−a1 )

2πo a1 a2

2πo

=

(d−a2 )(d−a1 )

ln a1 a2

Since the distance between the wires is much large than their radii, d − a1 ≈ d − a2 ≈ d. Then capacitance reduces to

2πo

C=

(d−a2 )(d−a1 )

ln a1 a2

2π πo

≈ o =

2 d d

ln a1 a2

ln √

a1 a2

√

Defining the average radius as a = a1 a2 . The capacitance is then

πo πo

C= = d

d

ln √a1 a2 ln a

7

For C = 1.2 × 10−11 F/m and d = 0.5cm the radius is

πo

1.2 × 10−11 = .005

→ a = .49mm

ln a

πo

1.2 × 10−11 = .015

→ a = 1.5mm

ln a

πo

1.2 × 10−11 = .050

→ a = 4.9mm

ln a

Calculate the attractive force between conductors in the parallel plate capacitor (Problem 1.6a) and parallel cylinder

capacitor (Problem 1.7) for

(a) fixed charges on each conductor

For parallel plate capacitor, the work is

1

W = CV 2 (2.2)

2

Ao Qd

From the last problem set, C = d

, and V = Ao

. Therefore

2

1 Q2 d

1 Ao Qd

W = =

2 d Ao 2 Ao

Force is given by

∂W ∂W

F =− + (2.3)

∂l Q ∂l V

∂Q

Because the charge is constant ∂l

= 0, then the force is

∂W ∂ 1 Q2 d 1 Q2

F =− =− =− X

∂l ∂l 2 Ao 2 Ao

−1 Q

For parallel cylinder capacitor, the work is given by equation 2, with C = πo ln ad d

and V = πo

ln a

. The work

is then

−1 2

1 Q2

1 d Q d d

W = πo ln ln = ln

2 a πo a 2 πo a

Because the charge is constant, the force becomes from equation 3

∂ 1 Q2 1 Q2

d

F =− ln =− X

∂l 2 πo a 2 πo d

For parallel capacitors, the charge in terms of potential is

Qd Ao V

V = →Q=

Ao d

The work becomes

1 Q2 d 1 o AV 2

W = →W =

2 Ao 2 d

8

From equation 3, the force is

1 o AV 2

∂W

F = =− X

∂l V 2 d2

Q d πo V

V = ln →Q=

ln ad

πo a

1 Q2 1 πo V 2

d

W = ln →W =

2 ln ad

2 πo a

∂ 1 πo V 2 1 πo V 2

∂W

F = = = − X

∂l 2 ln ad 2 d ln d 2

∂l V a

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from infinite plane conductor held at zero potential.

Using the method of images find:

(a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it.

From the method of images

q/4πo q 0 /4πo

Φ(~

x) = + (2.4)

|~

x−~y| x − y~0 |

|~

Because it is an infinite plane conductor, by symmetry of problem ~

the xy plane. The charge is then also q 0 = −q. The potential becomes

q/4πo q/4πo

Φ(~

x) = −

|~ ~

x − d| |~ ~

x + d|

q/4πo q/4πo

Φ(ρ, θ, z) =

2 1/2 − 1/2

(z − d) − ρ2 (z + d)2 + ρ2

∂

σ = −o Φz=0

" ∂z #

−q −q

∂ 4π 4π

=

∂z 1/2 − 1/2

(z − d)2 − ρ2 (z + d)2 + ρ2 z=0

" #

−1 −1

q 2(z − d) 2 2(z + d) 2

=− 3/2 − 3/2

4π (z − d)2 + ρ2 (z + d)2 + ρ2 z=0

" #

q 2d q 1

=− =−

4π (d2 + ρ2 )3/2 2πd2 2 3/2

1 + dρ

See figure 1. X

(b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its

image.

9

Figure 2.1: s(r) = −1/(1 + r2 )3/2

x1 − ~

~ = q 1 q2 ~ x2

F

4πo |~x1 − ~

x2 |3

x1 − ~

The separation ~ x2 = −2dẑ. The charges are q1 = −q2 = q. The force becomes

2

~ = q(−q) −2dẑ = q ẑ q 2 ẑ

F = X

4πo | − 2d|3 4πo (2d)2 16πo d2

(c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2o over the whole plane.

The force is

2

σ2 1 q 1

dF = da → dF = 3/2 da

2o 2o 2πo

2

1 + dρ

q2

= 3 da

ρ 2

8π 2 o d4 1 + d

2π ∞

q2

Z Z

1

F = 3 ρdρdθ

8π 2 o d4

ρ 2

0 0 1+ d

∞

q2

Z

1

= 2π 2 3 ρdρ

8π o d4

2

1 + dρ

0

∞

q2 −d6 q2

= = X

4πo d4 4(ρ2 + d2 )2 0

16πo d2

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to infinity.

From part b, the force is

q 2 ẑ

F =

16πo z 2

So the work is the amount of force to move a particle a distance, then the work is

Z ∞ Z ∞ ∞

~ · dẑ = q 2 dz q 2 −1

W = F =

d d 16πo z 2 16πo z d

q2

= X

16πo d

(e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image [compare the answer to part d and discuss]

10

The work is given by

1 1 X qi qj

W =

2 4πo |xi − xj |

i,j,i6=j

−q 2 q2 q2

1 1

W = + =−

2 4πo | − 2d| |2d| 8πo d

The difference between part d and e is that in d the image charge is being moved, and in e the image charge is

stationary. X

(f ) find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally on angstrom from the surface.

In part d,

q2

W =

16πo d

Then for this case

e · 1.60 × 10−19

= 3.60eV X

16π (8.85 × 10−12 ) 10−10

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of

inner radius a. Find

(a) the potential inside the sphere;

The potential is

q0

1 q

Φ(~

x) = +

4πo |~

x−~ y| |~

x−~ y0 |

Now the boundary condition

q 0 /4πo

q/4πo

Φ(x = a) = 0 = +

a| − n̂ + y/an̂0 | y 0 | − n̂0 + a/y 0 n̂|

This is identical to the charge on the outside of the sphere, because the magnitude is the concern. Therefore q 0 = −q ay

a2

and y 0 = y

. Then the potential is

q0

1 q

Φ(~

x) = + X

4πo |~

x−~ y| |~

x−~ y0 |

(b) the induced surface-charge density;

The surface-charge density is given by

∂Φ

σ = o

∂x x=a

because it is opposite the normal to the inside. So

" #

∂ o q/4πo o q 0 /4πo

σ= +

∂x (x2 + y 2 − 2xy cos γ)1/2 (x2 + y 02 − 2xy 0 cos γ)1/2

" #

1 q(−1/2)(2x − 2y cos γ) q 0 (−1/2)(2x − 2y 0 cos γ)

= +

4π (x2 + y 2 − 2xy cos γ)3/2 (x2 + y 02 − 2xy 0 cos γ)3/2

q y 2 − a2

= X

4πa (y 2 + a2 − 2ay cos γ)3/2

11

(c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q.

The separation between the charge and its image y − y 0 , so the magnitude is

1 qq 0 1 q 2 ay

~| =

|F =

4πo (y − y 0 )2 4πo (y − a2 )2

y

1 q 2 ay

=

4πo (a2 − y 2 )

(d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a fixed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge

Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Because this is inside of a sphere, there is no change if there is a fixed potential or a charge on the sphere. This is

due to spherical symmetry. The only change will be a constant,V , add to the potential

q0

1 q

Φ(~x) = + +V X

4πo |~x−~ y| |~

x−~ y0 |

12

Chapter 3

Problem Set 3

A two-dimensional potential is defined by two straight parallel line charges separated by a distance R with equal and

opposite linear charge densities λ and −λ,

(a) Show by direct construction that the surface of constant potential V is a circular (circle in the transverse

dimensions) and find the coordinates of the axis of the cylinder and its radius in terms of R, λ, and V .

The potential for a line charge is

λ r0

Φ(~r) = ln =V (3.1)

2πo r

0 2

Solving for r0 , r ~ 2 . Now

= e4πo V /λ . But from the geometry r02 = (~r − R)

r

~ 2 = r2 e4πo V /λ

From this

R

rmin =

1 + e2πo V /λ

R

rmax =

1 − e2πo V /λ

R

This yields a radius of radius = 2 sinh(2πo V /λ)

. Now the offset will be

~

R

rcenter = −

e2πo V /λ −1

The circle becomes with the axis of the cylinder in the ẑ direction

!2 2

~

R R

~r + = X

e2πo V /λ − 1 2 sinh (2πo V /λ)

(b) Use the results of part a to show that the capacitance per unit length C of two right-circular conductors, with

radii a and b, separated by a distance d > a + b, is

2π

C= o (3.2)

d2 −a2 −b2

cosh−1 2ab

R R

d1 = ; d2 = −V /λ

eV1 /λ e 2

13

where V1 = 4πo Va and V2 = 4πo Vb . From the previous part the radii can be defined as

ReV1 /λ Re−V1 /λ

a= ; b =

eV1 /λ − 1 e−V1 /λ − 1

Then

R2 e(V1 −V2 )/λ + 1

d2 − a2 − b2 =

(eV1 /λ − 1) (e−V2 /λ − 1)

Then

2

d −a −b 2 2 eV1 /λ − 1 e−V2 /λ − 1 R2 e(V1 −V2 )/λ + 1

= ×

2ab 2R2 eV1 /λ e−V2 /λ (eV1 /λ − 1) (e−V2 /λ − 1)

(V1 −V2 )/2λ −(V1 −V2 )/2λ

e +e V1 − V2

= = cosh

2 2λ

Then the potential per length becomes

d2 − a2 − b2 d2 − a2 − b2

V1 − V2 V1 − V2

= cosh ⇒ 2 cosh−1 =

2ab 2λ 2ab λ

The capacitance per unit length becomes

λ 1

C= =

V1 − V2 2 cosh −1 d2 −a2 −b2

2ab

2πo

= X

−1 d2 −a2 −b2

2 cosh 2ab

A large parallel plate capacitor is made up of two plane conducting sheets with separation D, one of which has a small

hemispherical boss of radius a on its inner surface (D a). The conductor with the boss is kept at zero potential,

and the other is at a potential such that far from the boss the electric field between the plates is Eo .

(a) Calculate the surface-charge densities at an arbitrary on the plane and on the boss, sketch their behavior as a

function of distance (or angle).

This is similar to a conducting sphere in an electric field, which from class is

a3

Φ(r, θ) = −Eo r − 2 cos θ

r

For 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/2, the potential can be written in Cartesian coordinates

Eo a3 z

Φ(x, y, z) = −Eo z +

(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2

The plate is

∂Φ

σ(x, y) = o Ez = −o

∂z z=0

" #

a3

= o Eo 1 −

(x2 + y 2 )3/2

For the case of the boss,

∂Φ

σ(r, θ) = o Er = −o

∂r r=a

= 3o Eo cos θ

14

Figure 3.1: σ/o Eo = 1 − 1/x3

(b) Show that the total charge on the boss has the magnitude 3πo Eo a2 .

For the total charge on the boss is found from the integral over the area.

Z 2π Z π/2

Q= 3o Eo cos θa2 sin θdθdφ

0 0

Z 2π

1

= o Eo a2 dφ = 3πo Eo a2 X

0 2

(c) If, instead of the other conducting sheet at a different potential, a point charge q is placed directly above the

hemispherical boss at a distance d from its center , show that the charge induced on the boss is

d2 − a2

q 0 = −q 1 − √ (3.3)

d d2 + a2

The potential is

" #

1 q qa/d q qa/d

Φ(~r) = − − +

4πo ~

|~r − d| ~

|~r − a2 /dd| ~

|~r + d| ~

|~r + a2 /dd|

1 q

Φ(r, θ) = √

4πo r2 + d2 − 2rd cos θ

qa/d q

−p −√

r + (a /d) − 2r(a /d) cos θ

2 2 2 2 r 2 + d2 + 2rd cos θ

qa/d

+p

r2 + (a2 /d)2 − 2r(a2 /d) cos θ

∂Φ

σ = −o

∂r r=a

q d2 − a2

1

=

4π a2 (a + d − 2ad cos θ)3/2

2 2

1

−

(a2 + d2 + 2ad cos θ)3/2

15

So the induced charge on the boss is

π/2

q d2 − a2

Z

1 1

q0 = 2πa2 sin θdθ

2 3/2

− 3/2

0 4π a (a + d − 2ad cos θ)

2 2 2 2

(a + d + 2ad cos θ)

−qa2 d2 − a2

1 1 1 1 1

= −√ + −√

2a ad d − a a2 + d2 a+d a2 + d2

" #

2 2

d −a

= −q 1 − √ X

d a2 + d2

(a) Two halves of a long hollow cylinder of inner radius b are separated by a small lengthwise gap on each side, and

are kept at different potentials V1 and V2 . Show that the potential inside is given by

V1 + V2 V1 − V2 2bρ

Φ(ρ, φ) = + tan−1 cos φ (3.4)

2 π b2 − ρ2

The starting point of this is Equation 2.71. In this case, the origin is located inside the cylinder, so bn = 0 to prevent

divergence at the origin. Equation 2.71 becomes

∞

X

Φ(ρ, φ) = a0 + an ρn sin (nφ + αn )

n=1

Z 3π/2

V1 + V2

Φ(b, φ) = 2πa0 = πV1 + πV2 → a0 =

−π/2 2

Z 3π/2

cos nθ cos mθdθ = δmn π

−π/2

Then for Φ

Z 3π/2

V (θ) cos mθdθ =

−π/2

X Z 3π/2

an bn cos nθ cos mθdθ = an bn δmn π

n −π/2

Z π/2 Z 3π/2

V1 V2

an = cos(nθ)dθ − cos(nθ)dθ

bn π −π/2 bn π π/2

= sin (nπ/2) = (−1) 2

bn π nπbm

Because of Φ’s symmetry only odd values for n are allowed. The potential becomes

2(V1 − V2 ) X ρ n in

Φ(ρ, θ) = −i cos(nθ)

π n

b n

!

2(V1 − V2 ) X Zn

= −i iIm where Z = i(ρ/b)eiθ

π n

n odd

16

Zn 1 1+Z 1

From Im ln(A + iB) = tan−1 (B/A), then

P

n odd n

= 2

ln 1−Z

.

1+Z 2ρb cos θ

Im ln = tan−1

1−Z b2 − ρ2

!

2(V1 − V2 ) X Zn 2(V1 − V2 )

2ρb cos θ

−i iIm = tan−1

π n π b2 − ρ2

n odd

V1 + V2 2(V1 − V2 ) 2ρb cos θ

Φ(ρ, θ) = + tan−1 X

2 π b2 − ρ2

The surface-charge density

∂Φ

σ = −o

∂ρ ρ=b

V1 − V2 b2 + ρ2

= −2o b cos θ 4

π b − 2b ρ + ρ4 + 4ρ2 b2 cos2 θ

2 2

V1 − V2

= −o X

bπ cos θ

A hollow cube has conducting walls defined by six planes x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, and x = a, y = a, z = a. The walls

z = 0 and z = a are held at a constant potential V . The other four sides are at zero potential.

(a) Find the potential Φ(x, y, z) at any point inside the cube.

From class

∞ X

X ∞ nπx mπy

Φ(x, y, z)top = Anm sin sin sinh (γmn z)

m=1 n=1

a a

q

nπ 2 mπ 2

where γ = a

+ a

. Following Equation 2.58

Z a Z a

4 nπx mπy 16V

Anm = dx dyV sin sin = , where m,n are both odd

a2 sinh (γnm a) 0 0 a a π 2 nm sinh(γnm a)

By symmetry the bottom has to be the same except for z → a − z. Therefore the bottom is

odd

X nπx mπy

Φ(x, y, z)bottom Anm sin sin sinh (γmn (a − z))

n,m=1

a a

The total potential is the sum of both top and bottom potential

odd

X nπx mπy

Φtop + Φbottom = Anm sin sin [sinh (γmn z) + sinh (γmn (a − z))] X

n,m=1

a a

(b) Evaluate the potential at the center of the cube numerically, accurate to three significant figures. How many

terms in the series is it necessary to keep in order to attain this accuracy? Compare your numerical results

with the average value of the potential on the walls. See Problem 2.28.

1 Jackson p74-5

17

To have three digits of accuracy, the first four terms need to be kept, which is

a a a 16V √

Φ , , = √ (1)(1)(2 sinh(π 2/2))

2 2 2 2

π sinh( 2π)

16V √

+ √ (1)(−1)(2 sinh(π 10/2))

2

3π sinh( 10π)

16V √

+ √ (−1)(1)(2 sinh(π 10/2))

3π 2 sinh( 10π)

16V √

+ √ (1)(1)(2 sinh(3π 2/2))

2

9π sinh(3 2π)

≈ .3329V = .333V

2

From Problem 2.28 the potential should be 6

V = .333̄V X

(c) Find the surface-charge density on the surface z = a.

The surface-charge density in the cube is given by

∂Φ

σ = o

∂z z=a

odd

16o V X nπx mπy

= Anm sin sin [cosh (γmn a) − 1]

π2 n,m=1

a a

odd mπy cosh (γ a) − 1

16o V X 1 nπx

mn

= sin sin

π2 n,m=1

nm a a sinh (γmn a)

odd

16o V X 1 nπx mπy γ a

mn

= sin sin tanh X

π2 n,m=1

nm a a 2

18

Chapter 4

Problem Set 4

A thin, flat, conducting, circular disc of radius R is located is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin,

and is maintained at a fixed potential V . With the information that the change density on a disc at fixed potential

is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc,

(a) show that for r > R the potential is

∞ 2l

2V R X (−1)l R

Φ(r, θ, φ) = p2l (cos θ) (4.1)

π r 2l + 1 r

l=0

λ

σ(ρ) = p

R 2 − ρ2

The volume charge is found by consider a shell of radius r

Z 2π Z 1

dq = σ(r)2πrdr = dφ d(cos θ)r2 drf (r)δ(cos θ)

0 −1

σ(r)

The volume charge density is ρ(r) = r

δ(cos θ).

The potential at the origin is

1

Z R

λ2πrdr λ r R

V = Φ(0) = √ = sin−1

4πo 0 r R2 − r2 2o R 0

λπ

=

4o

The potential at any point becomes

∞ l

δ(cos θ0 )r02 dr0 dΩ0

Z

1 4o V X X 1

Φ(~

x) = Ylm (θ, φ) l+1 r0l Ylm

∗

(θ0 , φ0 ) √

4πo π r v r0 R2 − r02

l=0 m=−l

∞

δ(cos θ0 )dr0 d(cos θ0 )

Z RZ 1

V X 2π

Φ(~

x) = 2

P l (cos θ) l+1

r0l+1 Pl (cos θ0 ) √

π r 0 −1 R2 − r02

l=0

∞

P (0) R r0l+1 dr0

Z

2V X

= Pl (cos θ) l+1 √

π r 0 R2 − r 2

l=0

∞

2V X (−1)n (2n + 1)!! R2n+1 n!2n

= P2n (cos θ)

π n=0 2n n! (2n + 1)!!r2n+1

19

Then

∞ 2n+1

2V X (−1)n R

Φ(~

x) = P2n (cos θ) X

π n=0 2n + 1 r

To find the potential for inside the circular radius, use the boundary condition when r = R. The potential inside and

outside has to be equal, therefore

2V (−1)n

Al Rl = = Bl R−l−1

π 2n + 1

∞

2V X (−1)n r 2n

Φ= P2n (cos θ) X

π n=0 2n + 1 R

λπ

The capacitance is given by C = Q/V . From part (a) V = 4o

. The charge is

Z R

λ p R

Q= √ 2πrdr = −2πλ R2 − r2 0 = 2πλR

0 R −r

2 2

Q 2πλR

C= = λπ → C = 8o R X

V 4 o

Two point charges q and −q are located on the z axis at z = +a and z = −a, respectively.

(a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a.

From Equation 3.38

q 1 1

Φ(~

x) = −

4πo|~

x − ~a| |~

x + ~a|

∞

" #

l l

q 1 X r< r<

= Pl (cos θ) − Pl (cos(π − θ))

4πo r> r> r>

l=0

∞ l r

q 1 X r< 4π

Φ= (Yl0 (θ, φ) − Yl0 (π − θ, φ))

4πo r> r> 2l + 1

l=0

∞ l r

q 1 X r< 4π

Φ(~

x) = 1 + (−1)l+1 Yl0 (θ, φ)

4πo r> r> 2l + 1

l=0

where r< is the smaller of mod[x, a] and r> is the larger of mod[x, a]. X

(b) Keeping the product qa ≡ p/2 constant, take the limit of a → 0 and find the potential for r 6= 0. This is by

definition a dipole along the z axis and its potential.

20

So for a < r

∞ r

q 1 X a l 4π

Φ= 1 + (−1)l+1 Yl0 (θ, φ)

4πo r r 2l + 1

l=0

In the case a → 0 only the first power of a are examined. The potential is then

r

q 1 a 4π

Φ= (1 + 1) Y10 (θ, φ)

4πo r r 2+1

r

q a 4π 3

= (2) cos θ

4πo r2 3 4π

p cos θ

= X

4πo r2

(c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with

the origin. By linear superposition find the potential everywhere inside the shell.

The potential is then Φ = Φd + Φs . Here only the Al terms because we are inside a sphere. Then

∞

p cos θ X

Φ= + Al rl Pl (cos θ)

4πo r2

l=0

∞

p cos θ X

0= 2

+ Al bl Pl (cos θ)

4πo b

l=0

p cos θ

A1 b1 cos θ = −

4πo b2

p

A1 = −

4πo b3

p cos θ 1

Φ= − f racrb3 X

4πo r2

For the cylinder in Problem 3.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal half-cylinder, one at potential V and the

other at potential −V , so that

"

V for − π/2 < φ < π/2

V (φ, z) = (4.2)

−V for π/2 < φ < 3π/2

From class

∞ X

X ∞ nπρ nπz

Φ= (Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ) Iν sin

n ν=0

L L

Z L Z 2π

2 1 nπz

Anν = V (φ, z) sin sin νφdφdz

πL Iν 0 0 L

21

But this has two intervals from −π/2 to π/2 and π/2 to 3π/2. In these intervals cosine is symmetric so Anν = 0.

Now for Bnν

Z L Z 2π

2 1 nπz

Bnν = V (φ, z) sin sin νφdφdz

πL Iν 0 0 L

RL 2L

over the two ranges, only the odd terms survive for ν. For the z component 0 sin (nπz/L) dz = (2l+1)π , because

only odd terms survive from n, also. So Bnν becomes

4(−1)k

2L 2V

Bnν =

(2l + 1)π 2k + 1 πLI2k+1

16V (−1)k

= X

(2k + 1)(2l + 1)π 2 I2k+1

(b) Assuming L b, consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional

Problem 2.13.

From Jackson

k+1

(2l + 1)πρ 1 (2l + 1)πρ

I2k+1 ≈

L Γ(2k + 2) 2L

(2l+1)π

and for small angles sin L

≈ (−1)l . Then

∞

X 16(−1)k+l V ρ 2k+1

Φ= cos((2k + 1)φ)

π 2 (2l

+ 1)(2k + 1) b

l,k=0

∞

X (−1)l

π

= tan−1 (1) = (1)2l+1

4 2l + 1

l=0

∞

4V X (−1)k ρ 2k+1

Φ= cos((2k + 1)φ)

π 2k + 1 b

k=0

∞

(−1)k ρ 2k+1

X 1 2bρ cos φ

cos((2k + 1)φ) = tan−1

2k + 1 b 2 b2 − ρ2

k=0

2V 2bρ cos φ

Φ= tan−1 X

π b2 − ρ2

22

Chapter 5

Problem Set 5

The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes as z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a

point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential.

(a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is

∞ ∞

nπz 0

0 4 X X im(φ−φ0 ) nπz nπ nπ

G(x, x ) = e sin sin LIm ρ< Km ρ> (5.1)

L n=1 m=−∞ L L L L

We know that

−4πδ(ρ − ρ0 )

∇2 G(x, x0 ) = δ(φ − φ)δ(z − z 0 ) (5.2)

ρ0

Then expanding the δ-functions

∞ ∞

nπz 0 nπz δ(ρ − ρ0 )

4 X X −imφ0 imφ

∇2 G(x, x0 ) = − e e sin sin

L m=−∞ n=1 L L ρ0

∞ ∞

nπz 0 δ(ρ − ρ0 ) imφ

X X 4 0

nπz

= − e−imφ sin 0

e sin (5.3)

m=−∞ n=1

L L ρ L

∞

X ∞

X nπz

∇2 G(x, x0 ) = ∇2 eimφ sin Ψ

m=−∞ n=1

L

∞ ∞

m2 n2 π 2

2 0

X X 1 ∂ ∂ nπz

∇ G(x, x ) = ρ − 2 − 2

Ψeimφ sin (5.4)

m=−∞ n=1

ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ρ L L

m2 n2 π 2 4 δ(ρ − ρ0 )

1 ∂ ∂ 1

ρ − 2 − Ψ nπz 0

=−

ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ρ L2 e−imφ0 sin L

L ρ0

Ψ

Then define gmn = 0 0 .

From Equation 3.98 and 3.99 gmn = CIm (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) where k = nπ/L. Now

e−imφ sin nπz

L

to find C

∂gmn ∂gmn −4 −4 1 4

− = ⇒Eq3.147 = −Ck →C=

∂ρ0 ρ+ ∂ρ0 ρ− ρL ρL kρ L

Now combining the above constant with gmn and equation 3 to find

∞ ∞

nπz 0

4 X X imφ −imφ0 nπz nπ nπ

G(x, x0 ) = e e sin sin Im ρ< Km ρ> X

L m=−∞ n=1 L L L L

23

(b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is

∞ Z ∞

X 0 sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )]

G(x, x0 ) = 2 dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ0 ) (5.5)

m=−∞ 0 sinh(kL)

∞ Z ∞

X 0

∇2 G(x, x0 ) = −2 e−imφ eimφ Jm (kρ0 )Jm (kρ)δ(z − z 0 )kdk

m=−∞ 0

∞ Z ∞ 0

X h i

= −2ke−imφ Jm (kρ0 )δ(z − z 0 ) eimφ Jm (kρ)dk (5.6)

m=−∞ 0

∞

X Z ∞

∇2 G(x, x0 ) = ∇2 eimφ Jm (kρ)Ψdk

m=−∞ 0

∞ Z ∞ 2

m2

X ∂ 1 ∂ ∂

∇2 G(x, x0 ) = 2

− 2

+ ρ eimφ Jm (kρ)Ψdk

m=−∞ 0 ∂z ρ ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ

∞ Z ∞ 2

X ∂ 2

= 2

− k Ψeimφ Jm (kρ)dk (5.7)

m=−∞ 0 ∂z

∂2

1

− k 2

Ψ −imφ0 = −2kδ(z − z 0 )

∂z 2 e Jm (kρ0 )

0

Then gm,k = Ψ/e−imφ Jm (kρ0 ), but the expansion of the δ-function in z is gm,k = C sinh(kz< ) sinh(k(L − z> )). Now

finding C

∂gm,k ∂gm,k

− = −2k

∂z 0 z+ ∂z 0 z−

2

−kC [sinh(kz) cosh(k(L − z)) + cosh(kz) sinh(k(L − z))] = −2k → −kC sinh(kL) = −2k → C =

sinh(kL)

Now combining the above equation with equation 6 and 7

∞ Z ∞

X 0 sinh(kz< ) sinh(k(L − z>))

G(x, x0 ) = 2 eimφ e−imφ Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ0 ) X

m=−∞ 0 sinh(kL)

1 2 −r

ρ(r) = r e sin2 θ (5.8)

64π

(a) Make a multipole expansion of the potential due to this charge density and determine all the nonvanishing

multipole moments. Write down the potential at large distance as a finite expansion in Legendre polynomials.

For Equation 4.1 to be solved first Equations 4.4-4.6 have to be solved. First notice that the charge density is

independent of φ, therefore m = 0. Now notice sin2 θ = 1 − cos2 θ, because this is power 2, then l ≤ 2. Now beginning

with Y20

r r r

5 3 1 5 3 2 4π 2

Y20 = cos2 θ − → Y20 = − cos2 θ + 1 → − Y20 = sin2 θ −

4π 2 2 4π 2 3 5 3

24

Now the next term has no power of θ, so the next term would be from Y00 . Therefore

2√

r

2 2 4π

sin θ = 4πY00 − Y20

3 3 5

Now using Equation 4.3

2√

Z

1 1 4 −r 1

√ 4π r e sin θdrdθdφ =

4π V 3 64π 4π

r Z r

1 5 −2 4π 1 6 −r −30

r e sin3 θdrdθdφ =

2 4π V 3 5 64π 4π

1 4π 1 P0 4π 30 P2 (cos θ) 1 P0 6P2 (cos θ)

Φ(x) = − → Φ(x) = − X

4πo 1 4π r 5 4π r3 4πo r r3

(b) Determine the potential explicitly at any point in space, and show that near the origin, correct to r2 inclusive,

r2

1 1

Φ(r) ' − P2 (cos θ) (5.9)

4πo 4 120

Z

1 X 1 ∗ 0 0 0l 0 3 0 Ylm (θ, φ)

Φ(x) = Ylm (θ , φ )r ρ(x )d x

o 2l + 1 rl+1

l,m

Looking ahead to the deserved solution and combined with the previous part only l = 0, 2 and m = 0 will be considers.

Then

" #

1 2√

Z ∞ r

r2 ∞ 1

Z

1 3 −r 2 4π −r

Φ(x) = 4πY00 r e dr − Y20 re dr

o 3 0 64π 3 5 5 0 64π

" #

1 2√

r r

P0 1 2 4π 5 r2 P2 (cos θ) 1

= 4π √ 6− 1

o 3 4π 64π 3 5 4π 5 64π

r2

1 P0

= − P2 (cos θ)

o 16π 480π

r2

1 1

= − P2 (cos θ) X

4πo 4 120

(c) If there exists at the origin a nucleus with a quadrupole moment Q = 10−28 m2 , determine the magnitude of

the interaction energy, assuming that the unit of charge in ρ(r) above is the electronic charge and the unit of

length is the hydrogen Bohr radius ao = 4πo /me2 = 0.529 × 10−10 m. Express your answer as a frequency by

dividing by Planck’s constant h.

The quadrupole interaction energy is given in Equation 4.24

1 XX ∂Ej

W =− Qij (0) (5.10)

6 i j ∂xi

But as it has been shown earlier that m = 0 so the only terms that remain are i = j, but the trace has to be 0, which

is

eQ 1 ∂Ex 1 ∂Ey ∂Ez

W = + −

6 2 ∂x 2 ∂y ∂z

eQ 1 3 ∂Ez eQ 1 ρ 3 ∂Ez

= ∇·E− = −

6 2 2 ∂z 6 2 o 2 ∂z

25

eQ ∂ 2 Φ

At the origin ρ(0) =, so the first term drops out, so the energy is then W = 4 ∂z 2

. Now the potential has to be

transferred into Cartesian coordinates. So for the quadrupole term

1 1

r2 P2 (cos θ) → Φ(x) = 2z 2 − x2 − y 2

Φ(x) =

480πo 960πo

∂2Φ 1

from Merzbacher Quantum Mechanics. So ∂z 2

= 240πo

, then the quadrupole term becomes

e2 Q

W =

960πo a3o

Then the frequency is

W e2 Q

= = 0.98 MHz X

h 960πo ha3o

26

Chapter 6

Problem Set 6

A point charge q is located in free space a distance d from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and

dielectric constant /o .

(a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics.

Inside the sphere ∇ · D = 0, because there is no charge inside

∞

X

Φ(r, θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) r<a

l=0

For outside the sphere, there are two regions, a < r < d and r < d, which will dictate the expansion of 1/|x − x0 , ie

what is r< and r> . Then the outside region will be

∞

X 1 q

Φ(r, θ) = Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) +

4πo |x − x0 |

l=0

Using the typical spherical expansion for 1/|x − x0 , the expression for all space is

Φ(r, θ) =

P∞

Al rL Pl (cos θ)

l=0 r<a

rl

P∞ −(l+1) q

l=0 B l r + 4πo d l+1 Pl (cos θ) a<r<d

P∞ −(l+1) q dl

l=0 Bl r + 4πo rl+1 Pl (cos θ) r>d

Φ(r, θ) =

P∞ q 2l+1

l=0 4π

Al rL Yl,0 (θ, φ) r<a

q

rl

P∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) q

l=0 4π

Bl r + 4πo dl+1 Yl,0 (θ, φ) a<r<d (6.1)

P∞ q 2l+1 dl

l=0 4π

Bl r−(l+1) + 4π q

o r l+1 Yl,0 (θ, φ) r>d

∂Φ ∂Φ

= (6.2)

o ∂r r=a− ∂r r=a+

lqal−1

lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) +

o 4πo dl+1

o (l + 1) q

Al = − Bl a−(2l+1) + (6.3)

l 4πo dl+1

27

The other boundary condition is for tangential component

∂Φ ∂Φ

=

∂θ r=a− ∂θ r=a+

q al

Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + (6.4)

4πo dl+1

Then the coefficients can easily be found from equation 3 and 4

1 2l + 1 q

Al = (6.5)

/o + (l + 1)/l l 4πo dl+1

qa2l+1

1

Bl = 1− (6.6)

/o + (l + 1)/l o 4πo dl+1

Combining equations 5 and 6 into equation 1 yields the potential at every point in space. X

(b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric field near the center of the sphere.

Expanding the potential inside the sphere

Φ(r, θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + . . .

From Quantum Mechanics, rP1 (cos θ) = z and r2 P2 (cos θ) = z 2 − x2 + y 2 , then the potential becomes

" #

5 z 2 − x2 − y 2

q 3z

Φ(x, y, z) = + + ...

4πo (/o + 2)d2 2(2/o + 3)d3

R

So then Ei = − Φdxi . Then the component in Cartesian space

q 5 x

Ex = + . . .

4πo d2 2/o + 3 d

q 5 y

Ey = + . . .

4πo d2 2/o + 3 d

q 3 5 z

Ez = − + + . . . X

4πo d2 /o + 2 2/o + 3 d

(c) Verify that, in the limit /o → ∞, your result is the same as that for the conducting sphere.

Examining equation 2, the equation would blow-up if Al 6= 0, therefore Al = 0. This is the same for the conductor.

Then from that and equation 4,

q a2l+1

Bl = −

4πo dl+1

which is the same as a conduction sphere. X

Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b , respectively, carry charges ±Q. The empty

space between the spheres is half-filled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant /o ), as shown in

the figure.1

(a) Find the electric field everywhere between the spheres.

Let’s assume that E ∝ rr3 . Using Gauss’s Law for a sphere between the two spheres:

I

D · da = Q

Q r

= E(r)

2π(o + ) r3

Now checking the conditions on the solution. The curl of the electric field is obviously 0. The divergent of the field

does yield the charge density. By the uniqueness theorem, this is the correct solution. X

1 Jackson. pg 174

28

(b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution of the inner sphere.

From Equation 4.40, in particular n · ((D2 − D1 ) = σfree . The half without the dielectric is

r Qo Qo

σfree = r · D(a) = r̂ · =

a2 2π(o + ) 2πa2 (o + )

Q

σfree = X

2πa2 (o + )

(c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a

The electric polarization is given by P = ( − o )E. Because in the free space = o , the electric polarization for the

free space is P = 0. Therefore σpol = 0 for the free space half. Now, the polarization density is σpol = −n̂·(P1 −P2 ).

For the dielectric part

r̂ ( − o )Q

σpol = −r̂ · P(a) = −r̂

a2 2π(o + )

( − o )Q

σpol = − X

2πa2 (o + )

Repeat the analysis of section 4.5 for a cubic crystal which is subjected to a stress such that the lattice separation is

elongated along one edge of the cube (the x axis) and contracted along the other cube edges (the y and z axes) by

the amounts

ax = a(1 + δ) (6.7)

1

ay,z = a 1 − δ (6.8)

2

where a is the unstressed cubic lattice spacing. Find the susceptibility for two cases, considering that the molecular

polarizabilty γmol is a constant scalar (Hint: Calculate Enear at a particular dipole by considering only the 6 nearest

dipoles in the cubic lattice):

(a) An electric field applied parallel to the x axis

The polarization is given on page 161 in Jackson as P = N hpmol i and also hpmol i = o γmol (E + Ei ) From the

P

previous page Equation 4.63, Ei = 3 + Enear . All that remains is to find Enear . From Equation 4.64:

3n̂(n̂ · p) − p

Enear = (6.9)

r3

29

Considering the six nearest neighbors, which occur from the shape(from class notes):

3n̂(n̂˙pi ) − pi

Ei =

a3i

4px 2px 2px

Ex = 3 − 3 − 3

ax ay az

4py 2py 2py

Ey = 3 − 3 − 3

ay ax az

4pz 2pz 2pz

Ez = 3 − 3 − 3

az ax ay

Now using the values for the expansion of the nearest neighbors and the fact that δ < 1 and the binomial expansion.

4px 2px 2px 4px 4px 3 18px δ

Ex = 3 − 3 − 3 = (1 − 3δ) − 1 + δ =− 3 (6.10)

a (1 + δ)3 a3 1 − 21 δ a3 1 − 21 δ a3 a3 2 a

4py 2py 2py 2py 3 2py 9py δ

Ey = 3 − 3 (1 + δ)3

− 3 = 3

1 + δ − 3 (1 − 3δ) = 3 (6.11)

a 1 − 2δ

3 1 a a 1 − 2δ

3 1 a 2 a a

4pz 2pz 2pz 2pz 3 2pz 9pz δ

Ez = 3 − 3 3

− 3 = 3 1 + δ − 3 (1 − 3δ) = 3 (6.12)

a 1 − 2δ

3 1 a (1 + δ) a 1 − 2δ

3 1 a 2 a a

So now Enear known. To simplify the problem, the fact that P = o χE can be used. Since Ey = Ez = 0, then

Py = Pz = 0. So only Px is needed.

18 1 18 N γmol

Px = N γmol o Ex + o − 3 δ + Px → 1 + N γmol 3 δo − Px = N γmol o Ex

a 3o a 3

18 N γmol N γmol

1 + N γmol 3 δo − χo Ex = N γmol o Ex → χ = X

a 3 1 − 13 N γmol + a183 N γmol δo

For an electric field in the y direction. As above, P = o χE, then Ex = Ez = Px = Pz = 0. So only Enear for the y

direction is needed. Then

9 1 9 N γmol

Py = N γmol o Ey + o δ+ Py → 1 − N γmol 3 δo − Py = N γmol o Ey

a3 3o a 3

9 N γmol N γmol

1 − N γmol 3 δo − χo Ey = N γmol o Ey → χ = X

a 3 1 − 13 N γmol − a93 N γmol δo

30

Chapter 7

Problem Set 7

Two long, cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. If the liquid

rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential difference V is established between them, show

that the susceptibility of the liquid is

b2 − a2 ρgh ln(b/a)

χe = (7.1)

o V 2

where ρ is the density of the liquid, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and the susceptibility of air is neglected.

The first thing to find is the electric field between the cylinders. There is no charge between the cylinders, so ∇2 Φ = 0.

From the symmetry of the problem, cylindrical coordinates are the proper choice, Further there is radial symmetry,

so there is no polar coordinate. So the Laplacian is

1 ∂ ∂Φ

r =0 (7.2)

r ∂r ∂r

The familiar solution is

Φ(r) = A ln (r/B)

Now the boundary condition that the difference of the two cylinders is V or more exact

V

Φ(b) − Φ(a) = A ln(b/a) = V ⇒ A =

ln(b/a)

So the electric field is

∂Φ −V r̂

E=− r̂ → E =

∂r ln(b/a) r

Now that the electric field is known, the electric displacement is simply D = E for inside the liquid, and for above

the liquid, the electric displacement is D = o E. The work to raise the liquid is

1 b

Z Z Z z Z l

1

W = E · Dd3 x = 2πrdr E2 dz + o E2 dz

2 2 a −d z

where d is the length in the liquid and l is the length above. The work is then

1 b

Z z Z l

πV 2

Z

W = 2πrdr E2 dz + E2 dz = ( (z + d) + o (l − z))

2 a −d z ln(b/a)

( − o ) πV 2

∂W

Fz = =

∂z V ln(b/a)

31

Now finding the volume of liquid that has been lifted is b2 − a2 πh. The mass is then m = b2 − a2 ρπh. At

equilibrium, the force of gravity is equal to the force of the electric field.

2 2

( − o ) πV 2 b − a ρπh (/o − 1) πV 2

b2 − a2 ρπh =

=

ln(b/a) o ln(b/a)

χe πV 2

= ⇒ χe = X

o ln(b/a) o V 2

32

Chapter 8

Problem Set 8

A long, right cylindrical, ideal solenoid of arbitrary cross section is created by stacking a large number of identical

current-carrying loops one above the other, with N coils per unit length and each loop carrying a current I.

(a) In the approximation that the solenoidal coil is an ideal current sheet and infinitely long, use Problem 5.1 to

establish that any point outside the coil that H = 0, and that any point inside the coil the magnetic field is

axial and equal to

H = NI (8.1)

This can be solved using two ampere loops. Placing a loop outside the cylinder, it yields B = 0. Placing a second

loop through a side of the surface perpendicular to the bottom surface. So

I

B · dl = µo Ienc

From the first loop that was outside the cylinder, the induced magnetic field outside is 0. This means that the only

field is inside the cylinder. The integral becomes

I

B · dl = µo Ienc ⇒ BL = µo N IL

(b) For a realistic solenoid of circular cross section of radius a (N a 1), but still infinite in length, show that the

“smoothed” magnetic field just outside the solenoid (averaged axially over several turns) is not zero, but is the

same in magnitude and direction as that of a single wire on the axis carrying a current I, even if N a → ∞.

Compare fields inside and out.

In a real solenoid, it is not simple current loops stacked on each other. There is a little bind in the loop to connect

the loops. This means there is a current in the vertical direction. So what is the current? This can be found by the

fact the total current moves up 1/N each loop. In each loop there is I/N in the vertical direction, so over a unit

length there is N loops, so the amount of vertical current is then N I/N = I. Therefore this current in the vertical

direction

I

µo I

B · dl ⇒ 2πρB = µo I ⇒ Bθ =

2πρ

This is the same as a wire along the z-axis. As the number of loops increase per unit length, the more ideal

it will become. The size of inside is many orders of magnitude large than the field outside. To be more exact,

µo N I/(µo I/2πρ) → 2πρN . So the field inside is 2πρN times larger. The directions of the two are perpendicular to

each other. X

33

8.2 Problem 2: Semi-Infinite Cylinder

Consider a semi-infinite solenoid, which we idealize as a cylindrical current sheet of radius a and azimuthal current

K per unit length, with one end at the origin and the other end at -∞ along the z-axis.

(a) Use the Biot-Savart Law to show that the magnetic induction on the axis is

" #

µo K z

Bz = 1− (8.2)

2 (a2 + z 2 )1/2

Let’s begin by thinking of a single current loop at the origin. The magnetic-flux density is

I

µo I dl × x

Bz =

4π |x|3

3/2

Because this has to end the ẑ direction, x = a cos φρ̂ + a sin φφ̂ + z ẑ, |x|3 = a2 + z 2 , and dl = −a sin φρ̂ +

a cos φφ̂ + 0ẑ. Then

Z 2π

µo I 1

−az cos φ + az sin φ + a2 dφ

Bz =

4π (a2 + z 2 )3/2 0

µo I a2

= ẑ

2 (a2 + z 2 )3/2

Now this has to be integrated from start to finish of the cylinder remembering that I → K

Z 0

µo a2 K dz

Bz = ẑ

2 −∞ (a2 + z 2 )3/2

0 π

µo a2 K z µo K

= ẑ

1/2

= ẑ cos θ

2 2 2

(a + z ) −∞ 2 θ1

z

where θ is the angle that the origin makes with the edge at the end of the cylinder and cos θ = , then

(a2 +z2 )3/2

" #

µo K z

Bz = 1− X

2 (a2 + z 2 )3/2

(b) Use a Taylor series expansion of the field near the axis together with ∇ · B = 0 and ∇ × B = 0 to show that the

magnetic induction near the axis is

µo K a2 ρ

Bρ ≈ (8.3)

4 (a2 + z 2 )3/2

" #

µo K z 3 a2 zρ2

Bz ≈ 1− − (8.4)

2 (a2 + z 2 )1/2 4 (a2 + z 2 )5/2

The two conditions, ∇·B and ∇×B, lead to Laplace’s Equation ∇2 Φmag = 0 and B = −∇Φmag . From electrostatics,

Φmag = R(ρ)Z(z)Q(θ). The radial solutions are the Bessel and Neumann functions. Then

From symmetry, ν = 0 and as ρ → 0 has to be well define B = 0. Then Φmag = CJ0 (kρ)e−kz . Then the induced

field is

∂ ∂

B = −∇Φmag = − ρ̂ + ẑ Φmag

∂ρ ∂z

∂Jo (x) −kx

= −Ck e ρ̂ + CkJo (kρ)e−kz ẑ

∂x

34

∂Jo (x)

From Arfken’s book, ∂x

= −J1 (x)1 . Expanding the two terms2 ,

k 3 ρ3

kρ

Bρ = CkJ1 (kρ)e−kz ≈ Cke−kz −

2 16

2 2

k ρ

Bz = CkJ0 (kρ)e−kz ≈ Cke−kz 1 −

4

∂ n Bz (0,z)

Now, Bz (0, z) = Cke−kz , this has to be the case, because it has to be continuous. It follows that ∂z n

=

(−1)n Ckn+1 e−kz . With this substitution,

kρ ρ ∂Bz (0, z)

Bρ ≈ Cke−kz ≈

2 2 ∂z

2 2

ρ2 ∂ 2 Bz (0, z)

k ρ

Bz ≈ Cke−kz 1 − ≈ Bz (0, z) −

4 4 ∂z

Using Bz from part one finally

" #

ρ ∂ µo K z µo K a2 ρ

Bρ ≈ 1− 3/2

⇒ Bρ ≈

2 ∂z 2 (a2 + z 2 ) 4 (a2 + z 2 )3/2

" # " " ##

µo K z ρ2 ∂ 2 µ o K z

Bz ≈ 1− − 1 −

2 (a2 + z 2 )3/2 4 ∂z 2 (a2 + z 2 )3/2

" #

µo K z 3 a2 zρ2

Bz ≈ 1− 1/2

− X

2 2

(a + z )2 4 (a + z 2 )5/2

2

A cylindrical conductor of radius a has a hole of radius b bored parallel to, and centered a distance d from, the

cylinder axis (d + b < a). The current density is uniform throughout the remaining metal of the cylinder and is

parallel to the axis. Use Ampère’s law and principle of linear superposition to find the magnitude and the direction

of the magnetic-flux density in the hole.

From the hint to use superposition, we will first find the magnetic-flux density for the cylindrical conductors. For the

one with radius a applying Ampère’s law in the form of Equation 5.24

I Z

B · dl = µo J · nda

C S

µo

B2πr2 = µo Jπr2 → B = Jrẑ × r̂

2

Now for the hole, it has to be the same except that it has a different coordinate system, that is related by a linear

transformation, directly B0 = µ2o J 0 r0 ẑ × r̂0 , because this is a hole the current density is in the opposite direction,

J 0 = −J. Next is relating rr̂ to r0 r̂0 . Defining the center of the hole on the −y-axis of the cylinder, the relationship

is r0 r̂0 = rr̂ + dŷ. Now linear superposition can be used to find

µo

Bf inal = B + B0 = J ẑ × (rr̂ − rr̂ − dŷ)

2

µo µo Jd

= Jdẑ × (−ŷ) ⇒ Bf inal = x̂ X

2 2

A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with

constant angular velocity ω. Find the vector potential and magnetic-flux density both inside and outside the sphere.

2 Arfken. MMP 5th ed. pg.670

35

The surface current is J~ = σ~v = σ(~

ω × ~r0 ) = σaω sin θ0 (r0 − a)φ̂0 . The surface current is then related to l = 1 and

m = 1 only, because of the sine term. The

36

vector potential is then

Z

Aφ (r, θ) = σωaδ(r0 − a) l+1 Pl1 (cos θ0 )r02 sin2 θ0 dr0 dθ0 dφ

4π l(l + 1) r>

l

1 3 l Z π

µo X Pl (cos θ) σωa r<

=− l+1

Pl1 (cos θ0 )P11 (cos θ) sin θ0 dθ0

2 l(l + 1) r> 0

l

µo σωa3 r< 1 4

=− 2

P1 (cos θ)

4 r> 3

µo σωa3 r<

= 2

sin θ

3r>

Now for the magnetic field, B = ∇×A. This needs to be done for the interior (a > r) and exterior (a < r). The vector

1 1 sin θ

potential interior is Aint = µo σωar sin θφ̂ . The vector potential for exterior is Aext (r, θ) = µo σωa4 2 φ̂ So

3 3 r

for the interior

1 ∂ µo σωar2 sin θ

1 ∂ µo σωa

Bint (r, θ) = r̂ sin2 θ − θ̂

r sin θ ∂θ 3 r ∂r 3

2 h i

Bint (r, θ) = µo σωa cos θr̂ − sin θθ̂

3

µo σωa4 µo σωa4 sin θ 1

1 ∂ 1 ∂

Bext (r, θ) = r̂ sin2 θ − θ̂

r sin θ ∂θ 3r2 r ∂r 3 r

1 µo σωa4 h i

Bext (r, θ) = 3

2 cos θr̂ + sin θθ̂ X

3 r

37

38

Chapter 9

Problem Set 9

A current distribution J(x) exists in a medium of unit relative permeability adjacent to a semi-infinite slab of material

having relative permeability µr and filling the half space, z < 0.

(a) Show that for z > 0 the magnetic induction ca be calculated by replacing the medium of permeability µr by an

image current distribution, J∗ , with components,

! ! !

µr − 1 µr − 1 µr − 1

Jx (x, y, −z), Jy (x, y, −z), − Jz (x, y, −z) (9.1)

µr + 1 µr + 1 µr + 1

(x − x0 ) 3 0

Z

µo

B= (J + J∗ ) × d x (9.2)

4π |x − x0 |3

The field z < 0 is

(x − x0 ) 3 0

Z

µo

B= J× d x (9.3)

4π |x − x0 |3

At the boundary of z = 0, the normal component of the field must be continuous, so above

Z (Jx + J ∗ )(y − y 0 ) − (Jy + J ∗ )(x − x0 )

µo x+ y+

Bz+ (−z) = 3/2 d3 x0

4π

2 2

(x − x0 ) + (y − y 0 ) + z 02

below

Jx∗− (y − y 0 ) − Jy∗− (x − x0 )

Z

µo 3 0

Bz− (z) = 3/2 d x

4π 0 2 0

(x − x ) + (y − y ) + z 2 02

Jx (−z) + Jx∗+ (z) = Jx∗− (z) (9.4)

Jy (−z) + Jy∗+ (z) = Jy∗− (z) (9.5)

Now for the tangential components of the magnetic field must be continuous, and H = B/µ. So for above

−z 0 (Jy + Jy∗+ ) − (y − y 0 )(Jz + Jz∗+ ) 3 0

Z

1

Hx+ (−z) = d x

4π ((x − x0 )2 + (y − y 0 )2 + z 02 )3/2

(x − x0 )(Jz + Jz∗+ ) + z 0 (Jx + Jx∗+ ) 3 0

Z

1

Hy+ (−z) = d x

4π ((x − x0 )2 + (y − y 0 )2 + z 02 )3/2

Below

−z 0 (Jy∗− ) − (y − y 0 )(Jz∗− )

Z

1

Hx− (z) = d3 x0

4πµr ((x − x0 )2 + (y − y 0 )2 + z 02 )3/2

(x − x0 )(Jz∗− ) + z 0 (Jx∗− )

Z

1

Hy− (z) = d3 x0

4πµr ((x − x0 )2 + (y − y 0 )2 + z 02 )3/2

39

From H+ = H−

µr Jy (−z) − µr Jy+ (z) = Jy− (z) (9.7)

µr Jx (−z) − µr Jx+ (z) = Jx− (z) (9.8)

µr − 1 2µr

Jx+ (z) = Jx (−z) Jx− (z) = Jx (z) (9.9)

µr + 1 µr + 1

µr − 1 2µr

Jy+ (z) = Jy (−z) Jy− (z) = Jy (z) (9.10)

µr + 1 µr + 1

2µr ∂Jx ∂Jy ∂ 2µr ∂Jz ∂

∇ · J∗− = 0 = + + = + + µr (Jz + Jz+ ) = − + µr (Jz + Jz+ )

∂x ∂y ∂z µr + 1 ∂x ∂y ∂z µr + 1 ∂z ∂z

µr − 1 µr − 1

Z Z

− ∂Jz = ∂Jz+ ⇒ − Jz (−z) = Jz+ (z) (9.11)

µr + 1 µr + 1

(b) Show that for z < 0 the magnetic induction appears to be due to a current distribution [2µr /(µr + 1)]J in a

medium of unit relative permeability.

Combining equation 6 with equation 11 to find

2µr

Jz∗− (z) = Jz (z) (9.12)

µr + 1

Adding equation 12 with the J− parts of equations 9, 10 to find that J∗− = [2µr /(µr + 1)]J X

A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. The cylinder has

a permanent magnetization Mo , uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis.

(a) Determine the magnetic field H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of cylinder, both inside and

outside.

Because there is no free current, this is a magnetostatic potential problem. This problem then can be treated as an

electrostatic problem. Because the magnetization is uniform, ρM = −∇ · M = 0. The surface ‘charge’ density is then

σM = n̂ · M = ±Mo at the caps. The potential is then

Z

1 σM

ΦM = d3 x0

4π |x − x0 |

Zρ q a

Mo 2πρdρ Mo

Φ1 = q = ρ2 + (z − L/2)2

4π ρ2 + (z − L/2)2 2 0

0

q

Mo

q

= a2 + (z − L/2)2 − (z − L/2)2

2

This can easily be show for the bottom with symmetry that

q

Mo

q

Φ2 = − a2 + (z + L/2)2 − (z + L/2)2

2

40

The potential over all space is Φ = Φ1 + Φ2 .

v v

u !2 u !2

Mo u L L L L

u

a2 + − ta2 +

Φ = t z− z+ − z − + z +

2 2 2 2 2

∂Φ

Hz =

∂z

Mo z + L/2 z − L/2

Hz = −q − 2

q

2 2

a + (z + L/2) 2 2

a + (z − L/2) 2

And outside

Mo z + L/2 z − L/2

Hz = −q

q

2 a2 + (z + L/2)2 a2 + (z − L/2)2

Now the induced field is Bz = µo (Hz + M ). In this case, M = Mo inside and M = 0 outside. Then the induced field

both inside and outside is

µo M o z + L/2 z − L/2

Bz = −q X

q

2 2

a + (z + L/2) 2 2

a + (z − L/2) 2

(b) Plot the ratios B/µo Mo and H/Mo on the axis as functions of z for L/a = 5.

See last page

Show that in general a long, straight bar of uniform cross-sectional area A with uniform lengthwise magnetization M ,

when placed with its flat end against as infinitely permeable flat surface, adheres with a force given approximately

by

µo

F ' AM 2 (9.13)

2

Relate your discussion to the electrostatic considerations in Section 1.11.

So consider this as two long straight bars with uniform cross-sectional areas A with uniform magnetization, M . One

rod runs from z = 0 to z = −L and the other from z = 0 to z = L. These two dipoles are “head” to “tail”, so

the components of the B-field cancel everywhere except at z = 0. Now, let’s introduce a small separation zo . The

potential energy on the real rod from the image rod is

Z Z

W (zo ) = − M · Bi d3 x = −M Bz,i d3 x

V

Because the image rod is not moved and the rod is much longer than it is any other direction

Z Z zo +L

W (zo ) = −M Bz,i d3 x ≈ −M A Bz,i (z)dz

V zo

dW (zo )

Fz = − = M A(Bz,i (L) − Bz,i (0))

dzo zo =0

From the previous problem, if the shape is circular, which is not that bad of an approximation, the induced field is

!

µo M z+L z

Bz,i (z) = p −√

2 a2 + (z + L)2 a2 + z 2

41

1 z/L+1/2 z/L−1/2

Figure 9.1: H/Mo = 2

√ −√ -0 |z/L| > 1/2 or1 |z/L| ≤ 1/2

1/25+(z/L+1/2)2 1/25+(z/L−1/2)2

µo M 2 A

2L L L

Fz = √ −√ −√ +0

2 a2 + 4L2 a2 + L2 a2 + L2

µo M 2 A

Now the condition that a L, Fz = − X

2

Now comparing the problem with 1.11. From the previous problem inside the rod, σM = M on the end above the

plain, and σM = −M below the plain. So

µo M inside

Bz =

0 outside

Because of the constant induced field, this is similar to a constant electric field. In fact, the magnetic potential is

similar to the electric potential of plane capacitors with σE /o → µo σM . To create a capacitor, lets separate the real

rod, which is the one above the plane, and the image rod. Now on page 43, F/A = σ 2 /2o for a capacitor. Then

µo

F/A = σM 2

µ2o /2µo → F/A = µo σM 2

/2. Finally the value of σM , F/A = µo M 2 /2 → F = AM 2

2

42

1 z/L+1/2 z/L−1/2

Figure 9.2: B/µo Mo = 2

√ −√

1/25+(z/L+1/2)2 1/25+(z/L−1/2)2

43

44

Chapter 10

Problem Set 10

A long, hollow, right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b), and of relative permeability µr , is placed in a

region of initially uniform magnetic-flux density Bo at right angles to the field. Find the flux density at all points

in space, and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to Bo as a function of

log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0.5, 0.1. Neglect end effects.

Because there are no end effects, this problem can be reduced to a two dimensional problem. With the z-axis the

length of the cylinder and the Bo in the x-direction. With those being set, this is much like the problem done

in class. So ∇ · B = ∇ · (µH) = 0 and for inside and outside ∇ × H = 0. The solution is H = −∇Φm where

∞ ∞

an ρn (cos nϕ + sin nϕ) + bn ρ−n (cos nϕ + sin nϕ). All that remains is to solve for the

P P

Φ = ao + bo ln ρ +

n=1 n=1

coefficients. By symmetry the sine terms can be dropped. For ρ > b, an = 0, and for ρ < a, bn = 0. So the potential

is

( P∞ α ρn cos nϕ ρ<a

n

Pn=1

∞

βn ρn cos nϕ + γn ρ−n cos nϕ

Φm (ρ, ϕ) = a<ρ<b

Pn=1

∞ −n

n=1 δn ρ cos nϕ ρ>b

H has to be continuous at the boundaries. At ρ = b, the differential with respect to the radial is

∞ ∞

Bo X X

cos ϕ + nb−(n+1) δn cos nϕ = µr −n βn bn−1 − γn b−(n+1) cos nϕ

µo n=1 n=1

From this n = 1, so

Bo

+ δ1 b−2 = −µr β1 + µr γ1 b−2 (10.1)

µo

Bo

− + δ1 b−2 = β1 + γ1 b−2 (10.2)

µo

Likewise at ρ = a

α1 = µr β1 − µr γ1 a−2 (10.3)

−2

α1 = β1 + γ1 a (10.4)

(µr − 1) −2 (µr + 1) Bo

β1 = δ1 b − (10.5)

2µr 2µr µo

(µr + 1) (1 − µr ) Bo 2

γ1 = δ1 + b (10.6)

2µr 2µr µo

45

Doing the same with equations 3 and 4

(µr + 1)

β1 = α1 (10.7)

2µr

(µr − 1)

γ1 = α1 a2 (10.8)

2µr

(µr − 1) −2 Bo

α1 = δ1 b − (10.9)

(µr + 1) µo

(µr + 1) b2 Bo

α1 = δ1 a−2 − 2 (10.10)

(µr − 1) a µo

Equating 9 and 10

µ2r − 1 b2

a2

Bo 2

δ1 = 1 − 2 b (10.11)

b (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µo

−4µr b2 Bo

α1 = 2 2 2 2 (10.12)

(µr + 1) b − (µr − 1) a µo

−2 (µr + 1) b2 Bo

β1 = 2 2 2 2 (10.13)

(µr + 1) b − (µr − 1) a µo

−2 (µr − 1) b2 Bo 2

γ1 = a (10.14)

(µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µo

1 sin ϕϕ̂ ρ<a

H= − β1 − ρ2 cos ϕρ̂ + β1 + γρ21 sin ϕϕ̂

γ1

a<ρ<b

Bo δ1 Bo δ1

µo

+ ρ 2 cos ϕρ̂ − µo

+ ρ 2 sin ϕϕ̂ ρ>b

A circuit consists of a long thin conducting shell of radius a and a parallel return wire of radius b on axis inside. Of

the current is assumed distributed uniformly throughout the cross section of the wire, calculate the self-inductance

per unit length. What is the self-inductance if the inner wire is a thin tube?

Z

B · dl = µo Ienc (10.15)

So quickly, B is

µo I ρ

(

2π b2

ρ<b

µo I 1

B= 2π ρ

b<ρ<a

0 ρ>a

46

The energy of the magnetic field per length of the system is given by Eq. 5.148

Z Z

1 1

W = H · Bd3 x = B 2 d3 x

2 2µo

2 Z b 3 Z a

2π µo I ρ dρ dρ

= +

2µo 2π 0 b4 b ρ

2

µo I 2

a

π µo I 1 a

= + ln = 4 ln +1

µo 2π 4 b 16π b

1 2 µo I 2 a µo I 2 a

LI = 4 ln +1 ⇒ L= 4 ln +1 X

2 16π b 8π b

Now if the inner wire is a tube B = 0 for ρ < b, so there is only the middle term which yields a self-inductance per

unit length of

µo a

L= ln X

2π b

The figure (See Jackson pg. 232) represents a transmission line consisting of two, parallel perfect conductors of

arbitrary, but constant, cross section. Current flows down one conductor and returns via the other.

Show that the product of the inductance per unit length L and the capacitance per unit length C is

LC = µ (10.16)

where µ and are the permeability and the permittivity of the medium surrounding the conductors.

Z

µI

B · dl = µI ⇒ B =

2πρ

But inside the wire B = 0. The vector potential is

Z Z

µI µI ρ

Az = Bφ dρ = dρ ⇒ Az = − ln

2πρ 2π ρo

where ρo = a, b. The work per unit length can be found from Eq. 5.149

Z Z

1 1

W = J · Ad3 x = (Ja Adaa + Jb Adab )

2 2

Z a Z b

1 µI 2πI d 2πI d

= 2

ln ρ a dρ a + 2

ln ρ b dρ b

2 2π 0 πa b 0 πb a

2

b2 πI

1 µI a πI d d

= ln + ln

2 2π πa2 b πb2 a

µI 2

2

d

= ln

4π ab

Relating this to the self-inductance per unit length

µI 2 d2 d2

1 2 µ

LI = ln ⇒L= ln

2 4π ab 2π ab

From the second problem 1.7, the capacitance is

2π

C= (10.17)

d2

ln ab

47

Then

d2

µ 2π

LC = ln ⇒ LC = µ X

2π ab ln d2

ab

~ = Q r̂

E

2πo r

The potential between the two wire is

Z Z d−a2

Z d−a1

~ · d~l = Q dr dr

Φ= E +

2πo

a r a2 r

1

Q d − a2 d − a1

= ln + ln

2πo a1 a2

Q (d − a2 ) (d − a1 )

= ln

2πo a1 a2

Q

The capacitance is given by C = Φ

. Then

Q Q

C= = h i

Φ Q

ln (d−a2 )(d−a1 )

2πo a1 a2

2πo

=

(d−a2 )(d−a1 )

ln a1 a2

Since the distance between the wires is much large than their radii, d − a1 ≈ d − a2 ≈ d. Then capacitance reduces to

2π

C≈ o

d2

ln a1 a2

48

B µr

Figure 10.1: Bo = 2

(µr +1)2 −(µr −1)2 a

b2

49

50

Chapter 11

Problem Set 11

A dielectric sphere of dielectric constant and radius a is located at the origin. There is a uniform applied electric

field Eo in the x direction. The sphere rotates with an angular velocity ω about the a axis. Show that there is a

magnetic field H = −∇ΦM , where

5

3 − o a

ΦM = o Eo ω · xy (11.1)

5 + 2o r>

− o

Px = 3 Eo x̂ → Px = αEo x̂ (11.2)

+ 2o

r

8π 1

= −αo Eo ωa [Y2,1 − Y2,−1 ]

15 2

The potential is

σ 0 da0

Z

1

ΦM =

4π |x − x0 |

r

8π 1 a2 X 4π r< l

= −αo Eo ωa l+1

Ylm (θ, φ)×

15 2 4π 2l + 1 r>

Z

∗

(θ0 , φ0 ) Y2,1 (θ0 , φ0 ) − Y2,−1 (θ0 , φ0 ) sin θ0 dθ0 dφ0

Ylm

r

8π 1 a2 r< 2

= −αo Eo ωa 3

[Y2,1 (θ, φ) − Y2,−1 (θ, φ)]

15 2 5 r>

r " r #

8π 1 a2 r< 2

15

= −αo Eo ωa 3

−2 sin θ cos θ cos φ

15 2 5 r> 8π

3 − o r3

= o Eo ωa3 <5

sin θ cos θ cos φ

5 + 2o r>

5

3 − o a

ΦM = o Eo ωxz X

5 + 2o r>

51

11.2 Problem 2: Jackson 6.20

An example of the preservation of causality and finite speed of propagation in spite of the use of the Coulomb gauge

is afforded by a dipole source that is flashed on and off at t = 0. The effective charge and current densities are

Jz (x, t) = −δ(x)δ(y)δ(z)δ 0 (t) (11.4)

where the prime means differentiation with respect to the argument. This dipole is of unit strength and it points in

the negative Z direction.

(a) Show that the instantaneous Coulomb potential (6.23) is

1 z

Φ(x, t) = − δ(t) 3 (11.5)

4πo r

Using Eq. 6.23

d3 x −z 0 − z

! !

1 Z ρ 3 1 Z

0 0 0 0 1 ∂ 1 1 1 z

Φ(x, t) = d x = δ(x )δ(y )δ (z )δ(t) = − δ(t) = − δ(t) − = − δ(t) X

4πo |x − x0 | 4πo |x − x0 | 4πo ∂z 0 |z − z 0 | 4πo |x − ẑ 0 |3 4πo r3

(b) Show that the transverse current Jt with a factor of 2/3 multiplying the delta function coming from treating

the gradient of z/r3 according to (4.20).

2

0 3 3

Jt (x, t) = −δ (t) 3 δ(x) − + n(3 · n) (11.6)

3 4πr3 4πr3

1 ∂Φ 1 0 z

Jt = J − Jl = J − 2

∇ = −δ(x)δ(y)δ(z)δ 0 (t)ẑ + ∇ δ (t) 3

µo c ∂t 4π r

1 4π 3r̂(ẑ · r̂) − ẑ

= −δ(x)δ(y)δ(z)δ 0 (t)ẑ + δ 0 (t) δ(x)δ(y)δ(z)ẑ −

4π 3 r3

2 1 3

= −δ 0 (t) δ(x)ẑ − ẑ + r̂(ẑ · r̂) X

3 4πr3 4πr3

(c) Show that the electric and magnetic fields are causal and that the electric field components are (with Ey the

same as Ex except with cos φ replaced by sin φ),

1 c 3 3

Ex (x, t) = −δ 00 (r − ct) + δ 0 (r − ct) − 2 δ(r − ct) sin θ cos θ cos φ (11.7)

4πo r r r

0

1 c δ (r − ct) δ(r − ct)

Ez (x, t) = sin2 θδ 00 (r − ct) + (3 cos2 θ − 1) · − (11.8)

4πo r r r2

From section 6.3, A is causal, ∴ B is causal. Now for E. From equation 6.48

Z

µo 1

A= [J] d3 x

4π R ret

Z

∂A µo 1 ∂ R 1 0 ∂ 1

=− δ0 t − δ(x0 )ẑ + ∇ d3 x0

∂t 4π R ∂t c 4π ∂z 0 r0

dk 1 ∂ 2 ik(t−R/c) 1 0 ∂ 1 3 0

Z

µo 1 00 R µo

=− δ t− − e ∇ d x

4π r c 4π 2π R ∂t2 4π ∂z 0 r0

Now

eik(t−R/c) 1

∇02 = (−ik/c)2 eik(t−R/c) − eik(t−R/c) 4πδ(x − x0 )

R R

1 ∂ 2 eik(t−R/c)

= 2 2 − eikt 4πδ(x − x0 )

c ∂t R

52

With that

µ o c2 eik(t−R/c)

Z

∂A µo 1 00 dk ∂ 1

=− δ (t − R/c)ẑ − ∇02 + eikt δ(x − x0 ) ∇0 0 0 d3 x0

∂t 4π r 4π 2π 4πR ∂z r

dk eik(t−R/c) 0 ∂ 02 1 3 0

Z

µo 1 00 µo ∂ 1

=− δ (t − R/c)ẑ − ∇ ∇ d x + δ(t)∇

4π r 4πµo o 2π 4πR ∂z 0 r0 ∂z r

dk eik(t−R/c) 0 ∂

Z

µo 1 00 1 1 z

=− δ (t − R/c)ẑ + ∇ δ(x0 )d3 x0 − δ(t)∇ 3

4π r 4πo 2π R ∂z 0 4πo r

Now integrating the second term by parts

∂ eik(t−R/c)

Z

∂A µo 1 00 1 dk 1 z

=− δ (t − R/c)ẑ + ∇ δ(x0 )d3 x0 − δ(t)∇ 3

∂t 4π r 4πo 2π ∂z R 4πo r

dk ∂ eik(t−r/c)

Z

µo 1 00 1 1 z

=− δ (t − R/c)ẑ + ∇ − δ(t)∇ 3

4π r 4πo 2π ∂z r 4πo r

Again working with part of the second term

∂ ik 1 −ikr/c

∇ =∇ − − r = −∇ + e cos θ

∂z r cr r2 ∂z cr r2

2

2 2ik k −ikr/c −ikr/c ik 1 sin θ

= + − cos θe r̂ + e + θ̂

r3 cr2 c2 r cr r2 r

∂A µo 1 00 1 1 1 0 1 00 1 z

=− δ (t − R/c)ẑ + δ(t − R/c) − δ (t − R/c) 2 cos θr̂ + sin θ θ̂ + 2 δ (t − R/c) cos θr̂ − δ(t)∇ 3

∂t 4π r 4πo r3 cr 2 c r 4πo r

µo c3 1 00

c 1 1 0 1 00 1 z

=− δ (ct − R) cos θr̂ − sin θ θ̂ + 3

δ(ct − R) − 2 δ (ct − R) 2 cos θr̂ + sin θ θ̂ + δ (ct − R) cos r̂ − δ(t)∇ 3

4π r 4πo r r r 4πo r

1 c 1 0 1

00 1 z

=− δ (ct − R) − 2 δ(ct − R) 2 cos θr̂ + sin θ θ̂ − δ (ct − R) sin θ θ̂ − δ(t)∇ 3

4πo r r r 4πo r

∂A

E = −∇Φ −

∂t

1 z 1 c 1 0 1 1 z

= δ(t)∇ 3 − δ (ct − R) − 2 δ(ct − R) 2 cos θr̂ + sin θθ̂ − δ 00 (ct − R) sin θθ̂ − δ(t)∇ 3

4πo r 4πo r r r 4πo r

1 c 1 0 1

=− δ (ct − R) − 2 δ(ct − R) 2 cos θr̂ + sin θθ̂ − δ 00 (ct − R) sin θθ̂

4πo r r r

1 c 1 0 1

Ex = − δ (ct − R) − 2 δ(ct − R) (2 cos θ sin θ cos φ + sin θ cos θ cos φ) − δ 00 (ct − R) sin θ cos θ cos φ

4πo r r r

1 c 00 3 0 3

= −δ (r − ct) + δ (r − ct) − 2 δ(r − ct) sin θ cos θ cos φ

4πo r r r

1 c 1 0 1

Ey = − δ (ct − R) − 2 δ(ct − R) (2 cos θ sin θ sin φ + sin θ cos θ sin φ) − δ 00 (ct − R) sin θ cos θ sin φ

4πo r r r

1 c 3 3

= −δ 00 (r − ct) + δ 0 (r − ct) − 2 δ(r − ct) sin θ cos θ sin φ

4πo r r r

1 c 1 0 1 2 2 00 2

Ez = − δ (ct − R) − 2 δ(ct − R) 2 cos θ − sin θ + δ (ct − R) sin θ

4πo r r r

0

1 c δ (r − ct) δ(r − ct)

= sin2 θδ 00 (r − ct) + (3 cos2 θ − 1) · −

4πo r r r2

So the electric field is causal because the only time dependence is in the δ-functions. X

53

11.3 Problem 3: Jackson 6.11

A transverse plane wave is incident normally in vacuum on a perfectly absorbing flat screen.

(a) From the law of conservation of linear momentum, show that the pressure (called radiation pressure) exerted on

the screen is equal to the field energy per unit volume in the wave.

The total electromagnetic momentum in an infinitesimal volume for a small area, ∆A over a small time, ∆t,

∆P = g∆Ac∆t

The force due to the momentum, F = ∆P/∆t = g∆Ac. The pressure is then perpendicular to the force per area.

g∆Ac S

p= = gc = = energy per unit volume or u X

∆A c

(b) In the neighborhood of the earth the flux of electromagnetic energy from the sun is approximately 1.4 W/m2 .

If an interplanetary “sailplane” had a sail of mass 1 g/m2 of area and negligible other weight, what would be

its maximum acceleration in meters per second squared due to the solar radiation pressure? How does this

compare with the acceleration due to the solar “wind” (corpuscular radiation)?

The acceleration do the radiation pressure

arad = = ⇒ arad ≈ 4.67 × 10−3 m/s2

m/A 10−6

awind = = = 6.68 × 10 m/s

m/A 10−6

So arad awind X

54

Chapter 12

Problem Set 12

A uniformly magnetized and conducting sphere of radius R and total magnetic moment m = 4πM R3 /3 rotates about

its magnetization axis with angular speed ω. In the steady state no current flows in the conductor. The motion is

nonrelativistic; the sphere has no excess charge on it.

(a) By considering Ohm’s law in the moving conductor, show that the motion induces an electric field and a uniform

volume charge density in the conductor, ρ = −mω/πc2 R3 .

Here there are no free currents, so there is scalar potential that can describe the magnetic field. H = B/µo − M →

∇ · H = −∇ · M, then ∇2 ΦM = ∇ · M. Here M = M η (R − r) ẑ 1 , so

∂ ∂r

∇·M= M η(R − r) = −M δ(r − R)

∂z ∂z

z

= −M δ(r − R) = −M δ(r − R) cos θ

r

Then

1 M δ(r − R) cos θ 0 3 0

Z

2

∇ ΦM = −M δ(r − R) cos θ ⇒ Φ = d r

4π |r − r0 |

This integral can be solved using a multipole expansion as done with electrostatics for inside a sphere.

1 ∞ X 4π Z M δ(r 0 − R) cos θ 0

X ∗ 0 0 3 0 l

ΦM = Y lm(θ , ϕ )d r r Ylm (θ, ϕ)

l+1

4π l=0 m 2l + 1 r0

∞ l R2

s

1 X X 4π 4π Z

∗ l

= M Y10 Ylm dΩr Ylm

4π l=0 m=−l 2l + 1 3 Rl+1

∞ l

s

1 X X 4π 4π l 1 1

= M δl,1 δm,0 r Ylm = M r cos θ = Mz

4π l=0 m=−l 2l + 1 3 3 3

The magnetic field inside the sphere is H = −∇ · Φ = 13 M ẑ. The magnetic induction is

1 1 2

B = µo (H + M) = µo M ẑ + M ẑ ⇒ B = µo M ẑ

3 3 3

From Ohm’s Law

2 2

E = −v × B = − (ω × r) × B = µo M ω ẑ × (ẑ × r) = µo M ω (ẑ · rẑ − r)

3 3

2 1 µo mω

E = − µo M ω (xx̂ + y ŷ) = − (xx̂ + y ŷ)

3 2 R3

ρ 4 4 Mω mω

∇·E= = − µo M ω = − =−

o 3 3 o c2 πo πc2 R3

ρ mω mω

∇·E= =− ⇒ ρ=− X

o πo πc2 R3 ππc2 R3

1 Here η is a step function

55

(b) Because the sphere is electrically neutral, there is no monopole electric field outside. Use symmetry arguments

to show that only a quadrupole field exists outside and that the quadrupole moment tensor has nonvanishing

components, Q33 = −4mωR2 /3c2 , Q11 = Q22 = −Q33 /2.

The surface of the sphere has to have positive charge some place on it, just as it has to have negative charge on

it. These charges cancel out because there is no monopole term. Now considering a flip of the radial vector. This

obviously does not change the sign of the angular momentum. This will change the sign of ∇ and J, so the magnetic

field does not change signs. From this the magnetic induction does not change sign. Because ρ is independent of the

radial vector, it does not change sign. This means that under a radial flip, the problem is the same, so the odd terms

of l must vanish. Since the dipole is odd in l, it is zero, therefore the first nonvanishing term is the quadrupole.

Because of the azimuthal symmetry about z axis, the Qxx term can not be distinguished from the Qyy term. From

this, Qxx = Qyy . Because the quadrupole term is a traceless matrix, Qxx + Qyy + Qzz = 0 ⇒ Qxx = Qyy = −Qzz /2.

For the off diagonal terms, under x → −x, y, z → y, z are the Qxy and Qxz terms. From arguments before, which

are r → −r terms are 0, Qxy = Qxz = 0. Now for y → −y x, z → x, z, which are Qyx (which from before is 0) and

Qyz , are 0 from the fact that the is equivalent to r → −r.

(c) By considering the radial electric fields inside and outside the sphere, show that the necessary surface-charge

density σ(θ) is

1 4mω 5

σ(θ) = 1 − P 2 (cos θ) (12.1)

4πR2 3c2 2

2 µo M ω 2 2

E = − µo M ω (xx̂ + y ŷ)) = −∇Φ1 ⇒ Φ1 = x +y +C

3 3

µo M ω 2 µo M ω 2 2

x + y 2 + C ⇒ Φ1 =

Φ1 = r sin θ + C

3 ! 3

r

µo M ω 2 2 4π

= r 1− Y20 + C

3 3 5

r !

2 2 4π

= µo M ωr 1 − Y20 + C

9 5

For outside the sphere, there is no charge and no dipole terms, so the first no vanishing term is the quadrupole term.

The potential outside is

3

R

Φ2 = A2 Y20

r

r !

2 4π

Φ1 (R) = Φ2 (R) ⇒ µo M ωR2 1− Y20 + C = A2 Y20

9 5

q

Then C = − 92 µo M ωR2 and A2 = − 29 4π

5

µo M ωR2 . The displacement field is

(

− 23Mω

c2

r sin2 θr̂ − 23 M

c2

ω

r sin θ cos θθ̂ r<R

D= 2 M ω R5 ω R5

− 3 c2 r4 P2 (cos θ) r̂ − 23 M c2 r 4

sin θ cos θθ̂ r>R

56

From ∇ · D = ρ with ρ evaluated at r = R, the surface charge density becomes

2 Mω 2 Mω

σ(θ, ϕ) = − RP2 (cos θ) + R sin2 θ

3 c2 3 c2

2 Mω 2 Mω 2 2

=− RP 2 (cos θ) + R − P 2 (cos θ)

3 c2 3 c2 3 3

4 Mω 5

=− R 1 − P2 (cos θ)

9 c2 2

1 4mω 5

= 1 − P2 (cos θ)

4πR2 3c2 2

For Qzz

Z

2 3

Qzz = 2 ρr P2 (cos θ)d r

Z mω 1 4mω 5

2 3

= 2 − η(R − r) + 1 − P2 (cos θ) δ(r − R) r d r

πc2 R3 4πR2 3c2 2

!

4mω Z R 5

4

= −η(R − r) + 1 − P2 (cos θ) δ(r − R) r drd(cos θ)

c2 R 3 3 2

10 mωR2 Z −1 2

= (P2 (cos θ)) d(cos θ)

3 c2 1

4mωR2

Qzz = − X

3c2

(d) The rotating sphere serves as a unipolar induction device if a stationary circuit is attached by a slip ring to the

pole and a sliding contact to the equator. Show that the line integral of the electric field from the equator

contact to the pole contact (by any path) is E = µo mω/4πR

The EMF is given by

r=R,θ=0

Z r=R,θ=π/2

Z

E= E · dl = ∇Φ · dl = Φ(R, π/2) − Φ(R, 0)

r=R,θ=π/2 r=R,θ=0

µo M ωR2 2 2 µo M ωR2

= − µo M ωR2 + µo M ωR2 =

3 9 9 3

µo mω

E= X

4πR

An ideal circular parallel plate capacitor of radius a and plate separation d a is connected to a current source by

axial leads. The current in the wire is I(t) = Io cos ωt.

(a) Calculate the electric and magnetic fields between the plates to second order in powers of the frequency (or wave

number), neglecting the effects of fringing fields.

As in the static case Eθ = Eρ = 0 and Bρ = Bz = 0. From Gauss’s law in statics

σ Q Io

Ez = = =

o πa2 o −iωπa2 o

µo Io ρ

2πρBθ = µo o (−iω)πρ2 Ez ⇒ Bθ =

2πa2

From Faraday’s law, the next order correction is

∂Ez ∂B

∇×E= θ̂ = − = iωBθ θ̂

∂ρ ∂t

57

Then

iωµo Io ρ2

Z

Io

Ez (ρ) = Ez (0) − iω Bθ dρ ⇒ Ez d = −

−iωπa o

2 4πa2

2 2

Io 1ω ρ

Ez (ρ) = 1−

−iωπa2 o 4 c2

Now the correction to the B-field.

1 ∂(ρBθ ) ∂E

∇×B= = µo o = −iµo o ωEz ẑ

ρ ∂ρ ∂t

So

!

iµo o ω iµo o ω Io ρ2 1 ω 2 ρ4

Z

Bθ (ρ) = − Ez ρdρ = − −

ρ ρ −iωπa2 o 2 16 c2

!

µo Io ρ 1 ω 2 ρ2

Bθ (ρ) = 1−

2πa2 8 c2

Now for the time dependence, because the time dependence is of the form e−iωt = cos ωt − i sin ωt, the real parts are

2 2

Ez (ρ) = Io

ωπo a2

1 − 14 ωc2ρ sin ωt

2 2

X

Bθ (ρ) = µ2πa

o Io ρ

2 1 − 18 ωc2ρ cos ωt

(b) Calculate the volume integrals of we and wm that enter the definition of the reactance X, (6.140), to second

order in ω. Show that in terms of the input current Ii , defined by Ii = −iωQ, where Q is the total charge on

one plate, these energies are

Z

3 1 |Ii |2 d Z

3 µo |Ii |2 d ω 2 a2

we d x = , wm d x = 1 + (12.2)

4πo ω 2 a2 4π 8 12c2

o |E|2 |B|2

The energy in the fields is we = 4

and wm = µo 4

. From part a

o |E|2 o |Ii |2

we = =

4 4 (ωπo a2 )2

2

µo |Ii |2 ρ2 1 ω 2 ρ2

|B|

wm = ≈ 1+

µo 4 16π 2 a4 8 c2

The integral for we over all of space in between the plates

o |Ii |2 2 |Ii |2 d a 1 |Ii |2 d

Z Z

2 ρdρdθdz = 2 4

ρdρ =

4 (ωπo a ) 2 4πo ω a 0 4πo ω 2 a2

For wm

! !

µo |Ii |2 ρ2 1 ω 2 ρ2 µo |Ii |2 d 1 ω 2 ρ5

Z Z

3

1+ ρdρdθdz = ρ + dρ

16π 2 a4 8 c2 4π 2a4 8 c2

! !

µo |Ii |2 d a4 1 ω 2 a6 µo |Ii |2 d ω 2 a2

+ = 1+ X

4π 2a4 4 48 c2 4π 8 12c2

2

√ has C ' πo a /d, L ' µo d/8π, and that an estimate for the resonant

(c) Show that the equivalent series circuit

frequency of the system is ωres ' 2 2c/a. Compare with the first root of Jo (x).

From section 6.9, the capacitance

1 4ω 1 |Ii |2 d d πo a2

X= = = ⇒C=

ωC |Ii | 4πo ω a

2 2 2 ωπo a2 d

For the inductance

4ω µo |Ii |2 d ωµo d µo d

X = ωL = = ⇒L=

|Ii |2 4π 8 8π 8π

58

Resonance occurs when ωL = 1/ωC,

1 1 1

ωL = ⇒ω= √ = r

ωC LC µo d

πo a2

8π d

r

√

r

8 8c2

= = = 2 2c/a

µo o a2 a2

If the next term in the B-field is kept the inductance becomes

ω 2 a2

µo d

L= 1+

8π 12c2

The resonance is

−1 r

8c2 1 ω 2 a2 8c2 1 ω 2 a2 8c2

2 2 24 c

ω2 = 1+ ≈ 1 − = − ω ⇒ ω =

a2 12 c2 a2 12 c2 a2 3 5 a

So the further the electric field and the induced magnetic field are expand in power of ω, the closer the resonant

frequency will be to Jo (x) = 0, where x = ω. This seems logical because the first resonant frequency should occur

when half a wavelength is inside the cavity. X

59

60

Appendix A

Special Functions

Hi

61

Index

hydrogen, 2

62

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