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103 Ansichten17 SeitenIMPORTANT QUESUTOIN BANK OF UPTU LAST FIVE YEARS

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IMPORTANT QUESUTOIN BANK OF UPTU LAST FIVE YEARS

© All Rights Reserved

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103 Ansichten17 SeitenIMPORTANT QUESUTOIN BANK OF UPTU LAST FIVE YEARS

© All Rights Reserved

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PREPARED BY: REENA RANI

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

UNIT 1

Q.1

V1. a) Differentiate between electrical, electronic and mechanical instruments with suitable

examples.

(2010-11) (5)

b) A potentiometer is basically which type of instrument? Explain

(2011-12) (5)

V2. a) Explain analog and digital modes of operation of instruments. Explain how the

resolution of digital instruments can be increased.

(2011-12) (5)

b) Explain, how an electrodynamics type instrument is able to measure the true rms value

of a voltage as current irrespective of its waveform.

(2011-12) (5)

V3. What is an instrument? Classify various types of electrical instruments. (2012-13) (5)

ANS: Measurement is the process of comparing an unknown quantity with an accepted standard

quantity. It involves connecting a measuring instrument into the system under consideration and

observing the resulting response on the instrument. The measurement thus obtained is a

quantitative measure of the so-called "true value" (since it is very difficult to define the true value,

the term "expected value" is used). Any measurement is affected by many variables; therefore the

results rarely reflect the expected value. For example, connecting a measuring instrument into the

circuit under consideration always disturbs (changes) the circuit, causing the measurement to differ

from the expected value. Some factors that affect the measurements are related to the measuring

instruments themselves.

Other factors are related to the person using the instrument. The degree to which a measurement

nears the expected value is expressed in terms of the error of measurement. Error may be

expressed either as absolute or as percentage of error. Absolute error may be defined as the

difference between the expected value of the variable and the measured value of the variable, ore

=Yn-Xn

Where e=absolute errors;

Yn=expected value;

Xn=measured value;

Therefore %error = (absolute value/expected value )*100=(e/Yn)*100

Therefore %error=

Therefore A=1Where A is the relative accuracy

Accuracy is expressed as % accuracy

a=100%-%error

a=A*100% (where a=%accuracy)

Q.2

V1. A) What are the various types of errors occurring in electrical measurements? Explain

them.

(2012-13) (5)

B). what is the difference between absolute error and relative error ? Differentiate between

reproducibility and drift.

(2013-14) (5)

V2.A) What are different types of systematic error? Discuss.

B) Explain the following terms:

(5)

(I)

(2013-14) (5)

(2014-15)

Precision

(ii)

Accuracy

(iii)

Error

(ii)

Hysteresis.

ANS: The static error of a measuring instrument is the numerical difference between the true value

of a

quantity and its value as obtained by measurement, i.e. repeated measurement of the same quantity

give different indications. Static errors are categorized as gross errors or human errors, systematic

errors and Random errors.

1. Gross Errors: This error is mainly due to human mistakes in reading or in using instruments or

errors in recording observations. Errors may also occur due to incorrect adjustments of instruments

and computational mistakes. These errors cannot be treated mathematically. The complete

elimination of gross errors is not possible, but one can minimize them .Some errors are easily

detected while others may be elusive. One of the basic gross errors that occur frequently is the

improper use of an Instrument the error can be minimized by taking proper care in reading and

recording the measurement parameter. In general, indicating instruments change ambient

conditions to some extent when connected into a complete circuit.

2. Systematic Errors

These errors occur due to shortcomings of, the instrument, such as defective or worn parts, or

ageing or effects of the environment on the instrument. These errors are sometimes referred to as

bias, and they influence all measurements of a quantity alike. A constant uniform deviation of the

operation of an instrument is known as a systematic error. There are basically three types of

systematic errors

(i) Instrumental Errors

Instrumental errors are inherent in measuring instruments, because of their mechanical structure.

For example, in the D'Arsonval movement friction in the bearings of various moving components,

irregular spring tensions, stretching of the spring or reduction in tension due to improper handling

or over loading of the instrument. Instrumental errors can be avoided by

(a) Selecting a suitable instrument for the particular measurement applications.

(b) Applying correction factors after determining the amount of instrumental error.

(c) Calibrating the instrument against a standard.

(ii) Environmental Errors

Environmental errors are due to conditions external to the measuring device, including conditions

in the area surrounding the instrument, such as the effects of change in temperature, humidity,

barometric pressure or of magnetic or electrostatic fields.

These errors can also be avoided by (i) air conditioning, (ii) hermetically sealing certain

components in the instruments, and (iii) using magnetic shields.

(iii) Observational Errors

Observational errors are errors introduced by the observer. The most common error is the parallax

error introduced in reading a meter scale, and the error of estimation when obtaining a reading

from a meter.

Q.3

V1- A) A three phase, 400V load has power factor of 0.6 lagging. The two wattmeters read a

total power of 20 KW. Find the reading of each wattmeter.

(2010-11) (5)

B) Describe the principle of operation of an electrodynamics wattmeter.

(2012-13) (5)

V2 A) Describe construction and working of 3-phase wattmeter. In a particular test the two

wattmeter readings are 4 kW and I Kw. Calculate the power and power factor if

(i) Both meters read direct

(ii)One meter connection reversed. (2012-13) (5)

B). A dynamometer wattmeter is used to measure the power factor of a20 pF capacitor. The

pressure coil of the wattmeter having a resistance 1000 Ohm and an inductive reactance of 15

ohm is connected across a 50 Hz supply. The current coil of the wattmeter, a variable resistor

R and the capacitor are connected in series across the same supply. The wattmeter deflection

is made zero by adjusting the value of R to 1.65 C. If the current coil resistance is 0.1 Q and

its inductance negligible, determine the power factor of the capacitor.

(2013-14) (5)

ANS: Electrodynamic type instruments are similar to the PMMC-type elements except that the

magnet is replaced by two serially connected fixed coils that produce the magnetic field when

energized (see Fig.43.1). The fixed coils are spaced far enough apart to allow passage of the shaft

of the movable coil. The movable coil carries a pointer, which is balanced by counter weights. Its

rotation is controlled by springs. The motor torque is proportional to the product of the currents in

the moving and fixed coils. If the current is reversed, the field polarity and the polarity of the

moving coil reverse at the same time, and the turning force continues in the original direction.

Since the reversing the current direction does not reverse the turning force, this type of instruments

can be used to measure AC or DC current, voltage, or its major application as a wattmeter for

power measurement.

Operating Principle

Let us consider the currents in the fixed and moving coils are fi and respectively. The action of

electrodynamic instrument depends upon the force exerted between fixed and moving coils

carrying current. The flux density () produced by the fixed coil is proportional to miB2/wbmfi

(fixed coil current). The force on the conductors of the moving coil, for a given strength field, will

proportional to (moving coil current) and the number of turns of the moving coil. In case of

ammeter and voltmeter fixed and moving coils are connected in series and the developed torque is

due to the interaction of the magnetic fields produced by currents in the fixed and moving coils and

thus it will be proportional to miN2i(= = ).

Q.4

V1.A) Describe the constructional details of single phase induction type energy meter.

(2013-14) (5)

B) Explain the various operating torques in an energymetey.

L.44.2 Construction of induction type energy meter

Induction type energy meter essentially consists of following components

(2012-13) (5)

(a) Driving system (b) Moving system (c) Braking system and (d) Registering system.

Driving system: The construction of the electro magnet system is shown in Fig. 44.1(a) and it

consists of two electromagnets, called shunt magnet and series magnet, of laminated

construction.

The flux produced by this magnet is proportional to, and in phase with the load current.

Moving system: The moving system essentially consists of a light rotating aluminium disk

mounted on a vertical spindle or shaft. The

Braking system: Damping of the disk is provided by a small permanent magnet, located

diametrically opposite to the a.c magnets. The disk passes between the magnet gaps

Registering or Counting system: The registering or counting system essentially consists of gear

train, driven either by worm or pinion gear on the disc shaft, which turns pointers that indicate on

dials the number of times the disc has turned

Basic operation

Induction instruments operate in alternating-current circuits and they are useful only when the

frequency and the supply voltage are approximately constant. The most commonly used technique

is the shaded pole induction watt-hour meter, shown in fig.44.1 (b).

The rotating element is an aluminium disc, and the torque is produced by the interaction of eddy

currents generated in the disc with the imposed magnetic fields that are produced by the voltage

and current coils of the energy meter.

Q.5

V1.A) What are the term measurements and measurement system ? Describe the

functional element of measurement system with block diagram.

(2014-15) (5)

B) Differentiate between Null and Deflection method of measurement.

(2014-15) (5)

Ans:

The generalized measuring system consists of three main functional elements. They are,

1. Primary sensing element, which senses the quantity under measurement.

2. Variable conversion element, which modifies suitably the output of the primary sensing element

3. Data presentation element that renders the indication on a calibrated scale.

The measurement first comes into contact with primary sensing element where the conversion takes

place. This is done by a transducer which converts the measurement (or) measured quantity into a

usable electrical output. The transduction may be from mechanical, electrical (or) optical to any related

form.

2. Variable Conversion Element

The output of the primary sensing element is in the electrical form suitable for control, recording and

display. For, the instrument to perform the desired function, it may be necessary to convert this output

to some other suitable for preserving the original information. This function is performed by the

variable conversion element. A system may require one (or) more variable conversion suitable to it.

(a) Variable Manipulation Element

The signal gets manipulated here preserving the original nature of it. For example, an amplifier accepts

a small voltage signal as input and produces a voltage, of greater magnitude. The output is the same

voltage but of higher value, acting as a voltage amplifier. Here the voltage amplifier acts as a variable

manipulation element since it amplifies the voltage. The element that follows the primary sensing

element in a measurement system is called signal conditioning element. Here the variable conversion

element and variable manipulation element are collectively called as Data conditioning element (or)

signal conditioning element.

(b) Data Transmission Element

The transmission of data from one another is done by the data transmission element. In case of

spacecrafts, the control signals are sent from the control stations by using radio signals.

The stage that follows the signal conditioning element and data transmission element collectively is

called the intermediate stage.

(c).Data Presentation Element

The display (or) readout devices which display the required information about the measurement, forms

the data presentation element. Here the information of the measured has to be conveyed for,

monitoring, Control (or) analysis purposes.

type voltmeter

UNIT 3

QUESTION 1:

V1: Describe the working principle of Q-meter with suitable circuit diagram. The self

capacitance of a coil is to be measured by Q-meter. The first measurement result is fi=1.5

MHz and C1 550 pf. The second measurement result is f2=3 MHz and new value of tuning

capacitor is 110 pf. Find the distributed capacitance and inductance of the coil. (2010-11) (10)

V2: Discuss, with practical circuit, Q meter & its use to measure self capacitance of coil.

(2011-12) (10)

V3: Write about a Q-meter on following points:

(i) Working principle

(ii) Practical Q-meter, and

(iii) Sources of error in it.

(2013-14) (10)

V4: Describe the circuit and working of a Q meter. Calculate the value of self capacitance if

the measurement results are. F1 2 MHz and C1 500 pf. When the second frequency is

2.5 times F1, the tuning capacitor is 60 pf.

(2014-15) (10)

ANS: The instrument which measures some of the electrical properties of coils and capacitors is

referred as Q-meter. The working principle of a Q-meter depends on the characteristics of a series

resonance circuits, i.e., the voltage drop across the coil or capacitors is equal to the applied voltage

times the Q factor of the circuit. Thus if the circuit subjected to a fixed voltage, the voltmeter

connected across the capacitor is calibrated to indicate the Q value directly. A series resonance

circuit and its voltage and current relationship at resonance conditions are illustrated in figure 8.1

(i) and fig 8.1 (ii) respectively.

At resonance condition,

XL = X C

EC=IXL=IXC

E=IR

XC=Capacitive reactance

XL=Inductive reactance

I =Current flowing through the circuit

E =Applied voltage

R =Resistance of the coil

The Q factor or the magnification of the circuit is defined as,

From the above equation it is clear that if the voltage E is maintained at a fixed level, the voltmeter

across the capacitor can be calibrated in terms of Q directly. The circuit arrangement of basic and

practical Q-meter is shown below.

The oscillator is a wide range RF oscillator that supplies the oscillations whose frequency lies

between 50 kHz to 50 MHz and delivers current to Rsh which is a shunt resistance of low value,

and is typically around 0.02Q. Therefore the Rsh introduces very negligible (almost no resistance)

resistance into the oscillator circuit. Thus it represents a voltage source of magnitude E with a very

low internal resistance. The voltage across Rsh is measured using a thermocouple meter that is

marked as 'multiply Q by meter. The voltage drop across the tuning capacitor or resonating

capacitor EC is measured by means of an

electronic voltmeter. The scale of this electronic voltmeter is calibrated in terms of Q values

directly. To carry out the measurement the unknown components is connected across the test

terminals and the circuit is adjusted to resonance using any one of the two methods given below.

By setting the frequency of the oscillator to a certain given value and adjusting the tuning capacitor

By presetting the capacitor to a required value and varying the frequency of oscillator.

The Q value indicate on the output meter should be multiplied by the index setting of the 'multiply

Q by meter to get actual, or accurate Q value. The indicated value of Q on the output meter is

known as 'circuit Q' since it includes the losses of voltmeter tuning capacitor and insertion resistor.

The effective Q value of the measured coil will be higher than indicated Q or circuit Q. This

difference is small therefore it can be neglected. However this difference is large if the resistance

of the coil is small compared to the insertion resistor value.

The inductance of the coil can be found from the known values of c (resonating capacitance) and /

(frequency). Since XC =XL

2 fL= 1 /2 fC

Therefore L=1 / (2 f ) 2 C Henry

QUESTION 2:

V1: Draw the circuit of Kelvin's double bridge used for measurement of low resistances.

Derive the condition for balance.

(2011-12) (10)

V2: A Kelvin bridge is balanced with: outer arm ratio as 100 Q : 1000 Q; inner ratio arm as

99.95 Q : 1000.7 Q; link resistance = 0.1 Q; standard resistance = 0.0038 Q. Calculate

unknown resistance.

(2012-13) (10)

V3: Why is it difficult to measure low resistances using Whetstones Bridge? Explain how the

problem is overcome in measuring low resistance by use of Kelvins double Bridge.

(2013-14) (10)

ANS: As we have discussed that Kelvin Bridge is a modified Wheatstone bridge and provides high

accuracy especially in the measurement of low resistance. It is because it incorporates the second

set of ratio arms as shown below:

\--

LIBR

In this the ratio arms p and q are used to connect the galvanometer at the correct point between j

and k to remove the effect of connecting lead of electrical resistance t. Under balance condition

voltage drop between a and b (i.e. E) is equal to F (voltage drop between a and c)

For zero

galvanometer deflection, E = F

Again we reaches to the same result i.e. t has no effect. However equation (2) is useful as it gives

error when,

QUESTION 3:

V1: Describe the working of Anderson bridge for the measurement of inductance. Derive

equations for balance conditions and draw the phasor diagram under balance conditions.

(2010-11) (10)

t6 /

(10X

V2: Derive the equations of balance for an Anderson's bridge. Draw the phasor diagram for

conditions under balance. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the bridge.

(2011-12) (10)

ANS: The Anderson Bridge is a very important and useful modification of the Maxwell-Wein

bridge as shown in the fig 6.1 (a)

The balance condition for this bridge can be easily obtained by converting the mesh impedance

C,R3,R5 to a equivalent star with the star point 0 as shown in fig 6.1 (b) by using star/delta

transformation

As per delta to star transformation

Simplifying,

And therefore

QUESTION 4:

V1: What are the different, difficulties encountered in the measurement of high resistances?

Explain how these difficulties are overcome.

(2012-13) (10)

V2: Discuss 'loss of charge' method for high resistance measurement.

(2011-12) (10)

V3: What is three-terminal resistance? Explain its use. What are the difficulties in

measurement of high resistance? Explain the use of guard circuits.

(2010-11) (10)

ANS: Loss of Charge Method - Measurement of High Resistance:

The circuit for this method is shown in fig. In the circuit C is a capacitor of known capacitance, V

is electrostatic volt-meter, R1 is the total leakage resistance of the capacitor and volt-meter and R

is the resistance to be measured. In this method the capacitor is first charged by means of a battery

to some suitable voltage by putting switch S on stud 1 and then allowed to discharge through the

resistances R and R1 by throwing switch S to stud 2. The time taken t for the potential difference

to fall from V1 to V2 during discharge is observed by a stop watch. The equivalent resistance of

R1 and R is given as

R = t/(C loge V1/V2 )

From the above expression the value of R can be determined. The test is then repeated with

unknown resistance R disconnected, the capacitor being discharged through R1 can also be

determined. Knowing the value of R and R1 the value of unknown resistance can be determined

form the relation

1/R = 1/R-1/R1

While measuring insulation resistance of a cable or a capacitor the test need not be repeated. In

this case C will be the capacitance of the cable (or capacitor) under test, which must be known

(may be determined by any method if not known) and R1 will be the insulation resistance to be

measured. NO external resistance is to be inserted in the circuit. The value of R1 then can be

obtained directly from the expression.

R = t/(C log V2/V1

This method of measurement is associated with serious difficulties and error such as (i) leakage

and absorption effects (ii) effect of time electrification and (iii) effect of temperature upon

insulation resistance.

QUESTION 5:

V1: Discuss Maxwell inductance and Capacitance Bridge for measuring inductance. (2011-12) (10)

V2: How maxwells bridge is used inductance? Inductance-capacitance for measurement of

inductance.

(2012-13) (10)

ANS: Maxwell's bridge, shown in Fig. 1.1, measures an unknown inductance in of standard arm

offers the advantage of compactness and easy shielding. The capacitor is almost a loss-less

component. One arm has a resistance Rx in parallel with Cu and hence it is easier to write the

balance equation using the admittance of arm 1 instead of the impedance.The general equation for

bridge balance is

Also

independent of the excitation frequency. The scale of the resistance can be calibrated to read

inductance directly. The Maxwell bridge using a fixed capacitor has the disadvantage that there an

interaction between the resistance and reactance balances. This can be avoids: by varying the

capacitances, instead of R2 and ft, to obtain a reactance balance. However, the bridge can be made

to read directly in Q. The bridge is particularly suited for inductances measurements, since

comparison on with a capacitor is more ideal than with another inductance. Commercial bridges

measure from 1 1000H. With 2% error. (If the Q is very becomes excessively large and it is

impractical to obtain a satisfactory variable standard resistance in the range of values required).

QUESTION 6:

V1: What is the different classification of resistance, from the measurement point of view?

(10)

ANS: From the point of view of measurement, resistances are classified as

(i) low (resistances of 1 and about 100 k) and high (above 100 k) resistances.

Measurement of Low Resistances: The methods for such measurements are

Ammeter-Voltmeter Method: This is most simple and quick method of measurement of

resistance. It yields a moderately accurate value over a very wide range of resistances In this

method current through the resistor under test and the potential drop across it are simultaneously

measured. The readings are obtained by ammeter and voltmeter respectively. The attainable

accuracy depends primarily on the accuracy and ranges of the instruments used. There are two

ways in which the ammeter and voltmeter can be connected. In one method voltmeter is connected

directly across the load and unknown resistance is given as

XT = V/(I(1-v/(IRv )

Where V is voltmeter reading, I is the ammeter reading and Rv is the voltmeter resistance. In

second method the voltmeter is connected across the ammeter and unknown resistance, as shown

by dotted lines in Unknown resistance is given as XT = V/I - RA where RA is the ammeter

resistance.

(A) potentiometer method

(B) Kelvin double bridge method and

(C) ohm-meter method.