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Sentence Outline

Topic: Relevance of manual computation in counting blood type results

Thesis statement: Manual computation is relevant in counting white blood cell in patient.


Overview of the white blood cell count
A. The importance of white blood cell is to play a role in defending the host against
infections and other insults. (Test explanation and related physiology)
1. There are five subtypes of white blood cells, and each serves a different function,
which means it's useful to know the count for all of them.
a) Lymphocytes use antibodies to attack certain viruses and bacteria
b) Neutrophils are especially good at combating bacteria.
c) Eosinophils target parasites and certain infections.
d) Monocytes respond to inflammation and replenish white blood cells
within bodily tissue.
e) Basophils, the rarest of the subtypes, attack certain parasites.
B. Interfering factors that can lead to increase and decrease of white blood cells in patients
may vary the diagnostic result. (Interfering factors)
1. Physical activity and stress may cause an increase in WBC and differential
2. Pregnancy (final month) and labor may cause increased WBC levels.
3. Patients who have had a splenectomy have a persistent, mild elevation of WBC
4. Drugs that may cause increased WBC levels include adrenaline, allopurinol,
aspirin, chloroform, epinephrine, heparin, quinine, steroids, and triamterine.
5. Drugs that may cause decreased WBC levels include antibiotics, anticonvulsants,
antihistamines, antimetabolites, antithyroid, drugs, arsenicals, barbiturates,
chemotherapeutic agents, diuretics, and sulfonamides.
C. Procedures that may take place in drawing white blood cell count in patients. (Procedure
and patient care)
1. Before the test is taken
a) Explain the procedure to the patient.
b) Tell the patient that no fasting is required.
2. During the actual test is taken
a) Collect approximately 5 to 7 ml of venous blood in a lavender-top tube.
3. After the test is taken
a) Apply pressure to the venipuncture site.
D. The meaning of an increase and decrease white blood cell count in patients test results
explains the diagnostic illness of the patient. (Test results and clinical significance)
1. Abnormal findings
a) Increased WBC count
b) Decreased WBC count

c) Increased and decreased differential count


Evolution of automated cell counters


There are limitations in manual method of white blood cell count.


There are advantages and disadvantages of automated cell analyzers.



Reference list