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V1. a) Differentiate between electrical, electronic and mechanical instruments with suitable
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b) A potentiometer is basically which type of instrument? Explain

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V2. a) Explain analog and digital modes of operation of instruments. Explain how the
resolution of digital instruments can be increased.
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b) Explain, how an electrodynamics type instrument is able to measure the true rms value
of a voltage as current irrespective of its waveform.
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V3. What is an instrument? Classify various types of electrical instruments. (2012-13) (5)
ANS: Measurement is the process of comparing an unknown quantity with an accepted standard
quantity. It involves connecting a measuring instrument into the system under consideration and
observing the resulting response on the instrument. The measurement thus obtained is a
quantitative measure of the so-called "true value" (since it is very difficult to define the true value,
the term "expected value" is used). Any measurement is affected by many variables; therefore the
results rarely reflect the expected value. For example, connecting a measuring instrument into the
circuit under consideration always disturbs (changes) the circuit, causing the measurement to differ
from the expected value. Some factors that affect the measurements are related to the measuring
instruments themselves.
Other factors are related to the person using the instrument. The degree to which a measurement
nears the expected value is expressed in terms of the error of measurement. Error may be
expressed either as absolute or as percentage of error. Absolute error may be defined as the
difference between the expected value of the variable and the measured value of the variable, ore
Where e=absolute errors;
Yn=expected value;
Xn=measured value;
Therefore %error = (absolute value/expected value )*100=(e/Yn)*100
Therefore %error=

It is more frequently expressed as an accuracy rather than error.

Therefore A=1Where A is the relative accuracy
Accuracy is expressed as % accuracy
a=A*100% (where a=%accuracy)
V1. A) What are the various types of errors occurring in electrical measurements? Explain
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B). what is the difference between absolute error and relative error ? Differentiate between
reproducibility and drift.
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V2.A) What are different types of systematic error? Discuss.
B) Explain the following terms:

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ANS: The static error of a measuring instrument is the numerical difference between the true value
of a
quantity and its value as obtained by measurement, i.e. repeated measurement of the same quantity
give different indications. Static errors are categorized as gross errors or human errors, systematic
errors and Random errors.
1. Gross Errors: This error is mainly due to human mistakes in reading or in using instruments or
errors in recording observations. Errors may also occur due to incorrect adjustments of instruments
and computational mistakes. These errors cannot be treated mathematically. The complete
elimination of gross errors is not possible, but one can minimize them .Some errors are easily
detected while others may be elusive. One of the basic gross errors that occur frequently is the
improper use of an Instrument the error can be minimized by taking proper care in reading and
recording the measurement parameter. In general, indicating instruments change ambient
conditions to some extent when connected into a complete circuit.
2. Systematic Errors
These errors occur due to shortcomings of, the instrument, such as defective or worn parts, or
ageing or effects of the environment on the instrument. These errors are sometimes referred to as
bias, and they influence all measurements of a quantity alike. A constant uniform deviation of the
operation of an instrument is known as a systematic error. There are basically three types of
systematic errors

(i) Instrumental, (ii) Environmental, and (iii) Observational

(i) Instrumental Errors
Instrumental errors are inherent in measuring instruments, because of their mechanical structure.
For example, in the D'Arsonval movement friction in the bearings of various moving components,
irregular spring tensions, stretching of the spring or reduction in tension due to improper handling
or over loading of the instrument. Instrumental errors can be avoided by
(a) Selecting a suitable instrument for the particular measurement applications.
(b) Applying correction factors after determining the amount of instrumental error.
(c) Calibrating the instrument against a standard.
(ii) Environmental Errors
Environmental errors are due to conditions external to the measuring device, including conditions
in the area surrounding the instrument, such as the effects of change in temperature, humidity,
barometric pressure or of magnetic or electrostatic fields.
These errors can also be avoided by (i) air conditioning, (ii) hermetically sealing certain
components in the instruments, and (iii) using magnetic shields.
(iii) Observational Errors
Observational errors are errors introduced by the observer. The most common error is the parallax
error introduced in reading a meter scale, and the error of estimation when obtaining a reading
from a meter.
V1- A) A three phase, 400V load has power factor of 0.6 lagging. The two wattmeters read a
total power of 20 KW. Find the reading of each wattmeter.
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B) Describe the principle of operation of an electrodynamics wattmeter.

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V2 A) Describe construction and working of 3-phase wattmeter. In a particular test the two
wattmeter readings are 4 kW and I Kw. Calculate the power and power factor if
(i) Both meters read direct
(ii)One meter connection reversed. (2012-13) (5)
B). A dynamometer wattmeter is used to measure the power factor of a20 pF capacitor. The
pressure coil of the wattmeter having a resistance 1000 Ohm and an inductive reactance of 15
ohm is connected across a 50 Hz supply. The current coil of the wattmeter, a variable resistor
R and the capacitor are connected in series across the same supply. The wattmeter deflection
is made zero by adjusting the value of R to 1.65 C. If the current coil resistance is 0.1 Q and
its inductance negligible, determine the power factor of the capacitor.
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ANS: Electrodynamic type instruments are similar to the PMMC-type elements except that the
magnet is replaced by two serially connected fixed coils that produce the magnetic field when
energized (see Fig.43.1). The fixed coils are spaced far enough apart to allow passage of the shaft
of the movable coil. The movable coil carries a pointer, which is balanced by counter weights. Its
rotation is controlled by springs. The motor torque is proportional to the product of the currents in
the moving and fixed coils. If the current is reversed, the field polarity and the polarity of the

moving coil reverse at the same time, and the turning force continues in the original direction.
Since the reversing the current direction does not reverse the turning force, this type of instruments
can be used to measure AC or DC current, voltage, or its major application as a wattmeter for
power measurement.

Operating Principle
Let us consider the currents in the fixed and moving coils are fi and respectively. The action of
electrodynamic instrument depends upon the force exerted between fixed and moving coils
carrying current. The flux density () produced by the fixed coil is proportional to miB2/wbmfi
(fixed coil current). The force on the conductors of the moving coil, for a given strength field, will
proportional to (moving coil current) and the number of turns of the moving coil. In case of
ammeter and voltmeter fixed and moving coils are connected in series and the developed torque is
due to the interaction of the magnetic fields produced by currents in the fixed and moving coils and
thus it will be proportional to miN2i(= = ).

Thus, dynamic instruments can be used for dc and ac measurements.

V1.A) Describe the constructional details of single phase induction type energy meter.
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B) Explain the various operating torques in an energymetey.
L.44.2 Construction of induction type energy meter
Induction type energy meter essentially consists of following components

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(a) Driving system (b) Moving system (c) Braking system and (d) Registering system.
Driving system: The construction of the electro magnet system is shown in Fig. 44.1(a) and it
consists of two electromagnets, called shunt magnet and series magnet, of laminated

The flux produced by this magnet is proportional to, and in phase with the load current.
Moving system: The moving system essentially consists of a light rotating aluminium disk
mounted on a vertical spindle or shaft. The
Braking system: Damping of the disk is provided by a small permanent magnet, located
diametrically opposite to the a.c magnets. The disk passes between the magnet gaps
Registering or Counting system: The registering or counting system essentially consists of gear
train, driven either by worm or pinion gear on the disc shaft, which turns pointers that indicate on
dials the number of times the disc has turned
Basic operation
Induction instruments operate in alternating-current circuits and they are useful only when the
frequency and the supply voltage are approximately constant. The most commonly used technique
is the shaded pole induction watt-hour meter, shown in fig.44.1 (b).

The rotating element is an aluminium disc, and the torque is produced by the interaction of eddy
currents generated in the disc with the imposed magnetic fields that are produced by the voltage
and current coils of the energy meter.
V1.A) What are the term measurements and measurement system ? Describe the
functional element of measurement system with block diagram.
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B) Differentiate between Null and Deflection method of measurement.

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The generalized measuring system consists of three main functional elements. They are,
1. Primary sensing element, which senses the quantity under measurement.
2. Variable conversion element, which modifies suitably the output of the primary sensing element
3. Data presentation element that renders the indication on a calibrated scale.

1. Primary Sensing Element

The measurement first comes into contact with primary sensing element where the conversion takes

place. This is done by a transducer which converts the measurement (or) measured quantity into a
usable electrical output. The transduction may be from mechanical, electrical (or) optical to any related
2. Variable Conversion Element
The output of the primary sensing element is in the electrical form suitable for control, recording and
display. For, the instrument to perform the desired function, it may be necessary to convert this output
to some other suitable for preserving the original information. This function is performed by the
variable conversion element. A system may require one (or) more variable conversion suitable to it.
(a) Variable Manipulation Element
The signal gets manipulated here preserving the original nature of it. For example, an amplifier accepts
a small voltage signal as input and produces a voltage, of greater magnitude. The output is the same
voltage but of higher value, acting as a voltage amplifier. Here the voltage amplifier acts as a variable
manipulation element since it amplifies the voltage. The element that follows the primary sensing
element in a measurement system is called signal conditioning element. Here the variable conversion
element and variable manipulation element are collectively called as Data conditioning element (or)
signal conditioning element.
(b) Data Transmission Element
The transmission of data from one another is done by the data transmission element. In case of
spacecrafts, the control signals are sent from the control stations by using radio signals.
The stage that follows the signal conditioning element and data transmission element collectively is
called the intermediate stage.
(c).Data Presentation Element
The display (or) readout devices which display the required information about the measurement, forms
the data presentation element. Here the information of the measured has to be conveyed for,
monitoring, Control (or) analysis purposes.

Q.6 V1. Explain the working and construction of electrodynamometer

type voltmeter

V1: Describe the working principle of Q-meter with suitable circuit diagram. The self
capacitance of a coil is to be measured by Q-meter. The first measurement result is fi=1.5
MHz and C1 550 pf. The second measurement result is f2=3 MHz and new value of tuning
capacitor is 110 pf. Find the distributed capacitance and inductance of the coil. (2010-11) (10)

V2: Discuss, with practical circuit, Q meter & its use to measure self capacitance of coil.
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V3: Write about a Q-meter on following points:
(i) Working principle
(ii) Practical Q-meter, and
(iii) Sources of error in it.

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V4: Describe the circuit and working of a Q meter. Calculate the value of self capacitance if
the measurement results are. F1 2 MHz and C1 500 pf. When the second frequency is
2.5 times F1, the tuning capacitor is 60 pf.
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ANS: The instrument which measures some of the electrical properties of coils and capacitors is
referred as Q-meter. The working principle of a Q-meter depends on the characteristics of a series
resonance circuits, i.e., the voltage drop across the coil or capacitors is equal to the applied voltage
times the Q factor of the circuit. Thus if the circuit subjected to a fixed voltage, the voltmeter
connected across the capacitor is calibrated to indicate the Q value directly. A series resonance
circuit and its voltage and current relationship at resonance conditions are illustrated in figure 8.1
(i) and fig 8.1 (ii) respectively.

At resonance condition,
XL = X C
XC=Capacitive reactance
XL=Inductive reactance
I =Current flowing through the circuit
E =Applied voltage
R =Resistance of the coil
The Q factor or the magnification of the circuit is defined as,

From the above equation it is clear that if the voltage E is maintained at a fixed level, the voltmeter
across the capacitor can be calibrated in terms of Q directly. The circuit arrangement of basic and
practical Q-meter is shown below.
The oscillator is a wide range RF oscillator that supplies the oscillations whose frequency lies
between 50 kHz to 50 MHz and delivers current to Rsh which is a shunt resistance of low value,
and is typically around 0.02Q. Therefore the Rsh introduces very negligible (almost no resistance)
resistance into the oscillator circuit. Thus it represents a voltage source of magnitude E with a very
low internal resistance. The voltage across Rsh is measured using a thermocouple meter that is
marked as 'multiply Q by meter. The voltage drop across the tuning capacitor or resonating
capacitor EC is measured by means of an

electronic voltmeter. The scale of this electronic voltmeter is calibrated in terms of Q values
directly. To carry out the measurement the unknown components is connected across the test
terminals and the circuit is adjusted to resonance using any one of the two methods given below.
By setting the frequency of the oscillator to a certain given value and adjusting the tuning capacitor
By presetting the capacitor to a required value and varying the frequency of oscillator.
The Q value indicate on the output meter should be multiplied by the index setting of the 'multiply
Q by meter to get actual, or accurate Q value. The indicated value of Q on the output meter is
known as 'circuit Q' since it includes the losses of voltmeter tuning capacitor and insertion resistor.
The effective Q value of the measured coil will be higher than indicated Q or circuit Q. This
difference is small therefore it can be neglected. However this difference is large if the resistance
of the coil is small compared to the insertion resistor value.
The inductance of the coil can be found from the known values of c (resonating capacitance) and /
(frequency). Since XC =XL
2 fL= 1 /2 fC
Therefore L=1 / (2 f ) 2 C Henry
V1: Draw the circuit of Kelvin's double bridge used for measurement of low resistances.
Derive the condition for balance.
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V2: A Kelvin bridge is balanced with: outer arm ratio as 100 Q : 1000 Q; inner ratio arm as
99.95 Q : 1000.7 Q; link resistance = 0.1 Q; standard resistance = 0.0038 Q. Calculate
unknown resistance.
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V3: Why is it difficult to measure low resistances using Whetstones Bridge? Explain how the
problem is overcome in measuring low resistance by use of Kelvins double Bridge.
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ANS: As we have discussed that Kelvin Bridge is a modified Wheatstone bridge and provides high
accuracy especially in the measurement of low resistance. It is because it incorporates the second
set of ratio arms as shown below:



In this the ratio arms p and q are used to connect the galvanometer at the correct point between j
and k to remove the effect of connecting lead of electrical resistance t. Under balance condition
voltage drop between a and b (i.e. E) is equal to F (voltage drop between a and c)

For zero
galvanometer deflection, E = F

Again we reaches to the same result i.e. t has no effect. However equation (2) is useful as it gives
error when,

V1: Describe the working of Anderson bridge for the measurement of inductance. Derive
equations for balance conditions and draw the phasor diagram under balance conditions.
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t6 /


V2: Derive the equations of balance for an Anderson's bridge. Draw the phasor diagram for
conditions under balance. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the bridge.
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ANS: The Anderson Bridge is a very important and useful modification of the Maxwell-Wein
bridge as shown in the fig 6.1 (a)

The balance condition for this bridge can be easily obtained by converting the mesh impedance
C,R3,R5 to a equivalent star with the star point 0 as shown in fig 6.1 (b) by using star/delta
As per delta to star transformation

Hence with reference to fig 6.1(b) it can be seen that

For balance bridge condition,


Equating the real terms and imaginary terms

And therefore

V1: What are the different, difficulties encountered in the measurement of high resistances?
Explain how these difficulties are overcome.
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V2: Discuss 'loss of charge' method for high resistance measurement.

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V3: What is three-terminal resistance? Explain its use. What are the difficulties in
measurement of high resistance? Explain the use of guard circuits.
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ANS: Loss of Charge Method - Measurement of High Resistance:
The circuit for this method is shown in fig. In the circuit C is a capacitor of known capacitance, V
is electrostatic volt-meter, R1 is the total leakage resistance of the capacitor and volt-meter and R
is the resistance to be measured. In this method the capacitor is first charged by means of a battery
to some suitable voltage by putting switch S on stud 1 and then allowed to discharge through the
resistances R and R1 by throwing switch S to stud 2. The time taken t for the potential difference
to fall from V1 to V2 during discharge is observed by a stop watch. The equivalent resistance of
R1 and R is given as
R = t/(C loge V1/V2 )

From the above expression the value of R can be determined. The test is then repeated with
unknown resistance R disconnected, the capacitor being discharged through R1 can also be
determined. Knowing the value of R and R1 the value of unknown resistance can be determined
form the relation
1/R = 1/R-1/R1

While measuring insulation resistance of a cable or a capacitor the test need not be repeated. In
this case C will be the capacitance of the cable (or capacitor) under test, which must be known
(may be determined by any method if not known) and R1 will be the insulation resistance to be
measured. NO external resistance is to be inserted in the circuit. The value of R1 then can be
obtained directly from the expression.
R = t/(C log V2/V1
This method of measurement is associated with serious difficulties and error such as (i) leakage
and absorption effects (ii) effect of time electrification and (iii) effect of temperature upon
insulation resistance.
V1: Discuss Maxwell inductance and Capacitance Bridge for measuring inductance. (2011-12) (10)
V2: How maxwells bridge is used inductance? Inductance-capacitance for measurement of
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ANS: Maxwell's bridge, shown in Fig. 1.1, measures an unknown inductance in of standard arm
offers the advantage of compactness and easy shielding. The capacitor is almost a loss-less
component. One arm has a resistance Rx in parallel with Cu and hence it is easier to write the
balance equation using the admittance of arm 1 instead of the impedance.The general equation for
bridge balance is

From equation of Zx we get

Equating real terms and imaginary terms we have


Maxwell's bridge is limited to the measurement of low Q values (1 -10).The measurement is

independent of the excitation frequency. The scale of the resistance can be calibrated to read
inductance directly. The Maxwell bridge using a fixed capacitor has the disadvantage that there an
interaction between the resistance and reactance balances. This can be avoids: by varying the
capacitances, instead of R2 and ft, to obtain a reactance balance. However, the bridge can be made
to read directly in Q. The bridge is particularly suited for inductances measurements, since
comparison on with a capacitor is more ideal than with another inductance. Commercial bridges
measure from 1 1000H. With 2% error. (If the Q is very becomes excessively large and it is
impractical to obtain a satisfactory variable standard resistance in the range of values required).
V1: What is the different classification of resistance, from the measurement point of view?

ANS : Measurement Of Resistance:

ANS: From the point of view of measurement, resistances are classified as
(i) low (resistances of 1 and about 100 k) and high (above 100 k) resistances.
Measurement of Low Resistances: The methods for such measurements are
Ammeter-Voltmeter Method: This is most simple and quick method of measurement of
resistance. It yields a moderately accurate value over a very wide range of resistances In this
method current through the resistor under test and the potential drop across it are simultaneously
measured. The readings are obtained by ammeter and voltmeter respectively. The attainable
accuracy depends primarily on the accuracy and ranges of the instruments used. There are two
ways in which the ammeter and voltmeter can be connected. In one method voltmeter is connected
directly across the load and unknown resistance is given as
XT = V/(I(1-v/(IRv )
Where V is voltmeter reading, I is the ammeter reading and Rv is the voltmeter resistance. In
second method the voltmeter is connected across the ammeter and unknown resistance, as shown
by dotted lines in Unknown resistance is given as XT = V/I - RA where RA is the ammeter


(A) potentiometer method
(B) Kelvin double bridge method and
(C) ohm-meter method.