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Solutions Manual to

Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

BALKEMA Proceedings and Monographs


in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences

Solutions Manual to
Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

William G. Pariseau
Malcolm McKinnon Endowed Chair,
Department of Mining Engineering,
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

LONDON / LEIDEN / NEW YORK / PHILADELPHIA / SINGAPORE

2008 Taylor & Francis


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assumed by the publishers nor the author for any damage to the
property or persons as a result of operation or use of this
publication and/or the information contained herein.
British Librar y Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Pariseau, W.G.
Solutions manual for elements of design analysis in rock mechanics /
W.G. Pariseau.
p. cm.
ISBN 978-0-415-45725-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-203-93250-6
(e-book : alk. paper) 1. Underground construction. 2. Structural
design. 3. Rock mechanics. I. Title.
TA712.P29 2007
624.15132076dc22
2007041118
Published by: Taylor & Francis/Balkema
P.O. Box 447, 2300 AK Leiden,The Netherlands
e-mail: Pub.NL@tandf.co.uk
www.balkema.nl, www.tandf.co.uk,
www.crcpress.com
ISBN 0-203-93250-1 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN: 9780415457255 (pbk)


ISBN: 9780203932506 (ebk)

Contents

Introduction

Basics
Review of Stress
Review of Strain and Elasticity

1
5
21

Slope stability

39

Planar Block Slides


Wedge Failures
Rotational Slides
Dynamics, Toppling

39
60
73
83

Shafts

87

Single, Naturally Supported Shafts


Supported Shafts, Liners, Bolts, Rings
Multiple Shafts

87
128
149

Tunnels

157

Naturally Supported Tunnels


Supported Tunnels
Rock Mass Classification Schemes, RQD

157
161
191

Entries in stratified ground

193

Naturally Supported Roof


Bolted Roof

193
202

Pillars in stratified ground

230

Three-dimensional excavations

299

3D Caverns
Back Fill
Cable Bolting

299
305
312

VI

Contents

Subsidence

320

Chimney Caving
Combination Support
Subsidence Troughs

320
334
345

Introduction

Basics
1.

Identify the three major categories of equations needed to calculate rock mass
motion. Give examples.
(a) Physical laws
e.g. conservation (balance) of linear momentum
F = P
where
F is resultant of external forces
P is time rate of linear momentum.
(b) Kinematics (geometry of motion)
e.g. a = v where a and v are acceleration and velocity
u where xx is normal strain in the x-direction and u is
e.g. xx =
x x-direction displacement.
(c) Material laws
e.g. = E is the one-dimensional form of Hookes law of linear elasticity.
and are stress and corresponding strain, E is youngs modulus.

2.

Given: = mass density


Explain why or why not
=
M


dV
V

where M = mass of body with volume V.


Solution:
dm
by definition
dV
where dm is a mass element with volume dV.
= 0 and
Conservation of mass requires M


d
=
dm
M
dt
B

d
0=
( dV)
dt
V


0=
( dV + dV)
=

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Now dV is not generally zero because motion may cause dV to change. Hence

 = dV (Since M
= 0)
M
3.

Two types of forces in mechanics are contact forces and body forces. Water
pressure is a contact force and weight is a body force.

4.

Show that the center of mass of a boulder in flight travels along its original
trajectory even if it disintegrates.
Solution:
By definition, the mass center position is s and

Ms = r dm

r
ma

where r = s + r and r  is position relative to


the mass center.
+ Ms = Ms since M
=0
Now Ms

Ms = v dm where v = r is velocity


Hence M s = B a dm where a = v is acceleration
But according to Newtons second law
F = P

d
=
v dm
dt

F =

a dm
V

F = Ms
which shows that the mass center moves like a mass particle regardless of law the
mass of the body is distributed.
5.

Given: Static factor of safety as FS =


where R = resisting force
D = driving force
Show: FS < 1 a > 0.

R
D

Solution:
F = ma
that is D R = ma since F = D R (sum algebraic of external forces)

Introduction

Hence D(1 FS) = ma


if FS < 1, a > 0
Note: If FS > 1, a < 0 but when the body considered is at rest, a = 0 because of
equilibrium (if in motion, the considered body will slow down, decelerate).
6.

Given: Sandstone cylinder


D = diameter
h = length (height)
L
=2
D
F = vertical (axial) load
Find:
(a) Normal and tangential forces N, T acting on an inclined plane (angle to the
vertical).
(b) Average normal and shear stresses , on the inclined plane in terms of the
average vertical stress v = F/A.
Note: Area of an ellipse is ab where a, b are major & minor semi-axes.
Solution:
x

x

F
N

N
y
or
b

y

(b)

(a)

Considering the second alternative


N = F cos , T = F sin
where the minus arises from the axes chosen in (b)
A = ab
D
a=
by inspection
2

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


D
2

b=

cos
N
F sin cos
= , =
D2
A
4

=
=
=

, F = v A & A =

D2
4
D2
v 4 cos2
,
D2
4
v cos2 &

D2
4
2

v D
sin cos
4
D2
4

= v sin cos

Given: Rectangular prism


F

F
s
A

F
 s0
A
A
p

T
 s0
A
A

h
p

7.

F cos2

Find: N, T, , .
Solution:
Free body diagram
F

A
A2

H1
A1
A

u
T

H2

Introduction 5

F(normal direction) = 0
0 = N F cos H1 sin + H2 sin
N
A
F
(H1 H2 )sin
=  cos
A
A
v A cos
p(A1 A2 )sin
A
=

,
A

A
=
1
2
A
A
sin
cos
cos

= v cos2 p sin2

D2
N = (v cos p sin )
cos
2

, N

F(tangential direction) = 0
0 = T + F sin + H2 cos H1 cos
T = F sin + (H1 H2 ) cos
T
= 
A
v A sin
p(A1 A2 )cos
A
=
+
:
A

A
=
1
2
A
A
sin
cos
= v sin cos + p cos sin
= (v p)sin cos

T = A

T = [(v p)sin cos ]


8.

D2
cos

The equation
Ms =

r dm
V

that defines the mass center of a material body is purely geometrical and is thus
a kinematic type of relationship.
9.

The equation

t
simply defines a stress rate, says nothing about physical or mechanical behavior
and thus is a kinematic relation relating to geometry of motion.
=

10.

Darcys law is a material law because it relates dependent variables (v, h) and
thus says something about material behavior. Recall: the independent variables
are position and time.

Review of Stress
11.

Given: 2D stress state with tension (+)


xx = 2,500 yy = 5,200 xy = 3,700 and units in psi.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Find: 1 , 3 and direction.

5,200

Solution:

3,700

From notes

1
3

xx + yy

3 = 89 psi
= +55

tan 2 =
=



xy
1
(
2 xx

s1  7,789

yy )
3,700

35

5,000)
tan 2 = 2.7407
2 = 70

1
(2,500
2

= 35

12.

= 3,850 [3,939]

1 = 7,789 psi

or

2,500

2

xx yy
+ (xy )2
2
1/2


2,500 + 5,200
2,500 5,200 2
2
=

+ (3,700)
2
2
=

55

s3  89

= +55

Given: Problem 11 data


xx = 2,500 yy = 5,200
(tension+)
Find: max .

xy = 3,200 psi

Solution:
From notes
1/2


xx yy 2
2
max =
+ (xy )
2
1/2


2,500 5,200 2
2
=
+ (3,200)
2
max = 3,939 psi

tmax  3,939 psi


2

100

1
3

t min 

9
3,93

10

psi

Introduction

tan 2 =
=

12 (xx yy )
xy


2,5005,200
2

3,700
= 0.36486

tan 2
2 = 20
= 10

or = 100

13.

Given: 2D stress state with tension (+)


xx = 17.24 Mpa yy = 35.86 xy = 25.52
Find: 1 , 3 , .
Solution:
1
3

Formulas:

1/2

xx yy 2
2
+ (xy )
2
1/2


17.74 + 35.86
17.24 35.86 2
2
=
+ (25.52)

2
2
xx + yy
=

1
3

= 26.55 [27.17]

1 = 53.72 MPa

3 = 0.62 MPa

35.86
25.52

17.24

tan 2 =

+55

xy

yy )
(2)(25.52)
=
17.24 35.86
tan 2 = 2.741
2 = 70.0 , 110

1 , 3

1
(
2 xx

= 35 , +55

1
35

s1  53.72 MPa

3
55
0.62

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

14.

Given: Problem 13 data:


xx = 17.24 MPa yy = 35.86 xy = 25.52
Find: max , .
Formulas

max =

=

xx yy
2

1/2

2
+ (xy )

17.24 35.86
2

1/2

2
+ (25.52)

max = 27.17 MPa

tmax  27.17 MPa

y
1
t min

55

tan 2 =

Pa

10

17 M

27.


12 (xx yy )
xy

12 (17.24 35.86)
25.52
= 0.3648
=

tan 2

2 = 20.0 , 200
= 10 , 100
15.

Given: xx = 2,500 yy = 5,200 xy = 3,700 psi and


xz = 0 yz = 0 zz = 400 psi
Find: 1 , 2 , 3 .
Solution:
Assume tension is positive. The plane that zz acts on is shear-free and therefore
is a principal plane. Thus, zz is a principal stress. Also (from prob. 11) in the
xy-plane
1 = 7,789 & 3 = 89 psi
1 = 7,789, 2 = 4,000(zz ) & 3 = 89 psi

Introduction

16.

Given: Problem 15 data:

Find: The maximum shear stress and orientation of associated plane.


Solution:

tmax  3,939 psi

Since xz = yz = 0, it seems


max = 3,939 psi : = 12 (1 3 )

= 10

10

must see in x-y view

(from problem 12)


17.

Given: xx = 17.24 MPa yy = 35.86 MPa zz = 27.59 MPa xy = 25.52


yz = 0 zx = 0
Find: 1 , 2 , 3 .
Solution:
Assume tension is positive. The plane that zz acts on is a shear-free plane
(yz = zx = 0) and therefore is a principal plane. Thus, zz is a principal stress.
From problem 13,

1 = 53.72 MPa
in x-y plane
3 = 0.62 MPa
2 = zz = 27.59 MPa
1 = 53.72, 2 = 27.59, 3 = 0.62 MPa
Given: Problem 17 data:
Find: Maximum shear stress and orientation
Solution:
tmax  27.17 MPa y

Because yz = zx = 0
1
and
max = (1 3 )
2
max = 27.17 MPa
= 10

(from problem14)

10

18.

10

10

19.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: xx = 5,200 yy = 2,500 xy = 3,700 psi


with tension(+)
Find: 1 , 3 , .
Solution:
1
3

1
3

1/2

xx yy 2
2
+ (xy )
2
1/2


5,200 + 2,500
5,200 2,500 2
2
=
+ (3,700)

2
2

xx + yy
=

= 3,850 3,939

1 = 7,789 psi

3 = 89 psi
tan 2 =
=

xy
yy )
3,700

1
(
2 xx

2,500)

tan 2 = 2.7407
2 = 70
1
(5,200
2

s3  89
x

35

= 35
or = +55

20.

Given: 2D stress state


xx = 35.86 yy = 17.24
in MPa (tension +)
Find: 1 , 3 , , sketch.

s1  7,789

xy = 25.52

Solution:
1
3

1/2

xx yy 2
2
+ (xy )
2
1/2


35.86 + 17.24
35.86 17.24 2
2
=
+ (25.52)

2
2
xx + yy
=

= 26.53 27.17

Introduction

1 = 53.72
3 = 0.62

y
3

s3  0.62


1 , 3 MPa

tan 2 =

55

yy )
25.52

1
(35.86
2

= 35 , + 55

1
s1  53.72 MPa

21.

xy
1
(
2 xy

17.24)
tan 2 = 2.7411
2 = 70 , 110

35

11

Given: xx = 3,000 yy = 2,000 zz = 4,000


where units are psi & compression (+)
Find: 1 , 2 , 3 & directions.

xy = 0

zx = 0

yz = 2,500

Solution:
By inspection, the x-direction shear stresses are zero and so the yz-plane is a
principal plane (x-direction is principal). In the yz plane:
1
3
1
3

yy + zz
=

yy zz
2

1/2

2
+ (xy )

= 3,000 2,693
z

34.1

s1  5,693 psi

s3  307 psi
55.9
y
y
x

SKETCH

1 = 5,693 psi
3 = 307 psi
xx = 3,000 xx = 2
2 = 3,000 psi

1 , 3

12

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(1 is inclined 55.9 to the y-axis as shown in sketch)


tan 2 =
=

yz
1
(
2 yy

zz )
2,500

1
(2,000
2

tan 2 = 2.5
2 = 68.2
= 34.1
or

22.

= +55.9

4,000)

Given: xx = 3,000 yy = 2,000 zz = 4,000 xy = 0 zx = 0 yz = 2,500 psi


with compression (+)
Find: aa , bb , cc , ab , bc , ca , where (abc) is rotated about the z-axis 30 CCW.
Solution:
(1) Establish table of direction cosines
(2) Apply Formula (abc) = R(xyz)Rt
z, c

PP
b

30

PP OLD
x
NEW PPP
P
a
cos 30
b
cos 120
c
cos 90

cos 60
cos 30
cos 90

cos 90
cos 90
cos 0

1 1
0

3 2

[R] = 1 1
0
2
3
0 0 1

60
30

a
x

120

30

60
3

1

I n t r o d u c t i o n 13

(more generally for z-axis rotation)


c = cos
s = sin
= rotation angle

0
xx xy xz
c s 0
0 xy yy yz s
c 0
1
xz yz zz
0
0 1




s 0
(cxx + sxy ) (sxx + cxy )
c 0 (cxy + syy ) (sxy + cyy )
0 1
(cxz + syz ) (sxz + cyz )

c s
(abc) = s c
0 0

c
= s
0
2
(c xx + s2 yy + 2scxy )
= [scxx + scyy + (c2 s2 )xy ]
(cxz + syz )

xz
yz
zz

[scxx + scyy + (c2 s2 )xy ]


(+s2 xx + c2 yy 2csxy )
(sxy + cyz )

(cxz + syz )
(sxz + cyz )
zz

1
& c2 = (1 + c2)
2
1
c2 s2 = c2 & s2 = (1 c2)
2
s2 = 2sc



xx yy
xx + yy

+
=
cos 2 + xy sin 2

aa

2
2




xx + yy
xx yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2D part bb
2
2




xx yy

sin 2 + xy cos 2

ab
ba
ab
2

cc = zz

bc = cb = xz sin + yz cos 3D part

ac = ca = xz cos + yz sin

since: c2 + s2 = 1

Plug in: = 30 etc.



3,000 + 2,000 3,000 2,000
aa
=

cos 60 0. sin 60
bb
2
2

aa
= 2,500 250
bb
cc = 4,000


3,000 2,000
ab =
sin 60 + 0. cos 60
2
ab = 433
bc = 0. sin 30 + 2,500 cos 30
bc = 2,165
ac = 0. cos(30 ) + 2,500 sin(30 )
ac = 1,250

14

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

aa = 2,750 psi

bb = 2,250 psi

cc = 4,000 psi
ab = 433 psi

bc = 2,165 psi

ca = 1,250 psi

23.

Given: xx = 20.69 yy = 13.79 xy = 0


in MPa and compression is positive.
Find: 1 , 2 , 3 and orientations, sketch.

(abc)

zz = 27.59 zx = 0

Solution:

yz = 17.24

The x-direction shear stresses, xy and xz are


zero, xx is a principal stress, x- is a principal
direction and the yz-plane is a principal plane.
In the yz-plane

yy + zz
1
=

3
2

2

1/2

yy zz
+ (yz )2
2
1/2



13.79 + 27.59
13.79 27.59 2
1
=
+ (17.24)2

3
2
2

1
= 20.69 18.57
3

1 = 39.26 Mpa
3 = 2.12 Mpa

z
1

2 = xx = 20.69 Mpa
= +55 ,

tan 2 =
=

s1  39.26 MPa

yz
1
(
2 yy

zz )
17.24

1
(13.79
2

27.59)

tan 2 = 2.499
2 = 68.2 , 111.8

3
a*  55.9
s3  2.12 MPa

2
x
s2  20.69 MPa

= 34.1 , 55.9
= 55.9

Introduction

24.

15

Given: Stress state in problem 23,


Find: Stress state (aa . . . ca ) relative to (abc) rotated 30 CCW about z.
Solution:
(1) Establish axes and direction cosines.
PP

PP OLD
x
NEW PPP
P
a
cos 30
b
cos 120
c
cos 90

c
b

cos 60
cos 30
cos 90

cos 90
cos 90
cos 0

30
y
60

rotation matric [R] is

1
3

[R] = 1

2
0

30

a
x

3
1

2
30

60
3

1
2
1

3
0

120
1

1

(2) apply formula (abc) = [R] (xyz)[R]t (more generally for z-axis rotation)
c = cos , s = sin , = rotation angle

0
xx xy xz
c s 0

0
s
c 0
xy yy yz
1
xz yz zz
0
0 1




s 0
(cxx + sxy ) (sxx + cxy )
c 0 (cxy + syy ) (sxy + cyy )
0 1
(cxz + syz ) (sxz + cyz )

c s
(abc) = s c
0 0

c
xz
= s
yz
0
zz
2

(c xx + s2 yy + 2scxy )
[scxx + scyy + (c2 s2 )xy ] (cxz + syz )
2
2
2
2

= [scxx + scyy + (c s )xy ] (+s xx + c yy 2csxy )


(sxz + cyz )
(cxz + syz )
(sxy + cyz )
zz

16

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Since: c2 + s2 = 1 & c2 s2 = c2, c2 = 12 (1 + c2), s2 = 12 (1 c2), & s2 = 2sc



xx + yy
xx yy

=
+
cos 2 + xy sin 2
aa

2
2




xx + yy
xx yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
bb
2D part
2
2




xx yy

sin 2 + xy cos 2

ab
ba
ab
2

cc = zz

bc = cb = xz sin + yz cos 3D part

ac = ca = xz cos + yz sin
Plug in: = 30 etc.
aa
bb
aa
bb

20.69 + 13.79 20.69 13.79

cos 60 0. sin 60
2
2

= 17.24 1.73

aa = 18.97 Mpa
bb = 15.51
cc = 27.59


20.69 13.79
ab =
sin 60 + 0. cos 60
2
ab = 2.99 Mpa
bc = 0. sin 30 + 17.24 cos 30
bc = 14.93 Mpa
ac = 0. cos 30 + 17.24 sin 30
ac = 8.62 Mpa
Summary:
aa
bb
cc
ab
bc
ca

= 18.97 Mpa

= 15.51 Mpa

= 27.59 Mpa
= 2.99 Mpa

= 14.93 Mpa

= 8.62 Mpa

(abc)

I n t r o d u c t i o n 17

25.

Given: 2D rotation about an axis


b
xx + yy
= m
Find: Invariate
2
Solution:

xx + yy xx yy
aa
=

cos 2 xy sin 2
bb
2
2
xx + yy
aa + bb
m =
=
2
2

u
z, c

and since orientation of a, b is arbitrary m is invariant w.r.t rotation (2D).


26.

Given: 2D axis rotation


$1/2
#
2
Find: m = 12 (xx yy )2 + xy
invariant
Solution:
From rotation formula.


xx yy
aa bb
=
cos 2 + xy sin 2
(1)
2
2


xx yy
(2) ab =
sin 2 + xy cos 2
z
Square (1) and (2) then add to obtain




xx yy 2
aa bb 2
(3)
+ (ab )2 =
+ (xy )2
2
2
Using cos2 2 + sin2 2 = 1 take square root of (3) to obtain
m (a, b) = m (x, y) is invariant
&1/2
%
(xx yy )2
1
2
Note: m = 2 (1 3 ) = +
+ (xy )
2

&
xx xy
An alternative is to look at the 2D stress state as a 2 2 array
xy yy
Form the characteristic equation then look at principal invariant combina2
tions to obtain results. [2 (xx + yy ) + (xx yy xy
) = 0 is the characteristic
equation].
27.

Given: NX-core 2 18 in. (5.40 cm) diameter, L/D = 2.0 axial load F = 35,466 lbf
(158.89 kN)
Find:
(1) Stress state relative to (r z)
(2) Stress relative to (abc) rotated to 60 dip.

18

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(3) directly calculate cc and compare with rotation equation result


(4) directly calculate ac and compare.
Solution:
z

D2
4
()(2.125)2
=
4

szz  F/A

A=

F  35,466 lbf
(158.89 kN)

A = 3.5466 in.2

35,466
3.5466
zz = 10,000 psi

rr = = 0
r = z = zr = 0

&

(22.90 cm2 )


158.89
2.290
(69.38 Mpa)

zz =

(Cylindrical
coords)

(5.40)2
4

(1) (rz)

by inspection,
vertical loading.

D
F
z(u)
szz  10,000 psi (other ss, ts  0)
(69.38 MPa)

d

60

z(u)

y(N)


c
x(E)

60

b, y(n)

[R] = 0
s

cos 90
cos 0
cos 90

cos 150
cos 90
cos 60

1
2

s = sin 60 =
2

c = cos 60 =

60

60
a

PP
PP OLD
x
NEW PPP
P
a
cos 60
b
cos 90
c
cos 30



I n t r o d u c t i o n 19

[R] = 0

3
2

00
(xyz) = 0 0
00


3
0

1 0

1
0
2

0
0
zz

(abc) = R(xyz)Rt

1
3
3
1

00 0 2 0 2
2
2

= 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 104 3

1
3
1
0

0
2
2
2
2

3
1
104 3
0 0 2 2 0 2

= 0 0

0 1 0
0

104
1
3
00

0
2
2
2

4
4
10 3
10 3
3
3
+
0

69.38
0

69.38

4
4
4

(abc) =

0
0
0
0
0
0

104
69.38
3
104 3
0
69.38 0

4
4
4
4
 
 

3
3

aa =
104 psi

69.38
MPa

bb = 0 psi




10

69.38 MPa
cc =
psi
z c
4
4
(abc)

check: x a

0
ab = 0 psi

yb

' (

' (

69.38 MPa
ac =
104 psi

0
bc = 0 psi

zz xy
zz + xx
cc
=

cos 2 xz sin 2
aa
2
2


zz xx
ca =
sin 2 + xz cos 2
2

20

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics



10,000 10,000
1

0
2
2
2



1 1
cc

: checks
= 10,000
aa
2 4
' (
10,000
3
ac =
: checks
2
2
cc
aa

bb = yy = 0: checks
From Problem 7.
F

ab = bc = 0
z = F/A
N = F cos 60

A
c

T = F sin 60
D2
A=
4
A
A =
cos
= 60
cc =
= N/A
z A cos2
=
A 

4 1
= 10
psi
4
 
1
= 69.38
MPa
4
(4)

N
T

60
A

 
1
104 psi checks
4
 
1
cc =
69.38 MPa
4

cc =

ac =
T
= 
A
z A sin 60 cos 60
=
' A(  
' ( 
1
1
3
3
= 104
, 69.38
2
2
2
2
' (
3
ac =
104 psi checks
4
' (
3
=
69.38 MPa
4

(3)

(4)

Introduction

21

Review of Strain and Elasticity


28.

Given: Strain rosette data, quarry floor


(0) = 1,480 in/in. (45) = 300 in/in. (90) = 2,760 in/in.
E = 12.7(106 ) psi v = 0.27
tension (+)
N(y)
Find:
(45)
(1) xx , yy , xy in/in.
(2) zz , yz , yx (psi)
(3) xx , yy , xy (psi)
PLAN VIEW
(4) zz (in/in.)
(5) yz , zx
E
(6) 1 , 2 , 3 (directions)
60
(90)
N
(7) 1 , 2 , 3 (magnitudes)
)
(0
(8) 1 , 2 , 3 (magnitudes)
75
(9) 1 , 2 , 3 (directions)
120
(10) v (volume change/unit) if
relieved by overcovering.
Solution:
Equations of transformation strain
Alt.1
xx + yy
xx yy
+
cos 2a + xy sin 2a
2
2
xx + yy
xx + yy
b =
+
cos 2b + xy sin 2b
2
2
xx + yy
xx + yy
c =
+
cos 2c + xy sin 2c
2
2

a = 30 b = 75 c = 120
a =

Alt.2

Find relative to (abc) then rotate to xyz


(0) = 1,480 in/in. = a
a + b
+ ab
(45) = 300 in/in. =
2
(90) = 2,760 in/in. = b
(a + b )
2
1
= 300 (1,480 2,760)
2
= +1,820 in/in.

ab = (45)

ab

(x)

22

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(transformation rotation of axes to x-y from a-b)


xy
yy

xy
yy

a + b
a b

cos[2(30)] ab sin[2(30)]
2
2
' (
 
1
3
= (2,120) (640)
(1,820)
2
2

xy
yy

= 2,120 320 1,576



=

3, 376 in/in.
864 in/in.


xy


a b
=
sin[2(30)] + ab cos[2(30)]
2
' (
 
1
3
= 640
+ 1,820
2
2

xy = 1,464 min/in.
xx = 3,376
yy = 864 in/in.
xy = +1,464

(1)

zz = +1,568
By inspection:
(2)

zz = zx = zy = 0
(stress free surface)
Alt.1
xx + yy
2
xx yy

b = S + D cos 2(75 ) + T sin 2(75 ) D =


2
c = S + D cos 2(120 ) + T sin 2(120 ) T = xy
a = S + D cos 2(30 ) + T sin 2(30 )


3
1

3 1 S
D
{} =
1

2
2 T


1
3
1
2
2
1
2

S=

Introduction

240

1
150

60
1

23

)
))
)
3 )
)1 1
)
)
2
2 )
)
'
(
)
)





) 3 1 )
3
1
1 3
3
3
)1
) = (1)
+

(1)

+
+
(1)
+
)
)
4 4
4
4
4 4
2
2 )
)
)
)

)
)
)1 1 3 )
)
)
2
2
=2
)
)
)a Sa Da )*
)
)
S = ))b Sb Db ))
) c Sc D c )
)
))
)
1
3 )
)
)
) a
2
2 )
  ))

1 ) 3 1 ))
=
)
)
2 )b 2
2 ))
)

)
)
) 1 3 )
)
) c
2
2
a + c
S =
2
1,480 2,760
S =
2
S = 2,120 in/in.
)
)
)
3 ))
)1 a
)
2 ))
 )
)
1 )
1 ))
D =
1 b
)
2 )
2 ))

)
)
3)
)
)
)1 c
2
'
'
'
(
(
(
 
1
1
3 1
3
3
3
=
a

+ b

c +
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

24

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

1
[1,480( 3 + 1) + 300(2 3) + 2,760(1 3)]
4
1
D = [4,043 + 1,039 2,020]
4
D = 1,256 in/in.

D=

xx = S + D
= 2,120 1,256
xx = 3,376 in/in.
yy = S D
yy = 2,120 + 1,256
yy = 864 in/in.
)
)
)1
)
)
1 ))
T = )1
2)
)
)
)
)1

1
2

)
)
a ))
)
)
)
b ))
)
)
)
c )

3
2
1

2
'
(
(
  '


1
1
1 1
3
3 1
=
a +
b
+ c

2
2
2
2 2
2
2

1
= [1,480( 3 1) (300)(2) 2,760(1 3)]
4
1
= [1,083 600 + 7,541]
4
T = +1,464 in/in.

xy = 1,464 in/in.
[xy = 2,928 in/in.]
xx = 3,376 in/in.
yy = 864 in/in.
xy = 1,464 in/in.
(3) Hookes law

Exx = xx vyy vzz & 2xy = xy = xy

G
1

Eyy = yy vzz vxx & 2yz = yz = G yz


1
Ezz = zz vyy vxx & 2zx = zx = zx
G

(1)

I n t r o d u c t i o n 25

zz = 0 & yz = zx = 0
E
xx =
(xx + vyy )
1 v2
E
yy =
(yy + vxx )
1 v2
xy = G(2xy )
12.7(106 )
[3,376(106 ) + 0.27(864)]
1 (0.27)2
= 13.7(3,376 233)

xx =

xx = 49,438 psi
yy = 13.7[864 + 0.27(3,376)]
yy = 24,325 psi
xy = G(2xy )
12.7(106 )(2)(1,464)
2(1 + 0.27)
= 14,640 psi

=
xy

xx = 49,438 psi
yy = 24,325 psi
xy = +14,640 psi

(3)

(4) Ezz = zz vxx vyy


zz = 0: by inspection, fraction free surface
0.27
(49,438 24,325)
12.7(106 )
zz = +1,568(106 )

zz =

zz = +1,568 in/in
(5) yz = zx = 0: by inspection

yz =

 

1
1
yz , xz =
xz
G
G

yz =

1
yz = 0
2

xy =

1
yz = 0
2

(4)

26

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(6) By inspection: The z-direction is a principal


direction. In the x-y plane
tan 2 =
=

z(u)
y(N)
S1  0 psi

xy
1
(
2 xx

S2  17,594 psi

yy )
14,640

1
[49,438
2

(24,325)]

65
x(E)

tan 2 = 1.1659
2 = 49.4

25

= 24.7

S3  56,169 psi
SKETCH (tension )

(7) S2 = 0.
S1
S3

S1
S3



xx + yy
x y 2
=

+ (xy )2
2
2
49,438 24,325
=
2

1/2

49,438 + 24,325 2
2

+ (14,640)
2
= 36,882 19,287

S1 = 56,169 psi
(7)

S3 = 17,594 psi
(a)

(8) The principal strains coincide in direction


with the principal stresses when the
material is isotropic.
S1 = 1 = 0 S3 = 3 = 56,169 psi
S2 = 2 = 17,594 psi

1
y(N)

Hookes Law

24.7

E1 = 1 v2 v3
(12.7) 106 1 = 0 0.27(17,594 56,169)
1 = +1,568 in/in
(Parallel to z-dir, = zz ) check,
E2 = 2 v3 v1
12.7(106 )2 = 17,594 0.27(56,169)
2 = 19,121 in/in.
E3 = 3 v1 v2
(106 ) 12.7 3 = 56,169 0.27(17,594)
3 = 40,487 in/in.

24.3

2
x(E)
3

(b)

Sketch

Introduction

27

(v will be equal but opposite during over covering


v = x + y + z = 1 + 2 + 3
= +(40,487 + 19,121 1,568)in/in.
v = 58,040 in/in. (expansion)
29.

Given: xx = 1,500, yy = 2,000, zz = 3,500


xy = 600, yz = 300, zx = 500
Find: 1 , 3 (zx-plane) of sketch.
Solution:
[comp.(+) units = psi]
z
sz  3,500 psi

z
13.3

500 psi
Tzx
s3  1,382

sx  1,500
x

s1  3,618 psi


comp.()

x
SKETCH

tan 2 =
=

zx
1
(
2 zz

xx )
500

1
(3,500
2

1,500)

tan 2 = 0.5
2 = 26.6
= 13.3

1
3

1/2

zz xx 2
2
+ (zx )
2

1/2

3,500 1,500 2
3,500 + 1,500
2

=
+ (500)
2
2
zz + xx
=

28

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

1
3


= 2,500 1,118

1 = 3,618 psi
3 = 1,382 psi
Given (in MPa): xx = 10.35 yy = 13.79
2.07 zx = 3.45

zz = 24.14

xy = 4.14

yz =
z

where x = east y = north z = up


Compression is (+), units are MPa
Find: Secondary principal stresses in the zxplane. 1 , 3 ,

24.14
3.45

Solution:
tan 2 =
=


10.35

zx
1
(
2 zz

xx )
3.45

1
(24.14
2

10.35)

tan 2 = 0.5004
2 = 26.6 , 153.4

 = 13.3 , 76.7
1
3

1
3

13.3

30.

zz + xx
2

1/2

zz xx 2
2

+ (zx )
2
24.14 + 10.35
 2

24.14 10.35 2

2
&1/2
+ (3.45)2

s3  9.54

s1  24.96

Sketch


= 17.25 7.71
1 = 24.96 MPa
3 = 9.54 MPa,
 = 13.3

I n t r o d u c t i o n 29

31.

Given: xx = 2,000 yy = 3,000 zz = 4,000 xy = 200 yz = 300 zx =


225 in in/in. and compression is (+) x = east, y = north, z = up E = 5(106 ) psi,
G = 2(106 ) psi
Find: The stresses (xx , yy , zz , xy , yz , zx )
Solution:
Hookes law
xx =

E
((1 v)xx + vyy + vzz )
(1 + v)(1 2v)

yy = similar, permute subscripts


zz =
xy = Gxy
Note:
E
v=
yz =
1
2G
5
zz =
v= 1
4
v = 0.25
xx =
E
5(106 )
=
= 8.0(106 ) psi
(1 + v)(1 2v)
(1.25)[1 2(0.25)]
xx = 8(106 )[(1 0.25)2,000 + 0.25(3,000) + 0.25(4,500)]106 = (8)(3,375)
xx = 27,000 psi
yy = 8(106 )(106 )[0.75(3, 000) + 0.25(4,500 + 200)]
yy = 31,000 psi
zz = 8(106 )(106 )[0.75(4,500) + 0.25(2,000 + 3,000)]
zz = 37,000 psi
xy = 2(106 )(200)(106 )
xy = 400 psi
yz = 2(106 )(300)(106 )
yz = 600 psi
zx = 2(106 )(225)(106 )
zz = 450 psi
32.

Summary:
xx = 27,000 psi
yy = 31,000
zz = 37,000
xz = 400
yy = +600
zx = +450

Given: Cylindrical test cylinder, confining pressure = 3,000 psi,


compression = 3,000 psi
zz = 3,000, rr = 3,000, = 3,000 rz = 0, z = 0, r = 0
E = 2.4(106 ) psi

v = 0.20

isotropic

axial

30

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Find:
(1) rr , , zz , rz , z , r
(2) zz for zz = 0
(3) Strain energy and density
Solution:
Hookes law
1
(zz v vrr ), etc.
E
1
= r , etc.
G
 6 
10
=
(1 2v)(3,000)
2.4

(1) zz =
rr
zz

(1)

rr = = zz = 750 in/in.
r = z = zr = 0
1
(zz vrr v )
E
= 0.25(3,000 + 3,000)

(2) zz = 0 =
zz

(2)

zz = 1,500 psi
(3) Strain energy W, strain energy density (per unit volume)
one form:

1 2
V
2
2
( + yy
+ zz
) (xx yy + yy zz + zz xx )
2E xx
E
1 2
2
2
+
( + yz
+ zx
)
2G xy

another form:
1
(rr rr + + zz zz + r r + z z + zr zr )
2
1
= [3,000 750(106 )(3) + 0. + 0. + 0.]
2
3
Strain energy
= 3.375(lbf-in./in )

per unit volume (density)

W = V  

(2.125)2 (4.25)
= 3.375
4
W = 50.9 lbf-in.

(Strain energy)

I n t r o d u c t i o n 31

33.

Given: xx = 2,000 yy = 3,000 zz = 4,500 xy = 200 yz = 300 zx = 225


x = east, y = north, z = up units are micrometers per meter, E = 34.48 GPa,
G = 13.79 GPa
Find: Stresses for a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, elastic response.
Solution:
By Hookes law



E

xx =
(1 v)xx + vyy + vzz

(1 + v)(1 2v)

yy =

zz =

xy = G xy

yz =

=
zx
E
1
2G
34.48
v=
1
2(13.79)
v = 0.25

with v =

and
34.48
E
=
= 55.17 GPa.
(1 + v)(1 2v)
(1 + 0.25)(1 0.5)
then xx = (55.17)(109 )[(1 0.25)2,000 + 0.25(3,000) + 0.25(4,500)]106
= 55.17(109 )[3,375]106
xx = 186.2 MPa
yy = 55.17(109 )[0.75(3,000) + 0.25(4,500 + 200)]
yy = 213.8 MPa
zz = 55.17(109 )[0.75(4,500) + 0.25(2,000 + 300)]
zz = 255.2 MPa
xy = (13.79)(109 )(106 )(200)
xy = 2.76 MPa
yz = 13.79(109 )(106 )300
yz = 4.14 MPa

32

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

zx = 13.79(109 )(106 )(225)


zx = 3.10 MPa

34.

Given: Cylindrical coordinates


p = 20.69 MPa = rr = zz = 20.69 MPa
Find:
(1) rr , , zz , rz , z , r
(2) zz for zz = 0
(3) strain energy and density
NX-core L/D = 2 E = 16.55 GPa

v = 0.2

rz = z = r = 0

G =?

Solution:
(1) Hookes law
1
rz , etc.
G
= z = z = 0

rz =
rz

implies :
(1)a

rz = z = r = 0
1
v
v
rr zz
E
E
E
=

rr =

zz =

rr = = zz =


1 2v
(20.69 MPa)
E

1 0.4
(20.69)106
16.55(109 )
rr = 750(106 )meter/meters
=

(2) zz = 0 zz = v(rr + )
= 0.25(20.69 + 20.69)
zz = 10.35 MPa
(3) Strain energy W, density =
One form:
=

W
V

1 2
v
2
2
( + yy
+ zz
) (xx yy + yy zz + zz xx )
2E xx
E
1 2
2
2
+
+ zx
)
( + yz
2G xy

I n t r o d u c t i o n 33

Second form:
1
(nn nn + + zz zz + r r + z z + zr zr )
2
1
= [(20.69)(106 )(750)(106 )(3) + 0 + 0 + 0]
2
= 2.33(104 ) N-m/m3

W = V

= 2.33(104 )
(5.4)2 (104 )(10.8)(102 )
4
W = 5.76 N-m
35.

Show that under complete lateral restraint that under gravity load
(1) Sv = z


v
(2) Sh = SH =
Sv
1v
where = Specific weight, z = depth, v = Poissons ratio, homogeneous, isotropic
rock.
Solution:
Complete lateral restraint means no horizontal strain, displacement. From
Hookes law
Exx = 0 = xx vyy vzz
Eyy = 0 = yy vzz vxx
Eliminate zz to obtain xx = yy, then back substitute to obtain
xx = yy =

v
zz
1v

where: x = east y = north z = up (vertical)


v
v
1v
(yy) (zz)

h = H =
(xx)
From stress equations of equilibrium

yy
xx
=
= 0 & xy = yz = zx = 0
x
y
zz

+ = 0 and
z
zz = z + constant
at z = 0 surface zz = 0

(2)

34

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Constant = 0
zz = z
If z is depth (opposite of + vertical up), and compression is +, then
zz = z
i.e. Sv = z
36.

Given: NX-core L/D = 2,


uniaxial compression

E = 10(106 ) psi

v = 0.35

(1)

axial (failure) = 0.1%.

Find:
(1) Axial load and stress at failure
(2) Relative displacement between ends at failure.
Solution:
Hookes law
Ezz = zz vrr v
Unconfined: rr = = 0
zz = 0.1(10)2 (10)(106 )
zz = 10,000 psi
F = Azz

= (2.125)2 (104 )
4
F = 35,466 lbf.
zz =
=

failure load (1a)

failure load (1b)

z
 Bottom
zz dz
Top

= 0.1(102 )(4.25 in)


= 0.00425 in.

rel

37.

Given: NX-core, L/D = 2, E = 68.97 GPa,


v = 0.35 f = 0.1.
Find:
(1) Axial load (kN) and stress (MPa) at failure
(2) Relative end displacement (m).
Solution:
Hookes law
Ezz = zz vrr v

rel. disp. ends. at failure (2)

I n t r o d u c t i o n 35

Unconfined rr = = 0
zz = (0.001)(68.97)109
zz = 68.97 Mpa
F = zz A
= 68.97(103 )kN
F = 158 kN


4

(5.40)2 (104 )

by definition
z
 10.8 cm
=
zz dz

zz =

= (0.001)(10.8 cm)(10)
= 0.108 cm
38.

Given: Gravity loading in flat compression is positive ave = average specific


weight to any depth, v = Poissons ratio, z = depth, water bearing Ss 250 ft thick
at 1,300 ft pressure at Ss top is 80 psi
Find: Total and effective stresses at center sandstone.
Solution:
Sv = ave z


250
Sv = ave 1,300 +
2

Sv = 1,425ave /144



v
Sh = SH =
1,425 ave /144

1v

total stresses at Ss center (1a) (in psi)

Effective stress:
Sv = Sv p

Sh = SH
= Sh p = SH p
250
p = 80 psi + w
2
(125)
= 80 + (62.4)
144
p = 135 psi

36

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

 

ave

Sv = 1,425
135

144 



v
ave

Sh = SH
1,425
135
=

1v
144

39.

psi effectives stresses (1b)

Given: Gravity loading in flat strata compression positive ave = average specific weight to any depth, v = Poissons ratio, z = depth, water bearing sandstone
76.2 m thick at z = 396 m at z = 396 m
p(top) = 552 kPa
Find: Effective and total stresses at center depth of sandstone.
Solution:
Sv = ave z


76.2
= ave 396 +
12
Total stress: Sv = 434ave
+
3
ave (kN/m )
Sv (kPa)
2
Sv (kN/m )
Under complete lateral constraint via Hookes law
v
Sv
1v
v
Sh = SH =
434 ave (kPa)
1v
Sh = SH =

Effective stress:
Sv = Sv p

by definition


Sh = SH
= SH p = Sh p


76.2
p = 552 kPa + w
2
w = sp. wt. water = 9.87 kN/m3

p = 552 + 376
p = 928 kPa at center of Ss .
Sv = 434ave 928 (kPa)
v

Sv = SH
=
434ave 928 (kPa)
1v

Introduction

40.

37

Given: Gravity loading and properties table, complete lateral restraint


Surface
Find: Sh = SH (Ss bottom) & (Lm top).
Solution:
v
Sv
1v


120
Sv = 1,000 psi +
134
144




25
178
+
95 +
30
144
144

Sv  1,000 psi

Sh = SH =

= 1,000 + 112 + 16 + 51

Shale

120

Coal

25

Sandstone

50

Limestone

74

Mudstone

133

Sv  1,179 psi

Sv = 1,179 psi

Sh (Ss ) =
v=
v(Ss ) =
v(Lm ) =
Sh (Ss ) =
Sh (Ss ) =

v
Sv
1v
E
1
2G
3.83
1 = 0.25
2(1.53)
5.72
1 = 0.19
2(2.41)
0.25
(1,179)
1 0.25
393 psi

1,179 psi

393 psi

393 psi
Ss
Lm

277 psi

277 psi
SKETCH

Bottom of Ss

0.19
(1,179)
1 0.19
Sh (Lm ) = 277 psi
Sh (Lm ) =

41.

top of Lm

Given: Table data, compression (+)


Find: Sh = SH at bottom of sandstone
and at top of limestone.
Solution:
Sv = 6.9 MPa + (36.6)(2.15)(9.87)
+ (7.6)(1.52)(9.87)
+ (15.2)(2.37)(9.87)
= 6.9 + 0.78 + 0.11 + 0.36
Sv = 8.14 MPa
v
Sh = S H =
Sv
1v

Surface

6.9 MPa

Shale

36.6 m

Coal

7.6

Sandstone

15.2

Limestone

22.6

Mudstone

40.5

Sv

38

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

0.25
(8.14)
1 0.25
Sh = SH (Ss ) = 2.71 MPa

Sh = SH (Ss ) =

0.19
(8.14)
1 0.19
Sh = SH (Lm ) = 1.91 MPa

Sh = SH (Lm ) =

Note:

8.14

E
1
2G
26.4
v(Ss ) =
1
26(10.6)
v(Ss ) = 0.25
v=

2.71
1.91

Sandstone

2.71
Interface

Limestone

1.91

8.14

39.4
1
v(Lm ) =
2(16.6)
v(Lm ) = 0.19

42.

Given: stresses of 500 m (1,440 ft)


Sv = 25 kPa/m (1.1 psi/ft) SH = Sh = 3Sv
Find: Sh , SH parts caused by gravity and by other forces.
Solution:
(1) Assume complete lateral constraint for gravity loading
(2) Also assume a reasonable poissons ratio, v, say, v = 0.25
then Sh = SH (gravity) =

v
Sv
1v

1
Sv
3
Sv = (500)(25), 1,640(1.1)
Sv = 12.5 MPa, (1,804 psi)

(gravity) SH = Sh = 4.17 MPa (601 psi)

Sh = SH = 3Sv = 37.5 MPa(5,412 psi)


(not gravity)Sh = SH = 37.5 4.17
54.2 601
Sh = SH (not gravity) = 33.3 MPa
(4,811 psi)

Sh = SH (g) =

Slope Stability

Planar Block Slides


1.

Given: Planar block slide


Find: Algebraic FS.
b

Solution:

By definition
FS =

R
D

Wn

Ws
b

R = resisting forces: Assume


MohrCoulomb
D = driving forces
W = weight: W = W1 W2

W
a

c, f, g

N

By inspection:
W=

H 2 b
h2 b
(cotan cotan )
cotan
2
2

R = Wn tan + cA
Note: Fn = 0 0 = Wn N  & N  = Wn
FS

Also


H
h
A=b

sin sin

And Wn = W cos
R = W cos tan + cA
D = W sin
W cos tan + cA
FS =
W sin

4.0

2.0
tan f
tan a
0
0

0.0005

1/H 0.001

SCHEMATIC PLOT (FS vs H1)


Note: almost linear in 1/H



H
h
cb

sin
sin
tan
#

FS =
+
tan (sin ) H 2 b (cot cot )
2

h2 b
cotan
2

40

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics



2c 1 Hh
tan
$$
#
#
FS =
+
tan (sin )2 (H) (cot cot ) h2 cotan
2
H


h
2c 1 H
tan
%
&
FS =
+
 2 
tan
H(sin )2 1 Hh
cotan cot

2.

Given: Problem 1 data


Find: Max (algebraically).
Solution:
Solve FS for then set

df
=0
d

Find stationary pts


Find relative maximum
Find absolute maximum (end pts) or note by inspection that as increases the FS
decreases so will be max when FS is min, that is, when FS = 1, then
'
[H(sin )2 ]


1

'
cotan max = 1

Note:

h
H

2 (

h
H



2c 1 Hh
cotan cotan = ,

1.0 tan
tan

2 (



2c 1 Hh
cotan
,
H(sin )2 1.0

> (physical constraints) & if no tension crack (h = 0)


2
cotan max = cotan

3.

tan
tan

2c
,
H(sin )2 1

tan
tan

Given: Problem 1, data allow for water (below bottom of tension crack)
Find: FS (with water).
Solution:
W cos tan + cA
W sin
2
h2 b
H b
(cotan cotan )
where W =
cotan
2
2
b
and A =
(H h)
sin

(previous) FS =

Slope Stability

41

Now
FS =

N  tan + cA
W sin

(3)

where Fn = 0 requires N  = Wn P with P = water force

Ws
hw

Wn
W

W.T

H
Lw

z
2

N
P

z
2

as before Wn = W cos()
but P = ?

w , Aw = bLw
P = pA
pmax
p =
(rectangle)
2
pmax = w z/2 (a linear increase of water pressure with depth below water table is
assumed)
 
z
1
=
(H hw )
2
2
where hw = water table depth below crest
z

sin
w  z 
P =
(b)(Lw )
2
2
w bz2
P =
4 sin

Lw =

Hence:
FS =

(W cos P) tan + cA
W sin

where:
w bz2
; z = H hw
4 sin
b
A=
(H h); h = tension crack depth
sin
h2 b
H2b
(cotan cotan )
cotan
W =
2
2
P =

(4)

42

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

4.

Given: Problem data


Find: FS for seismic load.
Solution:
Sn

W
as
g
where as = seismic acceleration
i.e. as = a0 g where a0 = seismic
coefficient
e.g. a0 = 0.15
S = a0 W
Sn = a0 W sin
Ss = a0 W cos

By definition

S=

S
h
W

Ss

a
N

N  = Wn Sn
R = N  tan + cA
D = Ws + Ss
FS =
where

(5)

Ws = W sin ,
Ss = a0 W cos
Wn = W cos ,
Sn = a0 W sin
b
A=
(H h)
sin
W=

5.

(Wn Sn )tan + cA
Ws + S s

b2 H 2
(cotan cotan )
2

Given: Data in Fig. 5 and a uniform


surcharge with FS = 1.1 and b = 25

Find: .

Fn

Solution:
N  tan + cA + Fn tan
FS =
Ws + F s
F = bl
Fn = F cos
Fs = F sin
then
(FS)Fs Fn tan = N  tan
+ cA FS(Ws )
F[(sin )FS cos tan ]


FS
= N  tan + cA
Ws
W = V

Fs

l
s
W

c  50 psi

500 ft
50

f  29

40
N

g  156

Slope Stability

43

bH 2
(cotan cotan )
2
(25)(500)2
=
(cotan 40 cotan 50 )
2
V = (3.125)106 (0.35265)
3
V = 1.102(106 ) ft
V=

W = (156)(1.02)(106 )
W = 1.719(108 ) lbf
N  = W cos
N  = 1.719(108 ) cos 40
N  = 1.317(108 )
N  tan = 7.3001(107 ) lbf
(25)(500)
sin 40
(50)(144)(25)(500)
cA =
sin 40
cA = 1.4002(108 ) lbf.
A=


1.1
FS(Ws ) =
108 (sin 40)
1.719
FS(Ws ) = 1.2156(108 )
N  tan + cA FS(Ws ) = 7.3001(107 ) + 1.4002(108 ) 1.2156(108 )
[9.146(107 )lbf]
[(sin 40)(1.1) cos 40 tan 29]
9.146(107 )
=
0.2824
F = 3.238(108 ) lbf
F=

3.238(108 )
(25)(500)(cot cot )

= 7.346(104 ) psf

= 510 psi
FS without surcharge.
[N  tan + cA]
Ws
1.317(108 ) tan 29 + 1.4002(108 )
=
1.719(108 ) sin 40
FS = 1.93(1.928)

FS =

44

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

6.

Given: Fig. 5 planar block slide and no surcharge


Find: Hmax .
Solution:
Hmax occurs when FS is min i.e., when
1=

R
D

(1)

R = N  tan + cA

D = Ws
Ws = W sin
Wh = W cos = N 
H
A=b
sin
bH 2
(cotan cotan )
W =
2

tan
+
tan
%

Hmax =
Hmax =

N

Solving (1)
1=

c, f, g

Rb

H
sin

bH 2
(cotan
2

cotan ) sin

&
2c
1

( sin )2 (cotan cotan ) 1 tan


tan
(2)(50)(144)

(156)( sin 40)2 (cotan 40

,
cotan 50) 1

tan 29
tan 40

Hmax = 1,867 ft
7.

Given: Sketch data and cable bolts


Bolt spacing vertical = 50 ft
Bolt angle = 5
Bolt spacing horizontal = 25 ft
Bolt tension = 60% ultimate
Bolts: 12 strand type 270
Find: FS, F.
Solution:
25




h  5

50
500 ft

c  50 psi
 156 pcf
Tb 40
f  29
5
45
Fb  nfb


50



40
Nb

n  number of bolts
fb  load per bolts

Slope Stability

fb : using Table A1.1 270 k ultimate strength = 495,600 lbf for 12 strands.
fb = 4.956(105 ) lbf.
H
(vert. space)
500
n =
50
n = 10 holes (benches)
n =

10

Fb = (10)(4.956)105 lbf
Nb = Fb cos 45
1
Nb = (10)6 (4.956)
2
Tb = Fb sin 45

1
Tb = (10 )(4.956)
2

N  tan + cA + (Nb tan + Tb )(0.6)


(60% mobilized)
W sin
(Nb tan + Tb )(0.6)
FS = FS +
W sin
#
 
 $
(0.6) (106 ) 12 (4.956) tan 29 + 106 12
= 1.928 +
(sin 40) 1.719(108 )

FS =

5.447(106 )
0.6
1.105(108 )
FS = 1.928 + (0.049)(0.6)
FS = 1.928 +

FS = 1.958, F = 0.30

8.

Given: Planar block slide data and water table at crest


Find: FS.
Solution:
W.T.
W
b

250

a
500
b

250
N

c  50 psi g  156 pcf


f  29
a  40
b  50

45

46

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

R
D
R = N  tan + cA
D = Ws
N  = Wn p
bH 2
(cotan cotan )
W=
2


Wn = 1.317(108 )lbf 
prior
Ws = 1.105(108 )lbf
calculations
cA = 1.400(108 )lbf

+t
shear

FS =

c
(t, s)
s

normal

s
(negative)

Note: (normal load is negative)

w
P = pA
bH
Aw =
sin
pmax
p =
2
w z
pmax =
2
z
= 250
2




250
500
P = (67.4)
(25)
2
sin 40
P = 1.5168(108 )
R = N  tan + cA
R = (1.317 1.517)108 tan 29 + 1.400(108 )
R = 1.109(107 ) + 1.4(108 )
D = 1.105(108 )
1.289(108 )
FS =
1.105(108 )
FS = 1.167
9.

Given: Planar block slide in sketch with cohesion destroyed


Find: acceleration a

Solution:

Assume = 0 (no surcharge)


R
then FS =
D
But also for the slide mass center
F = ma
W
m=
g
F =DR
D(1 FS) =

W
g


a

500

50

40

c0
g  156 pcf
f  790

Slope Stability

a > 0 if FS < 1
FS =
FS =
FS =
FS =
FS =

47

N  tan
Ws
W cos tan
W sin
tan
tan
tan 29
tan 40
0.66

acceleration yes downhill = parallel to slide surface


FS = 0.66
W
then D(1 0.66) = a
g
D = W sin
a = g sin (1 0.66)
a = 32.2(sin 40)(0.34)

tangential direction

(parallel to failure surface)

a = 7.04 ft/s2
10.

Given: Planar block slide


Find: for FS = 1.5.
Solution:

H  475 ft

(Free body)
Wn N  P = 0
N  = Wn P
Wn = W cos
Ws = W sin
bH 2
W =
(cot cot )
2


475 2
(cot 35 cot 45)
= (150)(1)
2
= 7.728
W = 7.252(106 ) lbf
Wn = 7.252(106 ) cos 35
Wn = 5.941(106 ) lbf
n F = 0

H
2

wT

f  28

45
b
a  35

Wn

Wp
b

c?

g  160 pcf

W
N

a
P

Ws = 7.252(106 ) sin 35
Ws = 4.156(106 ) lbf
Water force must check for water head if tan > 2 tan , then hw =
hw =



z
tan
1 +
2
tan

z
else
2

H
2

48

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

check
tan 45 > 2 tan 35
(1) > 2(0.700)
no.

hw
hw

 

475
1
tan 45
=
1 +
2
2
tan 35
= 50.84 ft

pmax = (62.4)(50.84)
pmax
(6.24)(50.84)
p =
=
2
2
p = 1.586(103 ) psf
P = pA


Hw
' sin (

= 1.586(103 )(1)
= 1.586(103 )(1)

475
2

sin 35

P = 6.567(10 ) lbf
5

N  = 5.941(106 ) 0.6567(106 )
N  = 5.284(106 )
N  tan + cbL
Ws
cbL = (1.5)(4.156)(106 ) tan 28(5.284)106
= 3.424(106 )
3.424(106 )
c=
(1)(475)
FS =

sin 35

c = 4.135(103 ) psf
11.

Given: Planar block slide in sketch:


V1

hc

hw

V0
g
C, f
H
b
a

W.T. (a)

Find:
(a) Formula for FS with relieving bench V1
(b) Formula for FS with toe berm

W.T.

Slope Stability

49

Solution:
By definition: FS =
R = resisting forces
D = driving forces

Ws

R
D

Wn

W.T.

W.T.

n
W

N

(Same.)

(a)

(b)

Assume M-C criterion


N  tan + C
W sin
tan
C
FSa =
+
tan V0 sin
FSa =

N  tan + C
W sin
tan
C
FSb =
+
tan (V0 V1 )sin
FSa =

C = cA,
A = area of failure surface
N  = (W cos P)
W = V0

N
Ws W

(W cos P)tan + C
FSa =
W sin
But P = 0 when W.T. is below to toe.
The first terms are the same, but the
second term in FSb is greater because
V0 V1 is less then V0 is FS.
FS =

C, 

Wn

W1
C1, f1

A1

(N  tan + C) + W1 tan + C1
Ws

FS(with berm) = FS(without berm) +

W1 tan 1 + c1 A1
> FS(without berm)
Ws

The added resistance W1 tan 1 + C1 , comes without added driving force and
thus increases the FS.

50

12.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: sketch, data


No tension crack, no benches, = 29 , = 156 pcf, = 50 , persistence = 0.87
cr = 64,800 psf cj = 1,620 psf
r = 32
j = 25
Find:
(a) Hmax when WT at crest
Wn
n
(b) Hmax when WT at toe
N

Solution:

Ws

R
FS =
D
D = W sin
R = N  tan + C
N  = (Wn p)
C = cA
Wn = W cos

(b) When depressurized P = 0


H 2
(cot cot )
2
H
A=
sin

W =

FS =

cH
W cos tan
+ sin
W sin
W sin

cH
tan
sin
+ H 2
tan
(cotan cotan )sin
2
(

 '
tan
1
cotan cotan

FS
=
c
tan
2
H
sin2

FS =

1
is minimum when FS is minimum
H
occurs of FS = 1.

By inspection
Hmax

need rock mass c,


c = (1 p)cr + pcj
= (1 0.87)64,800 + 0.87(1,620)
c = 8,424 + 1,409
c = 9,833 psf
tan = (1 p) tan r + p tan j
= (1 0.87) tan 32 + 0.27 tan 25
tan = 0.08123 + 0.4057
tan = 0.4829
= 25.96 26

Slope Stability

1
=
H

0.4829
1
0.5543



156
2

'

0.96495

51

9833
(0.4848)2
4

= (0.12157)(78)(0.2307)(10 )
1
= 2.188(104 )
H
H = 4.571 ft

Hmax dry

W. T

Z
Wn

Ws
0
5


Z0
2

N
Z0
2

a  29

Pmax

Water force:
z0
if tan > 2 tan then use
2
tan(50) > 2 tan 29
1.1918 > 2(0.5543) = 1.1086
o.k.
 z  1
0
P = 2 w
Lw
2
2
H H2
2 sin
w H 2
P =
4 sin
= w

cH
(W cos p)tan + sin

W sin
c
tan
sin
=
+ , tan
H(cotan cotan )sin
2

FS =

,
K = , -

2H 2

w H 2
4 sin

tan

(cotan cotan )sin


w tan

(sin2 )(cotan cotan )


,1(62.4)tan 26
4
= , 156 (sin2 29 )(cotan 29 cotan 50)
2
K = 0.4301

%
&  
tan
cotan cotan
1
FS
+K
=
c
tan
2
H
sin2
2

formula

52

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

156
[0.5502]
2

1
cotan 29 cotan 50


=
1
H
(9,833) sin2 29
1
H
H = 1,010 ft

9.899(104 ) =

13.

Hmax wet

Given: Planar block slide


= 158 pcf


n = 38
j = 27
MohrCoulomb
cr = 1,000 psi cj = 15 psi
Aj /A = 0.93
bench height = 55 ft
b = breadth
Find: Hmax .
Solution:

W.T.

H
2

Hmax occurs when FS = 1


R
FS =
D
R = Wn tan + cLb
D = Ws

H
49  b

N

32  a

H
2

Ws = Wn tan + cLb
W sin = (W cos P) tan + cLb
H 2
(cotan cotan )
2  
1
= (158)
H 2 (cotan 32 cotan 49)
2

W =

W = 57.75 H 2
57.75 H 2 sin 32 = 57.75 H 2 cos 32 tan P tan +
30.60 = 48.98 tan +

c
P tan
1.887
H
H2

need, , c for rock mass


c = (1 0.93)cr + 0.93cj
= 0.07(1,000) + 0.93(10.0)
c = 79.3 psi(11,719 psf)

cH(1)
sin 32

Slope Stability

tan = 0.07 tan 38 + 0.93 tan 27


tan = 0.5286 = 27.9
return
30.60 = 48.98(0.5286) +

P
(11,419)(1.887)
2 (0.5286)
H
H

need: P = pLb



w H
H
=
(1)
4
sin
P
(62.4) H 2
=
H2
4 sin
30.60 = 25.89 +

1
62.4
(22,812)
(0.5286)
H
4 sin 32

1
30.60 25.89 + 15.56
=
H
21,549
H = 1,065 ft.

14.

Given: Planar block slide data


FS(min) = 1.05
Bench height = 60  
Aj
Persistance = 79%
A
Wt = 1.351(107 ) lbf per ft of thickness.
Sn
S  0.15 W
50
W
540

Ss

32

45
240

r = 33 cr = 2,870 psi j = 28
Find: If FS = 1.05 possible.

z  240

pmax

cj = 10.0 psi

= 158 pcf

60

53

54

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
Assume water distribution as p = w z where z is 1/2 distance (vertical) to toe
(540 60)
2
z = 240 ft,
z=

(62.4)(240)
144
= 104 psi

pmax =
pmax

pmax
2
P = 52 psi
P = pA 
P=


480
(144)
sin(32)
P = 6.783(106 ) lbf
= p(1)

L

Wn = W cos
Wn = 1.351(107 ) cos 32
Wn = 1.146(107 ) lbf
Ws = 1.351(107 ) sin 32
Ws = 7.159(106 ) lbf (no seismic force)
Wn = Wn P
= 1.146(107 ) 6.783(106 )

Wn = 4.6745(108 ) lsf (no seismic force)
Wn = Wn P Ss
Sn = S sin
= 0.15 W sin 32
= 0.15 Ws
Sn = 0.15 (7.159)(106 )
Sn = 1.074(106 ) lbf

Ss = S cos
= 0.15 W cos
= 0.15 Wn
= 0.15 (1.146)107
Ss = 1.719 (106 ) lbf

Wn = 4.6745 1,074(106 )


Wn = 3,600(106 ) lbf
with seismic force
need: c,
c = 0.79 cj + 0.21 cr
c = (0.79)(10) + (0.21)(2870)
c = 7.9 + 603
c = 610.9 psi
tan = (0.79) tan 28 + (0.21) tan 33
tan = 0.556
= 29.1
FS =
=

Wn tan + cA
,
Ws + S s
3.60(106 ) tan 29.1 + (611)(144)(92.5)(1)
7.159(106 ) + (1.719)(106 )

Note:
540 50
L=
sin 32

2z
sin a

Slope Stability

55

2.004(106 ) + 8.139(107 )
8.878(106 )
81.72(106 )
=
8.878(106 )
FS = 9.39
Yes.
=

15.

Given: Planar block slide MohrCoulomb failure


Find: max (dry).
Solution:

Ws

R
W
613 H
?
D
N  tan + cA
=
N
Ws
N  = Wn
A
Wn = W cos
H
A=
(1 ft thick)
sin
Ws = W sin
tan
cH
FS =
+
tan ( sin )2 W
H 2
(1)( cot cot )
But W =
2
So FS is min when is max.
FSmin = 1.0
tan
cH
1 =
+
2
tan sin ()W
tan 30
(1,440 psf)(613 ft)(1 ft)
1=
+

tan 34
sin2 (34 ) W
FS =

Wn
  30
34

c  1440 psf
g  162

2.823(106 )
W
2.823(106 )
W=
0.144
W = 19.598(106 )lbf
1 = 0.856 +

H 2
(cot cot )
2
(2)(19.598)(106 )
cot cot =
(162)(613)2
cot cot = 0.64387
cot = cot 34 0.64357

W=

cot = 0.83869
max = 50

max

56

16.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Slope, sketch, no seismic load, etc.


W. T.

Wn

H
2

Ws
b  48

H?

W
a  37

g  162 pcf

Rock

33

2580 psi

Joint

33

0.0

Aj  0.86 A

Find: H at FS = 1.15.
Solution:
FR
FD
FD = W s
= W sin
H 2
FD =
(b)(cot cot ) sin(j )
2
(162)(1)
(cot 37 cot 48) sin(37)
= H2
2
FD = H 2 (81)(0.4266) sin(37 )
FD = 20.80 H 2
FS =

FR = Wn tan + cL

Wn = Wn P

Wn = W cos
= H 2 (81)(0.4266) cos(37)
Wn = 27.60 H 2
pmax

, A = Lb
P = pA
p =

  2 

1
H
H
= w
(1)
2
2
sin


62.4
1
=
H2
4
sin 37
P = 25.92 H 2

Slope Stability

57


H
sin


H
= (0.14)(2,580)(144)
sin 37


Aj
An
+ cj
cL = cr
A
A



cL = 8.643(104 )H

But FS =

FR
(27.60 H 2 25.92 H 2 ) tan(33) + 8.643(104 )H
=
FD
20.80 H 2
FR
4.155(103 )
= 0.0525 +
FD
H

FR
FD

1.15 = 0.0525 +

4.155(103 )
H

1
= 2.641(104 )
H
H = 3,786 ft
17.

depth at FS = 1.15

Given: Sketch of the potential slope failure shown in the sketch,


Find:
(a) Factor-of safety of a cable bolted slope when the water table is drawn down
100 ft
Bench height = 40 (vertical bolt spacing)
Horizontal bolt spacing = 20
Bolt angle = 5 down
Bolt loading = 700 kips/hole
(b) Factor of safety of the same slope but without bolts when the water table is
drawn below the toe
(c) Reasons for preferring one over the other.
Tension crack

Bench ft

37

40
b  40

100
WT

320
a  32
Failure Surface

f  28
c  1440 psf
g  158 pcf

Not to Scale

Sketch for problem with given data.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
Free body diagram.

hc

Wn

nP

a b

Bolted Wet
Slope

W Wn

100 WT

58

Dry Slope

(a) Factor of safety of a bolted slope with water table


= bolting angle = 5
n = number of holes per row
320
=
=8
40
Fn = 0
N = W cos() Ps + n Pb sin( )
&
%
H hc
b
T = N tan() + c
sin()
R = T + nPb cos( )
D = W sin()
FS =

R
D

$
#
c
b
[W cos() Ps + nPb sin( )] tan() + c Hh
sin()
+n Pb cos ( )
=
W sin ()
tan() Ps tan() c(H hc )b nPb [sin( )tan + cos( )]
FS =

+
+
tan() W sin()
W sin
W sin2 ()
tan() Ps tan() c(H hc )b nPb cos( )

+
=
+
tan() W sin()
W sin cos
W sin2 ()
usingsin(A) sin(B) + cos(A) cos(B) = cos(A B)
FS = FSwet unbolted + FS bolt
100

Assume e = 18%
dry
G=
(1 + e)
w
220
158
G=
(1.18) = 2.99 grain SG gravity
62.4

dry

Wet

37

Slope Stability

59




2.99 + 0.18
G + Se
62.4 =
w
1.18
1+e
= 168 pcf

wet =

Wwet = dry Vdry + (wet dry )Vwet


(Hw )2
[cotan() cotan()]b
2
(220)2
[cotan(32 ) cotan(40 )]1
=
2
3
= 9,888 ft

Vwet =

%
&
H2
1 2
[cotan() cotan()]b
hc cotan(30 )
2
2


2
320
37 2

=
[cotan(32 ) cotan(40 )]1
cotan(32 )
2
2

Vdry =

= 1,9824 ft

Wwet = (158)1,9824(20) + (168 158)9,888(20)


= 64,621,440 lbs
l
Ps = 2

Pb dl
o

l
= 2 bw l sin()dl
o

110 h
220

w h l b
= w hlb
2
%
&
110
= (62.4)(110)
(20) = 28,496,420 lbf
sin(32 )

=2

110 h

tan(28 ) (28,496,420) tan(28 )


1,440(320 37)(20)

tan(32 )
(64,621,440) sin(32 )
(64,621,440) sin2 (32 )
(8)(700 103 ) cos(32 + 5 28 )
+
(64,621,440) sin(32 ) cos(28 )
= 0.851 0.442 + 0.449 + 0.183
FS wet, bolted slope
FS = 1.041

FS =

(b) Factor of safety of a dry slope.


W = dry Vdry
= (158)19,824(20) = 6,26,43,840 lbs

60

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Fn = 0
N = W cos()
T = N tan + c(H hc )

b
sin()

R= T
= [W cos()] tan() + c(H hc )

b
sin()

D = W sin()
W cos() + tan() + c(H hc ) sin()
R
=
FSdry =
D
W sin
tan() c(H hc )b
=
+
tan()
W sin2 ()
1440 (320 37) (20)
= 0.851 +
6,26,43,840 sin2 (32)
= 0.851 + 0.463
FS dry, unbolted
FS = 1.314

Wedge Failures
18.

Given: Wedge data


A: = 0 = 60
B: = 90 = 60
CB

Find: normals CA , CB .

CA
A

Solution:

C
A:
B:

x
sin sin
 
3
(0)
2
 
3
(1)
2

y
sin cos
 
3
(1)
2
 
3
(0)
2

z
cos
,12

,12



 A = 0, 3 , 1
C
2 2

 direction cosines
3
1
B =
C
,
0,
2
2

 A : (90 , 30 , 60 )
C
 B : (30 , 90 , 60 )
C

direction angles

Slope Stability

19.

61

Given: The wedge from problem 18,




cA = 0, 23 , 12


cB = 23 , 0, 12
Find: Dip direction and dip of the line of intersection s.
Solution:
s = cA cB

form determinant
i

cA :

0
3
2

|s| =
|s| =

3
4

3
4

3
4

15
16

3
2

1
2

1
2

CB

CA

3
4

5
1

direction cosines:
S
tan s =

Sx
Sy

tan s =

1
5
1
5

Sx

Sy

1
5

1
5

Sz

3
5

s = 45
s ,

s = 50.8

z, U

y (N)

tan s = 1
s = 45
tan s =

Sy

S3
[Sx2 +

+ 35

tan s = .

20.

dir. numbers
 2 , -2 &1/2
+ 43 + 34
   

% 
2
3
4

cB :
s =

2
5

as
Sz

1/2
Sy2 ]

3
= + s = 50.8
2

Sx

x(E)

ds

Given: Table 2.7 data and ad = 120 ft


Find: Joint plane areas AA , BA (no tension crack).
Solution:
Vectors S1 , S3 along lines 1 and 2 can be found from intersections of (1) Joint
plane A and Face F, and (2) Joint Plane A and Upland U, since normals to F and

62

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


c

u35
S3
B

A
u13

S1
1

120 ft

u51

U can be found from their dip directions and dips. The normal to A is known
from problem 18.
The angle 13 can be found from S1 S3 = |S1 ||S3 | cos 13 |S1 | = 1 |S3 | = 1 by
normalization
Similarly angles 35 & 51 can be found
The distance L1 can be found from the dip of line 1 (S1 ) and H = 120 .
The distance L3 can be found.
From the sine law
L3
L1
L5
=
=
sin 15
sin 35
sin 13
4

3
a

u35
d1
120

u13

H
L1 
sin d1

d
S3
CU

CA

S3
3

F  face
U  upland

CA
5

CF
CB

B
5

S1

CA
S5

u15

Slope Stability

63

A C
B
Need vectors S1 , S3 , S5 that are formed by planes of intersection e.g. S5 = C
(as in problems 18 & 19) Need direction cosines of CA , CF , CU , CB
C: sin sin
(problem 18) CA = 0

sin cos
0.8660

cos
0.5000

|CA | = 1

(Problem 18) CB = 0.8660

0.5000

|CB | = 1

CF sin 85 sin 45 sin 85 cos 45 cos 85


CF = 0.7044
0.7044
0.08716

|CF | = 1

CU = 0.06163

|CU | = 1

0.06163

0.9962

CROSS PRODUCTS
CA CB =

0.4330
(0.4472)

0.4330
(0.4472)

0.7500
(0.7746)

|S5 | = 0.9682
normalized

CA C F =

0.2767
(0.3657)

0.3522
(0.4654)

0.6100
(0.8060)

|S1 | = 0.7568
normalized

CA C Z =

0.8321
(0.9973)

0.0308
0.0534
|S3 | = 0.8344
(0.03692) (0.06400) normalized

S5
S1
S3

dir. cos
x

0.4472
0.3657
0.9973

0.4472
0.4654
0.03692

0.7746
0.8060
0.06400

DOT PRODUCTS
S13 = |S1 ||S3 | cos 13 = S1x S3x + S1y S3y + S1z S3z
S13 = 0.2959 13 = 107 (or 73 alt. sol.)
S15 = 0.6689
15 = 48.0 [Look of direction of S3 ]
S35 = 0.5102

35 = 59.3

Note: 15 + 35 + 13 = 180 13 = 73
Sine law for length
L1
L3
=
sin 35
sin 15
H
L1 =
sin 1
need dip of L1 , 1
tan 1 =

S1z
2
+ S1y
]

2
[S1x

(0.8060)
[0.36572 + 0.46342 ]1/2
tan 1 = 1.3617
=

64

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

1 = 53.70
120
L1 =
sin 53.7
L1 = 148.9 ft
( sin 48)
sin(59.3)
L3 = 128.7 ft

L3 = (148.9)

AA = 12 L1 L3 |S1 ||S3 | sin 13


, = 12 (148.9)(128.7) sin 73
AA = 9,161 sq ft.

AA

by symmetry of this problem


BA

BA = 9,161 sq ft

Computer check using WEDGE (course download) AA = BA = 9,161 sq ft o.k.


20.

(Alternative)
Given: Data in Table where the vertical distance between a and d is 120 ft,
Find: Areas of A and B (without a tension crack)
Solution:
This is a lengthy calculation best done with the aid of a computer program:
Using WEDGE from course downloads
2

A(area) = B(area) = 9,160 ft

Using SWEDGE from ROCSCIENCE (same results)


Given: Data in Table & vertical distance ad = 120 ft, = 158 pcf water below
toe slope tension crack offset = 90 ft
Find: A, B areas and FSdry and volume.
Solution:
Using WEDGE course download.
2
A = B = 8,072 ft
FSdry = 1.28
Volume = 11,683 yds3 .
Same results using SWEDGE from ROCSCIENCE.

Slope Stability

21.

(no tension crack)

WEDGE
PLANE A
PLANE B
LINE OF INTERSECTION
SLOPE FACE
UPLAND
TENSION CRACK
EXTERNAL LOAD

DIP DIRECTION DIP ANGLE


DEGREES
DEGREES
0.0
60.0
90.0
60.0
45.0
50.8
45.0
85.0
45.0
5.0
45.0
75.0
0.0
0.0

WEDGE HEIGHT (LEFT SIDE)


LENGTH PLANE A TRACE (UPLAND)
TENSION CRACK OFFSET (PLANE A TRACE)
EXTERNAL LOAD MAGNITUDE
ROCK UNIT WEIGHT

120.0 FT.
128.8 FT.
128.8 FT.
0.0 KIPS
158.0 PCF.

FRICTION ANGLE COHESION


DEGREES
PSF.
PLANE A
32.0
1080.0
PLANE B
37.0
1640.0
AREA
SQ. FT.
PLANE A
9160.1
PLANE B
9160.1
TENSION CRACK
0.0

WATER FORCE
KIPS
0.0
0.0
0.0

WEDGE VOLUME = 3,27,142.6 CU. FT. = 12116.4 CU. YD.


WEDGE WEIGHT =
51,688.5 KIPS
FACTOR OF SAFETY = 1.33
Checks Table 18.
WEDGE
PLANE A
PLANE B
LINE OF INTERSECTION
SLOPE FACE
UPLAND
TENSION CRACK
EXTERNAL LOAD

DIP DIRECTION DIP ANGLE


DEGREES
DEGREES
0.0
60.0
90.0
60.0
45.0
50.8
45.0
85.0
45.0
5.0
45.0
75.0
0.0
0.0

WEDGE HEIGHT (LEFT SIDE)


120.0 FT.
LENGTH PLANE A TRACE (UPLAND) 128.8 FT.

65

66

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

TENSION CRACK OFFSET (PLANE A TRACE)


EXTERNAL LOAD MAGNITUDE
ROCK UNIT WEIGHT
FRICTION ANGLE
DEGREES
PLANE A
32.0
PLANE B
37.0
AREA
SQ. FT.
PLANE A
8071.9
PLANE B
8071.9
TENSION CRACK 1312.0

90.0 FT.
0.0 KIPS
158.0 PCF.

COHESION
PSF.
1080.0
1640.0

WATER FORCE
KIPS
0.0
0.0
0.0

WEDGE VOLUME = 315429.3 CU. FT. = 11682.6 CU. YD.


WEDGE WEIGHT = 49837.8 KIPS
F.S.

FACTOR OF SAFETY = 1.28


Given: Wedge data
Wedge forms as shown in sketch.
Line of intersection has dip direction of 135 and is in the same
direction as the face dip direction.
When the face dips 90 to line of
intersection, then kinematic failure is impossible. Thus, the range
of concern is for face dip directions. (45 , 225 ).

z, U
y(N)
A
90

x(E)
180 B
B
Wedge
A

23.

Given: Wedge data


K1 joints = 110 = 38
K2 joints = 147 = 42
n1 : (0.5785, 0.2106, 0.7880)
n2 : (sin sin , sin cos , cos )
sin(42) sin(147) sin(42) cos(147) cos(42)
n2 : (0.3644, 0.5662, 0.7431)

n
1 n
 2 = S(0.2857
0.1427 0.2479)
|s| = [(0.285)2 + (0.1427)2 + (0.2479)2 ]1/2
|s| = 0.4043
dir. cos : s = (0.7067, 0.3530, 0.6132)
sx
tan s =
sy
cos  = 0.6132
 = 127.8
0.7067
=
=  90
0.3530
s = 37.8
tan s = 0.2002

F 135
N

20

22.

K2


57

K1

Slope Stability

s = 63.5 or 116.5
sx > 0 sy < 0 in 4th quadrant
s = 116.5

67

z (U)
y (N)

y(N)

K2
143
116.5  a

110
38

x(E)

K1

77

as  116.5
ds  37.8
37.8

K1

24.

Ss

Given: Wedge data


Find:
(a) dip direction and dip of lines of intersection of A & B
(b) Range of azimuths that are safe
(c) Length of line formed by A & F (Face)
Solution:
(a) Need normals to A & B
Notes:

A:
B:
S:

S:
S:

Cx = sin sin
x

31
2 2

3 3
2 2
   
3
1
31
+
4
2
4 2

3+ 3
8

Cy = cos cos
Cz = cos
y
z

3 3
1
2 2
2


1
1
3

2
2
2
'
( ' (

3 3
31 31
3
3


4 2 42
4
4
4 4



3 3
9+3

8
16

0.9915

0.1585

0.7500

68

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

2
3
3
1

sin =

0.5915
Sx
= 2
(0.59152 + 0.15852 )1/2
(Sx + Sy2 )1/2

sin = 0.9659
= 75
Sz
sin = 2
(Sx + Sy2 + Sz2 )1/2

AB

0.75
(0.59152 + 0.15852 + 0.752 )1/2
sin = 0.7746
= 50.8
=

AB

(b) The face dip direction is 75 if a line of intersection does not penetrate the
face, then sliding cannot occur. Thus 75 90 defines range of dip direction
that are unsafe (15 , +165 )
safe s
safe (165 , 345 )

(c)

A:


3 3
2 2

31
2 2

z
1
2

F:

sin 85 sin 75

sin 85 cos 75

cos 85

F:

0.9623

0.2578

0.0872

SAF :

0.0654 0.1289

(0.03776 0.48115)

0.1116 0.7217

SAF :

0.0635

0.44339

0.6101

0.0635
[(0.0635)2 + (0.44339)2 ]1/2
sin = 0.1418
= 8.2 quadrant!
sin =

sin =

(0.06352

sin = 0.8062
= 53.7

(0.6101)
+ 0.44332 + 0.61012 )1/2

Slope Stability

69

H
sin
85
=
0.8062
L = 105.5 ft

L=

25.

Given: Wedge slide data and required FS = 1.10


Find: If can obtain FS = 1.10.
Solution:
Try quick screening for sliding down line of intersection assuming zero cohesion
and lowest (28 )
C

CA

CB

dc
0
S

Direction cosines (from T.2)


x

A
C

0.7501

0.4321

0.5000

B
C

0.4337

0.7501

0.5000

A C
 B = (Sx , Sy , Sz )
S = C
= (0.4321)(0.5000) (0.7501)(0.5000)
(0.7501)(0.5000) + (0.4333)(0.5000)
+ (0.7701)(0.7501) (0.4337)(0.4321)
S = (0.5911, 0.5911, +0.3753)
0.5911
tan =
(0.5911)
= 135 dip direction
Sz
tan = .
Sx2 + Sy2
=

0.3753
+ (0.5911)2 ]1/2

[(0.5911)2

tan = 0.44895
= 24.2

70

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

tan
tan
tan 28
=
tan 24.2
FS = 1.18

FS(dry, C = 0, = min ) =

yes

(>1.10)

(added cohesion and added friction will increase this FS)


26.

Given: Wedge data in table, sketch


Find: dip, dip direction, length of AO
Solution:
y(N)

y (N)
O
(PLAN)
O

F
Trace AO

F
A

O
a

x(E )
A

O A

A
x(E)

Note:
Ca
Cb

x
sin a sin a
sin f sin f

a = 0
f = 90
S

y
cos a sin a
cos f sin f

a = 45
f = 45

Sx

Sy

Sz

Ca

1
2

Cb

1
2
1
2

1
2
1
2
12

Ss

tan AO =

z
cos a
cos f

1
2

Sx
=
Sy

tan AO = .

1
2
1
2

= 1: AO = 45

1
1
= ., - 2 , - = : AO = 35.3
2
2
1 2
Sx2 + Sy2
+ 12
2
Sz

= 45

= 35.3

Slope Stability

71

length
A

d  35.3
120 ft

l sin 35.5 = 120


l = 208 ft

27.

length

Given: Wedge data


Find:
(a) Dip direction and dip of lines of intersection of A & B
(b) Range of azimuths that are safe
(c) Length of line formed by A & F (face)
Solution:
(a) Need normals to A & B
Notes:
Cx = sin sin
x

B:
S:

S:
S:

Cz = cos

31
2 2

3 3
2 2
   
3
1
31
+
4
2
4 2

3+ 3
8

y
z

3 3
1
2 2
2


3
1
1

2
2
2
'
( ' (

31 31
3
3 3
3


4 2 42
4
4
4 4



3 3
9+3

8
16

0.5915

0.1585

A:

Cy = sin cos

sin =

0.7500

0.5915
Sx
= 2
(0.59152 + 0.15852 )1/2
(Sx + Sy2 )1/2

sin = 0.9659
= 75

AB

72

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

sin =
=

Sz
(Sx2 + Sy2 + Sz2 )1/2
(0.59152

0.75
+ 0.15852 + 0.752 )1/2

sin = 0.7746
= 50.8

AB

(b) The face dip direction is 75 if a line of intersection does not penetrate the
face, then sliding cannot occur. Thus 75 90 defines range of dip direction
that are unsafe (15 , +165 )
Safe s
safe (165 , 345 )

(c)

A:

31
2 2


3 3
2 2

z
1
2

F:

sin 85 sin 75

sin 85 cos 75

cos 85

F:

0.9623

0.2578

0.0872

SAF :

0.0654 0.1289

(0.03776 0.48115)

0.1116 0.7217

SAF :

0.0635

0.44339

0.6101

0.0635
[(0.0635)2 + (0.4433)2 ]1/2
sin = 0.1418
= 8.2
quadrant!
sin =

(0.6101)
(0.06352 + 0.44332 + 0.61012 )1/2
sin = 0.8062
= 53.7
sin =

H
sin
25.9
=
0.8062
L = 32.13 m

L=

Slices Problem

Total = 2,01,865

30 deg slope, dips below toe


R = 60 ft
b = 1 ft spwt = 100 pcf
coordinates
Slice x(ft) h(ft) h(ave)ft vol(ft3 ) wt(lbf)
y
16 0.00
1
2.53
20.26
2,026 5.07
8 5.07
2
6.82
54.54
5,454 3.50
0 8.57
3
14.84
237.38
23,738 3.30
16 21.10
4
25.18
402.94
40,294 1.08
32 29.26
5
31.02
496.33
49,633 5.72
48 32.78
6
32.07
384.85
38,485 8.34
60 31.36
7
28.79
267.21
26,721 10.49
69.28 26.23
8
18.04
144.35
14,435 16.37
77.28 9.86
9
4.93
10.80
1,080 9.90
79.47 0.00

28.

Rotational Slides

0.20328

11.65
3.86
19.68
34.81
48.51
63.95
77.53

16.00
16.00
16.00
12.00
9.28
8.00
2.19

RocSci:
Slide

0.41268

23.64

8.00

1,72,764

233

6,339

17,701

31,596

46,735

40,202

23,249

4,996

1,712

Wn =

MR =
MD =

6,288

6,818

10.14

7,303

18.22 13,116

14.01 10,086

14.62 10,524

16.99 12,234

16.04 11,546

16.34 11,762

8.73

9.47

56,134
13,261
89,677
WET
DRY
6.6601E+06 9.2325E+06
4.5261E+06 4.5261E+06

1,497
70
0
3,715
416
0
15,124
2,640
0
25,200
4,874
0
32,892
4,498
0
29,250
762
0
25,171 2,427
0
20,510 4,605
0
3,120
938

water = deg
C = psf
P(slice) N  tan() L = ft cLb = lbf

75,435 dry =
8,064 wet =

1,054

12,968

20,017

21,972

16,713

2,711

4,792

2,187

1,084

Ws =

1.471 wet
2.040 dry
dry wet
Simplified Bishop = 2.318 1.58
Janbu = 2.000 1.425

FS =

Totals

1.35316

1.11614

0.84674

0.60762

0.34344

0.06732

0.56451

rads

32.34

chord slope
angle = deg

8.00

40

Vertical distance (ft)

20

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

L7
L8

L4
L5
L6

L1
L2
L3

Circle

60

Radius

Face

40

Horizontal distance (ft)

20

Slices example

80

100

1.1192

0.609

7.654

1.929

0.725

7.654

B -OLD

JG-MED

C-YOU

C -OLD

C -MED

GD-LEAN

105

125

125

110

125

125

110

105

1.6788

B -YOU

110

125

1.051

B-YOU

LEAN

3.407

110

110

D -MED

0.885

TOT-KJ

125

0.074

A-YOU

125

D -OLD

0.326

KJ-OLD

110

1.211

110

SPWT

(PCF)

13

38

57

74

ANGLE

Total driving =

121,800

385,800

400,000

528,000

1,435,600

121,800

223,840

295,468.8

6,41,108.8

155,760

65,200

220,960

51,744

(LBF)

1 FT THICK

D-YOU

0.294

AREAS

(SQ FT)

(SQ IN)

AREAS

1 = 40

SCALE

SEC

A part W.T. 1

SLICES

29.

FS = 0.504

FS = R/D =

952,697.9

322,939.7

394,706

185,312.6

49,739.53

WS

0.503937

1398,806

505,200.6

120,343.4

14,262.58

WN

0.649408

40, 960.6

746,226.5

0.726543

11, 695.8

155,448.6

TAN

WN 

Total friction =

652,579.2

349,752

161,304

25,958.4

160

83

59

Total cohesion =

700

2,800

2,300

480,100

112,000

232,400

135,700

cL

1.1192

0.609

7.654

1.929

0.725

7.654

B -OLD

JGMED

C-YOU

C -OLD

C -MED

GD-LEAN

105

125

125

110

125

125

110

105

1.6788

B -YOU

110

125

1.051

B-YOU

LEAN

3.407

110

110

125

0.885

TOT-KJ

D -MED

0.074

A-YOU

125

D -OLD

0.326

KJ-OLD

110

1.211

110

SPWT

(PCF)

Total driving =

121,800

385,800

400,000

528,000

1,435,600

121,800

223,840

295,468.8

641,108.8

155,760

65,200

220,060

51,744

(LBF)

1 FT THICK

D-YOU

0.294

AREAS

(SQ FT)

(SQ IN)

AREAS

1 = 40

SCALE =

SEC

B part W.T.2

SLICES

13

38

57

74

ANGLE

FS = 0.597

FS = R/D =

952,697.9

322,939.7

394,706

185,312.6

49,739.53

Ws

0.596846

1,398,806

505,200.6

120,343.4

14,262.58

WN

92,7061.7

402,115.8

120,343.4

14,262.58

WN 

Total friction =

4,71,744

1,03,084.8

88,514.31

0.649408

0.726543

TAN

78,151.94

10,362.37

160

83

59

Total
cohesion =

700

2,800

2,300

480,100

112,000

232,400

135,700

cL

1.6788

1.1192

0.609

7.654

1.929

0.725

7.654

B -YOU

B -OLD

JG-MED

C-YOU

C -OLD

C -MED

GD-LEAN

105

125

125

110

125

125

110

110

105

1.051

B-YOU

125

3.407

110

110

LEAN

0.885

TOT-KJ

125

0.074

A-YOU

125

D -MED

0.326

KJ-OLD

D -OLD

1.211

110

SPWT

(PCF)

110

0.294

AREAS

13

38

57

74

ANGLE

Total driving =

121,800

385,800

400,000

528,000

907,600

121,800

223,840

295,468.8

184,976

456,132.8

155,760

13,024

65,200

207,936

51,744

(LBF)

1 FT THICK

D-YOU

AREAS

(SQ FT)

(SQ IN)

SEC

1 = 40

SCALE =

C part W.T. 2 with 140c60 ft relieving bench (crest)

SLICES

FS = 0.795

FS = R/D =

709,118.3

2041,65.6

280,823.4

174,389.8

49,739.53

Ws

0.795365

884,338.3

359,437.6

113,250.1

14,262.58

WN

412,594.3

256,352.8

113,250.1

14,262.58

WN 

Total friction =

471,744

103,084.8

83907.82

0.649408

0.726543

TAN

73,545.45

10,362.37

160

83

59

Total
cohesion =

700

2,800

2,300

480,100

112,000

232,400

135,700

cL

1.6788

1.1192

0.609

7.654

1.929

0.725

7.654

B -YOU

B -OLD

JG-MED

C-YOU

C -OLD

C -MED

GD LEAN

105

125

125

110

125

125

110

110

105

1.051

B-YOU

125

3.407

110

LEAN

0.885

TOT-KJ

110

125

0.074

A-YOU

125

D -MED

0.326

KJ-OLD

D -OLD

1.211

110

SPWT

(PCF)

110

0.294

AREAS

13

38

57

74

ANGLE

Total driving =

121,800

385,800

400,000

528,000

907,600

121,800

223,840

295,468.8

184,976

456,132.8

155,760

13,024

65,200

207,936

51,744

(LBF)

1 FT THICK

D-YOU

AREAS

(SQ FT)

(SQ IN)

SEC

1 = 40

SCALE =

D part W.T. 1 with 140c60 ft relieving bench (crest)

L = 378 ft

FS = R/D =

709,118.3

204,165.6

280,823.4

174,389.8

49,739.53

Ws

1.05

884,338.3

359,437.6

113,250.1

14,262.58

WN

231,759.1

L=

377.8203

ft

0.649408

48, 053.9

0.726543

11, 695.8

9,685.551

TAN

WN 

Total friction =

652,579.2

349,752

161,304

25,958.4

160

83

59

Total
cohesion =

700

2,800

2,300

480,100

112,000

232,400

135,700

cL

Slope Stability

30.

Given: Slices analysis with S loads


O
Xi
a
b

r
Yi

R
S
W

(ti)
(si)

N
P

Rn1 (Ni tan + Ci )


Rn1 (Wi sin i + Si Rri cos i )
when Ni = Wi cos i Pi Si sin i .
Show: FS =

Solution:

Sn

Overall equilibrium
n1 (Wi xi + Si yi ) = n1 i Ai R
[Wi R sin(i ) + Si Ri cos(i )]
Ai R
= i max
fsi
assume fsi = fsj = fs = FS
and MC strength so
i max = i tan i + ci

S

WS
SS

(Wi R sin i + Si Ri cos i )


(i + tan i + ci )Ai R
=
FS
FS =

ni

Free body

ni (Ni tan i + Ci )R


, 
Wi sin i + Si Rri cos i

when Ni = i Ai & Ci = ci Ai


Normal force equilibrium
Neglect side forces
n F = 0
0 = Wn N  P Sn
Ni = Wi cos i Pi Si sin i (each slice i)

Wn
W
T


N
P

79

80

31.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Figure and table data


R = 300 ft H = 120 ft = 95 psf

C = 367 psf

Find:
(1) Seismic force on slice 7, as = 0.15
(2) Water force on bottom of 7
(3) FS of 7
(4) FS slip surface, dry & no seismic force.

= 16

= 29

s
S

Ws

Sn

Wn
Ss

Solution:
(1) S = ma
W
=
0.15 g
g
S = 0.15 W
S = 0.15(10.29)(105 )

N
24

S = 1.544(105 ) lbf.

(2) P = pA

p = rH

= (62.4)(82)(75)(1)

(1)

(2)

P = 3.838(105 ) lbf

(3) FS(7) =

R(7)
D(7)

D = Ws + S s
= (10.29)(105 ) sin 24 + 1.544(105 ) cos 34
D = 5.596(105 ) lbf
R = N  tan + cL
N  = Wn P S s
= 10.29(105 ) cos 24 3.838(105 ) 1.544(105 ) sin 24
N = 4.934(105 ) lbf.


4.934(10 ) tan 16 + (367)(75)(1)


5.596(105 )
FS(7) = 0.302

FS(7) =

Note: (Slopes 15 are neg.)


MR
(4)
FS =
(dry, no seismic force)
MD
/10
/10
/5
1 Wr tan +
1 C+
1 Ws
=
/10
6 Ws

(3)

Slope Stability

52.67(105 ) tan 16 + (367)(540) + 5.97(105 )


12.93(105 )
FS = 1.78

81

32.

(4)

This amounts to part 4 of 31.


FS = 1.78
MR
MD
/5
/10
1 R(W cos tan + cL) +
1 R W sin
FS =
10
R
W
sin

6
FS =

as in 31(4).
33.

Given: Circular are failure data in Fig. 2.33 and Table 2.14.
Find: FS(2), FS(7), show total FS.
Solution:
FS = MR /MD , R = radius of slips circle
Slice 2
R[(Wn tan ) + C]
RWs
P = w WL(1)
= (62.4)(1)(52)(30)

FS =

P = 9.734(104 ) lbf.
C = cL(1)
= (367)(30)(1)
C = 1.101(104 ) lbf
normal equilibrium:
Wn = W cos P
= 27.78(104 )(cos 28 ) 9.734(104 )
Wn = 24.49(104 ) 9.734(104 )
Wn = 14.76(104 ) lbf
Ws = W sin

But is resisting!

[(Wn

tan + C)R + RWs ]


0
FS Slice 2

FS =

Slice 2

82

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Slice 7
P = (62.4)(1)(75)(82)
P = 3.838(105 )lbf
Wn = 10.29(105 ) cos(24) 3.838(105 )
Wn = 5.563(105 ) lbf

C = (367)(75)(1)
C = 2.753(104 ) lbf
Ws = 10.29(105 ) sin 24
Ws = 4.185(105 ) lbf
MR = R(Wn tan + C)
= R(5.563(105 ) tan 16 + 0.275(105 )
MR = R(1.870)105 lbf
MD = RWn
MD = R(4.185)(105 )
R(1.870)(105 )
R(4.185)(105 )
FS = 0.447

FS =

Slice 7

Algebraically
FS =
FS =
34.

MR
MD
/10
i=1

R(Wn tan + C)i +


/10
i=6 R(Ws )i

/5
i=1

R(Ws )i

Given: Circular failure in sketch


Find: Expression for safety factor
Solution:
By definition


MR
Moments resistance
FS =
=
MD
Moments driving
0
MR =
(forces)(lever arm)
slices
R
0
MD =
(forces)(lever arm)
slices
D

Slope Stability

lever arm = R
since circular failure
MR = R

5
0

(N tan + C)i +

i=1

MD = R

5
0

2
0

RTi

i=1

i=1

T
N

N
T

=
=
=
=
=

Tangential component of weight


Normal component of weight
inclination of slice bottom from horizontal
W cos()
W sin()

Note: No water table shown, assume dry


/5

R(N tan + C)i +


FS =
/5
i=3 RTi
where cA = C and A = area of slice base
i=1

/2
i=1

RTi

Dynamics,Toppling
35.

Given: Slope situation

A
n
a

Find: a, v, s, of mass center.


Solution:
Mass center obeys
F = ms where s = down hill distance
s = velocity
s = acc. of mass center
Choose origin of coordinates n, s at mass center starting point A
At time t = 0, s = s = s = 0

83

84

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Downhill forces = D, Resisting up hill forces = F


So F = D R
D = downhill component of weight
Free body of slide mass
D = W sin
N = W cos
P = 0 dry assumption

M.C
T
Wn

Frictional resistance

Ws

N

Ff = N  tan
W
s
g
W
W sin W cos tan =
s
g

%
&
sin( )

s = g
( )
cos

(If > then no sliding occurs and s = 0) ( )


W sin W cos tan =

At constant slope
s = st + s(0)
&

sin( )

( 0)
t
s = g

cos
%
& 2

sin( ) t

s=g
( 0)

cos
2
%

36.

Given: Profile = 15

1,200

2
5
h5

15
20
20

4
100

Find: h5

35

650

Slope Stability

85

Solution:
(1) Draw -line
(2) From notes on dynamics of sliding, 0 = Wh Wd tan
h
d
h = 1,200 + 650 h5

tan =

d = d1 + d2 + 100 + d5
1,200
tan 35 =
d1
650
tan 70 =
d2
h
5
tan 70 =
d5
1,200
65
h5
d =
+
+ 100 +
tan 35 tan 20
tan 20
tan 15 = 

(1,200 + 650 h5 )
1,200
tan 35

65
tan 20

+ 100 +

h5
tan 20


(0.260) 1,713.0 + 1,786 + 100 +
964 +

37.

h5
tan 20


= 1,850 h5

0.268 h5
= 1,850 h5
tan 20
1,738 h5 = 886
h5 = 510

h5

Given: Topping rock block

Show: tan() < 13 tan for stability against toppling.


Solution:

Equilibrium requires
n F = W
s F = 0
o M = 0

b
tan b  h

Ws

W cos = N
W sin = T
h
b
0 = Ws + Nx N
2
2

W Wn

O
a

N
b
3

86

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

where x = distance from 0 to N




h
b
+ W cos x
=0
2
2
h
b
tan = x
2
2
b h
x = tan
2 2

W sin

but with a triangular stress distribution


x

b
3

b b
b
tan
2 2
3
b
h
b
tan ,
= tan
6
2
h
1
tan tan
3

38.

(for stability w.r.t toppling)

Given: Rock block on slope


Find: Dimension necessary to prevent
toppling.
To prevent toppling, must be in equilibrium

b
W

F = 0: N = Wn = W cos
T = Ws = W sin
h
M = 0 Nx T = 0
2
  
h
T
x=
2
N
 
h
b
x=
( tan ) & x <
2
2

W
W

a  28

 
b
h
tan 

2
2
b
 tan
h
b  h tan 28
b  h(0.5317)
square base b into page = b.
e.g. if h = 10 b = b  5.317 ft.

f  32
c0

3 Shafts
Single, Naturally Supported Shafts
1.

Given: (as a shaft)

C0  22,000 psi

Section

T0  1,200 psi
g  144 pcf

3,000 ft.

E  5(106) psi

Plan

G  2(106) psi

20
sy
(a)

(b)

Gravity only

Find: FSc , FSt .


Solution:
By definition:
FSc =

C0
;
c

FSt =

T0
t

Stress concentration concept:


c = Kc 10 ;

t = Kt 10

where: 10 = major principal stress before mining


Gravity only
v = h
v (max) = (144)

3,000
144

v = 3,000 psi

88

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(1) In vertical section, neglecting shaft bottom effect:


FSc =

22,000
3,000
FSc (vertical)

FSc = 7.33
In plan view:

Sh
Gravity only

SHAFT

SH  Sh  S1  S3
SH

& M

S3
S1

1

with complete lateral restraint, gravity only


Sh = SH =

v
Sv
1v

v=

E
1
2G

v=

5(106 )
1
2(106 )2

v = 0.25
Sh = SH =

1
Sv
3

Sh = SH = 1,000 psi
FSc =
=

C0
Kc S1

(text for Kc )

22,000
(2)(1,000)

FSc = 11.0

no tension
FSt is not a factor

Shafts

2.

89

Given: Problem 1 data shaft


But h = v
i.e., Sh = SH = Sv = 3,000
Find: FSc , FSt .
Solution:
In plan view

Sh  3,000

3,000
=1
3,000
Kc = 2 & Kt not a factor
22,000
FSc =
(2)(3,000)
FSc = 3.67
M=

SH  3,000

FSt not a factor

3.

Given: Problem 1 conditions but Sh = SH = 0.01 Sv .


Find: FSc , FSt .
Solution:

Sh  SH  30 psi

SH  (0.01)(3,000)
PLAN

M=1
Kc = 2 & Kt not a factor
22,000
FSc =
(2)(30)
FSc = 361
FSt not a factor

4.

Given: Shaft 6 m diameter


C0 = 152 MPa T0 = 8.3 MPa = 23 kN/m3
E = 34.5 GPa G = 13.8 GPa depth = 915 m
gravity load only
Find: FSc , FSt .

90

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:

Sh
6m
915 m

6m

(a) Vertical view

SH

(b) Horizontal view

By definition:
FSc =

C0
,
c

c = Kc 10 ,

FSt =

T0
t

t = Kt 10

10 = reference stress in view considered


(a) Kc = 1,

10 = h = Sv
= (23)(915)
10 = 21.05 MPa

FSc =

152
21.05

FSc = 7.22 (vertical view)


gravity only Sh = SH

Sh = SH =

v
Sv
1v

E
1
2G
34.5
=
1
2(13.8)

v=

v = 0.25

S3
=1
S1
& Kc = 2, Kt n.a.

M=

Shafts

91

 
1
(21.05)
3
Sh = SH = 7.02 MPa
Sh = SH =

FSc =

152
(2)(7.02)

FSc = 10.8 (plan view)


no tension FSt not a factor

5.

Given: Problem 4 data and h = v i.e. h = H = v = 21.05 MPa


Find: FSc , FSt .
Solution:
Sh  21.05

SH  21.05

S3
=1
S1
Kc = 2
Kt not a factor
152
FSc =
2(21.05)
FSc = 3.61
M=

FSt not a factor

6.

Given: Problem 4 data and h = H = 0.01 v


Find: If failure possible FSc , FSt = ?
Solution:
Sh  0.21 MPa

SH  0.01Sy  (0.01) (21.05)

M = 1 Kc = 2
152
FSc =
(2)(0.21)
FSc = 361

Kt = no tension

FSt not a factor

92

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

7.

Given: (a) M =

1
3

(b) M = 0 for

W0
= 2.0
H0

Find: Best of elliptical, ovaloid or rectangular openings.


Solution:
Best means highest FSs or equivalently lowest stress concentration factors.
(Bull. 587 p.11, 12, 14 or text)
W0 /H0 = 2
Fig. 4c
PP
PPShape
Ellipse
PP
P
P

Fig. 5c

Fig. 6d

Ovaloid

Rectangle

Tens.

Comp.

Tens.

Comp.

Tens.

Comp.

M = 1/3

0.3

4.7

0.4

3.2

0.1

4.0

M=0

1.0

5.0

0.9

3.4

0.8

4.0

(a) for M =

1
3

(b) for M = 0

Ovaloid is best in compression


Rectangle is best in tension
Ovaloid is best in compression, still
Rectangle is best in tension, still

Since rock is often much stronger in compression, than in tension one may choose
a rectangle. However, the choice is now really site-specific.

s10
s30

s10

H0

H0
W0

8.

s10

W0

H0
W0

s30

W0  s10

Given: 10 20 ft rectangular shaft sunk vertically where


xx = 1,141 yy = 2,059 zz = 1,600
xy = 221
yz = 0
zx = 0
x = east, y = north, z = up, compression (+)
E = 4.5(106 )psi, v = 0.20, C0 = 15,000 psi, T0 = 900 psi
Find:
(a) Most favorable orientation
(b) FSt , FSc
(c) Sketch peak stress.

Shafts

93

Solution:
The most favorable orientation is with the long axis (20 ft) parallel to S1 rule of
thumb.
y

xy

tan 2 =

1
(
2 xx

3
1

u
x

yy )
221

1
(1,141
2

2,059)

tan 2 = 0.4815
= 12.9 (cw from y axis)

(a)

1/2
&2
1
2
(xx yy ) + (xy )
2
1/2
+%

&2
1
1
S1
2
= (1,141 + 2,059)
(1,141 2,059) + (221)
S3
2
2

S1
S3

S1
S3

1
= (xx + yy )
2

+%

= 1,600 509
2,109 psi
=
1,091 psi

S3
S1
1,091
=
2,109

M=

M = 0.517
Kt = 0.0,

y(N)

S1  2,109

12.9

x(E)

1
2
1
K = 0.5,
2
Kc = 4.57+

20

M 0.5,

10
Sketch

Peak stress concentration occurs at corners


No tension
C0
FSt = not a factor, FSc =
c
15,000
FSc =
(4.57)(2,109)
FSc = 1.56
9.

(a), (b)

(Table 3.2a, p.108)

Given: 3 6 m shaft rectangular sunk vertically to where


xx = 7.9, yy = 14.2, zz = 11.0
xy = 1.5, yz = 0, zx = 0 MPa
x = east, y = north, z = up, E = 31.0 GPa
v = 0.20, C0 = 103 MPa, T0 = 6.2 MPa

(b)

94

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Find:
(a) Most favorable orientation
(b) FSc , FSt in this orientation
(c) Sketch peak stress.
Solution:
Rule: . . . Most favorable orientation is with long axis parallel to the major
compression.
tan 2 =

1.5
1
(7.9
2

14.2)

tan 2 = 0.4762
2 = 25.5 , 154.5

= 12.7 , 77.3
= 77.3

1
2

1/2

xx yy 2
+ (xy )2
2
1/2

 

1
7.9 14.2 2
=
+ (1.51)2
(7.9 + 14.2)
2
2
1
= (xx + yy )
2

= 11.05 3.49
1 = 14.54 MPa
3 = 7.56 MPa

s1  14.54

s3  7.56
sc
77.3

S3
M=
S1
7.56
=
14.54
M = 0.52
Kt = 0,

(Table 3.2a)
1
2
1
K = 0.5,
2
Kc = 4.57

Sketch

x1

M 0.5,

6m
3m

no tension
peak compression occurs at corners
FSt not a factor

103
(4.57)(14.54)
FSc = 1.55

FSc =

Shafts

10.

95

Given: Rectangular shaft 12 24 ft at 3,000 ft where


Sv = 1.2h
Sh = 120 + 0.5h :
Premining (psi)
SH = 3,240 + 0.3h

h = depth (ft)

Find:
(a) Best orientation,
(b) At all depths?
Solution:
If h = 0, then SH = 10 , Sh = 30 and best orientation is with the long dimension
parallel to SH .
Sh

SH

12

(a)

24

For same orientation at depth


Sh < SH
120 + 0.5h < 3,240 + 0.3h
0.2h < 3,120
h < 15,600
Best at all depths of shaft (3,000 ft)
11.

Given: 3.66 7.32 m rectangular shaft at a depth of 914 m where:


Sv = 27.24
Sh = 826 + 11.3h
SH = 22,345 + 6.8h
h = depth in meters
Stresses in kPa
Find:
(a) Best orientation
(b) Best orientation at every depth
Solution:
At h = 0 (depth)

(b)

96

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

long axis parallel to 1


same orientation for:

h
Sh  s 30

Sh < SH
826 + 11.3h < 22,345 + 6.8h
4.5h < 21,519
h < 4,782 m

SH  s 10
H

3.66

7.32

Best at all depths (914 m)


12.

Given: Strain gauge data on a flat surface, over-cored


x

PLAN
y (N)

N30E
6

(45)  500(10

30
(0)  1,000(106)

y

(90)  3,000(106)

x (E)

E = 2.4(106 ) psi, v = 0.20, tension (+)


Find: State of strain, & stress.
Solution:
Normal strain rotation of axis
=

x + y
x y
+
cos 2 + xy sin 2
z
z

w.r.t x y z
x x = (0)
y y = (90)
x x + y y
x x y y
+
cos 2.45 + x y
2
2
= 2(45) [(0) + (90)]

(45) =
2x y

x x
y y
2x y
x y

= 1,000(106 )

= 3,000(106 )
w.r.t x y z
= 3,000(106 )

= 1,500(106 )

Shafts

w.r.t xyz rotation of axis



x x + y y
x x y y
xx
=

cos 2 xy sin 2
yy
2
2


x x y y
xy =
sin 2 + xy cos 2
2

x

= 60

2 = 120

60

1
cos 2 =
2

3
sin 2 =
2

y
30
3
1

2
x

x x + y y
1,000 + 3,000 6
=
10
2
2
x x + y y
= 2,000(106 )
2
x x y y
1,000 3,000 6
=
10
2
2
x x y y
= 1,000(106 )
2
' (



3
1
xx
6
6
6
= 2,000(10 ) (1,000)(10 )
(1,500)(10 )
yy
2
2

6
xx
= 3,799 (10 )
6
yy
201 (10 )
' (


3
1
6
6

xy = (1,000)10
+ (1,500)(10 )
2
2
xy = 116(106 )
The surface is shear stress free & normal stress free
zx = zy = 0 = zz : from Hookes law
Gzx = zx & Gzy = zy
zx = zy = 0
Also

xy = G(2)(116)106
E
G=
2(1 + 0)
2.4(106 )
G=
2(1 + 0.2)

97

98

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

G = 1.0 (106 ) psi

xy = 2xy

xy = +(2)1.0(10 )(116)106
6

xy = 232 psi
+

Exx = xx vyy

: zz = 0

Eyy = vxx + yy : zz = 0

E
(xx + vyy )
1 v2



y =
(vxx + yy )
1 v2
%
&
(2.4)(106 )
xx =
[3,799 + 0.2(201)] 106
1 0.04


=
x

or

xx = 9,598 psi
%

yy

&
2.4(106 )
=
[0.2(3,799) + 201] 106
1 0.04

yy = 2,402 psi
v
zz = (xx + yy )
E
%
&
0.2
zz =
(9,598 + 2,402)
2.4(106 )
zz = 1,000(106 )
(a) Summary
Strain:

Stress:
6

xy = 3,799(10 )

Compression(+)

yy = 201(10 )

xx = 9,598 psi
yy = 2,402 psi

zz = 1,000(10 )
6

xz = 116(10 )
yz = 0
zx = 0

zz = 0
xy = 232 psi
yz = 0
zx = 0

(b) Given: State of stress rectangular shaft 10 20


Find:
(a) Best orientation
(b) Strengths for FSc = 2, FSt = 4.

Compression(+)

Shafts

99

Solution:
Best orientation is long axis
Parallel to 10 (compression t)
tan 2 =
=

xy
1
(
2 xx

yy )
232

1
(9,598
2

N,y

2,402)

syy  2,402 psi


txz  232 psi

tan 2 = 0.064
2 = 3.76

sxy  9,598 psi


E,x

= 1.89

Orientation (b)

N91.8 E
y (N)

s30

10
1.8

s01

20

10

30

10
30

x (E)

1/2

xx yy 2
2
+ (xy )
2
1/2


9,598 + 2,402
9,598 2,402 2
2
=
+ (232)

2
2
xx + yy
=

= 6,000 + 3,605

10 = 9,605 psi
30 = 2,395 psi
30
10
2,395
M=
9,605
M = 0.249
M=

100

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

For: M = 0.249,

W0
10
=
, Bull. 587 p.14 Fig. 6b [T3.2a text]
H0
20

M = 15

M = 13

k = 12

Kmin

0.41

0.14

Kmax

3.70

4.05


1
M=
3

(M = 0) 4.0 < Kc < 4.0+


Kc 4.0

1
M=
3

(M = 0) 0.8 < Kt < 0.1


Kt 0.1
FSt =

T0
, T0 = (4)(0.1)(9,605), T0 = 3,843 psi
Kt 10
(low)

FSt =

C0
Kc 10

tension

C0 = (2)(4.0)(9,605)
(high) compression

C0 = 76,840 psi
13.

Given: Problem 12 data plus gravity stress


= 28 kN/m3 , FSc = 2, h = 1,234 m, FSt = 4
Find: Strengths needed at depth.
Solution:
At depth
zz (gravity) = h
3

vg

= (28 kN/m )(1,234)


= 34.6 MPa

Estimated horizontal gravity stress as


hg =

0.2
34.6
1 0.2
= 8.65 Mpa = Hg
=

hg

v
vg
1v

Shafts

101

(From Problem 12)


S1 = hg + S10
9,605
= 34.6 +
145
S1 = 100.8MPa

S3 = hg + S30
2,395
= 8.65 +
145
S3 = 25.2 MPa

S3
S1
1
M=
4
M=

Kt and Kc are nearly the same as in Problem 7, say Kt = 0.1, Kc = 4.0


C0 = (FSc )(Kc )(S10 )

T0 = (FSt )(Kt )(S10 )


= (4)(0.1)(100.8)

= (2)(4)(100.8)
C0 = 806 MPa

T0 = 40.3 MPa

(117,000 psi!)

( 5,850 psi)

The high stress requires high strength, probably greater than laboratory strengths.
14.

Given: Strain gauge data on a flat surface, over-cored


x
y (N)
N30E
30

y

PLAN

(45)
 500(106)
(0) = 1,000(106)
(90)
 3,000(106)

E = 16.55 GPa, v = 0.20, tension (+)


Find: State of strain & stress.
Solution:
Normal strain rotation of axis
=

x + y
x y
+
cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2

x (E)

102

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

w.r.t x y z
x x = (0)
y y = (90)
x x + y y
x x y y
(45) =
+
cos 2.45 + x y
2
2
2x y = 2(45) [(0) + (90)]

x x = 1,000(106 )

y y = 3,000(106 )
w.r.t x y z
2x y = 3,000(106 )

x y = 1,500(106 )
w.r.t xyz rotation of axis

x x + y y
x x y y
xx
=

cos 2 xy sin 2
yy
2
2


x x y y
xy =
sin 2 + xy cos 2
2
y

1
cos 2 =
2

3
sin 2 =
2

x

= 60

60

x x + y y
2
x x + y y
2
x x + y y
2
x x + y y
2
xx
yy
xx
yy

30
2

3
1

1,000 + 3,000 6
10
2

= 2,000(106 )
=

1,000 3,000 6
10
2

= 1,000(106 )

' (


1
3
6
= 2,000(10 ) (1,000)(10 )
(1,500)(10 )
2
2
6

3, 799(106 )
201(106 )

xy = (1,000)10
xy = 116(106 )

' (


3
1
+ (1,500)(106 )
2
2

S h a f t s 103

The surface is shearstress free & normal stress free


zx = zy = 0 = zz from Hookes law
Gzx = zx & Gzy = zy
zx = zy = 0
xy = G(2)(116)106

Also

E
2(1 + v)
16.55
G=
2(1 + 0.2)
G=

G = 6.895 Gpa
xy = (6.895)109 (2)(116)106
xy = 1.60 Mpa

,
E
xx + vyy : zz = 0
2
1v


,
E
yy + vxx : zz = 0
=
2
1v


xx =
yy

xx =


16.55
[3,799 + 0.2(201)]109 106
1 0.04

xx = 66.2 Mpa


16.55
yy =
[201 + 0.2(3,799)]
1 0.04
yy = 16.56 Mpa
v
(xx + yy )
E
%
&
0.2
=
(66.2 + 16.56)106
16.55(109 )

zz =

zz = 1,000(106 )
(a) Summary
xx = 3,799(106 )
yy = 201(106 )
6

zz = 1,000(10 )
xy = 116(106 )
yz = 0
zx = 0

xx = 66.2 Mpa
yy = 16.56
zz = 0
xy = 1.60
yz = 0
zx = 0

104

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(b) Best orientation is with long axis parallel to 10 , rectangular shaft 3 6 m.


y (North)
s30

tan 2 = 1
2

=1
2

3m

1.8

xy
(xx yy )
1.60
(66.2 16.56)

tan 2 =0.0644
2 =3.7 , 176.3
= 1.8 , 88.2

x (East)

6m
s10

orientation is N91.8 E

(c) Strengths for FSc = 2, FSt = 4



1/2


10
xx yy 2 , -2
1
= (xx + yy )
+ xy
2
2
30

1/2

66.2 16.56 2
1
= (66.2 + 16.56)
+ (1.60)2
2
2

10
= 41.38 24.87
30
10 = 66.25 MPa
30 = 16.51 MPa
16.51
66.25
M = 0.25
M=

Text (Table 3.2a)


M = 15

M = 13

Kmin

0.41

0.14

Kmax

3.70

4.05

k = 12

estimate:
Kc 4.0
Kt 0.2
FSc =

C0
,
Kc 10

FSt =

T0
Kt 10

C0 = (2)(4.0)(66.25),

T0 = (4)(0.2)(66.25)

C0 = 530 MPa,

T0 = 53 MPa

S h a f t s 105

15.

Given: Problem data plus gravity stress


= 28 kN/m3 , h = 1,234 m, FSc = 2, FSt = 4
Find: Strengths needed at depth.
Solution:
At depth
zz (gravity) = h
,
= 28 kN/m3 (1,234)
vg = 34.6 MPa
Estimate horizontal gravity stress as
hg =

v
= vg
1v

0.2
34.6
1 0.2
= 8.65 MPa = Hg

=
hg

(From Problem 14)


S1 = vg + S10

S3 = hg + S30

9,605
145
S1 = 100.8 MPa

2,396
145
S3 = 25.2 MPa

= 34.6 +

= 8.65 +

S3
S1
1
M=
4
M=

Kt and Kc are nearly the same as in Problem 7 say Kt = 0.1, Kc = 4.0


C0 = (FSc )(Kc )(S10 )
= (2)(4)(100.8)

T0 = (FSt )(Kt )(S10 )


= (4)(0.1)(100.8)

C0 = 806 MPa

T0 = 40.3 MPa

(117,000 psi!)

(5,850 psi)

The high stress requires high strength, probably greater than laboratory strengths.

106

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

16.

Given: Rectangular shaft


C0 = 23,700 psi
T0 = 1,450 psi

y(N)

SE = 350 + 0.2 h
SN = 420 + 0.35 h
Sv = 1.12 h

20

x(E)

deeper to 1,800 ft
Find: FSc , FSt at 1750

10

Solution:
C0
,
c
c = Kc S1

S1  1,033

T0
c
t = Kt S1
SN = 420 + 0.35(1,750)
SN = 1,033 psi

FSc =

FSt =

y
x

H0  20

S3  700

SE = 350 + 0.2(1,750)
SE = 700 psi
W0  10

SN = S1
700
M=
1,033
M = 0.678
W0
10
=
H0
20
W0
= 0.5
H0
Table 3.2 Text, estimate between

Kmax
Kmin

M = 12

M = 34

4.57
0.19

5.48
0.69

Kc 4.9
(no tension)

23,700
4.9(1,033)
FSc = 4.68
FSc =

FSv =

FSt = not a factor (no tension)

23,700
= 12.1
(1.12)(1,750)

Shafts

17.

107

Given: 3D hydrostatic stress state


Find: Favorable shape ellipse, rectangle, ovaloid with semi-axes ratio of 2?
(USBM Bull 587)
Solution:

M=1

Ellipse

Rectangle

Ovaloid

Kc

4.0

4.6

3.2

Kt

Note: Hydrostatic M = 1
Ovaloid is best lowest Kc no-tension
(Note: Ovaloid has well-rounded corners, max radius, in fact)
18.

Given : 3 6 m rectangular shaft depth = 533 m to 579 m from 290 m


C0 = 164 MPa
T0 = 10.2
E = 36.5 GPa
v = 0.27
= 26.6 kN/m

SE = 2,414 + 4.5h (x)


SN = 2,897 + 7.9h (y)
Sv = 25.3h
(z)
Find: FSc , FSt , FSv for Shaft of 533 m.
Solution:
FSc =

C0
C0
C0
FSt =
FSv =
c
t
Sv
c = Kc S v

y(N)

t = Kt S v

S1  7.11 MPa

6m

x(E)
S3  4.81 MPa

Sv = 25.3(533)
Sv = 13.49 MPa
SE = 2,414 + 4.5(533)
SE = 4.81 MPa
SN = 2,897 + 7.9(533)

SN = 7.11 MPa

S3
4.81
=
S1
7.11
M = 0.68
M=

108

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Table 3.2a:

Kmax
Kmin

M = 12

M = 34

4.57
0.19

5.48
0.69

estimate Kc 4.9
Kt not a factor
164
(4.9)(7.11)
FSc = 4.71
FSc =

FSv =

164
= 12.2
13.49

FSt not a factor


FSv = 12.2

19.

Given: 3D hydrostatic stress state


Find: Favorable shape ellipse, rectangle, ovaloid with semi-axes ratio of 2?
(USBM Bull 587, text for ellipse, rectangle)
Solution:

M = 1:

Kc

Ellipse
4.0

Rectangle
4.6

Ovaloid
3.2

Kt

Note: Hydrostatic M = 1
Ovaloid is best lowest Kc , no-tension
(Note: Ovaloid has well-rounded corners, max r, in fact)
20.

Given: Rectangular shaft 18 24 at 4800


xx = 750 + 0.5h
yy = 800 + 0.2h
zz = 1.1h
E = 6.2(106 ) psi, v = 0.33
c = 5,600 psi, = 52
= 158 pcf
Find:
(a) Best orientation
(b) FSt , FSc

Shafts

109

Solution:
Near surface yy = 1 in plan view
xx = 3
at depth: yy > xx ?
800 + 0.2 h > 250 + 0.5h
550 > 0.3h
1,833 > h
at depth > 1,833 xx = 1
yy = z
Since stresses are greater with depth & strength constant, plan for depth. Best
orientation is with long shaft axis parallel to 1 , that is, East at depth greater
than 1,833 ft.
y(N)

18

x(E)

24

21.

Given: Problem 20 data at 4,800 ft


1 = 250 + 0.5(4,800) = 2,650 psi
3 = 800 + 0.2(4,800) = 1,760 psi
M=

30
1,760
= 0.66
=
0
2,650
1

Bulletin 587 or text Table 3.2


W0
18
=
= 0.75 (W0 to 1 = xx )
H0
24
Kt

Kc

M=1

0
(0)

3.8
(4.6)

W0
H0

= 1.0

M = 13

0.3
(0.2)

3.2
(3.1)

W0
H0

= 6.5

110

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

for M = 0.66

W0
= 0.75
H0

estimate Kt = 0.1 Kc = 3.8



2c cos
2(5,600) cos 52
C0
=
=
T0
1 sin
1 sin 52

C0
32,527
=
3,857 psi
T0
FSt =

3,857
= 14.6 high FSs
(0.1)(2,650)

FSc =

32,527
= 3.23
(3.8)(2,650)

But consider
FSc =
22.

Given:
xx = 2,155
yy = 3,045

No support needed

32,527
= 6.16 (o.k. vertical)
(4,800)(1.1)

+ = Compression
x = East

zz = 4,200
yx = 1,222
xz = 0 = yz

y = North
z = Up

Find: 1 , 2 , 3 , and directions, sketch.


Solution:
By inspection, the x-y plane with normal z is shear-free and therefore a principal
plane. Thus z is a principal direction and zz = 2 (for now)
In the x-y plane

1/2


xx + yy
xx yy 2
1
2
=

+ (xy )
3
2
2

1
3

2,155 + 3,045

=
2

1/2

2
+ (1,222)

= 2,600 1,300

3,900
=
psi
1,300

1 = 4,200 psi
reording 2 = 3,900 N 35 W

= 1,300 N 55 E
1
3

2,155 3,045
2

(Vertical)
(Horizontal)
(Horizontal)

1 , 2 , 3

Shafts

tan 2 =
=

z(u)

xy
1
(
2 xx

+ yy )
1,222

1
(2,155
2

s2  3,900 psi y(N)

3,045)

35

s1 = 4,200 psi

tan 2 = 2.746
2 = 70

s3 1,300 psi

= 35

35
x(E)

+ ccw from y-axis


23.

111

SKETCH (directions)

Given : 6 8 m rectangular shaft at a depth of 1,500 m


xx = 1,724 + 11.3h (E)(kPa, m) = units
yy = 5,517 + 4.5h (N)
zz = 2.49h
(U)
E = 42.8 GPa, = 0.33
c = 38.6 MPa, = 52
= 25.0 kN/m

Find:
(1) Best orientation
(2) FSc , FSv , FSt .
Solution:
Near surface: yy = 1
(h = 0)
xx = 3
but strength high, stress low at depth : xx = 18.67 MPa (h = 1,500 m)
yy = 12.27
Best orientation is with long (8 m) axis parallel to x(E)
y (N)
s3
s1

x (E)

(favorable orientation)

24.

Given: Problem 22 data, at 1,500 m , 3 = 12.27 Mpa, 1 = 18.67 Mpa


3
1
12.27
=
18.67
M = 0.66
M=

112

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

W0
18
= 0.75
=
H0
24
i.e. k = 0.75
Table 3.2.
M = 0.66
M = 0.5 (interpolate)
Kmax

4.57
4.39

Kmin

0.19
0.02

M = 0.75

5.15
4.77

5.48
4.97

0.69
0.40
1
2
k=1

M = 0.66

k=

k = 12 , k = 1

(tension na)

3
4
= 4.77 : interpolate

Kmax = 5.15

Kmax

M = 0.66
Kmax = 4.96
3
tension
absent

k=
4

k=

2c cos
(2)(38.6) cos 52
=
=
1 2sin
1 sin 52
224
FSc =
= 2.42
(4.96)(18.67)
FSt (n.a)

C0
T0

FSv =

224
= 6.00
(24.9)(1,500)

224 MPa
26.5 MPa
FSc

FSv

(no support needed)


25.

Given: xx = 14.9 MPayy = 21.0zz = 29.0 (+ compression) xy = 8.4 yz = 0


zx = 0
Shaft: 4 8 m (rectangle, ellipse, ovaloid)
Find:
(1) 1 , 2 , 3 and directions
(2) Select best shape.
x = east

y = north z = up

Solution:
By inspection, the z-direction is a principal direction
zz = 2 = 29.0 MPa (for the moment)

Shafts

113

In x-y plane
1
3

1
3

1/2

xx yy 2 , -2
+ xy
2
1/2

 

1
14.9 21.0 2
(14.9 + 21.0)
=
+ (8.4)2
2
2
1
= (xx + yy )
2

26.89 MPa (for now)


9.01

1 = zz = 29.0 (Vertical)

2 = 26.89
(Horizontal)
3 = 9.01
tan 2 =

1 , 2 , 3

8.4
1
(14.9
2

21.0)

tan 2 = 2, 754
2 = 70 , 250
= 35 , 125
z(u)
S1  s2

y(N)
PLAN

s1

35
S3  s3

3
s2 N 35W

y(N)

N 55E

x(E)
8

Directions sketch

35
s3

4m

2
x(E)

in plan view

S1 = 2 N35 W
S3 = 3 N55 E

In this orientation with


1
9.01
1
k=
M=
= 0.335 =
2
26.89
3

114

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Ellipse Kc = 1.67 Kt = 0 (Table 3. 2a)


Rectangle Kc = 4.05 Kt = 0.14
Ovaloid (rectangle with very rounded corners would have Kc , Kt smaller.
ellipse is best.
26.

Given: Vertical shaft


C0 = 21,500 psi E = 6.25(106 ) psi = 144 pcf T0 = 1,530 psi
G = 2.5(106 ) psi

SE = 200 + 0.3h
preshaft stress (psi)
SN = 600 + 0.9h
h in ft.

Sv = 1.14
Find:
(a) Most favorable shape ellipse, rectangle ovaloid when shaft is 14,478 ft
(b) FSt , FSc at 2,800 ft
Solution:
Plan view, minimize stress concentration (best alignment)
28

W0
14
=
H0
28
W0
= 0.5
H0
M=

y (N)

14

SN  s10
at 2,800 ft

30
10

x (E)

1,040
3,120
1
M=
3
M=

Ovaloid
Ellipse
Rectangle

SE  200  0.3h
SE  1,040 psi
SE  s30

Kc
2.65
3.10

Kt

1.65
0.25

Fig 5

Fig 6

Ellipse is best in compression and tension


(minimum Kc , no Kt )
FSc =

SN  600  0.9h
SN  3,120 psi

C0
0

21,500
(1.65)(3,120)
FSc = 4.18
=

FSt n.a. (no tension)

Fig 4, p 11 USBM Bull. 587

Shafts

27.

115

Given: Vertical shaft 4.5 9.0 m


C0 = 148.3 MPa E = 43.10 GPa = 22.78 kN/m3 T0 = 10.6 G = 17.24 GPa
:x
SE = 1,379 + 6.8 h
SN = 4,138 + 20.4 h : y
Sv = 24,94 (kPa, m) : z
Find:
(a) Best shape (rectangle, ellipse, ovaloid)
(b) FSs at 854 m.
Solution:
Best orientation is with long axis parallel to S1 in plan view
1
4.5
W0
=
=
2
H0
9.0
7.19
1
M =
= =M
21.56
3
1
1
Table 3.2b: M =
k=
3
2
Ellipse:
Kmax = 1.67 = Kc

y (N)

k=

S1  4,138  20.4(854)  21.56 MPa

x (E)
S3  1,379  6.8(854)  7.19 MPa

9m

Kmin = Kt = nil
Rectangle: Kmax = 4.05 = Kc

4.5

Kmin = 0.14 = Kt
Ovaloid (rounded corners; less than rectangle Ks)
Ellipse is best, least Kc , Kt
FSt not a factor
148.3
= 4.12 = FSc
FSc =
(1.67)(21.56)
28.

Given: Rectangular shaft 12 24 ft @ N30W, depth = 2,150 ft.


Find: FSs
Solution:
y(N)

30
Sy  600  0.9(2,150)
Sy  2,535 psi
x(E)
24

Sx  200  0.3(2,150)
Sx  845 psi

12

FSs

116

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Sy > Sx
Sy = 10

Sx = 30 (Fig. 7, p 15, Bull 587)

W0
24
=
H0
12
W0
= 2.0
H0
= 30

30
10
845
M=
2, 535
1
M=
3

s30

M=

Kc = 4.85 between
Kt = (no tension)

22.5 & 45
4.7 5.2

W0
24

H0

30

s01

12

C0
21,500
=
c
4.85(2,535)
FSc = 1.75, FSt (n.a)

FSc =

29.

Given: Rectangular shaft 12 24 ft from 3,000 to 4,800 ft stress state:


Sxx = 2,000 + 1.1d
Syy = 50 + 0.9d
Szz = 1.15d
xy = 350 0.3d
yz = yx = 0
Find:
(a) Best orientation of a single shaft
(b) Sketch peak stress concentration
(c) Estimate peak stress.
Solution:
Best orientation is with long axis parallel to major compression
Find 1 , 3 at great depth, i.e., 3,850 ft
Sxx = 2,000 + (1.1)(3,850)
Sxx = 6,235 psi
Syy = 50 + 0.9(3,850)
Syy = 3,515 psi
Szz = 1.15(3,850)
Szz = 4,428 psi
xy = 3.50 0.3(3,850)
xy = 1,505 psi

Shafts

tan 2 =
=

117

xy
Syy )
1,505

1
(S
2 xy

3,515)
tan 2 = 1.1066
2 = 47.9
1
(6,235
2

= 23.9

y (N)
W0 

S3

sc

12

Peak tension st
st

sc
x (E)

sc
st

 23.9

24
H0 

Best orientation (a)

sc

S1
Peak compression sc

Need S1 , S3 for stress concession


S1
S3


Sx S y 2
+ (xy )2
2



6,235 3,515 2
6,235 + 3,515
=
+ (6,505)2

2
2
Sx + Sy
=

= 4,875 2,028
S1 = 6,904
S3 = 2,847
S3
S1
2,847
M=
6,904
M=

M = 0.412 &

W0
= 0.5
H0

118

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Handout Bull. 587 pg. 14 Fig. 6b


1
3
at M = 1
at M = 0.412

at M =

Kt = 0.2

Kc = 3.1

no tension; 0
Kt = 0.18

Kc = 4.7
Kc = 3.29

Peak tension occurs of mid-span along short dimension and peak compression
occurs at the corners.
(b)

30.

t = Kt 10
= (+0.18)(6,904)
t = +1,234 tension (psi)

(c)

c = Kc 10
c = 3.29 (6,904)
c = 22,714 (psi)

(c)

Given:
C0 = 148.3 MPa
T0 = 10.55 MPa
E = 43.10 GPa
G = 17.24 GPa
= 22.8 kN/m3
SE = 1,379 + 6.8h
SN = 4,138 + 20.4h
Sv = 24.9h (kPa,m)
3.7 + 7.4 m rectangular shaft
long axis is N30W

y(N)
SN  S1  4,138  20.4(655)  17.5 MPa

SE  S3  1,379  6.8(655)  5.83


x(E)

7.

(w.r.t x y z)
3.7 m

Find: FSs at 655 m.


Solution:
3
S3
(w.r.t 1,3)

30

H0

S1
1

W0
W0

H0

7.4
3.7

2

M

5.83
1

17.5
3

S h a f t s 119

w.r.t USBM Bull. 587 p. 15, Fig. 7. (For inclined openings)


Table 3 (B. 587)
M=
Estimate at 22.5
45.0
30.0
FSt not a factor

Kc = 4.7
Kc = 5.2
Kc = 4.86

1
3

W0
=2
H0

Kt nil
Kt nil
Kt nil

148.3
= 1.74
4.86(17.5)
148.3
FSc =
= 9.09
24.9(655)(11)3

FSs

FSc =

31.

Given: 3.7 7.4 rectangular shaft to 1,175 m.


Sxx = 13,793 + 24.9d
Syy = 345 + 20.4d
Szz = 26.0d
xy = 2,414 4.8d
yz = 0 = zx
Find: Best orientation, peak stress sites, Kc , Kt .
Solution:
Best orientation is with long axis parallel to S1 at 1,175 m
Sxx = 13,793 + 24.9(1,175) = 43.05 MPa
Syy = 345 + 20.4(1,175) = 24.32 MPa
Szz = 26.0(1,175) = 30.55 MPa
xy = 2,414 6.8(1,175) = 10.40 MPa
z is a principal direction, by inspection
tan 2 =

xy
1
(S
2 xx

Syy )

2 = 48 , 132
= 24 , +66

10.40
1
(43.05
2

2,632)

= 1.1105

120

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


y (N)
A, B, C, D sites of
peak compression

S3
D

E, F sites of
peak tension

E
C

x (E)

A
24

F
7.4

S1
S3

S1

1/2

Sxx Syy 2
+ (xy )2
2

1/2

43.05 24.32 2
1
= (43.05 + 24.32)
+ (10.40)2
2
2
1
= (Sxx + Syy )
2

= 33.69 14.0
S1 = 47.69 MPa
S3 = 19.69
S3
19.69
=
= 0.412 = M
S1
47.69
W0
1
= k = = 0.5
H0
2
M=

Table 3.2.
M=

1
3

Kmax
Kmin
at M = 0.412

1
2
4.05
0.14
M=

1
2
4.57
0.20
k=

Kmax = 4.31 (interpolate)


Kmin = 0.17
c = Kc 1
= (4.31)(43.05)
c = 185.5 MPa
t = Kt 1
= 0.17(43.05)
t = 7.31 MPa

Shafts

32.

121

Given: Vertical circular shaft, rock and concrete properties.


Find: Unlined wall FS.
Solution:
Circular shaft, gravity stress horizontal stresses are equal
S1 = S3 in plan view and M = 1
Kc = 2,

Kt = 0 (no tension)

Handout Bull 516 pg. 10, Fig. 3. Text M = 1, K = 2,


c = Kc S1
S1 estimate: gravity alone

v , v = H
h = H =
1v
(
'

1
156
4
h =
(2,780)
144
1 14
h = 1,004 psi
c = (2)(1,004)
c = 2,008 psi
C0
FSc =
c
6,750
=
2,008
FSc = 3.36 (in Plan)

In vertical section:

6,750
v
6,750
= , 156
2,780
144
FSc = 2.24 (in section)

(a)

FSc =

33.

Given: Three compartment


rectangular shaft 12 24 ft,
depth = 3,000 ft, 0 from
gravity loading only.
C0 = 8,000 psi, T0 = 750 psi
E = 4.5 104 psi, v = 0.25
= 162 pcf
Find:
(1) FSt & FSc at the unlined
shaft wall.
(2) Optimum orientation
of shaft.

sh

sh

12  W0

24
H0

sh

sh

122

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
1
W0
= , under gravity loading
H0
2
&
%
v
h =
v
1v
where:


v = H =

16,216
ft

'


(3,000 ft)

1 ft

144 in2

v = 3,375 psi
%
&
0.25
h =
3,375 psi
1 0.25
h = 1,125 psi
Vertical element:
C0
v
8,000 psi
=
3,375 psi
FSv = 2.37 Stable in vertical compression

FSv =

Horizontal FSs:
FSc =

FSv

C0
K c h

Using USBM Bulliten 587: Alternatively Table 3.2


1
M = 1, K =
2
Kc = 6.46
Kt = nil
W0 1
h
= 1;
=
@ M=
h
H0 2
Kc = 4.75
Kt = 0
FSc =

8,000 psi
(4.75)(1,125 psi)

FSc =

8,000
6.46(1,125)

FSc = 1.50 Stable in horizontal compression or (FSc = 1.11)


FSt =

FSc

T0
K t h

FSt = Stable in tension

FSc

Because of gravity loading, horizontal stresses are equal in all directions. Therefore there is not a single optimum orientation. If the horizontal stresses were not

Shafts

123

equal in all directions. The shortest span of the shaft (W0 ) should be aligned with
the greatest horizontal stress as shown below, i.e., long axis parallel to major
compression.
s30

H0
s10

s10

W0

s30

34.

Given: Actual stresses are tectonic


0
EW
= h + 1,250 psi
0
NS = h + 2,500 psi
Find:
(1) Orient shaft in optimum
directions
(2) Calculate FSs.

E
s30
H0  24

s10

s10

W0  12

Solution:
h = 1,125 psi
0
10 = NS
= 3,625 psi
0
0
3 = EW
= 2,375 psi

s30

Vertical:
FSv is the same as in Problem 33
FSv = 2.37
Horizontal:
W0
12
1
=
=

H0
24
2
M=

30
2,375 psi
=
3,625 psi
10

M = 0.655

FSv

124

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Using USBM Bulliten 587:


Estimate Kc & Kt from graph
(low)

using Table 3.2 = Text


Kc = 5.1
Kt = nil

Kc = 3.75

FSt (n.a.)

Kt = 0
FSt =

FSc = 0.43 (will need support)

FSc =

FSt

8,000 psi
(3.75)(3,625)psi
FSc

FSc = 0.59
35.

Given: Stress field from Problem 34


USE CIRCULAR SHAFT D = 18 ft
Find: FSs

Solution:
10 = 3,625 psi
30 = 2,375 psi

s10

s30

s30
18

Vertical:
FSv is same
FSv = 2.37

FSv

Horizontal:
30
10
M = 0.66
M=

s10

Using USBM Bulliten 587:

Text formula

estimate Kc & Kt @ M = 0.66 Kmin = 1 + M 2(1 M) = 1 + 0.66 2(1 0.66)


Kmax = 1 + M + 2(1 M) = 1 + 0.66 + 2(1 0.66)
Kc = 2.25
Kmin = 0.98 no tension
Kt = 0
Kmax = 2.34
FSt =
FSc =

8,000 psi
(2.25)(3,625 psi)

FSc = 0.98
36.

FSt (n.a)
FSc =

FSt

8,000
(2.34)(3,625)

FSc = 0.94

FSc

Given: In-situ stress field for Problem 34 & 35 changes between 3,000 & 3,500 ft
to one described by:
v = 1.125h
H = 3, 500 + 0.33h
h = 3, 500 + 0.33h

Shafts

125

v ; H & h are principal stresses. (h is in feet, in psi)


Find: Unlined FSs @ 4,500 ft.
Solution:
@ 4500 ft:
v0 = (1.25)(4,500) psi
v0 = 5,063 psi
H = h = 3,500 + 0.33(4,500)
h0 = 4,985 psi
Vertical:
C0
v0
8,000 psi
=
5,063 psi
FSv = 1.58
FSv =

FSv

Assume Circular Shaft


Horizontal:
M=

0
H
=1
h0

From USBM Bulliten 587:


Kc = 2
Kt = 0
FSt =

Text formula

Kc = 2
same
Kt = nil
FSt

8,000 psi
2(4,985)
FSc = 0.80
FSc =

37.

Given: 3 compartment shaft 3.7 7.4 m


vertical depth = 914 m, gravity only
C0 = 55.17 MPa T0 = 5.17 MPa
E = 31.0 GPa v = 0.25
= 25.6 kN/m3
Find: FSc , FSt , best orientation.
Solution:
Gravity implies equal horizontal stress
there is no one best orientation

FSc

sh  sH

sH  sh
3.7 m
7.4

orientation

126

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

C0
Sv
estimate: Sv = H
= (25.6)(914)
Sv = 23.4 MPa
FSc =

55.17
= 2.36
23.4
C0
FSv =
,
c

FSv

FSv =

FSt =

T0
t

c = Kc 10

t = Kt 10


v
0.25
h = H = 10 (plan view) = 30 =
Sv =
(23.4)
1v
1 0.25
h = H = 7.8 MPa
M = 1 (K = 12 , h = 2) hydrostatic case
Table 2
FSc =

Kmax = 6.46 Kmin = 0.52 no tension

55.17
= 1.14
6.46(7.8)
FSc , FSt

FSt (n.a.)
38.

Given: Previous Problem 37,


data and
EW = h + 8.62 MPa
NS = H + (2)(8.62) MPa

y(N)
Best orientation

7.4 m

Find:
(a) Best orientation
(b) FSs.

x(E)

Orientation

3.7

Solution:
EW = 7.8 + 8.62 = 16.42 MPa
NS = 7.8 + 17.24 = 25.04
FSv same as in 37

FSv = 2.36

FSv

1
M = 0.66
2
Using Table 3.2 text interpolating, estimating
In favorable orientation: K =

Kc = 5.1

& Kt = nil

55.17
= 0.43 (low!)
(5.1)(25.04)
FSt n.a.

FSc =

FSc

FSt

Shafts

39.

Given: Stress field of Problem 38


v = 23.4
EW = 16.42
NS = 25.04 Mpa
Circular shaft, 5.5 m diameter
Find: Shaft wall FSs.

127

y(N)
s1  25.04

s3  16.42

Solution:
Sv is same, C0 same, FSv = 2.36
M = 0.66 (as before)
Text formula

5.5 m

x (E)

Kmin = (1 + M) 2(1 M) = 0.98


Kmax = (1 + M) + 2(1 M) = 2.34
no tension
FSc =

FSt n.a.

55.17
(2.34)(25.04)

FSc = 0.94
40.

Given: Stress field in Problems 38 & 39 changes to


v = 25.45h
H = 24,138 + 7.47h
h = 24,138 + 7.47h
(kPa, m)
Find: FSs at 1,372 m (circular shaft).
Solution:
(a) FSv =

55.17
25.45(1,372)(103 )
FSv

FSv = 1.58
(b) In plan view H = h M = 1, K = 2, no tension
FSc =

(Text formula)

55.17
(2)(H )

H = 24,138 + 7.47 (1,372)


H = 34.4 MPa
FSc =
FSt n.a.

55.17
= 0.80
(2)(34.4)

FSc

FSt

128

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

41.

Given: and gravity preshaft stress field


Find: If rock safety factor = 3.0, C0 = ?
Solution:
C0
c
C0 = c (3.0)

FSc =

SH  K0 Sy

2SH

M  1, Kc  2

In plan view
Sv = h,
estimate at 1 psi/ft
Sv (max) = 3,750 psi
1
estimate K0 =
3

Sh  K0 Sy

 
1
c = (2)
(Sv )
3
 
2
C0 =
(3.0)(Sv ) : (less)
3

In vertical section:
C0
Sv
C0 = (3.0)(Sv )
FS =

C0 = (3.0)(3,750)
Vertical rules

3,750

C0

C0 = 11,250 psi
(77.6 MPa)
Sy

Supported Shafts, Liners, Bolts, Rings


42.

Given: Vertical circular shaft,


I.D. = 19 ft
Find:
(a) FSc , FSt unlined at
4,250 ft depth
(b) Liner thickness t for
90 psi water pressure
f0 = 3,500 psi
(concrete).

y (N)

S1  420  0.35 (4,250)  1,908 psi


(super-position)

S3  350  0.2 (4,250)  1,200 psi


x (E)

M

1,200
1,908

 0.629

S h a f t s 129

Solution:
1, 3 uniaxial superposition
N = 1(908) + 3(1,200) = 1,692 psi
E = 1(1,200) + (1,908) = 4,524
FSc =

23,700
= 5.24
4,524

FSv =

23,700
= 4.98
(1.12)(4,250)

SN + 3SE

SE + 3SN

(a) FSc , FSt

FSt : no tension, not a factor

(b) FSc =

C0
c

Max. allowable c =
But also c =
3,500 =

3,500 =

1


9.5
b
9.5
b

2
=
2

C0
= 3,500 psi
FSc

2Pb
, -2
1 ba
(2)(90)
, -2
1 ba


t

(2)(90)
, -2
1 9.5
b
180
3,500

=1

180
3,500

1
= 1.05(102 )
b2
b = 9.754 ft
t =ba
= 9.754 9.50
t = 0.254 ft (3.05 in.)

43.

Given: Liner in Problem 42.


Find: D at failure.

130

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
D = 2u|r=a

(twice radial displacement)


(

'


1+v
Pb a
Pb a
= (2)
(1 2v)
, -2 +
, -2
E
1 ba
1 ba



(1 + 0.25)
Pb a
D = (2)
(1.0 0.5 + 1.0)
, -2
4.75(106 )
1 ba
at failure: c = C0
2Pb
, -2 = 5,740 psi
1 ba

(
'
(2)(1.25)
Pb
D =
(0.75)(2)
, -2 a
4.75(106 )
1 ba
(2.5)(0.75)(5,740)(9.5)(12)
4.75(106 )
D = 0.258 in.
=

44.

Given: Vertical, circular shaft 5.8 m I.D.


[Rock]
C0 = 163.5 MPa, T0 = 10.21
E = 36.48 GPa, v = 0.27
= 25.63 kN/m3
[Stress]
SE = 2,414 + 4.53h : x
SN = 2,897 + 7.92h : y (kPa, m)
Sv = 25.3h
:z

y(N)

SN  13.15 MPa

SE  8.28
Unlined

[Concrete]
C0 = 39.6 MPa, T0 = 2.93
E = 32.76 GPa, v = 0.25
Find:
(1) FSs unlined at 1,295 m
(2) Liner thickness h, P = 0.621 MPa, fc = 24.14 MPa (concrete).
Solution:
N = 2,897 + 7.92(1,295)
N = 13.15 MPa

Text formula:
Kmin = 1 + M 2(1 M)

E = 2,414 + 4.53(1,295)
E = 8.28 MPa

Kmax = 1 + M + 2(1 M)

x(E)

Shafts

8.28
13.15
M = 0.63
M=

FSc =

C0
c

Kmin = 1 + 0.63 2(1 0.63) = 0.89


Kmax = 1 + 0.63 + 2(1 0.63) = 2.37

FSt =

c = Kc 10

T0
t

FSv =

t = Kt 10

163.5
(7.37)(13.15)
FSc = 5.25

FSc =

131

C0
v
163.5
(25.3)(1,295)(103 )

Kt nil tension n.a.


FSv = 4.99

FSt (n.a.)

FSs

Max allow C0 in concrete = 3,500


2p
, -2
1 ba

but also max =

(2)(0.621)
I.D.
, 2.9 -2 : a = 2
1 b

(24.14) =

1


2.9
b

2
= 0.05145

5.8

2

2.9
= 0.9485
b
2.9
= 0.9739
b
b = 2.978 m

h = ba
= 2.978 2.900
h = 0.078 mm
h = 7.8 cm
45.

Given: Previous problem data


Find: Di at failure (change in inside diameter).
Di = 5.8 mm
E = 36.48 GPa
E = 32.76 GPa

v = 0.27 [rock]
v = 0.75 [concrete]

Solution:
D = 2u|r=a

132

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Text derivation
Di = 2u|r=a

1+v
=2
E

Di = 2u|r=a =

[(1 2v)Pb a + Pb a]
#
, -2 $
1 ba

(1 + 0.25)
a 2 Pb
(1 0.51 + 1)
, -2 ; a = 2.9 m
32.76 GPa
1 a
b

2Pb
at failure : c = C0 =
, -2
1 ba
C0 = 39.6 MPa
Di = 0.00657 m
0.657 cm

46.

Di at

liner failure

Vertical, circular shaft


D = 26 ft (inside)
depth = 3,200 ft
Pw = 210 psi
Find: Unlined FSs, t for liner (not needed).
Solution:
sH  200  0.4h

h = 3,200 ft
H = 200 + 0.4(3,200)
H = 1,480 psi

sh  600  0.3h

h = 600 + 0.3(3,200)
h = 1,560 psi

PLAN

h = E = 1 & H = N = 3 (plan)
30
10
1,480
=
1,560
M = 0.9491 1

M =

Kc
= 2.0

Kt nil

C0
c
27,400
=
(2.0)(1,560)
FSc = 8.78 (plan)

FSc =

FSt =

T0
t

FSt not a factor

FSt

Shafts

Vertical FSv =

133

C0
Sv

27,460
(3,200)(1.12)
FSv = 7.65 (vertical)
=

(b)

Liner thickness for pw = 210 psi


C0 (concrete)
= 3,500 psi
and for
FSconcrete
(max allow stress)
max = 3,500 psi,

210 psi

%
 a 2 &
3,500 1
b
 a 2
1
b
 a 2
b
a

liner
s

b  D0
2

(2)(210)
, -2
1 ba

= 420
= 0.12

= 0.88

= 0.88 b 
1
26
b=
0.88 2
b = 13.86 ft
b a = 13.86 13.00
t = ba
t = 0.86 ft
t = 10.3 inches

47.

aD
2

2p
But also: =
, -2
1 ba
3,500 =

1/3
FSc

Given: Impending liner failure


Find: Inside diameter change.
Solution:
Pressure at failure = C0
2p
, -2
1 ba
%
 a 2 &
C0
p=
1
2
b




5,500
13 2
=
1
2
13.86

C0 =

pfail = 331 psi

p  331

s  C0
Concrete

134

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

D = 2u|r=a = (2)(radial displacement of wall)



u=

1+v
E2

'

(

p
p
(1 2v)
a
, -2 a +
2
1 ba2
1 ba


1+v
2pa
(1.5)
, -2 : concrete
E
1 ba
%
&
1 + 0.25
=
(1.5)(5,500)(13)(12)
5.5(106 )

2u =

2u = 0.293 in.
(at failure)

D = 0.293 in.

48.

Pb

Given: Shaft and concrete data


concrete

b
a

C0 = 37.93 MPa, T0 = 3.79


E = 37.93 GPa, v = 0.25

Pw = 1.45 MPa
Di = 8 m

liner

smax

Find: Liner thickness


Note: Fc = 24.14 MPa

Solution:
max
(allow) =
24.14 =

 a 2
b

2Pb
, -2
1 ba
(2)(1.45)
, -2
1 ba

= 0.88

a
= 0.938
b

b =

8
2

0.938
b = 4.264 m

h = ba
= 4.264 4
h = 0.264 m
h = 26.4 cm

S h a f t s 135

49.

Given: Problem 48 data


Find: Di at failure (cm)
Solution:
Find failure load
C0 =

2P
, -2
1 ba

C0 = 37.93 MPa

Di = 2u|r=a


1+v
aPb
= (2)
[(1 2v) + 1]
, -2
E
1 a
b

(from text derivation)





1 + 0.25
[1 (0.25)(2) + 1](4)(37.93)
37.93 GPa
Di = 0.0075 m
Di = 0.75 cm
Di =

50.

Di at failure

Given: Vertical, concrete, circular shaft


pw = 123 psi
D0 = 22
H = 2,890
E = 35(106 ), v = 0.30
C0 = 4,500 psi, T0 = 450 psi
= 152 pcf
FS = 3.85
Find: h, D.
Solution:
a

C0

4,500
=
= 1,169 psi
3.85

FS =

But also
=
1

 a 2
b

2P
, -2
1 ba
(2)(123)
= 0.2105
1,169

a
= 0.889
b

136

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


22
(0.889)
a=
2
a = 9.77 ft


t = b a = 11.0 9.775
t = 1.23 (14.8 in.)

D = 22 2(1.23)
Di = 19.54 ft
51.

Show why shaft liner weight not important


Equilibrium analysis:
Vertical
F
rock

liner-ring

1

a
F  F
W

Fv = 0
0 = F + T W
0 = F + T (b2 a2 )(1)
if F = 0 then T supports weight of a one ft ring one ft thick, typical
e.g.
 
 2
21 2
20
T = (144)()(1)
, A = (3.1415)(21)(1)(144)

2
2
T
= 0.5 psi
A
Thus a slight bond strength between concrete and rock is sufficient for support
of weight.
52.

Given: Large shaft, vertical 32 ft finished diameter needed, depth 1,270 ft, water
pressure = 240 psi
Concrete:
C0 = 3,500 psi E = 5.6(106 ) psi
v = 0.27 FS = 2.5

S h a f t s 137

Find: (a) t.
Solution:
FS =

C0
32
2p
, c = #
, a -2 $ , a = 2
c
1 b

(2)(240)
3,500
, a -2 =
2.5
1 b
 a 2
1
= 0.343
ba 
= 0.8106
b
16
b=
0.8106
b = 19.74 ft
t =ba
= 19.74 16.0
t

t = 3.74 ft
Find: (b) D at liner failure.


1 2v
2G

Pa
, -2
1 ba

1
u=
+
2G


1 2v
Pa
1
=
+
, -2
2G
2G
1 ba


1v
2Pa
=
, a -2
G
1

Pa
, -2
1 ba

Note:

2P
E
= 2.21(106 )
, a -2 = |r=a = 3,500 psi, G =
2(1+v)
1 b
%
= (3,500)(16)(12)

1 0.27
2.21(106 )

&

u = 0.222 in.
2u = D = 0.444 in.
53.

Given: Vertical circular shaft, rock and concrete properties


Find:
(a) (FSs unlined not needed)
(b) Liner thickness.

138

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
Circular shaft, gravity stress
horizontal stresses are equal
S1 = S3 in plan view and M = 1
Kc = 2, Kt = 0 (no tension) (hydrostatic case)
c = Kc S1
S1 estimate: gravity alone
v
h = H =
v & v = H
1v
(
'

1
156
4
h =
(2,780)
144
1 14
h = 1,004 psi
c = (2)(1,004)
c = 2,008 psi
C0
FSc =
c
6,750
=
2,008
FSc = 3.36 (in plan)
In vertical section:
6,750
v
6,750
= , 156 (2,780)
144

FSc =

FSc = 2.24 (in section)


(b) Liner thickness?

Pw = 210 psi with allowable stress at 3,500 psi


C0
FS
C0
FS =

allow =

2P
, -2
1 ba
(2)(210)
3,500 =
, -2
1 18
2b
 2
18
(2)(210)
1
=
2b
3,500
=

(a)

S h a f t s 139

18
2b

2
= 1 0.12
a
= 0.938
b
b = 9.594
t =ba
= 9.594 9.0
t = 0.594 ft (7.13 in.)

54.

(b)

Given: Large, vertical, concrete liner shaft Di = 9.75 m, depth = 387 m,


pw = 1.66 MPa
Concrete: C0 = 24.2 MPa, E = 38.62 GPa, v = 0.27 FSc = 2.5 required
Find:
(a) h-liner
(b) Di at failure.
Solution:
C0
c
2pw
& c =
, -2
1 ba
24.2 MPa 
a 2
(2.5) =
1
(2)(1.66 MPa)
b

a 2
1
= 0.343
b
a
= 0.8106
b
FSc =

i.e.

b=

9.75
2

0.8106
b = 6.01 m
h = 6.01 4.875
h = 1.125 m
(112.5 cm)
Di = 2u|r=a (at failure)
(2) (1 + v)
aPw
=
[(1 2v) + 1]
, -2
E
1 a
b

i.e.

(2)(1 + 0.27)
=
(2 0.54) (4.875) (24.2) MPa
38.62 GPa
Di = 0.0113 m
Di = 1.13 cm

140

55.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Vertical, circular shaft depth = 847 m, pw = 1.45 MPa, Di = 5.5 m, C0


(concrete) = 24.14 MPa
Find: h (liner thickness).
Solution:
max =

2pw
, -2
1 ba

(24.14) =

(2)(1.45)
, -2
1 ba

56.

 a 2
b

= 0.120

a
= 0.938
b
2.75
b=
0.938
b = 2.932 m
h = 2.932 2.75
h = 0.182 m
h = 18.2 cm

Given: Concrete liner below 3,500 ft


Liner: Concrete
1 ft thick
E = 5 106 psi, v = 0.20
= 156 pcf

MC failure criterion

C0 = 4,500 psi, T0 = 450 psi


Assume: Circular shaft D = 18 ft.
Find: What uniform radial stress would just cause liner to fail?
Solution:
Using MC Criteria:
r
+ r
=
sin + c cos
2
2
= m sin + c cos

t  1 ft

max =
max

+ r
Pb b 2
= 2
2
b a2
r
(Pb Pa )b2 a2
= 2 2
2
r (b a2 )

Pb

a
b

18
LINER

Rock

S h a f t s 141

Failure occurs when


P b b2 a2
Pb b2
=
sin

+ c cos
r2 (b2 a2 )
b2 a 2
@ r = a the stress must be less then 4,500 psi and at r = a; r = 0; Pa = 0
2Pb b2
b2 a 2
C0
FS =

@ failure FS = 1
Solving for Pb :
( )(b2 a2 )
2b2

  2
C0
b a2
Pb =
FS
2b2

&
%
4, 500 psi (9 ft)2 (8 ft)2
=
1
2(9 ft)2
Pb = 472 psi
Pb =

57.

Given: Data from previous problem.


Find: Reduction in diameter of the liner when liner first fails.
Solution:
From previous problem:
@ failure FS = 1
= C0
Pb = 472 psi




1 P a P b b2 a2
1 2v Pa a2 Pb b2
r
+
2G
b2 a 2
2G b2 a2
r
Pa = 0

 2 2


1
b a
1 2v Pb b2
Pb
r
+
u=
2G
b2 a 2
2G b2 a2
r
u=

For concrete displacement:


E
2(1 + v)
5 106 psi
=
2(1 + 0.20)
G = 2.08 106 psi
G=

Pb

142

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Calculate change in inside diameter:


@ r = a = 8 ft b = 9 ft


1 2(0.2)
(472 psi)(9ft)2
u=
8 ft
2
2(2.08 10+6 psi)
(92 82 )ft


1
472 psi (9 ft)2 (8 ft)2
+
2(2.08 106 psi) (92 82 )ft2
(8 ft)
2u = 1.382(102 ) ft
Di = 0.17 in.
58.

Di

Given: Problem 56 data


Find: Radial displacement of the interface between the liner & shaft wall when
line first fails. u|r=b = ?
Solution:
u=

%
%
&
&
1 2v Pb b2
Pb b2 a2
1
r
+
2(G) b2 a2
2G b2 a2
r

Assuming: The rock must displace the same amount as the outside diameter of
the liner. @ r = b = 9 ft a = 8 ft


2
1 2(0.2)
472 psi(9 ft)
u=
9 ft
2(2.08 10+6 psi) (9 ft)2 (8 ft)2


1
472 psi
(9 ft)2 (8 ft)2
+

2
2(2.08 106 psi)
9 ft
(9 ft) (8 ft)2
u

u|r=b = 0.081 inches


59.

Given: H2 O Pressure = 80 psi @ 4,500 ft, FS = 2.5 minimum


Find: Liner thickness.
Solution:
Allowable stress:
C0

4,500 psi
=
2.5
= 1,800 psi

FSc =

And:
=

Pb b2
P b a2 b2
+
b2 a 2
r2 (b2 a2 )

S h a f t s 143

Stress is maximum @ r = a
Pb b2
P b a2 b2
+
b2 a 2
a2 (b2 a2 )
2
Pb b + P b b 2
=
b2 a 2
2Pb b2
= 2
b a2

Solving for a2 and a, then t


(b2 a2 ) = 2 Pb b2
2Pb b2
b2

2Pb b2
a2 = b2

%
&1/2
2(80 psi)(9 ft)2
a = (9 ft)2
1, 800 psi
a = 8.59 ft

a2 =

t =ba
= 9 ft 8.59 ft
t = 0.41 ft = 4.92 in.
make a liner t = 5 in except minimum is 1 ft.
60.

Given: Steel liner used for Problem 59 C0 = T0 = 36,000 psi


Find: Thickness of steel.
Solution:
C0

36,000 psi
=
2.5
= 14, 400 psi

FSc =

(allowable)

And:
%
&1/2
2Pb b2
a = b2

&
%
2(80 psi)(9 ft)2
= (9 ft)2
14,400 psi
a = 8.95 ft

144

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

t =ba
= 9.0 ft 9.95 ft
t = 0.05 ft = 0.6 in.

61.

Given: Circular concrete shaft liner D0 = 5.5 m, h = 1 ft going below 1,067 m


C0 = 31.0 MPa, T0 = 3.10 MPa E = 34.48 GPa,
3
v = 0.20, = 24.7 kN/m v = 25.45h,
H = 24, 138 + 7.47h, h = 24, 138 + 7.47h
Find: p at failure.
Solution:
max

1 ft

2P
=
, -2
1 ba

Di
2
D0
b=
2

Di

a=

smax
p

at failure max = C0
31.0 = #

5.5 m

Di  5.5 m  2(1) (0.3048)


Pi  4.89 m
a  2.45
b  2.75

2p
, 2.45 -2 $
2.75

p = 3.25 MPa
62.

Given: Problem 61 data


Find: Di of failure.
Solution:

Di = 2u|r=a =


1+v
2aP
[(1 2v) + 1]
, -2
E
1 a
b

2P
But
, -2 = C0 at failure
1 ba


Di =


1 + 0.2
(1 0.4 + 1)(2.45)(31.0 MPa)
34.48 GPa

Di = 4.23(103 ) m
Di = 0.423 cm

S h a f t s 145

63.

Given: Problem 61 data


Find: Rock-liner radial displacement.
Solution:

bP
=
(1 2v) +
, -2
b
1 ba






31.0
1 + 0.2
2.45 2
2.75
=
1 0.4 +
MPa
34.48 GPa
2.75
2


u|r=b

1+v
E

%

u = 2.068(103 ) m
64.

 a 2 &

u = 0.207 cm

Given: Problem 61 data


pw = 0.552 MPa
d = 1,372 m
FS(liner) = 2.5
Minimum thickness = 0.3 m
Find: Liner thickness.
Solution:
FS =

C0
c

2p
, -2
1 ba
#
, -2 $
1 ba
2.5 = (31.0)
(2)(0.552)
 a 2
1
= 8.903(102 )
b
a

= 0.9545
b
a = 2.75(0.9545)
c =

a = 2.62 m
h = ba
h = 0.13 m
but minimum is 0.30 m
h = 0.30 m
65.

Given: Problem 64 data and a steel liner C0 = 248 MPa


Find: Liner thickness h.

146

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
C0
c
248
c =
2.5
c = 99.2 MPa

FS =

but also
2p
, -2 $
1 ba

c = #
1
, -2
1 ba
 a 2

b
a
a
h = 2.75 2.735
h = 1.535(102 )m,
66.

99.2
(2)(0.552)

= 0.989
= 2.75(0.9944)
= 2.735 m

h = 1.54 cm

Given: Circular concrete shaft liner


E = 3.4(106 ) psi, v = 0.25
C0 = 3,500 psi, T0 = 350 psi
pw = 190 psi at z = 3, 750 ft.
D = 18 ft, FS = 2.5
Find: h (thickness), D0 (outside
diameter).

PLAN

pw  190 psi

a  9 ft

Solution:
Require FSc =
c =
c =
But also c =
 a 2
b

=
=

 a 2
b

C0
c
3,500
2.5
1,400 psi (max. stress, inside)
2p
, -2
1 ba
2p
1
c
(2)(190)
1
1,400

= 0.729

a
= 0.854
b

Shafts

147

9
0.854
9
=
0.854
b = 10.54 ft

b=

t=ba
= 10.54 9.0
t = 1.54 ft (18.5 in.)

D0 = 18 + 2t
D0 = 21.1 ft
67.

Given: Circular concrete shaft liner


E = 3.4(106 ) psi, v = 0.25
C0 = 3,500 psi, T0 = 350 psi
D = 22 ft, h = 1 ft
Find: Contact pressure between
liner & rock on verge of failure?

Rock

a  11
Concrete

Solution:
At failure
2P
, -2
1 ba
#
, -2 $
C0 1 ba

|r=a = C0 =

P =
=

2#

(3,500) 1

P = 280 psi
68.

, 11 -2 $
12

contact pressure P

Given: Problem 67 conditions


Find: Change in inside shaft
liner diameter from no load
condition.
Solution:

r, u

Rock
a

liner

D = 2u u = radial
displacement
u|r=a

2(1 v2 )b2 a
Pb
=
E(b2 a2 )
2(1 0.04)(11)(12)
#
=
, -2 $ 280
3.4(106 psi) 1 11
12

P  280 psi
(at failure)

u = 0.131 in.
D = 2(0.131)
in inside diameter from no-load to failure load
D = 0.262 in. decrease

148

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

69.

Given: Circular concrete shaft liner


E = 23.45 GPa, v = 0.25
C0 = 24.1 MPa, T0 = 2.41 MPa
Pw = 1.31 MPa at 1,143 m
Di = 5.5 m, FS = 25
Find: D0 .

PLAN

Di

Solution:

sc
h

C0
by definition
c
24.1
c =
2.5
c = 9.64 MPa

FS =

2p
, -2 $
1 ba

But also c = #
1

 a 2

(2)(1.31)
b
9.64
2.75
b =
0.853
b = 3.22 m
=

h=ba
h = 3.22 2.75
h = 0.473 m
h = 47.3 cm
D0 = 2b
D0 = 6.44 m
70.

Given: Vertical, circular concrete shaft liner


E = 23.45 GPa v = 0.25
C0 = 24.1 MPa T0 = 2.41 MPa
Di = 6.7 m h = 0.3 m at failure
Find: Contact pressure p0 .

p
Rock
Liner

Solution:

At failure
2p
, -2
1 ba
#
,
-2 $
1 3.35
(24.1)
3.65

max = C0 =

p=

2
p = 1.90 MPa

6.7
 3.35 m
2
b  3.35  h
b  3.65 m
a

Shafts

71.

149

Given: Problem 70 data where p of failure is 1.90 MPa


a = 3.35, b = 3.75
C0 = 24.1 MPa, E = 23.45 GPa, v = 0.25
Find: Di at failure (mm).
Solution:
Di = 2u|r=a text formula


a2P
1+v
2u|r=a =
(1 2v + 1)
, -2
E
1 a
b

(1 + 0.2)
=
(1 0.5 + 1)(3.35)(24.1 MPa)
23.45 GPa
Di = 6.197(103 ) m = 6.197 mm

Multiple Shafts
72.

Given: Rectangular shaft 12 24 ft at 3,000 ft where Sv = 1.2h


Sh = 120 + 0.5h : premining (psi)
Sh
h = depth(ft)
SH = 3,250 + 0.3h
Find:
(a) Best orientation
(b) Orientation at depth
(c) Best orientation & location
of two identical shafts.

SH

12

(a)

24

Solution:
If h = 0, then SH = 10 , Sh = 30 and best orientation is with the long dimension
parallel to SH .
For same orientation at depth
Sh
120 + 0.5h
0.2h
h

< SH
< 3,240 + 0.3h
< 3,120
< 15,600

best at all depths of shaft (3,000 ft)

(b)

(c) best orientation for several shafts in a row is for the row axis to be parallel
to the major compression
to minimize, practically, stress concentration from interaction shafts should
be separated at least 1-D

150

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


Sh

SH

12

24

24

24

(c) Best row orientation


Sh

PLAN

SH

3.7

Note: Rule: Openings separated by 1-D are essentially isolated (D = long


dimension)
73.

Given: 3.2 7.4 m rectangular shaft depth to 914 m


Sv = 27.2 h
Sh = 828 + 11.3h
SH = 22,345 + 6.8h
(kPa, m)
Find:
(a) best orientation
(b) best orientation all depths
(c) best position and orientation of a second and third shafts
Solution:
Rule: Best orientation of a single opening is with long axis parallel to 10
Rule: Best row orientation is with row axis parallel to 10
(a) at surface Sh = 828 kPa, SH = 22,345
long axis should be parallel to SH
Sh

SH

3.7

(a)
(b)

7.4

Shafts

151

(b) at depth
SH > Sh
22,345 + 6.8 h > 829 + 11.3 h
21,516 > 4.5 h
for h < 4,781 m best
orientation at all depths
74.

Given: Rectangular shaft


C0 = 23,700 psi T0 = 1,480 psi
SE = 350 + 0.24 h SN = 420 + 0.354 h
Sv = 1.124 h

y(N)

20

Find: Favorable orientation of two shafts.

x(E)

Solution:
C0
,
c
c = Kc S 1

T0
t
t = Kt S1
SN = 420 + 0.35(1,750)
SN = 1,033 psi

FSc =

10

FSt =

SE = 350 + 0.2(1,750)
SE = 700 psi

S1  1,033

SN = S1
700
M=
1,033
M = 0.678
W0
10
=
H0
20


W0
1
= 0.5 k =
H0
2

W0  10

S1
y (N )

Text Table 3.2.

23,700
(1,033)

x(E)

20

1
3
2
Estimate between M = & M = at M =
2
4
3
Kc
4.57
5.48
Kc = 5.2
Kt
+0.19 +0.69
Kt = (n.a.)
FSc =

S3  700

Ho  20

FSt not a factor


(no tension)

23,700
FSc = 4.40
FSv =
= 12.1
(1.12)(1,750)
2nd identical 10 20 shaft
Show: most favorable orientation & location.

10
S3

20

20

S1

152

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
Orientation: long axis parallel to S1
Orientation: row axis parallel to S1
Use 1-D rule for separation.
75.

Given:
xx = 2,155 psi
yy = 3,045
zz = 4,200
yx = 1, 222
xz = 0
yz = 0.

(+) compression
x = East, y = North,

z = up

Find:
(a) 1 , 2 , 3 and directions, sketch.
(b) Best shape
(c) 2nd shaft location.
Solution:
By inspection, the x-y plane with normal z is shear-free and therefore a principal
plane. Thus z is a principal direction and zz = 2 (for now)
in the x-y plane

1/2


xx + yy
xx yy 2
1
=

+ (xy )2
3
2
2

1/2

2,155 + 3,045
2,155 3,045 2
=

+ (1,222)2
2
2

1
= 2,600 1,300
3

3,900
1
=
psi
1,300
3

1 = 4,200 psi (vertical)


2 = 3,900 N35W (horizontal)
reordering
1 2 3
= 1,300 N55E (horizontal)

3
Z (u)

tan 2 =
=

xy
1
(
2 xx

s2  3,900 psi y(N)

yy )

1,222
1
(2,155
2

tan 2 = 2.746
2 = 70
= 35
+ CCW from y-axis

3,045)

s1  4,200 psi

35
s3  1,300 psi
35
x(E)
Sketch direction

Shafts

153

(b) 13 26 ft shaft, rectangle, ellipse, ovaloid shape?


In most favorable position
W0
1
13
= and k =
=
H0
26
2
0
1,300
1
M = 30 =
=
3,900
3
1

1
(text)
2
=M

Text, Table 3.2a


Ellipse Kmax = 1.67 Kt = n.a.
Rectangle Kmax = 4.05 Kt = 0.14
Ovaloid (well-rounded corners, rectangle Kc , Kt less)
Choose ellipse
Separate by 1-D rule

(b) best shape

y(N)

separate by 1-D rule


26
35
sketch

s30
26 ft

x(E)

26

13
s10

154

76.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: C0 = 163.5 MPa, T0 = 10.2 MPa


E = 36.48 GPa, v = 0.27, = 25.6 kN/m3
y(N)
SN  2,897  7.9h

SE  3,414  4.5h

6m

x(E)

Sy  25.3h
(kPa, m)
d  550 m

3m

Find: Favorable orientation of second shaft and position.


Solution:
Rule: Row axis parallel to 10 . Rule: Separate by 1-D

Second shaft
6m
Sketch

6m
3m

6m

SN = 2,897 + 7.9(550) = 7.24 MPA = 10


SE = 3,414 + 4.5(550) = 5.89 MPA = 30
shaft is in favorable orientation

Shafts

77.

155

Given: Shaft: 4 8 m.
xx = 14.86 MPa,xy = 8.43
yy = 21.00, yz = 0
zz = 29.00, zy = 0
Find:
(a) 1 2 3 , directions
(b) Best shape (rectangle, ellipse, ovaloid), orientation
(c) Second shaft location, orientation.
Solution:
Need 10 , 30 in x-y plane (z-dir. is prin)
10

30

1
= (xx + yy )
2

xx + yy
2

1
= (14.86 21.0)
2

2

+ xy

14.86 21.0
2

-2

1/2

1/2

2
+ (8.43)

= 17.93 8.97
10 = 26.9 MPa,

tan 2 =
=

30 = 8.96 MPa
z

xy
yy )
8.43

1
(
2 xx

1
(14.86
2

s1  29 MPa

21.0)

s2  26.9

tan 2 = 2.746
2 = 70 , 25
= 35 , 125

35

35

1
W0
1
at 4 8 m
= and k =
H0
2
2
in favorable orientation
30
in plan view
10
8.96
=
2.69

M=

M=

1
3

Table 3.2a text


Ellipse
Rectangle

Kc = 1.67
Kc = 4.05

Kt = n.a.
Kt = 0.14

s3  8.96
Sketch

156

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Ovaloid rectangular with rounded corners, less than rectangle here.


Ellipse is best
y(N)

s10

8m
35

s30
x(E)

8m

8m

4m

SKETCH
Separate by 1-D

4 Tunnels
Naturally Supported Tunnels
1.

Given: Stress state


Find: Kc , Kt for circular tunnel
driven due east.

z
4,200 psi  szz  s1

Solution:
3
3,045
=
= 0.725
1
4,200
Kt is nil
M=

tyz  0.
sc

sc

(peak compression)
y

syy  3,045 psi  s2

Kc = 2.28
[Text formula]
Note: Kmin = (1 + M) 2(1 M) = (1 + 0.725) 2(1 0.725) = 1.175
Kmax = (1 + M) + 2(1 M) = (1 + 0.725) + 2(1 0.725) = 2.275
2.

Given: Rectangular tunnel 10 20 ft wide driven due north 5,000 ft


Find: max. width
Solution:
FSc =

Cc
Kc S1

y (N)
5,000

x(E )

23,700
at failure 1 =
Kc (1,960)
Kc = 12.09

PLAN

Text Chapter 3 Fig. 9d.


Kmax = 0.69 + 1.27k
1,750
 
1
+ 0.68
+ 3.83 M
k
10
for k: Kmax = 12.09
W0
= 7.8 k = 7.8
H0
W0 = 78.0 ft width at failure.

S1  (1.12)(1,750)  1,960 psi


S3  350  0.2(1,750)  700 psi
20
M

700
 0.357
1,960

W0 max

158

3.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Tabular ore body depth = 2,300 ft mined by 20 ft slices, 5,000 ft long
E = 5.7(106 ) psi, v = 0.25 C0 = 25,300 psi, T0 = 2,600 psi FSc = 2.2,
FSt = 4.4 gravity stress field
Find: Slices @ 20
Solution:
Ground line
s10

2,300

W0

s30

H0

20 20 20

...

20 20

Practical height of 15 , mining can proceed until FSc = 2.2 is reached, FSt = 1
assumed not to change significantly with mining, check tension safety.
FSt = 4.4
T0
: assume 1 psi/ft depth
4.4 ?
Kt 10
2,600
4.4 ?
(not equal)
(1)(2,300)
Cannot meet tensile safety criterion at start, will need support.
Compression check (with roof support)
C0
Kc 10
(25,300)
Kc =
(2.2)(2,300)
Kc (max) = 5.0
FSc =

need

W0
, M
H0

Sv
1
where SH = 30 : Sv = 10
Gravity field : SH =

Table 3.2 Text


k=

= 4
1
1
1
M=
3

M =

W0
1
=4 M=
H0
3

1
4

Kc = 7.37

Tunnels

W0
=3
H0
W0
k=
=2
H0

k=

1
3
1
M=
3
M=

Kc = 6.25

159

(estimate)

Kc = 5.15

Note: Also could find graphically


W0
= (2)(15)
W0
= 30(ft)
W0
n =
20
30
n =
20
n = 1 slice (round down)

at 2 slices, corners fail in compression


4.

Given: xx = 14.86 MPa yy = 21.00


Circular tunnel driven due East
Find: Kc , Kt

zz = 28.97

xy = 8.43

xz = yz = 0

z, u
28.97 MPa

Solution:
Kc = 1 + M + 2(1 M)
Kt = 1 + M 2(1 M) (if negative)
21
M =
= 0.724
28.97

21.00 MPa
y, N

Kc = (1 + 0.724) + 2(1 0.724) = 2.28

Kt = (1 + 0.724) 2(1 0.724) = 1.17 > 0

Kt n.a
5.

Given: Rectangular opening 3 6 m wide


C0 = 174.4 Mpa
Sz = 25.34(533) = 13.51 MPa

PLAN N

1,524 m

Sx = 2,414 + 4.53(533) = 4.83 MPa


Sx
4.83
M=
=
= 0.357
Sz 13.51
Find: Maximum width.

Surface

z, u
SECTION

533 m

3
6

x, E

160

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
C0
c
c = Kc 10
FSc =

at failure
Kc =

174.4
= 12.91
13.51

Text, Chapter 3, Fig. 9d

 
1
+ 3.83 M
k
 
1
12.91 = 2.06 + 1.27k + 0.68
k
1.27k2 10.85k + 0.68 = 0
k = 7.83 (physically realistic root of quadratic)
Kc = 0.69 + 1.27k + 0.68

W0
= 7.83, H0 = 3 m
H0
W0 = 23.5 m
6.

Given: Tabular excavation 4.6 m high & 700 m deep mined by 6 m wide slices
1520 m long. C0 = 174.4 MPa T0 = 17.9 MPa
Premining stress = gravity only, E = 39.3 GPa v = 0.25 FSc = 2.2 FSt =
4.4 required
Find: Excavation wide, number of slices.
Solution:

s10

700 m

T0
Ft =
Kt 10

. ..
6m

6m

estimate: Kt
= 1(no more)
0
estimate: 1 = h
= (25.0)(700)
0
1 = 17.5 MPa
4.4 ?

(17.9)
(1)(17.5)

Cant achieve tensile FSt .


Need support at outset
C0
c
c = Kc 10
174.4
2.2 =
Kc (17.5)
Kc = 4.53(max)

FSc =

s30
4.6 m

Tunnels

161

(gravity only)
M =

1
30
v
4
=
=
1
10
1
1
M=
3

1
4

Text M = 1/4
Kmax = 5.15
Kmax = 4.06
1 < k < 2 Possible
Hence only one slice can be made (the first slice)

Table 2
k=2
k=1

Supported Tunnels
7.

Given:
Find:
(a) T, M
(b) A of A36 steel
(c) S = 30 in3 , b .

Hp  10
4

4

Steel beam

R  7.5

Ht  18
Pin
Pin
Spacing: S  6
g  156 pcf

B  16

Solution:
(a) Equate W/2 to T ignoring rock arch weight
transmitted to abutments or do an approximate
force polygon.
small angles suggest N2 W2 & W2 = (W/4)
Note: Also overall equilibrium suggests
Rv = W/2, (then N2 Rv W/2).
Then
N2 T12 sin(45 )
Rv = T12 sin 45

N1

Ry

T12
45
RH

N2

162

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


w2

N2

i.e. T12

 
 
2 W
W
= 0.71

1
2
2

l/2

A compromise between W/2 and 0.71W/2 is


reasonably

h
w1

45

7.5

T12 = 0.85

W
2

N1

W
S
= BHp
2
2
(156)(16)(10)(6)
=
2
W
= 7.488(104 ) lbf
2
T12 = 0.85(7.488)104
T12 = 63,648 lbf

M = Th (pin-Connected)

h = R

R2

  
% 
 2
&
1
1
l
l
l
=
&
2R = =
2(7.5) = 5.303 ft
2
2
2
2
2

h = 7.5 [7.52 (5.303)2 ]1/2


h = 2.197 ft
M = (63,648)(2.197)
M = 1.405(105 ) ft-lbf

(b) Area to resist thrust, minimum area at FS = 1.0


T = Y A
63,648
A=
36,000
A = 1.763 square inches

(c)

b =
=

Area A36

M
S
1.405(105 )lbf-ft (12)(in/ft)

30(in.3 )
b = 56,200 psi

Tunnels

8.

163

Given:
2-piece continuous steel set
try 1 in. of steel (web) per 3 ft of tunnel
12 ft radius, 13 ft leg
4 ft set spacing
8 blocks, spaced 50 in.
rock sp. wt. = 170 pcf
rock load Hp = 10 ft.
Find:
1. Scale diagram of tunnel of rib
6. Do force polygon
2. Show blocks
7. Find max moment
3. Show rock arch to scale
8. Find max steel stress
4. Use Rv for leg reaction
9. Estimate steel safety factor.
5. Show chords between blocks
Solution:
(similar to example in handout)
some calculational details follow using same number of blocks but uniformly
spaced
5

4
3

#1

#2

#3
2
#4

w4

w5

w3
1
#5

5
w2

4
Blocks @ 18

w1

3
b

Hp  10
a

R  12

1  4 0
Spacing  4
g  170 pcf

1
s  (12)

Block
1
2
3
4
5

(w)
Width


(w SH p )
Weight
4

1.5
1.02(10 ) lbf
2.7
1.43(104 )
3.2
2.18(104 )
3.4
2.31(104 )
1.8
1.22(104 )
12.0
8.16(104 )
checks: (12.0)
(8.16)104

18
p(12)  45.2
180

(angle)

2
18
36
54
72

Wn = Wcos
1.02 (104 ) lbf
1.36(104 )
1.76(104 )
1.36(104 )
0.38(104 )

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

-angle
12: 9
23: 27
34: 45
45: 63
56: 81

Block 1/2 weight

W
2

= 8.16(104 ) lbf

W
2
Rv = 65.3(104 ) lbf

2.1

1.

Estimate: Rv = 0.8

N1

2.
1

N2
N3
T23

2.2

N4

6.

Ry

6.7

T12

6.7

6.6

164

T34

6.7
T45

N5
T56

2.

6.7

6.6

N6

1.

1 = 20,000 lbf


Tmax = 6.7(104 ) lbf
(almost uniform with equal blocking point spacing)

 2 1/2
l
2
h = R R
2

 1/2

45.2 2
2
= 12 (12)
2(12)
h = 42.0 11.85
h = 0.149 ft
M = 0.85 Th
Rule of thumb: 1 steel per 3 ft of tunnel
8 steel (web depth)
AISC HB p. 22
try WF 8 5 14 @ 20 lbf/ft
A = 5.88 in.2 S = 17.0 in.3

O.K. just
at equality

Tunnels

T
0.85 m
+
A
S
6.7(104 ) 0.85(6.7)(104 )(0.149)(12)
=
+
5.88
17.0
= 1.14(104 ) psi + 0.599(104 ) psi
= 1.74(104 ) psi

Then

A36 Steel
36,000
17,400
FS = 2.07

FS =

Mmax = 0.85 Th
= (0.85)(6.7)(104 )(0.149)(12)
Mmax = 10.2(104 ) ft-lbf
9.

Given: 2-piece, pin-connected steel arch.

Hp  3 m
1.25

1.25

1.

2.

R  2.3 m
Ht  5.5

B5

S = (spacing) = 2 m,

= 25.0 kN/m3

Find:
(a) T, M
(b) As (250 MPa steel)
(c) b (S = 500 cm3 section modulus)

165

166

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

N2
N1
2

Ry

N2

T12

l/2
45

l/2

45
N1

RH

R  2.3 m

N2 T12 sin 45

T12 =

But T12

W
2
W
2




 
1
W
= 0.71
2
2

small angles: N2 W2
W
equilibrium suggests:
= Rv
2
also suggests T = Rv

compromise and use


T12 = 0.85

W
2

W
S
= BHp
2
2


3

= (25 kN/m )(5.0)(3.0)

2.0
2

W
= 375 kN
2
then T12 = 0.85(375)
T12 = 319 kN

M = Th (pin-connected)

 2 1/2
l
h = R R
;
2
2

= 2.3 [(2.3)2 (1.63)2 ]1/2


= 2.3 1.62
h = 0.677 m

l
= R sin 45
2
1
= 2.3
2
l
= 1.626 m
2

M = (319 kN)(0.677 m)
M = 216 kN-m

Tunnels

167

at FS = 1.0
T = As
A=

319 kN
250(103 ) kN/m2

A = 1.28(103 ) m2
A = 12.76 cm2

As

M
s
216 kN-m
=
500 cm3
b = 432 MPa

b =

10.

Given: 2-piece continuous steel set 3.5 m radius, 4 m leg, 7.5 m = Ht ,


7 m = B 2.5 cm for each 1 m of width (steel/estimate), S = 1.2 m 20 cm blocks,
spaced = 127 cm, Hp = 3 m, = 26.9 kN/m3
Find:
(1) Neat sketch
(2) Block positions
(3) Rock arch and forces
(4) Use Rv for leg reaction
(5) Show cords

(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)

4
3
#3

Do force polygon
Find maximum moment
Find steel stress
Find steel FS.

5
#1

Hp  3 m

#2
Wt  gw SHp

2
#4
6
(W)
5
56  81 Block Width
b 1
4  63
0.58 m
45
2
0.93 m
 44
3
0.93 m
3 34
4
0.70 m
5
0.36 m
 3.5 m
23  28
(checks)
2

1
#5

12  9

(W)
Wt.
93.6
150.1
150.1
113.0
58.1
564.9
(kN)

15 squares  3.5 m

1
B  7m

(b)
angle N  W cos b
4
93.4 kN
16
144.3
35
123.0
53
68.0
71
18.9 kN

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Block 1/2 weight = 564.9 kN


W
2
Rv = 452 kN

estimate Rv = 0.8

high

62

168

600

500
70
152

(kN)
452

N1

N2
125

400

N3
T12
T23

300

N4

140

T34

200

N5

140
(low)

T45

100
(kN)

N6

T56
0

76
(low)

94
O.K.

RH

Tmax = 620 kN

(almost uniform)

 2 1/2
l
h = R R
;
2

 2 1/2
l
2
= 3.5 (3.5)
2
h = 0.0441 m
2

l
=
2


4.75
(0.233)
2

l
= 0.554 m
2

M = 0.85 Th
= 0.85(620 kN)(0.0441)
M = 23.21 kN-m
Try 2.5 cm steel for 1 m width.
17.5 cm web depth (7 m steel)
Try 1-beam 7 35/8 @ 4.43 lbf/ft
AISC Hand book p 28 A = 4.43 in.2
S = 10.4 in.3

T u n n e l s 169

T
M
+
A
S
620 kN
23.21 kN-m(102 )
=
+
2
(4.43)(2.54)
(10.4)(2.54)3

= (21.7 kN/cm ) + (13.6 lbn/cm )


2
= 35.3 kN/cm , 353 MPa
Steel @ 250 MPa too high
Try 8 5 14 A = 5.88 in.2 S = 17.0 m3
Repeating:

= 247 MPa < 250 MPa

Note: FS near 1.01 which is low. Need a larger beam as a practical matter.
11.

Given: ATA = (C0 /T0 )Pb tlr spacing = S & MohrCoulomb rock, 45 point load
cone angle.
Find: Equivalence to Bischoff and Smart, reference under Chapter 4 list in text.
Solution:
C0 = Unconfined compressive strength
T0 = tensile strength
Pb = bolting pressure
t = rock arch (supporting) thickness
lr = set spacing
B & S handout (reference)
b Ab
TA = q 2 (L S) : per ft. of tunnel
S



q = tan2
+
4
2
b = bolting stress
Ab = bolt area
S = set spacing
h = bolt length
Also: t = L S: arch thickness
Fb = b Ab : bolt force
Fb
Pb = 2 : bolt pressure & square pattern
S
S = lr with these identifications and equivalences B & S becomes TA = qPb tlr
after multiplying by lr to obtain total TA between sets (from TA per foot of
tunnel). Must now show that for MC rock,

q = tan2


+
4
2


=

C0
T0

170

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

C0 T0
,
C0 + T0

2 =
2

For MC sin =
Substituting

C0 1 + sin
=
T0 1 sin

&

C0
1 + cos2
=
T0
1 cos2
Double angle formulas
1 + cos2
2
1 cos2
2
sin =
2



C0
= cot2 () = tan2

gives
T0

2
C0

= tan2
Hence
+
T0
4 2
cos2 =

12.

Given: Problem 8. Steel set data and results


Find: Equivalent bolting pattern using 1 inch diameter steel @ 60,000 psi
Solution:
From Problem 8.
T = 6.7(104 ) lbf

R  12

TA = 6.7(104 ) lbf

25

Handouts B & S article


 
C0 Fb
TA =
(L S)lr
T0 S 2
t=LS
L = bolt length
S = set spacing
Fb
Pb =
bolting pressure
As
C0
= ratio of unconfined compressive to tensile strength.
T0
 

C0

1
T
C0
0

Assume
= 10, So that = 55 : sin  
C0
T0
+
1
T0
reasonable for rock
b A b
S2

= (60,000)
(l)2
4
4.71(10)4
Pb =
S2
Pb =

24

Tunnels

171

Set spacing was 4


T = TA


LS
4
4
6.7(10 ) = (10)(4.71)(10 )(4)
S2
LS
= 0.0338(55 ), L = 0.0338S2 + S
S2
C0
= 10.0 = 55
T0
C0
= 3.85 = 36
T0

S
3 4 5 6 7
L(55) 3.3 4.6 5.9 7.3 8.7
L(36) 2.4 3.1 3.8 4.5 5.3

A 7 ft spacing, using 9 ft long bolts seems reasonable. (A better plan could be


done with more details about the rock mass).
13.

Given: Yieldable steel arches in squeezing ground.


Hp = 15 ft.
Find: (a) As , (b) proportion for bending.
Solution:

2 PbRS
Pb

R
R

Previous derivation:
T = pRS

p = Hp

estimate 1 psi/ft
p = 15 psi

AM  0
0  2pbRSRTR

Tmax = Y As & Y 36,000 psi

no end moments
(also true throughout)

(15)(RS)(144)
36,000
As = 0.06 RS

As =

As

No moment is present because of the uniformly, distributed load, therefore no


area is needed to resist bending stress.
bending area = 0

14.

Given: Problem 10 data use 2.5 cm bolts @ 410 MPa


Find: Bolt length spacing for Problem 10 equivalent
Solution:
From Problem 10 TA = 565,620
  kN say, 595 kN
C0
Pb tlr
From Problem 11: TA =
T0
where
t=LS
L = length

R  3.5
7.5 m

7m

172

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

S = spacing
Pb = Fb /S2 (square pattern)
lr = 2 m
set spacing was 2 m
Fb = b Ab
C0
Assume reasonable
= 10
T0
Fb = (410) MPa
Fb = 201 kN
595(103 ) = (10)
if

15.


4

(2.5 cm)2 (104 )

(201)103
(L S)(2),
S2

LS
= 0.148
S2

S = 2 m then L = 2.59 m
S = 1.5
L = 1.83 m
S = 1m
L = 1.15 m
(say) S = 1.5 m L = 1.83 m

(square pattern)

Given: Yieldable steel arches Hp = 4.6 m squeezing ground


Estimate: Steel area As
Solution:
p

T = pRS
p = Hp

= 25 kN/m3

T = 25(103 )(4.6)RS
T = (115)(RS) : (kN)
As = T

est. : = 250 MPa

(115)(RS)kN
750(103 ) kN
As = 0.46 RS
As =

16.

R = radius
S = (spacing)

Given arched tunnel, wet, depth = 1970 .


moderately blocky and seamy T4.2 text:
Hp : 0.25(14) = 3.5
Hp : 0.35(11 + 14) = 8.75
H p = 6.125
Use Hp = 6

11

14

Tunnels

173

W = Hp BS

assume = 162 pcf


(162)(6)(S)(14)
W/B (per ft of width) =
14

S = 4
S = 6
S = 8

W/B = 3, 888 lb/ft


= 5, 832 lb/ft
= 7, 776 lb/ft

T.I. 14 5 5 Stanchion 16 lb/ft.


(Handout)
8 spacing
max. block point spacing = 40

(b) Handle high side pressure by full circle rings.


W
2
(162)(14)(6)(8)
T=
= 54,432 lbf
2

(c) T

17.

Given: Problem 16.


Find: Equivalent bolting.
Solution:

S
L

TA = Ts

Ts
= 54,432 lbf/8 =

11

6.80(103 )
per ft. of
tunnel length

14

b Ab
Also: TA = q 2 (L S)
S


q = tan2
+
4
2
sin =
=

C0 T0
C0 + T 0
23,700 1,480
23,700 + 1,480

sin = 0.8825
= 61.9


61.9
q = tan2 45 +
2
q = 16.0 Note: q =

C0
, estimate between 10 20 try 1 diameter @ 60,000 psi
T0

Fb = (1)2 (60,000)
4
Fb = 4,712(104 )lbf

174

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

1
Try L
= W
3
Say L = 6 ft
(16)(4.71)(104 )(6 5)
TA =
S2
S2 (0.68)(104 ) = 452(104 ) 75.4(104 )S
75.4
452
S2 +
S
=0
0.68
0.68
[(1111)2 + 665(4)]1/2
S = 111 +
2
11.4
S =
ft
2
S = 5.7 ft

Square pattern S = 5.7 ft


1 diam, 60,000 psi steel

Length = 6 ft,
18.

Given: Hp from 16.


Find: Yieldable arch area.
Solution:

T = pRS and T = s As
pRS
As =
, p = Hp
s
(62)(575)(7)(8)
=
A36
36,000
As = 1.45 sq in.
19.

R
t

7.0

T  pRS

As

Given: Arched tunnel, moderately blocking & seamy wet ground


From: Table 3 Commercial shearing & stamping
or text Table 4.2
Hp = 0.25(4.3) to 0.35(4.3 + 3.4)
Hp = 1.08 to 2.70 m
Hp = 1.89 m

3.4 m

4.3

W =
=
W =
(S =
W =
(S =

SHp B assume = 25 kN/m3


(25)(1.5)(1.89)(4.3), try S = 1.5 m, S = 2.0 m
305 kN
1.5)
406 kN
2.0)

Tunnels

W/B
(S
W/B
(S
W/B
(S

=
=
=
=
=
=

175

70.9 kN/m (4,858 lbf/ft)


1.5)
94.5 kN/m (6,473 lbf/ft)
2.01)
118.1 kN/m (8,091 lbf/ft)
2.5)

Table 1 C&S handout


(a) A Light Beam 6 4 @ 16 lbf/ft would do when spaced 2.5 m and
maximum blocking point spacing of 40
6 4 (depth flange width) = 15.2 10.2 cm
16 lbf/ft = 234 N/m
40 spacing = 102 cm

(b) side pressure when heavy requires full circle ribs




W BSHp
1.89
(c) T
=
= (25 kN/m3 )(4.3)(2.5)
= 254 kN
2
2
2
20.

Given: Problem 19
Find: Equivalent bolting pattern
Solution:

R
3.4m

TA = Ts = 254 kN/2.5 m
Ts = 102 kN/m(kN per m of tunnel length)
 
C0 b As
But also: Ts =
(L S) : (square pattern)
T0
S2

4.3

C0
between 10 20, say, 15
T0
steel estimate: = 414 MPa
try 2.54 cm bolt diameter

then b As = (414 MPa)
(2.54)2 (104 )
4
b As
= 210 kN
102 kN = (15)(210 kN)(L S)/S2
estimate:

try L = 2 m, then S = 1.88 m


(other L, S combinations possible in this design)
21.

Given: Problem 19 data


Find: Yieldable arch area

176

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
T = pRS, S = set spacing
p = Hp
2

= (25 kN/m )(1.89 m)


p = 47.25 kPa
T = (47.25)(2.15)(2.5)
T = 254 kN
But also T = Y As , Y = 250 MPa
1
= 250(103 ) kPa/254 kN
As
As = 1.02(103 ) m2
As = 10.2 cm2
22.

p
R  4.3/2

R
T

Given: arched tunnel 18 21 , d = 970 ft moderately, blocking and seamy wet
Find:
(a) Steel sets
(b) How to handle high side pressure.
Solution:
Table 4.2, Rock mass = Type 4
Hp = 0.25B to 0.35(B + Ht )
= 0.25(18) to 0.35(18 + 21)
Hp = 4.5 to 13.65

Hp

Hp (ave) = 9.08
use Hp = 9 ft (wet)

Ht  21

= 159 pcf (given) or (estimate)


BHp S
W
=
B
B
W
(159)(9)(S)

=
(load per ft. of width)
B
4
try S = 5 ft

4
5,724
W
5 = 7,155
lbf/ft
B 6
8,586

B  18

Handout T.1 continuous ribs, B = 18 @5 spacing, a 5 5 H-beam
(7190) @ 18.9 lbs/ft (depth) (width) (max blocking pt spacing = 44 )
(a)

(b) go to full circle for high side pressure.

Tunnels

23.

177

Given: Hp = 9 ft from 3
Find: Yieldable arch area.
Solution:
p = h =

(159)(9)
= 9.94 psi
144

T = pRS
= (9.94)(144)(9)(5)

try S = 5

9.94 psi

T = 64,395 lbf
But

24.

 9

T = Y A, Y = 36,000 psi (given)


64,395
A=
36,000
A = 1.79 sq in

Given: Problem 22 conditions


Find: Equivalent bolting pattern.
Solution:
T = 64,395 lbf
 
C0
TA =
(p)(t)(s)
T0


27,400
64,395 =
(994 psi)(L S)(S)(144)
1,840
4,350 = (LS S2 )144, (give L S)

S
cone angle = 45

LS

Fb
p = bolting pressure = 2
S
Fb = b Ab
D2 b
pS2 = b Ab & Ab =
4
try 5 spacing 10 spacing
 
25
4,350
100
4,350
+
, L=
+
L=
(144)5
5
144(10)
10
L = 11 ft
L = 13.0
then

try 4 spacing
L=

4,350
+ 4 = 11.6 ft
(144)(4)

Use 11 ft bolt on 5 ft centers


(9.9)(144)(5)2 = 60,000 Ab

TA

178

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


2
Ab = 0.594
  in.
4
D2 =
(0.594)

D = 0.87 in.

strength = 60,000 psi


length = 11 ft

spacing = 5 ft
Given: Arched tunnel in wet ground moderately blocky and seamy
d = 297 m B = 5.5 m Ht = 6.4 m

Find:
(a) Steel set design, web depth, flange width weight/foot, spacing, blocking point
spacing.
(b) How to handle heavy side pressure.
Table 3 handout, Text T4.2
Hp

Hp = 0.25 B to 0.35(Ht + B)
= 0.25(5.5) to 0.35(6.4 + 5.5)
Hp = 1.375 to 4.17
Use Hp = 2.8 m. Estimate = 25 kN/m3

then

6.4 m

25.

all

BSHp
W
=
B
B
(25)(5.5)(2.8)(S)
= 70S
=
(5.5)
W
W
= 105 kN/m (S = 1.5),
= 140 kN/m (S = 2.0),
B
B
W
= 175 kN/m (S = 2.5)
B

5.5

at 2 m spacing W/B = 9,589 lbf/ft of width B = 18.0 ft


Table 1 from C & S on 8 51/4 wide flange beam @ 20 lbf/ft would do
with max. block pts @ 44

web depth = 20.2 cm

flange width = 13.3 cm

(a)
wt/pt = 292 N/m

block pts max. spacing = 112 cm

set spacing = 2 m
(b) Heavy side pressure handled by full circle ribs.

Tunnels

26.

179

Given: Same rock pressure as in Problem 25


Hp = 2.8 m
Find: Yieldable arch steel area As .
Solution:
Formula: T = pRS
p = Hp

estimate = 25 kN/m3
p = (25)(2.8)
p = 70 kPa
T = (70 kN/m2 )(2.75)(2)
also T = 385 kN
T = Y As estimate Y = 250 MPa
385 kN
As =
2
250(103 ) kN/m
As = 1.54(103 ) m2
As = 15.4 cm2
27.

T
S  spacing  2 m
B
R   2.75 m
2

As

Given: Problem 25 conditions


Find: Equivalent bolting pattern.
Solution:
Estimate T =
T=

W
,2 1
2

L
S

(140 kN/m)5.5

T = 385 kN
Check:
3
= 25 kN/m
S = 2.0 m
B = 3.5 m
Hp = 2.8 m

S  bolt spacing

W = SBHp
W = 770 kN
W/2 = 385 kN (checks)
  
Fb
C0
formula TA =
(L S): per m of tunnel
T0
S2
T
= 192.5 per m of tunnel
Ts =
 
2
Fb
192.5 kN/m = (15) 2 (L S)
S
where C0 /T0 ranges between 1020, say 15.

L  bolt length

180

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

try 2.5 cm diameter both @ 415 MPa Y


then Fb = Y Ab

(2.5)2 (104 )415 MPa
=
4
Fb = 204 kN


LS
192.5 kN = (15)(204 kN)
S2


LS
192.5 = 3,060
S2
if L = 3 m then S = 2.58 m
bolt length = 3 m
spacing = 2.58 m (square pattern)
28.

Given: Yieldable arches semi-circle


p = 20 psi R = 6.75 ft H = 2,350 ft
P

A 36
Find: As , S, FS = ?

6.75

Solution:

R
T

T = pRS & T = allow As

allow =
FSs

Yieldable arches, assume FS = 1.1


allow =

36,000
= 32,730 psi
1.1

32,730 As = (20)(6.75)(5)(144) S = 5 ft

As = 2.97 sq in.
Given: Problem 28 conditions but fixed steel sets
and Ht = 11.75 ft
Find: Steel size, spacing
6.75

Solution:
at 20 psi
Hp =


150
(Hp )
144

(144)(20)
= 19.2 ft.
(150)

13.5  B

11.75  Ht

29.

T u n n e l s 181

W = Hp BS,

S = 5 ft.

W  (per foot of tunnel width) =

W
B

(152)(19.2)(13.5)(5)
13.5
W  = 13,511 lbf/ft
W =

Table 1. Ribs
tunnel width 13.5 use 14
Closest is 6 6 ft beam @ 25
(for 13,270 lbf/ft)
max. blocking point spacing = 40
30.

Given: Problem 29, steel sets, grade 60 (60,000 psi) steel


E = 4.9(106 ), v = 0.18 C0 = 7,500 psi, T0 = 750 psi = 148 pcf, 1 diameter Steel
Find: Equivalent bolting pattern
Solution:
TA =

C0 b Ab
(L S) = T
T0 S 2

assuming square pattern S c -c , L long.


W (0.85)
(per ft)
S
2

BHp S
0.85
=
2
S


0.85
=
(148)(13.5)(19.2)
2
T = 16,304 lbf/ft of length

Estimate T =


TA =

S=5
S = 10
S = 3







7,500
LS
2 LS
5
= 4.712(10 )
(60,000)
(1)
750
4
S2
S2


LS
4.712(105 )
= 16,304
S2
LS
= 0.0346
S2
L = 5.9
L = 13.5
L = 3.3

6 bolts on 5 centers

182

31.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Semi-circular yieldable arches R = 2 m, depth = 716 m p = 138 kPa


Y (steel) = 250 MPa
Find:
(a) reasonable FS
(b) set spacing.
Solution:
T = pRS & T =2
Y As

where 2
Y = max allowable = Y /FS
FS = 1.1 for yieldable arches (slip before yield)
2
Y =

250
= 227 MPa
1.1

try T = (138 kPa)(2)(2) : 2 m = 5


then T = 552 kN
552 kN
227 MPa
As = 0.00243 m2 ,
As =

As

spacing

FS

24.3 cm2

S = 2m
FS = 1.1
Given: Problem 31 data

Find: Consider alternative support when entry height Hz = 36 m in form of steel


sets (fixed).
Solution:
p = 138 kPa (from Problem 31)
p = Hp est. = 25 kN/m3
138
25
Hp = 5.52 m

Hp =

3.6 m

32.

W = SBHp ,

try S = 1.5 m
W = (25)(1.5)(4)(5.52)
W = 828 kN

W
828
=
B
4
W
= 207 kN per meter of tunnel width
B
(14,178 lbf/ft) @ (13.1 ft wide)

4m

Tunnels

183

Off Table in C & S Use 14 ft Column


Off Column, try S = 1.0 m

W
= 9,452 lbf/ft
B
a 6 6 H-beam @ 20 lb/ft would do

then

Web depth = 15.2 cm

flange width = 15.2 cm


Wt/ft = 292 N/m

Spacing = 1 m.
33.

Given: Problem 32 data


E = 33.8 GPa, v = 0.18
C0 = 51.7 MPa, T0 = 5.17 MPa
3

= 23.4 kN/m , Y = 410 MPa


One-inch diameter (2.54 cm)
Find: Bolt spacings (in-row,
between-row) & bolt length.

S


Solution:
TA  TS
  
C0
Fb
TA =
(L S): on a square pattern
T0
S2
C0
= 10
T0

Fb = (410) MPa
(2.54)2 (104 ) = 208 kN
4

L  Bolt length
S  Spacing length

TA

W
: estimate
2S
828
=
2(1.5)

Ts =

Ts = 276 kN per m of tunnel length




LS
276 kN = (10)(208)
S2
try L = 2 m then 276S2 + 20,805S (2)(2,080) = 0
S = 1.64 m
bolt length = 2 m
bolt spacing = 1.64 m (Square pattern, would do)

184

34.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Arched tunnel steel sets 2,830 ft depth


C0 = 14,300 psi, T0 = 1,430 psi
E = 4.25(106 ) psi, G = 1.8(106 ) psi
= 156 pcf
moderately blocky and seamy, wet
B = 14 ft Ht = 17
Find: steel sets.
Solution:

17

14

Table 3 for Hp , Table 4.2 text


estimate: Hp = 0.3(B + Ht )
Hp = 0.3(14 + 17)
Hp = 9.3 ft
BHp S
W
=
, try S = 6
B
B
(156)(14)(9.3)(6)
=
14
W
= 8,705 lbf/ft of width
B
Table 1 Handout @ 14 Spacing = 6 ft
5 5 H-beam @ 18.9 lb/ft will do
with max blocking pt spacing @ 40
35.

Given: Problem 34 data


Find: Equivalent bolting pattern
Solution:
Same thrust capacity

s = allowable stress
s = 27,000 psi, say

T = T
Tsteel = s As
LA = W
18.9(lb/ft)(1 ft)(144)


A=
1 ft 4903lb
ft

A = 5.55 sq in.
Tsteel = (27,000)(5.55)
Tsteel = 1.5(105 ) lbf
 
C0
pS(L S)
T =
T0

Tunnels

185

C0
= 10
T0
= (156)(9.3)

p = Hp ,

p = 1.45(103 ) lb/ft
S=?
1
L = (14)
2
T = (10)(1,450)(7S S2 )
1.5(105 )
(10)(1,450)
S(7 S) = 1.04
S(7 S) =

S2 7S + 1.04 = 0

72 4(1.04)
2
S = 4.88 ft, say
S = 5 ft

S=

Fb = pAr : bolt force


= (1, 450)(5)(5)
Fb = 3.625(104 ) lbf
But Fb = Ab b , b = 60,000 psi
Ab =

3.625(104 )
6(104 )

Ab = 0.604 in.2
Ab 4

Db = 0.769 in.2
Db =

Need 1 bolts, 5 ft c-c, 7 ft long @ 60,000 psi


36.

Given: Problem 7 data and yieldable arches


Find: Yieldable arches support.
Solution:

P
7

T = pRS,

p = Hb

= (156)(9.3)(7)(6),
T = 6.09(104 ) lbf
T = s As

try S = 6
T

186

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

6.09(104 )
3.6(104 )
As = 1.69 sq. in.

As =

(9)

steel strength 36,000 psi


set spacing @ 6
Given: An arched back tunnel where depth = 863 m
C0 = 98.6 MPa, T0 = 9.86 MPa
E = 29.3 GPa, =?, G = 12.4 GPa
= 24.7 kN/m3 ,

B = 4.3 m,

Ht = 5.2 m,

Moderately blocky & Seamy wet ground


Find: Steel
Solution:
Table 3 C & S
Hp

Hp = 0.25B to 0.35(B + Ht )
Hp = 0.25(4.3) to 0.35(4.3 + 5.2)
i.e. Hp = 1.08 to 3.33 m

5.2 m

37.

Use Hp = 2.20
W = BHp S,

try S = 2 m

= (24.7)(4.3)(2.2)(2)
4.3

then W = 467 kN
W
467
=
= 109 kN/m of tunnel width
B
4.3
(7,444 lbf/ft), (14.2 ft wide)
Tables C & S
@ 40 max

a 5 5 H-beam @ 16 lbf/ft will do with blocking pts.


spacing = 2 m
web depth = 12.7 cm
flange width = 12.7 cm
weight = 234 kN/m
max block pt. spacing = 102 cm.

Tunnels

38.

187

Given: Problem 37 data


Find: Square pattern bolt equivalent.
Solution:

L  bolt length

S  spacing length

TA


formula TA =

C0
T0




Fb
S2


(L S)

per m of tunnel length

 
1
: fixed steel set thrust
S
  
1
1
= (467 kN)
2
2
Ts = 117 kN

Also Ts =

W
2

C0
= 10
T0
Fb = Y As estimate Y = 415 MPa try 2.54 cm diameter

= (415)
(2.54)2 (104 )
4
Fb = 210 kN


LS
117 = (10)(210)
S2
try L = 2.5 m
& S = 2.2 m
other combinations possible
2.54 cm diameter bolts
415 MPa Y
2.5 m long
2.2 m spacing square

bolting

188

39.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Problem 37 data


Find: Yieldable arch support.
Solution:
T = pRS & T = Y As
use mild steel Y = 250 MPa
estimate: p = Hp
= (24.7)(2.20)
p = 54.3 kPa

p
R

(250 MPa)(As ) = (54.3 kPa)(2.15)(S)


try S = 2.5 m then

T
S  Spacing
R  B/2  4.3/2  2.15 m

As = 1.168(103 ) m2
As = 11.8 cm2

yieldable arches

S = 2.5 m
Y = 250 MPa
40.

Given: Tunnel, support data.


dry, moderately blocking & seamy
Find:
(a) Steel sets
(b) T same for yieldable arches
(c) pb if bolted

14

14

Solution:

28

Use handout for selection (a) Table 3 or 4.2, moderately blocky & seamy
Hp = 0.25B to 0.35(B + Ht )
= 0.25(28) to 0.35(28 + 28)
Hp = 7 ft to 19.6 ft
Hp (ave) 13.3 ft
Dry, so use 1/2

Hp = 6.7 ft, say

try 11 ft spacing, then assuming = 156 pcf


W = BHp S
= (156)(28)(6.7)(4)
W = 1.171 106 lbf
W
B
1.171(105 )
=
28

W = 4,180 lbf/ft of tunnel width

W =

Tunnels

189

T.1. Handout for continuous ribs.


Smallest in table is 6 6 H beam @ 20 lb/ft corresponding to 5,780 lbf/ft of
width, should increase spacing but this is the procedure for arches.
p

(c) for bolts

14

T
T
but p
p
T
T

= pRS
= (p)(14)(4)
= Hp
= (156)(6.7 ft)
= (156)(6.7)(14)(4)
= 58,531 lbf

(b)


C0
Pb tlr
TA =
T0
TA = (10)(Pb )(t)(4)


but TA = 58,531 lbf


58,531
pb =
(10)(4)(10)
pb = 146 psf
(1 psi)

Pb

(which is low because of the relatively close set spacing compared with rock
head Hp .)
t=LS
S = lr (set spacing assume square)
C0
= 10 : assume for rock
T0
L = ? : select
estimate L = 12
then t = 14 4
t = 10 ft.
Given: An arched back tunnel 8.5 m 8.5 m is
dry moderately blocky and seamy ground.
Find:
(a) Fixed steel sets
(b) Yieldable arches alternative
(c) Bolting alternative.
Solution:

Hp

8.5 m  Ht

41.

Table 3 C & S, Table 4.2 text


Hp = 0.25(B) to 0.35(B + Ht )
= 0.25(8.5) to 0.35(8.5 + 8.5)
Hp = 2.71 m to 5.95 m

B  8.5 m

190

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Hp (average) = 4.33 m
DRY! use 1/2
Hp = 2.17 m
estimate = 25 kN/m3
try 2 m spacing
W = SBHp
W = (25)(2)(8.5)(2.17)
W = 922 kN
W
= 108 kN/m of tunnel width
B
Table 1 C & S
(7,397 lb/ft) @ (28 ft wide) an 8 6 1/2 wide flange @ 24 lb/ft will do with
54 in. (max. blocking point spacing)
spacing = 2 m
web depth = 20.3 cm
flange width = 16.5 cm
weight = 350 kN/m
(b) Yieldable arches
B
8.5
=
= 4.25 m
2
2
p = Hp
(25)(2.17)
p=
p = 54.3 GPa
T = pRS & T = Y As try S = 2 m
T = (54.3)(4.25)(2)
T = 462 kN at 2 m spacing

R=

R
T

T(b)

(c) for bolts


equivalent TA = Ts
  
Fb
C0
and TA =
(L S)
T0
S2
C0
estimate
= 10
T0
given S = 2 m
Fb
p= 2
S

8.5 m

TA

T u n n e l s 191

T0 =

T 462
=
= 231 kN/m
S
2

231 kN/m = (10)(p)(L 2)


if L = 3 m then p = 23.1 kN/m2

at L = 3 P = 23.1 kPa
S = 2 (low) 3.4 psi

(c)

Rock Mass Classification Schemes, RQD


42.

(a) The objective of a rock mass classification scheme is to allow for estimation
of rock support system requirement. The main components are (1) rock
strength (2) joint strength orientation and spacing (3) water pressure.
RQD is important because it correlates with the values output from the
scheme and thus allows for comparisons. Main differences are in numerical
weighting. RMR ranges to 100%; Q ranges over orders of magnitude, but
RMR and Q correlate well. Q does include a stress factor that RMR does not.
(b)

2.4
2.9

5.3
2.9

8.2
6.0

14.2
3.5

7.7
7.6

25.3
4.0

Note: l > 3.5 = 49.2 l = 60.0




43.

L
D


=
1

4
=
2.125

L
D


2

29.3
5.0

34.3
2.6

36.9
10.6

47.5
7.3

54.8

49.2
RQD
= 0.82 82%

60


4
L2 =
(1.875) = 3.5
2.125
RQD =

(a) The main objectives of rock classification schemes are to determine support
requirements for tunnels. RQD is important because it indicates the intensity
or spacing of joints or fractures. The main features are: the intact rock
strength, joint strength and water,
The differences are slight, RMR and Q are well-correlated.
(b) 1.5 m of NQ-core (D = 1.875 in.) = 4.75 cm
 
 
L
L
NX:
NQ =
[correction for core size]
D 1
D 2


4.0
L2
=
L2 = 3.53 in
2.125
1.875
or L2 = 9.0 cm.
if L > L2 keep for RQD
0.0 > 8.4
8.4 > 9.9
18.3 > 15.2
33.5 > 6.4

192

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

39.9 > 26.9


66.8 > 10.2
77.0 > 13.7
90.7 > 4.8
95.5 > 15.0
110.5 > 23.6
134.1 > 3.6
137.7 > 12.3
150.0
 150,  = 126.6



126.6
RQD =
100
150
RQD = 84.4%
44.

(a) Objective is primarily to determine and quantity need for tunnel support
Main components are:
rock strength
joint strength
water
Main difficulties are:
method of assessing components.
(b) Large, stiff sets will limit tunnel wall displacements to a tiny amount,
provided they hold; flexible light-weight support is used when ground
squeezes and cannot be hold.

Entries in Stratified Ground

Naturally Supported Roof


1.

Given: Weightless beam, built in ends Thickness h, Breadth b, Span L, Uniform


load P.
Sign convention tension positive. x axis left, z axis down, y axis out of page,
CCW moment positive.
Downward shear force is positive.
Find: An expression for shear force V, Bending Moment M, Sag w
Plot shear & Moment diagrams.
Solution:
L

b
h

MA
x

RA
z, w

Due to Symmetry RA  RB

Fz = 0
0 = 2R PbL

R A RB =
0
Fz = 0

PbL
2

0 = RA Pbx V
V=
0

PbL
Pbx.
2

M=0

Pbx2
+ Vx M
2
PbL
Pbx2
M = MA +
+
x Pbx2
2
2


Lx x2

M = MA + Pb
2
2
0 = MA +

194

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Find: MA
known

d2 w
M
=
dx2
EI


%
&
1
Lx x2
=
MA + Pb

EI
2
2

 2
%
&
1
Lx
dw
x3
=
MA x + Pb

+ C1
dx
EI
4
6

Boundary
condition (BC)
)
dw ))
= 0 C1 = 0 {Note: Built-in means no end plane rotation}
dx )x=0

%
 3
&
1
x2
x4
Lx
w=
MA + Pb

+ C2
EI
2
12
24
BC: w|=0
x=0

C2 = 0
%
 4
&

L4
L
L2
1
=0
BC: w|x=L 0 =
MA
+ Pb

EI
2
12 24
PbL2
MA =
12


2

L2
Lx x
+

12
2
2
  2 2

Pb
Lx3
L x
x4
w=

+
EI
24
12
24
w|x=L/2 = wmax

M = Pb

wmax =

V


x0
y  PbL
2


x0
2
M  PbL
12

PbL4
384EI

xL
L
x
2

L
2
2
M  PbL
24
x

M


y  PbL
2
x


xL
M PbL
12

Not to scale

Entries in Stratified Ground

2.

195

Given: Roof beam with built in ends.


Show: Maximum tension t occurs at the top of the beam at the beam ends and
is given by the expression [(1/2)(PL2 )]/h2
Solution:
Mz
;
I
bh3
I=
(rectangular section)
12
h
z=
top of beam.
2


+z
L2
Lx x2
b
M = Pb
+

12
2
2
dM
PbL
L
PbL2
=
Pbx = 0 x = is a point of relative max/min, M =
dx
2
2
24
=

Examine end points:


L2
12


L2
at x = L; M = Pb
12

 
2

at x = 0; M = Pb

max =
t =
3.

PbL
12


3

bh
12

h
2

,12

(PL2 )
h2

PL2
2h2

Given: Roof beam with built in ends (rectangular section).


Show:
sag wmax occurs at L/2 and is given by the expression
  Maximum

1
PL4
.
32
Eh3
Solution:
From Problem 1

 2 2

Pb
L x
Lx3
x4

+
EI
24
12
24
 2
2
3
dw
L x Lx
x
=

+
dx
12
4
6
)
3
3
3
dw ))
L
L
L
=

+
dx )x= L
24 16 48
2


1
1
1
= L3

+
=0
24 16 48
w=

196

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

L
2
L
w = , wmax =
2
bh3
but I =
12
wmax at

4.

PbL4
384EI

wmax =

PbL4
 3
384E bh
12

wmax =

PL4
.
32Eh3

T0
t
for built-in ends case.

Given: Ft =
Find: Lmax
Solution:

From Problem 2 t =

PL2
2h2
Ft = 


L=

T0

=
2

PL
2h2

2h2 T0
PFt

2h2 T0
PL2

1/2

Lmax at Ft minimum = Ft = 1

Lmax =

5.

2h2 T0
P

1/2

Given: H0 = 12 , W0 = 22 = L, H = 950 , h = 2.25


E = 3.7 106 psi, = 0.28 = 134 pcf T0 = 690 psi
Find: t , wmax , Ft for SS, BI.
Solution:
(a) SS;
3 PL2
; P = h
4 h2
 

    2

3
22 2
ft
3
lbf
=
(134)(2.25)
(ft)
=
3
4
2.25
4
ft
ft
lbf
lbf
1
= 2
= 2 = psi
144
in
ft

t =

Entries in Stratified Ground

= 21618.67

197

1
= 150.13 psi
144

t = 150 psi

wmax =

=

5
32
5
32




PL4
Eh3




1
134
(22)4
(12)
(2.25)
144
(2.25)3
3.7 10+6

wmax = 0.0218 in
T0
690
=
= 4.6
t
150
Ft = 4.6

Ft =

(b) BI;

1 PL2
2 h2
 



1
134
22 2
=
(2.25)
2
144
2.25
t = 100 psi

t =

1
wmax (SS)
5
0.0218
=
5
wmax (BI) = 0.0043

wmax (BI) =

T0
690
Ft =
= 6.9
=
t
100
Ft = 6.9
6.

Given: High horizontal stress h reduces bending b = 0. t from Problem 5a,


SS case
Find: h .
Solution:
b = h + t
Given b = 0.
h = t
h = 150 psi (compression)
Tension + sign convention.

198

7.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Entry: 3.66 m high 6.71 m wide, depth = 290 m, immediate roof layer
separation, h = 0.69 m, E = 25.52 GPa, = 0.28, = 21.2 kN/m3 , T0 = 4.7 MPa
Find: t , wmax , FSt
(a) simply supported,
(b) built-in.
Solution:
(a) SS
 
3 PL2
t =
; P = h
4 h2
 
2
3
3 (6.71 m)
=
(21.2 kN/m )
4
(0.69 m)2
t = 1.04 Mpa

T0
t
4.7 MPa
=
1.04
FSt = 4.5

FSt =

FS1

 4
5
PL
32
Eh3
 
5
3
(21.2 kN/m )(0.69 m)(6.71)4 (100)
32
=
(25.52 GPa)(0.69)3


wmax =

wmax = 0.055 cm

wmax

(b) BI
 
1
L2
t =
P 2
2
h
 


1
6.71 2
3
=
(21.2 kN/m )(0.69)
2
0.69
t = 0.692 MPa
T0
t
4.7 MPa
=
0.692 MPa
FSt = 6.79

FSt =

FSt

Entries in Stratified Ground

199


1 PL4
wmax (BI) =
32 Eh3
 
1
=
wmax (SS)
5
 
1
wmax (BI) =
(0.055)
5
wmax (BI) = 0.011 cm
8.

wmax

Given: Problem 7 data, t = 1.04 MPa


Find: h to reduce tension to 0.
sh

Solution:
Need:
0 = t + h
h = 1.04 MPa [compression ()]

st

L
2

Given: Geologic column & properties, depth = 1450 ft, dip = 8 , mining height
12 ft.
Find: Bed separations.
Surface
(106 psi)
E
4.7
2.5

over burden
h(ft)
8.9

g (pcf)
155

R5

3.6

138

R4

0.35

0.5

90

R3

3.1

2.5

142

R2

2.5

1.5

138

R1

4.8
12

0.35

90

H  1,450 ft

9.

L
2

Sean

L
F1
F2

Solution:
Need Pi (n)s


90
(4.8) = 3.00 psi
144


1 h1 + 2 h2
P1(2) = E1 h31
E1 h31 + E2 h32
&
%
(0.35)(106 )(4.8)3
(90)(4.8) + 138(1.5)
=
144
0.35(106 )4.83 + 2.5(106 )(1.5)3

P1(1) = 1 h1 =

200

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

= (0.2689)
P1(2) = 3.65 psi

639
47.1


P1(3) = (0.2689)


639 + 3 h3
47.1 + E3 h33

639 + 142(2.5)
= (0.2689)
47.1 + 3.1(2.5)3


994
P1(3) = 0.2689
95.5

P1(3) = 2.80 psi


2.80 = P1 (3) < P1 (2) = 3.64 psi
Beds separate between shale (R1) and layered sandstone (R2)
Restart analysis with R2 as #1 layer
P1 (1) = 1 h1


42
(2.57)
=
144
P1 (1) = 2.47 psi
142(2.5) + 90(0.5)
P1 (2) = (3.1)(106 )(2.5)3
3.1(106 )2.53 + 0.35(0.5)3 106


(3.1)(2.5)3 400
=
144
48.5

P1 (2) = 400 psf 2.77 psi



48.4 400 + 138(3.6)
144 48.5 + 2.5(3.6)3


48.4 897
P1 (3) =
144 165

P1 (3) = 1.83 psi
P1 (3) < P1 (2) Beds separate between R3 & R4
P1 (3) =

Restart analysis with R4 as #1 layer


P1 (1) = 4 h4


138
=
(3.6)
144
P1 (1) = 3.45 psi

Entries in Stratified Ground

(138)(3.6) + 155(8.9)
2.5(106 )(3.6)3
144
2.5(106 )(3.6)3 + 4.7(8.9)3 106
1,876
= (0.81)
3,430

P1 (2) = 0.44 psi Beds separate between R4 & R5

201

P1 (2) =

10.

Given: Problem 9 conditions and all layers must be safe i.e. = FS 1.


Find: Lmax ( min ), maximum roof span with FS 1.0.
Solution:
FSt (i) =

T0 (i)
t (i)

3 L2
will assume SS (simply supported ends) so that t (i) = Pi 2
4 hi
2
T0 (i)hi
Least FSt (i) occurs when
is least.
pi
For first two roof layers (coal & R1 )
P1 (2) = 3.64 psi


E2 h32
P2 (2) = P1 (2)
E1 h31

(2.5)(106 )(1.5)3
(0.35)(106 )(4.8)3
P2 (2) = 0.79 psi
= (3.64)

T0 (1)h21
(25.0)(4.8)2
2
=
= 1.582(102 ) ft
P1 (2)
(3.64)
T0 (2)h22
(400)(1.5)2
2
Shale R1:
=
= 1.389(103 ) ft
P2 (2)
(0.79)
P1 (2) = 4.00 psi
Coal:

0.35(106 )(0.5)3
(4.00)
3.1(106 )(2.5)3
P2 (2) = 0.036 psi
P2 (2) =

Laminated SS R2:

T0 h2
(620)(2.5)2
2
= 969 ft
=

P1 (2)
4.00

Coal R3:

T0 h 2
(2.5)(0.5)2
2
=
= 174 ft
P2 (2)
0.036

Shale R4:

T0 h 2
(400)(3.6)2
2
=
= 1,503 ft

P1 (1)
3.45

202

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

T 0 h2
(10,300)(8.9)2
2
= , 155 = 8.516(104 ) ft

P1 (1)
(8.9)
144


T 0 h2
4 1 T0 h
FSmin = 3
=
3 L2
Pi min
P L2
4 i


T0 h
occurs in the roof coal
Pi min
 

1
4 T0 h2
2
L =
FS = 1 for max
3
Pi
FS
 
4
=
(158)
3
L = 14.5 ft

SS R5 :

Lmax

Bolted Roof
12.

Given: Sag wmax from 5(b) (BI), assume bolt tension b = Uniformly distributed
acting upwards to reduce the sag wmax to zero.
Find: b |wmax =0
Solution:
1 PL4
32 Eh3
For wmax = 0; P = 0.
P = h b = 0


135
b = h =
(2.25)
144
b = 2.11 psi
wmax (BI) =

13.

Given: Bolt force Fb = 16,400 lbf spaced on 5 centers, = 158 pcf


Find: b , heq.
Solution:
2

Plan view


A = (5)(5) = 25 ft
F
16,400 1
b =
=
= 4.56 psi
A
25 144
b = 4.56 psi
b = heq.
b
4.56(144)
heq =
=

158
heq = 4.16 ft

Entries in Stratified Ground

14.

203

Given: Rock bolt load = 73.5 kN bolts spaced 1.5 m c-c


Find: Bolting pressure, equivalent layer h.
Solution:
Fb = Pb Ar

1.5


Bolt

plan

Ar = bolt area of influence

1.5


Ar


73.5 (kN)
(1.5)(1.5)
Pb = 32.7 kPa
Pb =

Pb = h assume = 23.5 kN/m


32.7 kPa
23.5 kPa/m
h = 1.392 m
h = 139 cm

Pb

h=

15.

Given: Sketch. Stratified mine roof data and 5/8 diameter bolts on 4 centers or
3/4 diameter bolts on 5 centers, High Strength, rib spacing is half.
Find:
(a) bolt safety factors from dead weight approach.
(b) best plan: 5/8 @ 4 or 3/4 @ 5
Solution:
Dead weight approach; for equilibrium weight of rock = Bolt Load, (volume) = Fb
By inspection of the sketch, the shale beds need support. The thick sandstone
(5.) will be used as an anchor stratum. Note that the decreasing thicknesses of
the shales which have the same modulus implies no bed separation within the
shales, but rather at the 45 interface.
4
/
Volume = l 2 hi
i=1

where l = bolt spacing


Note: For safety Bolt strength > Bolt load.
@ 4 centers
(4)2 (7 + 8 + 10 + 12)
12
3
V = 49.33 ft
V=

@ 5 centers


V = (5)

37
12

V = 77.08 ft

204

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

@ 4 centers
W = (135)(49.33)
W = 6,660 lbs
@ 5 centers
W = (135)(77.08)
W = 10,406 lbs
Bolt forces:
Strength 5/8 bolt, High Strength, Grade 55: Fy = 12,400 lbs.
3/4 bolt, High strength, Grade 55: Fy = 18,400 lbs.
(from Text, Table 3.4, pg 124)
tension to, say, 70% of yield point
@ 4 centers
Fb = (0.7)(12,400)
Fb = 8,680 lbs
@ 5 centers
Fb = 0.7(18,400)
Fb = 12,880 lbs
Both plans are certainly adequate since at 70% yield, the bolt forces exceed the
dead weight load.
Check: Bolt safety factors w.r.t. yield pt.
@ 4 centers
12,400
FSb =
6,660
FSb = 1.86
@ 5 centers
18,400
10,406
FSb = 1.77

FSb =

Both plans adequate and technically close. 3/4 on 5 centers would likely
be preferable because the fewer bolts installed would more than offset added
individual bolt losts.
16.

Given: A suspension action by 3/4 bolts on 5 centers, bolt tension is 75% of


yield load. Sag is reduced 40%.
Find: Reduction in roof tension.

Entries in Stratified Ground

205

Solution:
For simply supported ends
5 PL4
32 Eh3
3 PL2
(max) =
4 h2
Let w / = stress with bolts
ww / = sag with bolts
w0 / = stress without bolts
ww0 / = sag without bolts

w(max) =

Pw/
Pw0
Pw/
=
Pw0
ww/
=
= 0.4
ww0 /

Then Ww/ /ww0 / =


& w/ /w0

17.

w/
w0 /

40% reduction

Given: Problem 16 data


Find: Safety factor ratio w/ to w0 /
Solution:
T0

w0 /
=
w/
1
=
0.4

FS =

FSw/
FSw0 /
w
But 0
w
FSw/
= 2.5

FSw0 /
18.

Given: Clamped shale beds from problem 1 that act as a single beam, friction
coefficient between shales = 0.35
Find:
(a) Maximum shear in monolithic beam (clamped unit)
(b) Bolting pressure estimate needed for clamping.
Solution:
20
37

g  135 pcf

n.a.
tmax

206

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Beam analysis assuming simply supported ends:


3 PL
; P = h
4 h

,  
(135) 37
(20)
3
12
, 37 =
4
(144)
12

max =

max in fully

clamped unit

max = 14.06 psi


(occurs on neutral axis = n.a.)
Bolting pressure?

friction = b

b =

14
=
0.35
b = 40.2 psi

bolting pressure

required

(high, but not beyond reason, clamping would mobilize beam building
mechanism).
19.

Given: Roof truss in the sketch at spacing S and tension T,


Find: Equivalent distributed load in the vertical direction.
Solution:
R

Equilibrium of truss corner:

F = 0 = T + Rh T cos 45
45

hor. dir
F = 0 = T sin 45 Rv
vert. dir

Rv = T sin 45
Total vertical Truss Load = 2Rv
Tv = 2Rv
Tv = 2T sin 45
The truss vertical force is distributed over the area
A = LS

Entries in Stratified Ground

207

where L = the roof span.


The bolting pressure is then
Tv
A

2T
Pb =
LS

Pb =

20.

Given: Laminated shale truss in the sketch.


Find: S and T such that Pw/ = 0.65 Pw0 /
Solution:
Apparent unit weight formula
ha = P (i.e. a = P/h)

try1: P(1, n) =

E1 h31 (a1 hi i + Pg Pb )
n1 Ej h3j

Uniform thickness @ 4 same Es, s


h3 (hj Pb )
nj h3j
 3
[(6 ) Pb ]
h
, 72 =
h3
4

P(1, n) =

(6)(130)
Pb
=
18
18

Since layers are identical:


P(i, n) = 43.3

Pb
18

43.3
(i, n) = , 4 12

(i, n) = 130 pcf check


(identical strata just touch)
a (w/) = 0.65 a (w0/ )
= 0.65(130)
a (w/) = 84.5 pcf

equivalent

bolting pressure

208

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

P(i, n)w/ = a (w/)h


 
4
= (84.5)
12
P(i, n)w/ = 28.2 psf
P(i, n)w/ = 43

Pb
18

Pb
= 43.0 28.2
18
Pb = 266.4 psf
Pb = 1.85 psi
From Problem 6.

2T
Pb =
LS 
T
L

=
(266.4), L = 20 .
S
2
T
= 3,768 lbs/ft of entry.
S
Try: S = 4


S=8

T = 15,070 lbs
T = 30,140 lbs


Note: Table 3.4, p 124: Grade 55, high strength 34 diam.


Yield load = 18,400 lbs
So we are in range.
21.

Given: Sketch of bolting a joint.


Find: Optimum bolting angle.

Fb

Solution:
Optimum means greatest increase in FS.
By definition:
FS = strength/stress
With respect to shear on the joint
= tan + C, strength rock
Must add resistance from bolting b multiply by area to convert stresses to forces
FS =

Resisting Forces
Driving Forces

Resistance: R = Tf + Tb
(uphill)

a
Ar
T
b

Entries in Stratified Ground

209

Tf = N tan + K + Tn tan
Tb = Fb sin( )
Driving = Td
N tan + K + Tn tan + Fb sin( )
FS =
T
N tan + K
FS =
T
Fb [ tan cos( ) + sin( )]
+
T

p
2 f

p
a2
a

Horizontal
T should be
tensioned

Optimum Maximize FS
FS = FS +

Fb sin( + )
T cos

This occurs when sin( + ) = 1


i.e. opt =

+
2

Note: The bolt should be tensioned by impending slip on the joint.


22.

Given: Joint, bolt sketch & Problem 21.


cj = 0 j = 35 Fb = 12,000 lbs Ar = 4 sq ft. = 648 psi (horizontal) = 30
Find: FSw0/ , FSw/
Solution:
N tan + K
|T|
= Ar , T = Ar
x + y
x y
=
+
cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2
648 648
=
+
cos 60
2
2
= 486 psi

FSw0 / =
N

(x y )
sin + xy cos 2
2
648
=
sin 60
2
= 281 psi

(486)(4)(144) tan 35 + 0
|(281)(4)(144)|
= 1.21

FSw0 / =
FSw0 /

unbolted joint FS

210

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Bolting at optimum :
Fb
|T| cos
12,000
= 1.21 +
(281)(4)(144) cos 35
= 1.21 + 0.09

FSw/ = FSw0 +

FSw/ = 1.30
23.

bolted joint FS

Given: Problem 22 with an untensioned, passive bolt, 7/8 diameter grouted in


the hole
Find: Shear stress in the bolt.
Solution:
Since the FSw0 / bolts is greater than 1, no motion occurs and the grouted bolt is
not loaded. Stress is zero.
b = 0 psi

24.

shear

stress in bolt

Given: 2-seam coal mine, mining full height, 24-ft wide entries, stratigraphic
column, rock properties.
Surface
1,719
5

Coal-top seam

1,746.5 32.5

7

T0  700 psi

Layered sandstorm

E  1.5(106) psi

3.0

Massive sandstorm

2.5

Sandy shale

E
psi, h  3.0 T0  850 psi
E  4.5(106) psi, h  2.5 T0  1,000 psi

27

3.0(106)

Coal-bottom seam
Massive SS

Find:
(1) lower seam Roof1 FSt (shale)
(2) lower seam Roof2 FSt (sand)
(3) bolting plan (length, diameter, steel, spacing)
Solution:
Look for bed separation
P1 (1) = 1 h1
= (170)(2.5)
P1 (1) = 425 psf

Entries in Stratified Ground

211


1 h1 + 2 h2
E1 h31 + E2 h32
%
&
(170)(2.5) + 148.2(3)
= (4.5)(106 )(2.5)3
4.5(106 )(2.5)3 + 3.0(106 )(3.0)3


869
= (70.31)
70.31 + 81.0
P1 (2) = 404 psf

P1 (2) = E1 h31

P1 (2) < P1 (1) beds separate


P1 (1) = 425 psf

assume simply supported ends


3 L2
P
4 h2
 


3
425
24 2
t =
4
144
2.5
t = 204 psi

t (SS) =

T0
t
1,000
FSt (1) =
204
FSt (1) =

(1) FSt (1) = 4.90

FSt (1)

By inspection, the second roof layer separates from the first & P = h
P2 (1) = (148.2)(3.0)
P2 (1) = 446 psf
 


3
446
2.4 2
t (2) =
4
144
3.0
t (2) = 148.6 psi
T0 (2)
FSt (2) =
t (2)
850
=
148.6
(2) FSt (2) = 5.72

FSt (2)

(3) Bolting plan- An anchor stratum is present in the layered sandstone,


Bolt length = h1 + h2 + 0.5 ft (anchorage)
Lb = 2.3 + 3.0 + 0.5
Lb = 6.0 ft

212

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Try 5/8 grade 55 bolts on 4 centers


@12,400?
Rock block

4

3.0

Wn = r Ar (h1 + h2 )
= (4)(4)[(170)(2.5) + (148.2)(3.0)]
Wn = 13,914 lbs

SS
Shale

2.5

Use

25.

3 
4

grade 55, 6-ft bolts on 4 ft centers

Given: Mains, sub-mains, panel entries


Show:
(a) Favorable alignment of mains
(b) Panel entries
(c) w.r.t joints bearing NS, steeply dipping
B
panel

N
B
A

mains

outcrop
A

Submains

2 seam
lineaments

25 ft

Solution:
(a) Columnize the mains
Surface
A A
Section

Pillars entries

Column

Column

Column

(b) Stagger the chains


BB
Long wall face
mine 1st
Chain pillars for panel entries
mine 2nd
below top longwall

Entries in Stratified Ground

213

(c) Orientation is o.k. because


(1) Joints are across mains and do not disrupt roof and are therefore conducive
to long-life!
(2) In panels, joints aid caving
26.

Given: Stratigraphic column, mining height = 13 , depth = 1,450


Surface
E(106) psi

C0(psi)

T0(psi)

g(pcf)

h(ft)

R5

12.6

0.19

12,700

1,270

160

21.5

R4

12.7

0.21

14,200

1,340

158

15.2

R3

12.6

0.19

12,700

1,270

156

6.0

R2

6.3

0.31

8,450

760

146

1.5

R1

5.4

0.23

7,950

610

152

2.0

6.75

0.27

3,750

425

92

15.0

F1

12.3

0.18

11,500

1,050

155

10.3

F2

8.1

0.33

13,700

1,240

160

17.0

Detail

R2

R1
2 ft

15 ft
13 ft

Find: FS(1), FS(2), bolting plan.


Solution:
FS =

T0
t

assume simply supported ends


t =

 2
3
L
P
4
4

P from bed separation analysis


P(1, 1) = 1 h1
= (92)(2)

1 = coal, seam is the immediate roof

P(1, 1) = 184 psf


P(1, 1) = E1 h31

1 h1 + 2 h2
E1 h31 + E2 h32

= (0.75)(106 )(2)3

184 + (152)(2.0)
0.75(106 )(2)3 + 5.4(106 )(2)3

214

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

184 + 304
6.0 + 43.2
(6.0)(488)
=
49.2
P(1, 2) = 59.5 psf

P(1, 2) = (6.0)

P(1, 2) < P(1, 1) seam roof separates


restart for next cluster
P(1, 1) = (R1)h(R1)
P(1, 1) = (152)(2)
P(1, 1) = 304 psf
(152)(2) + 146(1.5)
(5.4)(106 )(2)3 + 4.3(106 )(1.5)3
P(1, 2) = 339 psf > P(1, 1)

P(1, 2) = (5.4)(106 )(2)3

523 + (156)(6)
66.7 + 12.6(6)3
1,459
= 43.2
2,788
P(1, 3) = 22.6 psf
P(1, 3) = (5.4)(2)3

separation between R2 & R3


Separation of seam from R1, P(1,1) = 184 psf
Separation of R2 from R3, P(1,2) = 339 psf
T0
t
 
 2
3
L
t =
(184)
4
22

FS (immediate roof) =

L=?

t = 34.5 L2 psf
(425)(psi)(144)
FS =
34.5 L2
1,774
FS = (roof) =
L = ft
L2
But entry width = 21
1,774
(21)2
FS = 4.02

FS =

immediate proof

Entries in Stratified Ground


S
2

(610)(144)
t
 
 3
3
21
t =
(339)
4
2
t = 28,031 psf
87,840
FS =
28,031
layer above
FS = 3.13

FS (next) =

215

S
2


Ar


21

bolting pattern dead weight


Stratum: anchor

W = Fb
Lb = 2 + 2 + 1.5
+ 0.5(anchor)

R3

6.0

Layer

R2

1.5

Layer

R1

2

Immediate

L b = 6

2 seam 2

[(S)(2) + (R1)(2) + (R2)(1.5)]S2 = Fb


[(92)(2) + (152)(2) + (146)(1.5)]S2 = Fb
707S2 = Fb
S = 4
S = 5

Fb = 11,131 lbf Ty = 14,841 lbf


Fb = 17,475 lbf Ty = 23,5667 lbf

But also Fb = Tb = (3/4)Ty , i.e. Ty = (4/3)Fb


3 
grade 55 bolts, 6 long, spaced on 4 centers (Ty = 18,400 lbf) will do (from
4
Table 3.4)
27.

Given:
Surface

R3
R2
R1
4

S1

12

F1
24

16

216

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Find:
(1) Immediate roof FS
Solution:
T0
T0 = 250 psi (not mined full thickness)
t
t P(1, n), n = ? test for bed separation
FS =

P(1, 1) = 1 h
= (95)(4)
P(1, 1) = 380 psf
P(1, 2) =
=
P(1, 2) =

E1 h31 (1 h1 + 2 h2 )
E1 h31 + E2 h32
0.35(106 )(4)3 [(95)(4) + (136)(2)]
0.35(106 )(4)3 + (4)3 (106 )(2)3
652
1+

4.1 (2)3
0.35 (4)3

P(1, 2) = 265 psf


P(1, 2) < P(1, 1)
beds separate
n=1
assume SS bean ends
 2
3
L
P
4
h
 
 2
3
380
24
=
4
144
4
t = 71.25 psi
250
FSt =
71
11 FSt
FSt = 3.5

t =

(2) Find Pb to reduce sag to zero


Solution:
wmax P
P = 0 will reduce wmax to zero
,/n
E1 h31
1 i hi P b
P(1, n) =
/
Ei h3i
n
0
i hi Pb = 0
P(1, n) = 0 when
1

Entries in Stratified Ground

Pb =

n
0

i hi

217

& n includes S1, R1, R2 i.e. n = 3

= (95)(4) + 136(2) + 142(1.5)


Pb = 865 psf (6.0 psi)

12 Pb

(3) layout pf. anchored bolting pattern based on dead weight load
V

R3

R2
R1

S
2

Lb  4  2  1.5
 0.5 (anchor)
Lb  8

Sb

S
24

W = Fb for equilibrium
(1 h1 + 2 h2 + 3 h3 )S2 = Fb (S = spacing square pattern assumed)
try 4 c-c (865)(16) = 13,840 lbf
5 c-c (865)(25) = 21,625 lbf
5 /8 Grade 75 bolt has yield load of 17,000 will do on 4 c-c.
Grade 75
4 ft c-c (square)
5 /8 diameter
8 ft length

bolts

(4) FSt after bolting = ?


FSt =

T0
t

since bolting supports dead weight and reduces sag to zero, t = 0 & then
14
FSt

(5) Before bolting, bed separation takes place between roof seam and R1
so P = 1 h1 + Pg
 2
L
t = 34 P
b
T0
so FSt =
t
would be reduced by Pg

15

218

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

28.

Strata data, rock properties,


Surface

H  1,324 ft

Burden

R3
R2
R1
3 ft
S
F1

15 ft

(mining height)

21 ft

Find:
(1) Immediate roof safety factor.
Solution:
Immediate roof is in coal 3 ft thick
P = h
95(3)
P(1, 1) =
44
P(1, 1) = 1.98 psi
possible bed separation
,
P(i, j) = Ei h3i j j hj /j Ej h3j
(0.35)(3.0)3 (95)(3) + 135(2.0)
144
0.35(3)3 + 3.1(2)3


(9.45) 550
=
144
34.3
P(1, 2) = 1.06 psi

P(1, 2) =

P(1, 2) < P(1, 1), therefore beds separate


FSt =

T0
t

assume simply supported ends


 2
3
L
P
4
b
 
 2
3
21
=
(1.98)
4
3
t = 72.8 psi

t =

18 ft

Entries in Stratified Ground

150
72.8
FSt = 2.06

219

FSt =

FSt (1)

Find: Pb needed to reduce sag to zero of all roof layers (seam, R1 & R2).
Solution:
P(1, 3) =

E1 h31

/

3
0

j hj P b

Ej h3j

/3

and sag: wmax P


if wmax = 0 then P = 0
Pb =

3
1

j hj (i.e. dead weight)

(95)(3) 2.0(135) 2.5(142)


+
+
144
144
144
Pb = 6.32 psi
=

Find: Bolting pattern based on dead weight.


Solution:
R 3 anchor

2.5

R2

2.0

R1
3 seam

S/2

assume square pattern S = Spacing


then W =

S/2

' 3
0

(
j hj S 2

and Fb = W

+
But also

Pb S 2 = W
F b = Pb S 2
Fb = (6.32 psi)(S)2 (144)
S=4

Fb = (910)(S)2

Fb = 14,560 lbf

Pb (2)

220

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

S=5
F = 22,750 lbf

Table 3.4 text


Grade 55
3/4
Fy = 18,700
Grade 75
5/8
Fy = 17,000
3/4
Fy = 25,100
Possible 3/4 Grade 55 on 4 center
5/8 Grade 75 on 4 center
3/4 Grade 75 on 5 center
bolt length = 3.0 + 2.5 + 2.0 + 0.5 (center)
hb = 8 ft.

(3)

bolt safety factor when tensioned to 2/3, 3/4 y , FSb = 1.5 to 1.33
Find: Immediate roof rock safety factor

FSt =

T0
t

since sag is reduced to zero t 0 and FSt (theoretically)

(4)

Find: Gas pressure effect


Solution:
Gas Pg contributes directly to roof pressure through the formula
/

P =
FSt =
29.

Given:

Ei h3i (

i hj Pb + Pg )
/
Ej h3j

T0
for R1
P

P(R1) = h + Pg

Coal mine at 1750 ft depth


Tensile safety factor of 4.0 required in the immediate roof
FSt = 3.0 for next two stratum
Rock and joint data in tables
= 156 pcf (overburden)
Mining height from floor is 15 ft leaving 1.5 ft of coal in the roof.

Find: max safe roof span Lmax


Solution:
Test for bed separation

(5)

Entries in Stratified Ground


West

Surface

East

d = 18

R3
R2
R1

1.5 ft c

oal

Coal

Lmax

(not corrected for dip yet)


coal only P(1, 1) = h = (90)(1.5) = 135 psf


1 h1 + 2 h2
coal + R1 P(1, 2) = E1 h31
E1 h31 + E2 h32
0.35(106 )(1.5)3 [(90)(1.5) + 138(1.3)]
0.35(106 )(1.5)3 + 3.62(106 )(1.3)3
%
&
179
= (1.181)
9.13
=

P(1, 2) = 23.2 psf


bed separation occurs between coal & R1
FS = 4.0: immediate roof coal
4.0 = T0 /t assume simply supported ends, so
t =

 2
3
L
P
4
h

where P =  h,  = cos
   2 
3
86
L
=
4
1
1.5
t = 42.8 L2
4.0 = (310)(144)/42.8 L2

221

222

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(310)(144)
L=
(4)(42.8)
L = 16.1 ft

&1/2
Lmax : coal constraint

Next roof layer


P (1, 1) = (138)(1.3) = 179 psf
3.62(1.3)3 106 [(138)(1.3) + 142(2.7)]
3.62(1.3)3 106 + 4.16(2.7)3
(563)
= (7.95)
89.8

P (1, 2) = 49.8 psf

P (1, 2) =

Shale (R1) separates from sandy shale (R2)


FS = 3.0: for next 2 roof layers
 
 2
T0
3
L
3.0 =
t =
(138)
cos 18
t
4
1.3
t = 75.7 L2
3.0 =
%
L=

(650)(144)
75.7 L2

(650)(144)
(3)(75.7)

&1/2

Shale: L = 20.3 ft (which is greater than Lmax allowed by immediate roof)


By inspection, the sandy shale will separate (sag more) than the overlying
mudstone because both E & h are less.

1/2
(72.0)(144)
Sandy shale: L = , 3 - , 135 (3)
4
2.7
L = 30.4 ft
Lmax = 16.1 ft

30.

(which is greater yet)


Lmax

(Given the constraints cited)

Given: Problem 29 conditions and 15 ft wide entries.


Find:
(a) Maximum sag
(b) Failure sag

Entries in Stratified Ground

223

Solution:
(a) Assume simply supported ends, then
5PL4
, I = bh3 /12, P =  h, b = 1 ft
384 EI
   4 
5
L
=
32
Eh2 (1)
 
  4 

 

5
1 2
86
15
1
1
=
32
0.35
1
1.5
106
144

wmax =
wmax

wmax = 5.97 (103 ) ft.


(b) At failure t = T0 ,

(a)

(sag)

(0.072 in.)

FSt = 1.0
3  L2
= T0
4 h
4
T L2
 L4
3 0
=
h2
h
 %
&
4
(310)(144)(15)2
=
3
1.5
 4
L
lbf
= 8.93(106 )
h2
ft


wmax

   4
1
L
=
E
h2
 




5
1
1
1
6
=
(8.93)10
32
0.35
106
144
5
32

wmax = 2.77(102 )ft (0.332in.)


31.

(b)

failure sag

Given: Problems 29/30 data, dead weight approach to bolting using pointanchored mechanical bolts, and 20 ft wide entries.
Find: Bolting plan.
Solution:
Need an anchor stratum
The mudstone appears thick and strong and within reach
Try bolds that are 1.5 + 1.3 + 2.7 + 0.5 ft long (allowing 0.5 ft for anchorage) i.e. 6 ft bolts, dead weight & square pattern S c-c:
W = [(1.5)(90) + 1.3(138) + 2.7(142)]S2 cos(18 )
W = 664 S2 lbf.

224

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

@ 4 c-c W = 10,621 lbf


T3.4: a 5/6 diameter High Strength bolt has an Fy = 12,400 lbf
Tension to 2/3 Fy , is less than W
i.e. W =
Fy =

2
Fy
3
3
W = 16,747 lbf.
2

@ 67% tension
a 5/8 bolt with Extra High Strength (Grade 75) will do with Fy = 17,000 lbf
bolt length = 6
diameter = 5/8
spacing = 4 c-c/square

bolt tension = 11,333 lbf.

(2/3Fy )
steel grade = Grade 75

32.

Given: Sketch and data for low coal room and pillar mining.
Surface
Burden
g  144 pcf
980 ft.
R5
R4
R3
R2
R1

2
4

F1

6
3

S
20

F2

Find:
(a) FS of R1
(b) FS of R2
(c) bolting plan.
Solution:
T0
t
Assuming simply supported ends: t = (3/4)P(L/h)2 , need P from bed separation
analysis.
By definition: FSt =

Entries in Stratified Ground


P(1) = 1 h1 =

225


156
(2)
144

P(1) = 2.17 psi


(1 h1 + 2 h2 )
[(156)(2) + 146(1.5)]
= 12.6(106 )(2)3
12.6(106 )23 + 6.3(1.5)3 106
E1 h31 + E2 h32
(100.8)
(531)
P(1, 2) =
144 100.8 + 21.0
P(1, 2) = 3.04 psi
P(1, 2) = E1 h31

(100.8)(531 + 152(1))
(144)122.1 + 5.4(1.0)3
(100.8)(683)
=
144(122.1)
P(1, 3) = 3.75 psi

P(1, 3) =

100.8 [6.83 + 158(15.2)]


144 (122.1) + 12.7(15.2)3
(100.8) 3,084
=
144 (4,472)
P(1, 4) = 0.048 psi

P(1, 4) =

P(1, 4) < P(1, 3) beds separate between R3 and R4


P(1, 3) = 3.75 psi
 2
3
20
t (1) = (3.75)
4
2
t (1) = 281 psi
1,270
310
FS(R1) = 4.52

FS(R1) =

FS(R2) =

P(2, 3) =

FS(R1)

760
t (2)
/3
i hi
E2 h32 /31
3
E
1 i hi

'
(
/
E2 h32 E1 h31 31 i hi
=
/3
3
E1 h31
1 Ei h i

E2 h32
6.3(106 )(1.5)3
P(1, 3) =
(3.75)
3
12.6(106 )(2)3
E 1 h1
P(2, 3) = 0.79 psi
=

226

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

 


3
20 2
t (2) =
(0.79)
4
1.5
t (2) = 105 psi
760
105
FS(R2) = 7.24

FS(R2) =

FS(R2)

(c) bolt plan dead wt. load


Wt = Bolt tension
By inspection, and in consideration of bed separation, R4 is a candidate
anchor stratum.
Wt = [(152)(1.0) + (146)(1.5) + (156)(2)](4)(4)
where a 4 c-c square plan is assumed
Wt = 10,928 lbf.
Try a 5/8 diameter High Strength (Grade 55) bolt with yield load of
12,400 lbf
will be 10,928/12,400 = 88% tensioned

4 c-c square
(c)

Plan 5/8 diameter High strength (55)

5 ft long (allow 0.5 ft for anchorage)


33.

Given: Sketch of longwall roof beam data


Neglect support effects
Cantilever roof model
Bed separation R1 & R2

G.L.

Find: X face advance to failure of R1.

R3

Solution:

R1

Shear and moment diagrams


model as uniformly distributed
load

Seam

Fz = 0
Fz = 0

R2
Separation
face

Cave

Flow

RA = PbL

P  gh

0 = RA V Pbx
V = Pb(L x)

MA

h
b

RA  PbL

MA = 0
2

Pbx
M
2
Pbx2
M = MA + Pb(L x)x +
2
0 = MA + Vx +

L0

L0  x
L

Entries in Stratified Ground


2

d w
M
=
2
dx
EI
dw
Pbx3
EI
= MA x + PbLx
dx
3
Pbx3
+
+ C1
6
at x = 0

dw
=0
dx

227

P
A

MA

RA

C1 = 0

PbLx2
Pbx4
Pbx4
MA x2
+

+
+ C2
2
2
12
24
at x = 0 w = 0 C2 = 0
PbL
Also: overall moment equilibrium requires
EIw =

L Shear

V


MA = 0

 
L
0 = MA + PbL
2
2
PbL
MA =
2


M

L Moment
x

The moment diagram shows


PbL2
Mmax =
at x = 0
2

PbL2
2

Mc
(max tension)
I

PbL2 ( C)


2bh3
12

V2
= 6P
h3
t = 3P
FSt =

 2
L
h

 
h
2
on top of R1

at the face

T0
t

at failure FSt = 1
L2
3P 2 = T0 , therefore L =
h

T0 h 2
3P

X = L L0
4
T 0 h2
X=
L0
3P

face advance

before R1 cantilever fails

228

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

34.

Given: Sketch and table data.


Find:
(a) Maximum possible L, lower seam
(b) L at FSt = 4
(c) FSt of M.Ss. roof layer

Layered Ss
M.Ss
S. shale
Seam

27 ft
3.0 ft
2.5 ft
7.0 ft

2
1
L

Solution:
Need strata loads
Find: Bed separation
P(1, 1) = 1 h1
(170)(2.5)
=
(144)
P(1, 1) = 2.95 psi
P(1, 2) =

E1 h31 (1 h1 + 2 h2 )
E1 h31 + E2 h32

(4.5)(106 )(2.5)3 [(170)(2.5) + (148.2)(3)]


(144)[(4.5)(106 )(2.5)3 + (3.0)(106 )(3.0)3 ]
(70.31) (870)
P(1, 2) =
(144) (151.3)
P(1, 2) = 2.81 psi
=

beds separate P(1, 2) < P(1, 1)


* Also bed 2 (M.SS) separates from beds by inspection, very thick 27
(a) FS =

T0
t

assume simply supported ends, then


 2
3
L
t = P
4
h
 
% 2 &
3
L
t =
(2.95)
4
(2.5)2

 
3
1,000
L2
=
(2.93)
2
4
(2.5)
1

Note: max L at FS = 1
L2 = 2.83(103 )
Lmax = 53.1 ft


65.0
Lmax (a)
B.I.

3
L(BI)=

if FS = 4 , then

2 L(SS)

Entries in Stratified Ground

1,000
4
L = 26.5 ft.

(b) L2 =

(2.5)2
2.95

229

 
4
3
L (b)

(c) L = 53.1
t =

 


3
53.1 2
(148.2)(3)
(P)
= 3.09 psi
; P=
4
3
144

t = 725 psi
FS =

T0
t

850
725
FS = 1.17(SS)

FS =

FS(M.Ss) (c)

(1.75: B.I.)
35.

Given: Sketch & data W0 = 28 ft lower seam


Find: Using dead weight load approach,
a bolting plan

Layered Ss
5.5 ft

Solution:
Seam

(i) use the thick layered sandstone as an


anchor stratum
(ii) try 5/8 Grade 55 bolts on 4 ft center s
WR = Vol.

= (4)(4)[(170)(2.5) + (148.2)(3)]
WR = 13,914 lbf.


2
2
try tension at Fy
Fy = WR
3
3
 
3
Fy =
(13,914)
2

Fb =

Fy = 20,870 lbf.
According to Table 3.4 text
3/4 extra high strength bolts (Grade 75) have Fy = 25,100 lbf,
on 4 ft centers, 6 ft long (1/2 ft anchor)

ans.

6
1.

Pillars in Stratified Ground


Given: Room and pillar mine
depth = 1,150 ft
ave = 159 pcf
C0 = 13, 700 psi (lab core, L/D = 2)
T0 = 1, 250 psi
Find:
(a) Maximum safe extraction ratio (no size effects) and FS = 1.75.
(b) Evaluate:
Solution:
By definition: R = Am /A = 1 (Ap /A)
where A = Am + Ap
Equilibrium of overburden block and pillar:


Ap

W = Fp
AH = Sp Ap

Plan


where H = depth Sp = pillar stress,

Ap
H
=
A
Sp

H
Sp
But Sp is limited by the pillar safety factor, i.e.
R=1

Then

Cp
Sp
C0
Sp =
FS

FS =
so

since Cp = C0 when no size effect exists


Hence,
R(max safe) = 1

(H)(FS)
C0

with FS = 1.75, H = 1,180 ft, = 159 pcf

(a)

Pillars in Stratified Ground

C0 = 13,200 psi



159
1,180
R = 1
(1.75)
144
13,700
R(max safe) = 0.834(83.4%)

2.

231

(b)

Given: Problem 1 data, square pillar, entries and crosscuts 45 ft wide.


Find:
(a) Pillar size.
Solution:
From Problem 1.

with

Ap
=R
A
R = 0.834
Ap
= 0.166
A

Wc  45


Wp
Square
Pillar

Entry

Ap = Wp2


Wp
Wp + W 0

A = (Wp + W0 )2
2
= 0.166

4
W0
1
1+
=
Wp
0.166
W0

= 1.45
Wp
45
Wp =
1.45
Wp = 30.9 ft

3.

Cross-cut

W0  45

(a)

Given: Problems 1 and 2 data, 45 45 pillars, 45 entries and crosscuts & size
effects:


Wp
Cp = C1 0.78 + 0.22
Hp
mining height changes from 30 to 120
Find:
(a) Pillar FS.
(b) Pillar FS without size effect.

232

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:

Section

Cp
FS =
Sp

1,180

30

Cp = C1 [0.78 + 0.22 (Wp /Hp )]

120

C2 = 13,700 psi L/D = 2


lab data

45 45

13,700

C1 = 

0.78 + 0.22

, 1 -
2

C1 = 15,393 psi
Sv
1R

Sp =

Ap
A
(45)(45)
=
(45 + 45)2
1 R = 0.25
1R=

, 159 -

(1,180)
0.25
Sp = 5,212 psi
Sp =

144

%

&
45
Cp = C1 0.78 + 0.22
120
Cp = 15,393(0.8625)
Cp = 13,376 psi

finally

No size effect:

4.

13,376
5,212
FS = 2.55

FS =

13,700
5,212
FS = 2.63

(a)

FS =

(b)

Given: Entries and crosscuts 45 ft wide, square pillars 45 ft wide, lab core
(L/D = 2) C0 = 13,700 psi T0 = 1,250 psi = 159 pcf H = 1,180 ft

Pillars in Stratified Ground

233

joint set present:


= 68 (dip) = 54 (dip direction)
Find:
(a) Joint stress shear strength to just prevent slip.
(b) Cohesionless joint, MohrCoulomb strength, to prevent slips.
(c) Frictionless joint, c to prevent slip.
Solution:
Ground level
H
Sp
Sp

Ap

n
sj
tj

x
Aj

tj

sj

From Problem 3: Sp = 5,212 psi


To just prevent shear slip: j (stress) = (strength)
j = (stress) = Tj (force)/Aj
Fs = 0 = j Aj (Sp Ap ) sin
j = Sp = Ap /Aj sin But: Ap = Aj cos
j = Sp cos sin
j = (5,212) cos(68) sin(68)
j = 1,810 psi

(a)

(b) j (strength) = j tan j + cj (MohrCoulomb criterion) at slip: Tj (stress) =


Tj (strength)
1,810 = j tan j + 0: (cohesionless)
Fn = 0 = j Aj = Sp Ap cos
j = Sp cos2
= 5,212 cos2 (68)
j = 731 psi

234

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

1,810
731
tan j = 2.475
j = 68

tan j =

(checks) (b)

(c) if j = 0 then
1,810 = 0 + cj

(c)

cj = 1,810 psi
5.

Given: Room and pillar mine, 360 m depth, = 25.2 kN/m3 , C0 = 94.5 Mpa
T0 = 8.63 MPa
Find:
(a) Safe extraction ratio (FS = 1.75, no size effect).
(b) Evaluate.
Solution:
By definition R =

Ap
Am
=1
,
A
A

A = Ap + Am
Equilibrium of overburden block
above A
W = Fp
HA = Sp Ap

Ap

H = depth
Sp = average pillar stress
By definition
Cp
FSp =
Sp

no size effect Cp = C0
Hence

C0
Sp
Ap
R=1
A
FSp =

Also by definition:

H = Sp (1 R)
C0 (1 R)
FSp =
H
(a) Hence R = 1

(FSp )(H)
C0

max safe R

Pillars in Stratified Ground

(1.75)(25.2 kN/m3 )(360 m)


94.5(103 ) kPa
R = 0.832 R = 83.2%

235

(b) R = 1

6.

Rmax (safe)

Given: Problem 5 data, square pillars with entries and crosscuts 13.7 m wide
Find: Pillar size.
Solution:
From Problem 5 Rmax = 0.832
W0 = Wc = 13.7 (given)
Wp = Lp (square)
By geometry

Wc
Wp

Ap =

Wp2

A = (Wp + W0 )2
2

Wp
Ap
=1
1
=R
A
Wp + W 0



Wp
Wp + W 0
Wp
Wp + W 0

Entry

W0

Wp

2
= 1 0.832
2
= 0.168,

W0 = 13.7

Wp = 9.52 m
7.

Cross-cut

WP = LP

Given: Problems 5 and 6 data, pillars are 13.7 13.7 m (square) with size effect
Cp = C1 (0.78 + 0.22 Wp /Hp ) Hp (1) = 9.14 Hp (2) = 36.6 m
Find:
(a) FSp (2).
(b) FSp (2) with no size effect.
Solution:
FSp =

Cp
Sp

%


&
Wp
0.22
Cp = C1 0.78 +
Hp
lab data: C0 = 94.5 MPa at Hp = 2

, 
94.5 = C1 0.78 + 12 (0.22)
C1 = 106.2 MPa

236

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


Surface

360 m
9.14 m

36.6 m

Hp(2)

Wp(2)

Sill

%

&
13.7
Cp (2) = (106.2) 0.78 + 0.22
36.6
Cp (2) = 91.6 MPa
Sp (2) =

H
(1 R)
3

Sp (2) = (25.2 kN/m )

360
0.25

Note:
1R=

Ap
A

(13.7)2
(13.7 + 13.7)2
1 R = 0.75
(R = 0.75)
Sp (2) = 36.29 Mpa
=

91.6
36.29
FSp = 2.52
FSp =

94.5
36.29
FSp = 2.60

with size effect

FSp =

8.

no size effect

(tall pillar reduces strength)

Given: Entries and crosscuts 13.7 m wide, square pillars 13.7 m wide, lab
core (L/D = 2), C0 = 94.5, T0 = 8.63 MPa, depth = 360 m, = 25.2 kN/m3
(Problems 5 and 7 data) joints:
= 68 (dip) = 54 (dip direction)

Pillars in Stratified Ground

237

Find:
(a) joint shear strength at FSj = 1.
(b) cohesionless joint, needed.
(c) frictionless joint, c needed.
Solution:
Surface
Fp  Sp Ap
Sp
dj
Ap

Ap  Aj cos(dj)

dj
Aj

Tj  tj A j
Nj  tj Aj

To prevent slip: FSj = j (strength)/j (stress) must have FSj  1


(1) at limit j (stress) = j (strength)
(2) MC-criterion j (strength) = j tan j + cj
Equilibrium:

Tj = Sp Ap sin(j )
Ap
j = Sp
sin j
Aj
j = Sp cos j sin .

from Problem 7 Sp = 36.29 MPa


j = 36.29(cos 68)(sin 68)
j = 12.6 MPa

(a)

(b) if c = 0
j = j tan j
Equilibrium:
j Aj = Sp Ap cos j
j = (36.29)(cos 68)(cos 68)
z = 5.09 MPa
12.6
= 2.474
5.09
j = 68

tan j =

(cj = 0)
j

(c) = 0 then
c = j = 12.6 MPa

(j = 0) cj

238

9.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Average vertical stress = 3,870 psi (26.7 MPa), room and pillar mine,
joint set: cj = 130 psi (0.9 MPa), j = 28
Find: Range of dips prone to slip.
Sp  3,870

Solution:
Slip: If j (stress)  (strength)
then slip may occur.

Sp

Ap

d
d
dj

j (stress) = Sp cos sin


tj

j (stress) = Sp cos2

Aj

j (strength) = j tan j + cj
sj

Sp cos sin  Sp cos tan j + cj


Sp
Sp
sin(2)
tan j (1 + cos2 ) + cj
2
2
2

sin(2) cos(j ) sin(j ) cos(2) + sin j +


sin(2 j )  sin j +

2 cj cos j
Sp

sin(2 j )  sin(28 ) +
sin(2 j )  0.528

2cj cos j
Sp

2(130) cos(28)
3,870
Note: sin( ) = sin()

2 j sin1 (0.528)
1
(28 + 32 )
2
(1st solution)
30

180 (2 j ) 32
180 + 28 32

88
(2nd Solution)
unsafe for 30 88

10.

Given: Coal Seam 1,200 ft deep, dip = 15 , entries and crosscuts 20 ft wide,
C0 = 2,000 psi, T0 = 350 psi, gravity only premining stress state, Mohr
Coulomb failure FS wrt compression of 1.5 required.
Find:
(a) R extraction ratio
(b) FSs (wrt to shear).

Pillars in Stratified Ground

239

Note: No size effect


Solution:
By definition:

Surface

Ap
Am
=1
A
A
C0
FSc =
Sp
R=

1,200

(1)
(2)

Extraction Ratio:
Sn
1R
Tn
Tp =
1R

Sp

Sp =

Tp
Pillar block

Tp
Sp

1R=

(3)

Sn
Sp

Sn
Sp
Sn (FSc )
R=1
C0
R=1



Sx S y
Sx + Sy
+
cos 2
Sn =
2
2
Sy = Sv



Sx =
Sv = Sn
1

y
n
S
d

assuming complete lateral restraint, gravity only Sv @ 1 psi/ft:


Sv = 1,200 psi
= 0.25

(assume)

then
1
Sv
3
Sh = 400 psi

Sh =



1,200 + 400
1,200 + 400
+
cos[(2)(90 15)]
Sn =
2
2
= 800 + (400)(0.8667)
Sn = 1,147 psi

p
d
2
x

240

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(1,147)(1.5)
2,000
= 1 0.860
R = 0.14 (14%)

R=1

(a)

FSs = (strength)/(stress)
(stress) = Tn /(1 R)
(strength) = tan + C
Note: = SP

C0
1

sin = T0

C0
+1
T0
M-C criterion

2c cos

C0 =
,
1 sin
sin =

2,000
350
2,000
350

1
+1

sin = 0.702,

c=

C0 (1 sin )
2
cos


c=

2,000
2

%

1 sin(44.6)
cos(44.6)

&

c = 418 psi

= 44.6


 # 
$
S x Sy

sin 2
2
2


400 1,200
=
sin(150)
2
Tn = 200 psi

Tn =

200
1 0.14
(stress) = 233 psi

(stress) =

(strength) = Sp tan + c


1,147
=
tan(44.6 ) + 418
1 0.14
= 1,315 + 418
(strength) = 1,733 psi
1,733
233
FSs = 7.44

FSs =

(b)

Pillars in Stratified Ground

11.

241

Given: R & P trona mine, H = 1,560 ft, Wp = 30 ft, LP = 60 ft, HP = 12 ft,


W0 = Wc = 24 ft, Core (L/D = 2), C0 = 6,740 psi, T0 = ?, C.V. = 38%
FS = 1.67 required.
Find: Rmax (allowable).
Solution:
Cp
Sn
; Sp =
Sp
1R
Sn (FS)
1R=
Cp
FS =

assume 1 psi/1 ft of depth Sn = 1,560 psi


Cp = C1 [0.78 + 0.22(Wp /Hp )]
%
 &
1
6,740 = C1 0.78 + 0.22
2
C1 = 7,573 psi
%

30
Cp = 7,573 0.78 + 0.22
12
Cp = 10,072 psi

&

(1,560)(1.67)
10,072
R = 0.741(74.1%)

1R=

12.

Given: Steeply dipping vein,

C0 = 25,000 psi,

T0 = 2,850 psi,

Find: Rmax (possible).


Solution:
Cp
Sp
Sn
Sp =
1R
Cp (1 R)
FSc =
;
Sn
Sn (FSc )
1R=
C0

Rmax (allow)

FSc =

Cp = C0

no size effect

242

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


Surface

H  depth  5,100 ft

d  60

Sy  gH

Sh  2 Sy

s
u

Premining

20

p
d
2

u

g  165 pcf

Hp

Sx + S y
Sx S y
+
cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2
H
H
(2 + 1) +
(2 1)cos(2.30) + 0. sin(60)
=
2
 
 2


 
3
165
165
5,100
1
=
(5,100) +
+0
2
144
144
2
2
Sn = 10,277 psi

Sn =

FS = 1.0 for max R

(10,277)(1.0)
25,000
Rmax = 0.591(59.1%)
1R =

13.

Given: Problem 12 data


Stope advance of 15 ft (beyond Rmax )

60

Find: If failure stable or not? Explain.


Ap

Solution:
At

15
Am

Rmax = 59.1%
Am
R=
A

Assume: A = 100 ft, then Am = 59.1 ft


and Ap = 41.9 ft, so Wp /Hp = 41.9/20
> 1.0

20

Pillars in Stratified Ground

243

(o.k controlled)
After face advance of 15 , Wp /Hp = 26.9/20 > 1.0
(close)
After second face advance of 15 , Wp /Hp = 11.9/20 < 1.0
(over)
As a guide, fast failure threatens when Wp /Hp < 1.0, so until the Wp /Hp < 1.0
i.e. Wp < 20 is reached, fast failure, that is, bursting is not threatening.
14.

Given: Large, regular array of pillars on


a regular grid with FSc .
Find:
(a) FSc needed to avoid failure of
nearest neighbors.
(b) FSc needed if load shared equally.

FSc

Solution:
Cp
Sp
If pillar fails, then nearest neighboring
pillars take up load, i.e. 1/4 Sp
Cp
4
Therefore FSc =
= FSc
(5/4)(Sp ) 5
5
So FSc  : (if FSc  1.0)
4

(a) FSc =

(b) All neighbors = 8 Sp = Sp +


FSc =
FSc 

15.

Cp
9
S
8 p

8
FSc
9

(a)

(nearest neighbors)

1
Sp
8

9
: (if FSc > 1.0)
8

(b)

(equal sharing)

Given: Room and pillar mine, depth H = 980 , overburden = 156 pcf, rock
properties: laboratory data (L/D = 2) , C0 = 12,400 psi, T0 = 1,050 psi
Find:
(a) Expression for maximum extraction ratio Rmax
(b) Evaluate.
Solution:
(a) By definition

R=

Ap
Am
=1
A
A

244

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Am = area mined, Ap = pillar area, A = total area


C0
Sp
Sv
Sp =
1R
Sv = H
C0 (1 R)
Fc =
H
Fc =

(Fc )(H)
C0
By inspection: R is max when Fc is min
hence R = 1

(a) Rmax = 1

H
C0
, 156 -

(b) Rmax = 1

(a)

(980)
12,400

144

Rmax = 1 0.0856
(b)

Rmax = 0.914(91.4%)

16.

Given: Problem 15 information and square pillars with no size effect at Fc = 2


Find: Pillar size Wp .
Solution:
(Fc )(H)
C0
, (2) 156
(980)
144
= 1
12,400
R = 1 0.1712
R = 0.829

R = 1

Ap
A
(Wp )2
(1 R) =
(W0 + Wp )2

But also R = 1

substitute: r2 = 1 R
then

Wp
=r
W0 + Wp

Pillars in Stratified Ground

W0 r
1r
(30)(0.1712)1/2
=
1 (0.1712)1/2
(30)(0.4138)
Wp =
0.5862
Wp = 21.2 ft

Wp =

or

17.

245

Given: Data
from problems- 15 and 16 and 30 30 pillars, a size effect:
,
Cp = C1 0.78 + 0.22 Wp /Hp , and a pillar height change from 25 to 90 .
Find: Fc .
Solution:
Wp = 30
Hp = 90
C1 = 
C1
C1
Cp
Cp

C2

, -
0.78 + 0.22 12
12,400
=
0.78 + 0.11
= 13,933 psi
%
 &
30
= (13,933) 0.78 + 0.22
90
= 11,889 psi

Sp =

Sv
1R

Ap
A
(30)(30)
=
(30 + 30)2
1 R = 0.25

1R =

Note: (rooms are 30 )



156
980
Sp =
144
0.25
Sp = 4,247 psi
Cp
Sp
11,889
=
4,247
Fc = 2.8

Fc =

with size effect Fc

246

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Note: without size effect (use C0 at L/D = 2)


12,400
4,247
Fc = 2.92

Fc =

18.

without size effect Fc

Given: 30 entries and crosscuts 30 , square pillars, 980 ft depth, 156 pcf, joints:
dip = 60 , dip dir = N45E
Find:
(a) shear strength needed to
just prevent slip.

Sp

u

p
dj
2

dj

Solution:
xx yy
xx + yy
j =
+
cos 2
2
2
+ xy sin 2


xx + yy
j =
sin 2 + xy cos 2
2

sj
tj

Pillar & joint

(from equations of transformation)


xx = 0 xy = 0 yy = Sp : in pillar
Sp
sin 2; 2 = 2j
2
Sp
j =
sin 2j
2
Sv
Sp =
1R
Ap
1R =
A
(30)(30)
=
(30 + 30)2
1 R = 0.25
j =



156
980
Sp =
144
0.25
Sp = 4,247 psi



4,247
[sin(2)(60)]
2
shear strength to prevent slip
j = 1,839 psi

j =

Pillars in Stratified Ground

247

Sp
Sp

cos 2( 2j )
2
2
Sp
Sp
+
cos 2j
j =
2
2
4,247
=
[1 + cos(120)]
2
j = 1,062 psi

j =

if c = 0 and M-C slip applies to the joints then


j = j tan j
1,839
tan j =
1,062
tan j = 1.732
j = 60

j (c = 0)

if = 0 and M-C slip applies then


j = cj

cj (j = 0)

cj = 1,839 psi

19.

Given: Room and pillar mine, 300 m depth, = 25 kN/m3 , core: (L/D) = 2,
C0 = 86 MPa, T0 = 7 MPa
Find:
(a) Formula for max safe extraction ratio
(b) Evaluate.
Solution:
(a) By definition:
Ap
Am
=1
A
A
A = Am + Ap
Cp
FSp =
Sp
Sv
Sp =
, Cp = C0
1R
R=

(no size effects)

C0 (1 R)
, Sv = H
Sv
(H)
R = 1 (FSp )
C0

FSp =

Rmax -safe

FSp = 1 for Rmax (possible)

248

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


3

(1)(300)(25 kN/m )
86 MPa
where Rmax is at FSp = 1

(b) R = 1

Rmax = 1 0.0872
Rmax = 0.913, 91.3%
20.

Rmax

Given: Problem 19 data, square pillars, entry width = cross cut width = 9 m,
FS = 2, no size effects.
Find: Pillar size.
Solution:
(FSp )(H)
C0
(2)(25)(300)
R = 1
86(10)3
R = 0.826

(1) R = 1

(2)

21.

Ap
A
(Wp )2
0.826 = 1
(Wp + 9)2


Wp

= 0.417 &
Wp + 9
Wp = 6.44 m
R = 1

Wp

Given: Problems 19, 20 data, pillars 9 9 m, Cp = C1 [0.78 + 0.22 (Wp /Hp )]


Hp (1) = 8 m, Hp (2) = 27 m
Find: FSp (2) with size effect and without.
Solution:
Cp
FSp =
Sp


L
= 2 = 86 MPa
C0
D
%
 &
1
86 = C1 0.78 + 0.22
2
C1 = 96.6 MPa
%
 &
9
Cp (2) = 96.6 0.78 + 0.22
27

Pillars in Stratified Ground

249

Cp (2) = 82.4 MPa


Sp =

H
1R

(9)2
: W0 = Wc = 9 m
(9 + 9)2
1 R = 0.25

1R =

82.4(0.25)
(25)(300)(103 )
FSp = 2.75

FSp =

FSp =

86(0.25)
(25)(300)(103 )

FSp = 2.87

22.

with size effect

without size effect

Given: Data from Problems 21 and 19, square pillars 9 m wide,


Sp
joint data: = 60 (dip), = 45
(dip direction)
cross-cuts = entry widths = 9 m
depth = 300 m, 1 R = 0.25
Find:
(a) shear strength to just prevent slip.
(b) j needed when cj = 0.
(c) cj needed when j = 0.

Ap
dj

sj

Solution:
Equilibrium
j Aj = Sp Ap cos j
j = Sp (cos j )2
j Aj = Sp Ap sin j
j = Sp cos j sin j
at slip j (strength) = j (stress)
H
1R
3
(25 kN/m )(300 m)
=
0.25
Sp = 30 MPa
Sp =

Aj

Ap  A j cos dj

250

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Note:

Ap
1R=
A
(9)2
=
[2(9)]2
1
1R=
4

j = (30)( cos 60) sin(60)


j = 13.0 MPa

(a) j

(b) j = j tan j + cj : strength if cj = 0


then tan j = j / j
j = Sp cos2 j
= 30 cos2 60
j = 7.5 MPa
13.0
tan j =
7.5
= 1.732
j = 60

(b) j

(c) if j = 0 then
cj = j = 13.0 MPa
23.

(c) cj

Given: Pillar stress of 4,247 psi, Mohrcoulomb joint slip criteria


= 35 , c = 600 psi
Find: Range of unsafe dips.
Solution:

Slip occurs if j (stress) >


j (strength) from equations of
transformation
Sp
sin 2j
2
Sp
j (stress) =
(1 + cos 2j )
2
j (strength) = j tan j + Cj
j (stress) =

safe if:

Sp
dj
dj

tj

sj

Sp
Sp
sin 2j <
(1 + cos 2j )tan j + cj
2
2
Sp
Sp
(sin 2j cos 2j tan j ) <
tan j + cj
2
2
Sp sin(2j j ) < Sp sin j + 2cj cos j

Pillars in Stratified Ground

2cj cos j
Sp
(2)(600)(cos 35)
< sin 35 +
4,247

sin(2j j ) < sin j +

sin(2j j ) <
sin(2j j ) <
i.e. 2j j <
2j <

0.5736 + 0.2315
0.8050
53.6
53.6 + 35

j < 44
2nd solution using sin( ) = sin :
sin[ (2j j )] < 0.8050
180 2j + j < 44
180 + 35 44 < 2j
j > 86
slip if

44 < j < 86

check: j at 44

range of

unsafe dips

Sp

sin 2j
e.g. j at 40 , at 88 , at 80
2
4,247
j (stress) =
sin 2j
2
j (stress) = 2,122 sin 2j
j = 2,091 psi, 148 psi, 726 psi
j =

Sp
(1 + cos 2j )
2
4,247
(1 + cos 2j )
j (stress) =
2
j = 2,197(1 + cos 2j ),
j (stress) =

j = 2,492,

5.2,

j(strength) = j tan + cj
= (2,197)tan35 + 600
strength = 2,138
strength = 2,138,
(safe)
24.

Given: Pillar stress = 29 MPa


Joints: j = N45 W
j = ?

2,345, 602, 690 psi


(safe) (safe) (unsafe)

128

251

252

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

MC:

j = j tan j + cj
cj = 4 MPa, j = 35

Sp

dj

Find: Range of unsafe joint dips j .

dj
sj

Solution:
Slip occurs if j (stress) > j (strength),
rotation of axis wrt to x y

tj

Sp
sin 2j : (stress)
2
Sp
j =
(1 + cos 2j )
2
j = j tan j + cj : (strength)
j =

Safe if

Sp
Sp
sin 2j <
(1 + cos 2j )tan j + cj
2
2
Sp sin(2j j ) < Sp sin j + 2cj
2cj
sin(2j j ) < sin j +
Sp
2(4 MPa)
< sin(35 ) +
29 MPa
sin(2j j ) < 0.8494
2j j < 58.2
j < 46.6

Second solution:
sin( ) = sin
2j + j < 46.6
84.2 < j
unsafe
46.6 < j < 84.2
25.

unsafe dip range

Given: Cross-cuts 18 ft wide on 120 centers Lp = 3Wp .


Find: Minimum pillar size.
Solution:
Minimum pillar size occurs at minimum safety factor
C0
FS =
Sp
Ap
Sv A
Sp =
& R=1
Ap
A
C0 (1 R)
FS =
Sv

Pillars in Stratified Ground

253

FS is least when R is greatest that is when Ap is least


Sv = C0 (1 R)
Sv = (1psi/ft)(1,754 ft) assuming 1 psi/ft, consider deepest seam
or
Sv = (144)(1,694) + (148.2)(1,714 1,694) + (75)(5) + (22)(149.5)
+ (3)(148.2) + (7)(170)
Sv = 2.521(105 ) psf = 1,751 psi
1,751
3,500
1 R = 0.50

1R =

wp


102

Lp

120

But


Ap
1R =
A

wc  18

w0

L p Wp
(Wp + W0 )(Wc + Lp )
But Lp = 3Wp
=

0.50 =

3Wp2
(Wp + 24)(18 + 3Wp )
3Wp2 + (24)(18) + (72 + 18)Wp = 6.0 Wp2
3.0 Wp2 90Wp 432 = 0
(90) [(90)2 (4)(3.0)(432)]1/2
(2)(3.0)
90 115
Wp =
6.0
Wp = 34.2 ft
Lp = (3)(34.2)
pillar size
Lp = 102.6 ft, Wp = 34.2 ft

Wp =

Check:
1R =

Ap
A

(102.6)(34.2)
(24 + 34.2)(18 + 102.6)
1 R = 0.50
=

254

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Note:

Lp + 18 = 120

Lp = 102 ft

102

Wp =

Wp = 34 ft
26.

essentially the same at Rmax , FSmax ,

Given: Hardrock room of pillar data.


Vertical
section
E

dj

1. K0  0.25
2. Gravity only

g  158 pcf

1,230 ft

y
s

 75
15

15

Seam

R  0.75

Joints

Find: If pillars stable?


Tp

Solution:
Stable if FS > 1, FSp > 1, FSj > 1
Need Sp , Tp where

Sp

Free body

Joint

Sn
Ts
, Tp =
1R
1R
Sn
Ts
Sp =
, Tp =
1 0.75
1 0.75
Tp = 4Ts
Sp = 4Sn ,
Sp =

Sp

Sx + Sy
Sx Sy
Sn =
+
cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2
Ts =

(Sx Sy )
sin 2 + xy cos 2
2

= 15 ,

xy = 0,

Sy = h,


158
144
Sy = 1,349.6 1,350 psi
 
1
Sx =
(1,349.6) 337 psi
4


Sy = (1,230)

Sx =

1
Sy
4

Tp

2c cos
1 sin
C0 (1 sin )
c=
2cos
(15,000)(1 0.8182)
=
(2)(0.5749)

C0 =

c = 2,372 psi

Pillars in Stratified Ground

337 + 1,350 337 1,350

cos 30
2
2
Sn = 843.7 (438.5)
Sn = 1,282 psi
Sn =


337 1,350
Ts =
sin 30
2
Ts = 253 psi
Sp = 4(1,282)
Sp = 5,128 psi
Tp = 4(253)
Tp = 1,012 psi
Text, P. 294, eqn. 29
#

FSp =

(1 R)

2c cos
1sin()

(Sn2 + Tn2 )1/2


#

= (1 0.75)
= (0.25)

(2)(2,372)(cos 54.9)
1sin(54.911.2 )

(Sn2 + Tn2 )1/2




2,728
0.3087

(1,2822 + 2532 )1/2


(0.25)(2,728)
=
(0.3087)(1.3067)
FSp = 1.70 stable
FSj = ?

C0 T0
C0 + T 0
15,000 1,500
=
15,000 + 1,500
sin = 6.8182
= 54.9
sin =

tan =
=

Tp
2
Sp
2
1,012
2
5,128
2

tan = 0.1973
= 11.2

Note:
Joints are vertical and essentially unloaded, therefore safe.

27.

Given: Problem 1 data, cross cuts 18 wide,


100 c-c, 3Wp = Lp
Find:
(a) R(max, safe).
(b) Lp , Wp when FS = 1.5.

255

256

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:

100'

Wp

18 Wc

Plan view
depth  1,450

Lp


W0

Entry

Lp = 3Wp
Cp
FS =
Sp
Cp = (no size effects, assume)
Cp = 3,750 psi (Table)
Sv
1R
Sv = h 1,450 psi @ 1 psi/ft depth

Sp =

FS =

3,750
(1 R)
1,450

for max. safe R assume FS = 2 to 4 @ FS = 2.0


(2)(1,450)
3,750
1 R = 0.773
R = 0.227 (22.7%)

1R =

at max safe R

(b) Lp , Wp ? @ FS = 1.5
(1.5)(1,450)
(3,750)
1 R = 0.580

1R =

R = 0.420 (42%)
But also

FS =

Cp (1 R)
o.k.
Sv

Pillars in Stratified Ground

1R=

And

257

Ap
Lp Wp
=
A
(Lp + Wc )(Wp + W0 )

With Wc on 100 centers


100 = Lp + Wc
Lp = 100 18

Lp = 82 ft

Lp
Wp =

1
Wp = 27 3 ft
Note:

(82)(27 13 )
(82 + 18)(27

+ W0 )
22.39
1
3

27

1
3

+ W0

Lp , Wp

= 0.42
= 0.42

W0 = 25.97 ft.
28.

Given: Dipping seam 15 W


Dipping 75 E
depth = 1230 ft
= 158 pcf
Rock
Joint

C0
15,000 psi

T0
1,500
Sh =

20 psi

28 deg

1
Sv gravity field.
4

Find:
(a) premining , .
(b) post-mining Sp , Tp .
(c) R(max,safe) FS = 1.5 no size effects on Cp .
(d) (joint) for FSj = 1.5.
Solution:

1,230

75

15

Seam

y y
Sy
Joint

Sy

Sh

x
15

Sh
x

258

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics



Sx + S y
Sx Sy
=

cos 2.15 xy sin 2.15


2
2


Sx Sy
=
sin 2.15 + xy cos 2.15
2


158
Sv = Sy =
1,230
144
Sy = 1,350 psi
 
 
1
1
Sh =
Sv = Sx =
(1,350)
4
4
Sx = 337 psi

 

337 + 1,350
337 1,350
=

cos 30 0
2
2
= 843 (506)(0.868)

= 1,281 psi (Sn )

(337 1,350)
sin(30 )

= 253 psi(Ts )
=

(a) pre-mining seam normal &

seam shear stresses

(b) Sp , Tp , Sn = , Ts =

Sn
Ts
Sp =
post-mining
, Tp =
1R
1R

(b)

Post mining:
Sp =

formula,

Sn
Ts
, Tp =
1R
1R

Sn = , Ts =
(all that can be said without R)
(c) Rmax at FS = 1.5 (no size effects)
Text. 294, Eq. (29)
#

FSp =
where

tan =

(1 R)

2c cos
1sin()

[(Sn )2 + (Tn )2 ]1/2


Tp
2
Sp
2

(29)

Pillars in Stratified Ground

259

from given
c =
sin =
sin =
sin =


C0 (1 sin )
2
cos
C0 T0
C0 + T 0
15,000 1,500
15,000 + 1,500
0.8182

= 54.9


15,000
2
c = 2,322 psi



c =

tan =

Tp
2
Sp
2

1 0.8182
cos 54.9

Ts
1R

Sh (1 R)

253
1,281
tan = 0.1975

tan =

= 11.1

1.5 = (1 R)
Sp
Tp

(2)(2,372) cos 54.8


1sin(54.911.1)

1/2

[(1,281)2 + (253)2 ]

Sp

Tp

1.5 = (1 R)


Joint

Tj

sj

Sp
Tp

Equilibrium indicates joint is not loaded


any joint strength will do
29.

1.50
6,766
1 R = 0.222
Rmax = 77.8%

8,835
1,306

1R =

(c)

(d)

Given: Table data, and Wc = W0 (equal crosscut and entry widths) Lp = 3Wp
(pillar length = 3 pillar width).
Find:
(1) Rmax at FS = 1.4 no size effect.
Solution:
Cp
FS =
: Cp = 3,000 psi
Sp
Sv
Sp =
: Sv = H
1R

260

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

estimate Sv at 1 psi/ft
Sv = 1,670 psi
3,000

1.4 = 
1,670
1R

(1.4)(1,670)
3,000
1 R = 0.779
Rmax = 0.221 22.1%
1R =

Rmax

(2) Lp , Wp
Solution:

Wc

Ap
1R =
A
=

Wp

L p Wp
(W0 + Wp )(W0 + Lp )

Lp
W0

3Wp2

1R =

(W0 + Wp )(W0 + 3Wp )


3


= 
W0
W0
+
1
+
3
Wp
Wp


W0
Wp

2


+4

24'


3
W0
+3 =
Wp
0.779


4 [42 + 4(0.851)]2
W0
=
Wp
2
W0
= 0.203
Wp
24
Wp =
0.203
Wp = 118.5 ft
Lp = 3Wp
Lp = 355.5 ft

(3) Sp , Tp
Strata dip = 25 , depth = 1,1670 ft, R = 20%
Solution:
Sp =

Sn
,
1R

Tp =

Ts
1R

Wp

Lp

Pillars in Stratified Ground

261

Surface
y y

1,670 ft
25

x
25
x

Equations of rotation
Sx + Sy
Sx Sy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2

2
S x Sy
Txy = Tp =
sin 2 + xy cos
2
= 25 , Sx = Sh , Sy = Sv , Sv = 1 psi/ft = 1,670 psi,
S y = Sn =

1
Sv , assume = 0.2, Sh = Sv
1
4
xy = 0 (gravity only) Sh = 417 psi
estimate Sh =

417 + 1,670 417 1,670

cos(50 ) + 0
2
2
Sn = 1,044 (403)

Sn =

Sn = 1,446 psi
Sn
1,446
Sp =
=
1R
1 0.2
Sp = 1,808 psi


417 1,670
2
Ts = 480 psi
480
Tp =
1R
Tp = 600 psi
Ts =

(4) Flat seam R = 20%, cj = 0, j = 28


Find: Joint dip slip range.

Sp

sin(50 ) + 0

Tp

262

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:

Sp

slip if |j (stress)| > j (strength)


rotation
dj

Sp
Sp

cos 2j
2
2
Sp
=
sin(2j )
2
Sv
=
1R
1,620
=
1 0.2
= 2,088 psi

j =
j
Sp
Sp
Sp

j (strength) = j tan j + cj
j (strength)
j (stress)
j tan j
=
j

FSj =

Sp
(1
2

cos 2j ) tan j
Sp
2

sin 2j

cos j tan j
sin cos j
tan j
FSj =
tan j
=

slip where FSj < 1


i.e. where j > j
30.

Frictional slip

Proposed increase in R to 50% from 30% by:


(1) Increase W0 /Wp to 1.0 from 0.5 by entry width increase from, 20 to 30
60

20
w0

40
wp

20
R0 

30
30
60

20
 1
3
60

R1  30  1
2
60

Pillars in Stratified Ground

263

(2) Increase W0 /Wp to 1, from 0.5 while maintaining Wp at 40


1
R1  40 
80
2

Wp  40
W0  40

(3) Increase W0 /Wp to 1, from 0.5 keeping W0 = 20, decreasing Wp


20

20

R1  20
40

20

1
2

C0
Sv
, Sp =
Sp
1R
in all cases FSc is the same final result.
T0
criterion: FSt =
t
FSt depends inversely on t L2
keep L small to avoid large t and smaller FSt
Thus (3) is best.
criterion: FSc =

31.

Given: Strata data & table data with Lp = 2Wp


Find: R with FS = 1.8, no size effects.
Solution:
1R=
and also
where

Lp

Ap
A

wc

C0
Sp
Sv
Sp =
1R
FS =

wp

C0 (1 R)
Sv
(1.8)(1,394)
1R =
3,000
1 R = 0.794
R = 20.6% = 0.206

w0

FS =

Find: Pillar dimension, crosscut spacing, entry spacing.


Solution:
1R =
=

Lp Wp
(Lp + W0 )(Wp + W0 )
3Wp2
(3Wp + 21)(Wp + 21)

(1)

264

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

3

21
3+ W
1+
p

0.794 = 


21
Wp



21
21
5
+1
+3
= 0
Wp
Wp
0.794




3
21 2
21
+3
= 0
+4
Wp
Wp
0.794
3


21
4 42 + 4(0.778)

=
Wp
2
4 4.372
=
2
21
= 0.186
Wp
21
Wp =
0.186

Wp = 113 ft

Lp = 2Wp

Lp = 226 ft

pillar size

entry spacing = 113 + 21 = 134 ft


cross spacing = 226 + 21 = 247 ft
Find: Sp , Tp

R = 20% = 30 .

Solution:
Sp =
Sn =
Ts =
Sy =
Sx =
Sn =
Ts =

c-c entries (2)

c-c crosscuts

y

n
Sn
Ts
, Tp =
1R
1R
Sn
Ts
Sx + S y
Sx Sy

cos 2
2
2
Sx Sy

sin 2
2
Sv = h = 1,324 psi

0.3
0.3
Sv =
Sv =
1,324 = 575 psi
Sn =
1
1 0.3
0.7
1,324 + 575 575 1,324

cos 60
2
2


575 1,324
sin 60

2
959 + 187 = 1,146 psi Sn = 1,146 psi

Sn =
Tn = +(324)

Tn = 324 psi

x
d
s

Pillars in Stratified Ground

1,146
(1 0.2)
324
Tp =
(1 0.2)
Sp =

265

Sp = 1,433 psi

Tp = 405 psi

(3)

Find: Range of joint dips that may slip.


Solution:
dj

Sp

j (strength)
FSj =
j (stress)

dj
Ap

MC: j (strength) = j tan j + Cj


Need: j , j
Equilibrium:

Geometry:

tj

Sp A p
cos
A
Sp A p
j =
sin
A
Ap = A cos

r
sj

j =

t
fr

j = Sp cos2
j = Sp sin cos

fj , cj  0

cr
dj

Sp cos2 tan j + 0
FSj =
Sp sin cos
tan j
FSj =
tan j

2dj

dj  fj
min

If FSj < 1 then slip


i.e.
or tan j > tan j
Hence, if j > j then slip
32.

Given: Mining plan:


B-Level 102 ft, d = 950 ft
A-Level 18 ft, d = 921 ft
no size effect, ignore joints.
Find:
(a) Rmax .
(b) show layout, explain.
(c) cite FS recommended.

tan j
<1
tan j
j

266

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
(a) criterion
Cp
Sp
Cp = C0 (given)
Sv
Sp =
(flat)
1R
Sv = 1.1d(given)
C0 (1 R)
FS =
1.1d
(FS)(1.1)d
R = 1
C0
& FSmin = 1.0
FS =

Rmax occurs at FSmin

Rmax = 1

(1.1)(950)
(1.1)(950)
=1
18,270
5,210

pillars in ore C0 = 18,270 psi, C0 = 5,210 psi False Davis


Rmax = 0.943 = 0. 80

(a)

(b) Layout, multi-level/rule columnize mains




Surface

Square pillars
PLAN
950

ore
False
Davis

A-Level

11
102

ore

B-Level

18

Section
columnized
pillar

Suggest FS = 2.0 (compression, minimum) because of tall pillars.


33.

Given: A-Level roof rock in Bonneterre dolomite and Davis shale


Find:
(a) Max. roof span, (opening, width)
(b) Assume square pillar, find Wp (wrt to ore strength)
(c) Recommended FS for A-Level Roof.
Solution:
Davis shale
Bonneterre dolomite
L  w0

Bonneterre:

E = 6.75(106 ) psi

A-Level

h = 6 ft

Pillars in Stratified Ground

267

Davis:
E = 5.35(106 ) psi
h = 150 ft
Bed separation of Bonneterre (proof)
166.3(6)
144
P(1, 1) = 6.93 psf

P(1, 1) =

6.75(106 )(6)3 [166.3(6) + 161.3(150)]


144[6.75(106 )63 + 5.35(106 )(150)3 ]
P(1, 2) = 2.03 psf, 0.014 psi

P(1, 2) =

Beam analyses, assume simply supported


3 L2
P
4 h2
T0
4T0 h2
FS =
=
t
3PL2
t =

max. space at min FS = 1.0


4 T0 h2
,34 - P
(935)(6)2
= 3
6.93
= 80.5 ft

L2 =

Lmax

(a) max width

(b) Wp(min), square


(FS)(1.1d)
C0
= 0.943 (ore)
Ap
Am
=
=1
A
A

2
Wp
=
W0 + W p
Wp
=
W0 + W p
(0.239)(80.5)
=
1 0.239
= 25.3 ft (min Wp )

R = 1
also

R
R
1R

0.057
Wp
Wp

(b) min Wp

(c) I would use an FSt = 4.0 for the roof, no less, because of tensile failure mode.

268

34.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Roof in Problem 32 A level, 90 ft rooms


Find: Determine a bolting plan solution.
150

...

Davis
Bonneterre

6
s/2

s/2

90

Solution:
Assume: Square pattern spacing S, anchor in Davis shale, allow 1 ft for
anchorage, so Lp = 1 + 6 = 7 ft
Use dead weight approach, bolt force must be at least equal to block weight
W = S2 h
trials: W = (166.3)(6)(S2 ) bolts, text Table 3.4, page 124.
W(5 5) = 24,945 lbf
W(4 4) = 15,965
W(6 6) = 35,921
Select:

7 
8

3 
EHS, Grade 75
4

3
HS, Grade 55
4
7 
EHS, Grade 75
8

diameter, grade 75 bolts, on a 6 6 patterns 7 ft long

(a)

(b) Wp , FSp ?
Given: 90 ft W0 = Wc
Find: Wp , Lp , FSp
Solution:
Recommended FSp = 2.0 square pillars cross-cuts, have same width as rooms.
(20)(1.1)(950)
18,270
1 R = 0.114
R = 0.886

ore:

1R =

also

1R =

Wp
W0 + W p
0.338(90)
Wp =
1 0.338
Wp = 45.95 ft

2

Wp

Pillars in Stratified Ground

35.

269

Given: New mining plan (Problem 32)


18
11
14

Bonneterre
A-Level
False Davis
Ore

43

B-level
ore

25

Ore

20

C-level
Ore

Find: Lmax B-Level.


Solution:
Roof is in ore and has false Davis above, E, h:
False Davis: 3.79(106 ) psi, 11 ft
ore: 8.75(106 ) psi, 14 ft
ore is thicker and stiffer than the False Davis, so
8.75(14)3 (106 )[218.7(14) + 152(11)]
(144)[8.75(14)3 (106 ) + 3.79(106 )(11)3 ]
P(1, 2) = 27.4 psi

P(1, 2) =



3 pL2
T0
t =
, FS =
4 h2
t
,4(1,000)(14)2
L2 = 3
27.4
Lmax = 98 ft
36.

Lmax (B-Level)

Given: Pillars sized at Rmax to core,


Find: Joint set 2 FS.
Solution:
Set 2
Ap =
j =
cj =
j =

Aj cos j
30
10 psi
30
j (strength)
FSj =
j (stress)
j (strength) = j tan j + Cj
Equilibrium

Sp
Ap
Ai

dj
tj
sj

270

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

j Aj = Sp Ap cos

Sp =

(1.1)(950)
= 18,333 psi
1 0.943

j = (18,333)(cos 30)2
j = 13,375 psi
j = Sp Ap sin
= (18,333)(sin 30)(cos 30)
j = 7,938 psi
(13,375) tan(30 ) + (10)
7,938
FSj = 1.001

FSj =

37.

joint will almost slip

Given: Multi-level room and pillar metal mine, table data, geologic column,
mining plan.
Find:
(a) Rmax with no size effect.
(b) Sketch plan and sections.
(c) Recommend FS.
Solution:
Cp
,
Sp
Sv
Sp =
1R
C0 (1 R)
FS =
Sv
(FS)(Sv )
R = 1
C0
FS =

Rmax

at FSmin , FSmin = 1
Sv
Rmax = 1
C0

Sv = 25d (kPa)
Sv = (25)(290)

d = 290 m (951 ft)


(deep)

Sv = 7.25 MPa pillars are in ore, C0 = 126 MPa pillars include


False Davis, C0 = 35.9 MPa
7.25
126
Rmax = 94.2%
(ore pillars)

Rmax = 1

(0.942)

Pillars in Stratified Ground

(a) Rmax = 0.800

271

Rmax

(80%)

(b) layout
(c) FS = 2 recommended for tall pillars formed.
7.25
35.9
(in False Davis)

Rmax = 1

Square pillars
plan view

Surface

290 m
5.5 m

ore

False Davis 3.35 m

A-level
Section view

31.1 B-Level

Columinized pillars

38.

Given: Problem 37 data A-level roof rock


Find:
(a) Max. opening width L.
(b) Minimum pillar width Wp (square).
(c) Recommend FS for roof.
Solution:
(a) consider bed separation

E  36.9 GPa,  25.5

45.7 m

Davis shale

E  46.6 GPa,  26.3

1.83 m

Bonneterre dolomite

P(1, 1) = 26.3(1.83) = 48.1 kPa


[26.3(1.83) + 25.5(45.7)]
P(1, 2) = 46.6 GPa(1.83)3
[46.6(1.83)3 + 36.9(45.7)3 ]
P(1, 2)
= 0.1 kPa

272

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Bed separation occurs with beam action, assume simply supported


ends, then
   2
3
L
P
t =
4
h
At FSt = 1, t = T0 ,
 


3
1 2
3
2
6.45(10 ) =
(48.1)(L )
4
1.83
L2 = 598.8
L = 24.5 m
(b) pillars in ore R = 0.943
pillars in F.D. R = 0.800

max roof span (a)

(gives min. Wp )

1R =

Wp2

(Wp + W0 )2

2
Wp
0.057 =
Wp + 24.5
Wp
= 0.2388
Wp + 24.5
Wp = 7.68 m

min Wp (b)

(c)

(c) I suggest FSt = 4.0 for roof tension


39.

Given: Problem 38 data, & rooms 27.4 m wide.


Find:
(a) Bolting plan.
(b) Pillar size & safety factor.
Solution:

burden

Davis
Bonneterre

1.83 m
27.4 m

A-ore

assume a square pattern allow for 15.7 cm anchorage length


Lb = 2 m

Lb

Pillars in Stratified Ground

273

assume dead weight support


block wt. W = S2 h = Fb (minimum)
W = (26.3)(1.83)S2
Bolts (Table-Text)
S = 1.5 m W = 108 kN
S = 2.0 m W = 193 kN
S = 2.5 m
Try

7 
8

W = 300 kN

7 
8

112

112

55Grade
60 Grade
100 Grade

55 grade bolts, 1.5 m c-c, 2 m long

(c) Wp = 27.4 m use FS = 2.0 for pillars (ore)




and

Wp
1R=
Wp + W 0
C0 (1 R)
FS =
H

2
: square

(126)(1 R)
(25)(290)
1 R = 0.115

2
Wp
0.115 =
Wp + 27.4
Wp
= 0.339
Wp + 27.4
(2) =

pillar Wp

Wp = 14.1 m
40.

Given: New mining plan (Problem 37)

1.83

Bonneterre
A-level ore

3.35 m

False Davis

4.27

ore

13.1 m

B-level
ore

7.6 m

ore

6.10 m

C-level
ore

274

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Find: Lmax for B-level.


Solution:
E(GPa)
26.1
60.3

False Davis
Ore

h(m)
3.35
4.27

ore is thicker & stiffer than F.D.


%
&
35.6(4.27) + 24.0(3.35)
3
P(1, 2) = (60.3)(4.27)
60.3(4.27)3 + 26.1(3.35)3
P(1, 2) = 192.2 kPa
Assume simply supported ends, so
t =

 
3 L 2
p
,
4
h

p = 192.2 GPa

, (6.94)(103 ) 43 (4.27)2
L =
192.2
2

h = 4.27 m

FSt = 1( max L)
Lmax

L = 29.6 m
41.

Given: Problem 37 data pillars at max R joint data


Find: If joints in pillar safe (set 2).
Solution:
Set 2

Sp

Ap = Aj cos j
j = 30

Ap

cj = 0.069 MPa
j = 30

dj

j (strength)
j (stress)
j (strength) = j tan j + cj
Equilibrium:
Criterion:

FSj =

j Aj = Sp Ap cos j

Sp =

(25)(290)
1 0.943

j = (127.2) cos2 30
j = 95.4 MPa

Sp = 127.2 MPa

Tj

Aj
sj

Pillars in Stratified Ground

Tj = Sp

275

Ap
sin j
Aj

Tj = (127.2) cos 30 sin 30


Tj = 55.1 MPa
(95.4) tan(30) + 0.069
55.1
FSj = 1.001
FSj =

42.

very near slip

Given: data tables, convert units and FS = 1.75 wrt max , required for pillars.
Find: R (extraction ratio).
without joints
no size effect
Solution:
By definition:
max (strength)
FS =
max (actual)
max (strength) = m sin + c cos
assuming failure, max = (1/2)(1 3 )
after mining:
1
3

x x + y y
=

x x = 0

x x y y
2

y y = Sp

1/2

2
+ (x y )

x y = Tp

Surface
y
y
Tp

Sp
d

x
x

extraction ratio formulas


Sp =

Sn
,
(1 R)

Tp =

Ts
(1 R)

276

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

where Sn , Ts are premining stresses in x y reference


1
3

1
3

0 + Sn
=

2(1 R)

+%

Sn
2(1 R)

&2


+

Ts
1R

2 1/2

1/2
 

1 Sn
Sn 2
=

+ (Ts )2

1 R 2
2



Sx + Sy
Sx S y

cos(2) + Txy sin(2)


2
2
Sx = Sh = 600 + 0.25(1,750)
Sx = 1,038 psi
Sn =

Sy = Sv = 1.05(1,750)
Sy = 1,838 psi
Txy = 0.0

&

= 18

1,038 + 1,838

2
Sn = 1,438 + 324
Sn = 1,761 psi

Sn =


1,038 1,838

cos(36 ) + 0. sin(36 )
2



Sx Sy
Ts =
sin 2 + Txy cos 2
2


1,038 1,838

=
sin(36 ) + 0.cos(36 )
2
Ts = 235 psi

1
1,761
1,761

1R 2
2


1
1
=
[881 911]
3
1R
1
3

1,792
1R
30
(!)
3 =
1R

1 =

2
+ (235)2

1/2

Pillars in Stratified Ground

%
&
1
1,792 (30)
1R
2
911
psi
=
(stress)
1R

max =
max
Need:

c, for max (strength)


sin =
=

C0 T0
C0 + T 0



C0 1 sin
2
cos



3,400
1 sin 56
=
2
cos 56

c=

3,400 310
3,400 + 310

sin = 0.833

c = 508 psi

= 56

max = m sin + C cos




1 + 3
=
sin 56 + 508 cos 56
2
1,792 30
=
sin 56 + 508 cos 56
2(1 R)
730
max =
+ 284 psi
1R
max (strength)
max (stress)
, 730 + 284
, 911 1.75 = 1R
FS =

1R

(1.75)(911) = 730 + 284(1 R)


1 R = 3.04
R = 1 3.04
R = 2.04 !not possible
Note:
(FSmax )911 = 730 + (1 R)284
FSmax =
R=
FSmax =
0.179
1R
=
0.322
R 1 0.638 =

0.801 + (1 R)0.312  1.0


0
1.11
0.638
0.362

277

278

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

R = 0.20
FSmax = 1.05
R = 0.40
FSmax = 0.988
R = 0.362 FSmax = 1.000
At FS = 1.0 Rmax = 0.362(36.2%)
43.

Given: test data, etc. and FSj = 1.75


Find: Rmax (considering joint set 3 only).
Solution:
j (strength)
FSj =
j (stress)
j (strength) = j tan j + cj
j (stress) = ?
Need: j , Tj in pillar after mining
Surface

35  dj

ds  18

Sea

y

Ts
Sn

nt

joi

t3

se

d
x

Sp

Tp
Ap
ds  dj
Tj  tj
Aj
Nj  sj

Need: Sp , Tp extraction ratio formulas


Sp =
Need: Sn , Ts (premining)

Sn
1R

Tp =

Ts
1R

Pillars in Stratified Ground



Sx + S y
Sx Sy

cos(2s ) Txy sin(2s )


2
2
Sx = Sh = 600 + 0.25 d, = s = 18

Sn =

Sh = 600 + 0.25(1,750),
Sh = 1,038 psi

Txy = 0

Sy = Sn = 1.05d
= 1.05(1,750)
Sn = 1,838 psi


1,038 + 1,838
1,038 1,838

cos(2 18 ) 0
2
2
= 1,438 (400)(0,809)

Sn =

Sn = 1,761 psi


Sx S y
Ts =
2
Ts = 235 psi
Sp =

1,761
1R

Tp =

235
1R


sin(2 18) + 0

(reverse direction for sign change)

Joint Pillar block equilibrium = s + j = 18 + 35 = 53


0

Fn = 0
0 = Nj , Aj Sp Ap cos Tp Ap sin
Ap = Aj cos
Nj = Sp cos2 + Tp cos sin

Nj (1 R) = Sn cos2 + Tn cos sin


= 1,761 cos2 53 + 235 cos 53 sin 53
Nj (1 R) = 638 + 113


751
Nj =
1R
0

Fs = 0
0 = Tj Aj Sp Ap sin + Tp Ap cos
Tj = Sp cos sin Tp cos2

279

280

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Tj (1 R) = 1,761 cos sin 235 cos2


= 1,761 cos 53 sin 53 235 cos2 53
= 846 85
Tj (1 R) = 761
761
Tj =
1R
j (strength)
j (stress)
cj
= j tan j +
j
, 751
tan j + cj
1R
, 761 =

FSj =

, 751
FSj =

1R

tan 25 + 20
1R
, 761 1R

(761)(1.75) = 751 tan 75 + 20(1 R)


1 R = 49.1
R = 48.1
Thus cannot meet requirement

FSj = 1.75

However, try FSj 1.0 then 761 751 tan 25 + 20(1 R)


1 R 2.05
R 1.05
Cannot achieve FSj = 1.0

at any extraction, relieves confining pressure and allows joint slip.


Thus must consider premining reinforcement

Note: Before mining




Sx + S y
Sx Sy

cos(2 35)
2
2
Txy sin(+2 35)
j = 1,438 (400)0.342 0
j = 1,575 psi

y

j =


Sx S y
j =
sin(+2 35)
2
= (400)(0.940)
j = 376 psi

x
dj

35
x

Pillars in Stratified Ground

281

j tan j + cj
j
1,575 tan 25 + 20
=
376
FSj = 2.00 before mining

FSj =

Sp  Sn / (IR )
Tp  Ts / (IR)
18
Ap

35

18
35

53

Tj
Aj

After mining
Nj

44.

Given: Caving to the coal rider seam at entry-crosscut intersection 20 ft wide,


each. Bond strength = 750 psi, 5/8 cable bolts
Find: Cable bolting plan to defend against caving.
Solution:
20
S/2

S/2

20 (Plan view)

try square pattern S C-C with S/2 distance from rib, so number of bolts per row
is = 20/S

282

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Limestone
Coal

Anchor
Seam

Rider

Supported

Seam

S/

1.4

Coal

9.8

Mudstone

2.7
Sandyshale
1.3 Shale
1.5 Coal

S/

(SECTION)

15

Floor
20

Dead weight for all beds below limestone:


W = [1.5(90) + 1.3(138) + 142(2.7) + 9.8(153) + 93(1.4)]S2
W = 2,206 S2
Fb = nfb

Bolt force

n = bolts per hole


fb = 56,000 lbf/bolt

Allowable bolt force


Fb
Fb = FS

FSb = bolt safety factor

Formula
W = Fb
n56,000
2,206 S2 =
FSb
n
2
S =
25.4
FSb
try FSb = 1.5

and n = 2, then


2
(25.4)
1.5
S = 5.8


S2 =

try S = 5
try S = 8


try S = 6

then FSb = 2.0

(n = 2)

then FSb = 0.79


then FSb = 1.4

(n = 2)
(n = 2)

Use S = 6 , n = 2, 5/8 bolt, 56,000 lbf capacity,


Space 4 from ribs, 6 between, so there are 3 bolts per row & bolt
length = 22 ft.

Pillars in Stratified Ground

L (anchor length)

T  tAe
4

6

6

4

P
20

(one bolt each


separately considered)

tAr  P

Bolt length:

 
5
L = 56,000 lbf
8
L = 38.0 in. at pull out & breakage
if allows = (strength)/FS
and FS = 1.4 (Same as direct pull FSb )
then
L = (38.0)/(1.4)
L = 53.2 in. (easily anchored in limestone)
bolt length = (53.2/17) + 1.4 + 9.8 + 2.7 + 1.3 + 1.5, bolt length = 21.2
(750)()

45.

Given: Grouted fill data,


old pillars gone
Find: Settlement.

C0 = 3,400 psi, E = 100 psi, R = 40%,

Solution:
Surface
Plan

w
w

Ap

Fp
Ap

283

Fp
Am
Am  0.40
Ap  0.60

Originally: W = Fp
Now rooms filled and become pillars

284

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Equilibrium:
W = Fp
Ad = Sp Ap
Ap = Am

But

Ad Am
:
=R
Am
A
d
Sp =
R
d
Sv
Sp =
=
0.4
0.4
1,750(1.05)
=
0.4
Sp = 4,594 psi

Sp =

Note: C0 = 3,400 psi!


Sp

E  100 ksi

Hookes law:

15 mining height
(coal mine)

L
L
Assume horizontal stresses are nil after mining, drainage implied

=E
Ev = Sp Sh SH

Sp L
E
(4,594)(15)(12)
=
105
L = 8.3 ln. (0.7 ft)
L =

With horizontal confinement by adjacent old pillar


L =
which would make L less.


[Sp (Sh + SH
)]L
E

Pillars in Stratified Ground

46.

Given: data for strata, table, and


Lp = 2Wp , W0 = W0

285

24.4

20

Find: Rmax , Wp at FS = 1.5, Cross-cut


Spacing:
Solution:
48.8

Am
R=
Ap + A m
&1 R = 1

Ap
A

20

Also
Cp
Sp
Sv
Sp =
1R
CP (1 R)
FSc =
Sv
(980)(1.0)
1R=
3,750
1 R = 0.26
FSc =

at FS = 1.0 for Rmax

Rmax = 0.74
(980)(1.5)
3,750
1 R = 0.39

1R=

at FS = 1.5

R = 0.61
But

R = 1
= 1
R = 1

Ap
A
Lp Wp
(Lp + W0 )(Wp + W0 )
2Wp2

(2Wp + W0 )(Wp + W0 )
2


1R = 
W0
0
2 + Wp 1 + W
Wp


2
W0 2
3W0
+
= 2+
1R
Wp
Wp

2
W0
W0
2
=0
+3
+2
Wp
Wp
1R

(a)

286

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

1 R = 0.39

W0
Wp

2
+3

W0
2
+2
=0
Wp
0.39


,
94 2
W0
= 3
Wp
2
3 4.64
=
2
W0
= 0.819
Wp
W0
Wp =
0.819
20
=
0.819
Wp = 24.4 ft

Checks 0.61 = 1

Given: Choice of increasing extraction ratio (2D view)


Now:
80
Wp

w0

w1

-1/2

Wp (b)

(24.4)2 (2)
[(2)(24.4) + 20](24.4 + 20)

Crosscut Spacing = (Wc + Wp ) = 68.8 ft


47.

2
0.39

w0

R  20%

By definition
R =
0.2 =

W0
(W0 + Wp )
1
1+

Wp
W0

W0 = 20 ft
Check 0.2 
(1) decrease pillar width W0 constant
(2) Increase W0 , Wp constant
(3) both.

20
O.K.
20 + 80

Spacing (c)

Pillars in Stratified Ground

Criterion: FSc for pillar;


Cp
Sp
Sv
Sp =
1R

FSc =

Since R is same at 33% no reason to choose


FSt =
t =

T0
t

 2
3
L
P
4
h

where L = W0 Increasing opening width will reduce roof span safety,


Chose plan (1) to keep W0 same (other plans increase W0 )
48.

Given: Choice of increasing extraction ratio (2D View)


now:
6
Wp

w0

wv

w0

R  20%

R =

By definition

0.2 =

W0
W0 + W p
1
1+

Wp
W0

W0 =
Check 0.2 

6.0
O.K.
6.0 + 24.0

(1) decrease pillar width W0 constant


(2) Increase W0 , WP constant
(3) both.
Criterion: FSc for Pillars;
Cp
Sp
Sv
Sp =
1R

FSc =

287

288

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Since R is same 33%, no reason to choose


FSt =

T0
t

 2
3
L
t = P
4
h
where L = W0 increasing opening width will reduce roof span safety,
Chose plan (1) to keep W0 same (other plans increase W0 )
Given: Steeply dipping anthracite mine

55

depth  760 ft

w0

Sn
35

Sy  Sy  h


16

wp

Ts

Sx  K0Sy 

28


49.

(assume K0 = 13 based on gravity alone.)


2D-view
Pillar C = C1 (0.78 + 0.22 D/L)
C1 = 5,750 psi
M-C c = 1,210 psi = 35
Required: FS = 2.75
Find: Wp , R.
Solution:
Cp
Sn
, Sp =
Sp
1R
Cp (1 R)
FS =
Sn
(FS)
1 R = (Sn )
Cp
FS =

Sx + Sy
Sx Sy

+
cos 2 + Txy sin 2
Sn =
2

2
S x Sy

Ts =
sin 2 + Txy cos 2
2

1
h
3

Pillars in Stratified Ground

289


 

Sy
1
1
1
(Sy )
+1 +
1
cos 2 35
2
3
3
2


1
2
Sn = (760) +
(760)0.34
3
3
Sn = 420 psi
Sn =

1
Ts = + (760) sin 2 35
3
Ts = 238 psi
Assume, neglect size effect, then
(assume L = D)
Cp = 5,250 psi
, 2.75 1R=

420

5,250
1 R = 0.22
R = 0.78
R=
Wp =

Max Safe R

(no size effect)

W0
W0 + Wp





W0
1R
0.22
W0 = 16
= 16
R
R
0.78

Wp = 4.5 ft

Wp (no Size effect)

This suggests pillars are relatively high (28 ft) and thus will show only a small
size effect that will reduce R somewhat with size effect (2D view).
Cp (1 R)
S
n

0.22Wp
Cp = C1 0.78 +
Hp


0.22 Wp
(Sn )(FS)
1R=
0.78 +
C1
Hp



W0
Sn
C1 0.22
1
C1 0.78 +
Wp =
W0 + W p
Hp
FS


C1 0.22 Wp
Wp C1 0.78 +
= (Sn )(FS)(W0 + Wp )
Hp


C1 0.22
Wp2
+ Wp [C1 0.78 FS(Sn )] Sn (FS)W0 = 0
Hp
FS =

290

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Wp2 a + Wp b + C = 0
(5,250)(0.22)
= 41.25
28
b = (5,250(0.78) 2.75(420)) = 2,940
c = (420)(2.75)(16) = 18,480
a=

1/2

2,940 [(2,940)2 + (4)(41.25)(18,480)]


Wp =
(2)(41.25)
Wp = 35.6 41.4
Wp (With Size effect)
Wp = 5.8 ft

Note if no size effect, then 0.22 0, 0.78 1


Coefficient of Wp2 0, i.e., a 0, b C1 (FS)(Sn ), c same
(FS)(Sn )W0
C (FS)(Sn )
(2.75)(420)(16)
=
5,250 (2.75)(420)
no Size effect
Wp = 4.5 ft checks

Wp =

50.

Given: Room and pillar limestone mine, depth = 845 ft, Joints: c = 630 psi,
= 40 , Hp = 95 ft, C0 = 21,500 psi (rock), = 156 pcf, FS = 2.5 required
Find: If can meet FS required.
Solution:
For pillar rock
Sv
1R
Cp
FS =
Sp
Cp (1 R)
FS =
Sv
(845)(2.5)
1R =
21,500
1 R = 0.098
R = 90.2%
Sp =

(845)
0.098
Sp = 8,622 psi

Sp =

(rock pillars okay)

Pillars in Stratified Ground

291

Estimate of range of joint dip failures if any




j tan fj  cj
joint estimate
5,000

es

ur

nt

joi

ail
pf

di

Sp circle estimate

5,000

10,000 psi

Joints may fail at adverse dips.


51.

Given: Room of pillar limestone mine


Hp = 29 m, h = 258 m (depth)
Rock: E = 77.9 GPa, v = 0.20
C0 = 148 MPa, T0 = 11.6 MPa
= 24.7 kN/m3
Joints: c = 4.34 MPa, = 40
Find: If FS = 2.5 for pillars possible.
Solution:
FS =

Cp
,
Sp

Sp =

Sv
1R

(2.5)(24.7 kN/m )(258)


148 MPa
1 R = 0.108

(a) Rock 1 R =

R = 0.89
(24.7)(258)
0.108
Sp = 59.2 MPa
Sp =

C0 = 148 MPa

O.K. (rock) (a)

292

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(b) Joint
t Shear stress

29.6
MPa

Joint
j    tan   c
j
j
j
j

Unsafe

cj
Normal stress 

29.6 MPa

Joints will fail at adverse dip.


52.

(b)

Given: Data, lower seam mining


Find: Maximum extraction ratio.
Solution:
Cp
Sp
Sc
Sp =
, Sv = H
1R
Cp (1 R)
FS =
Sv
FS =

R is max at min FS(=1)


Sv
, Sv at 1 psi/ft
Cp
1,747
=
3,500
1 R = 0.499
Rmax = 0.501

1R =

53.

Given data:
FS = 1.5 wrt Cp
W0 = Wc = 18 ft
Wp = 12 Lp , Lp = 2 Wp
no size effect
Find:
(a) Wp , Lp
(b) entry and crosscut spacing.

Rmax

Pillars in Stratified Ground

293

Solution:
Cp (1 R)
Sv
Ap
(2) 1 R =
A
(1.5)(1,747)
1R=
3,500

(1) FS =

Lp
W0
Wp

1 R = 0.75

Wc

Ap
W p Lp
=
A
(W0 + Wp )(W0 + Lp )
2Wp2

0.75 =

(18 + Wp )(18 + 2Wp )


2


0.75 = 
18
18
+1 W
+2
Wp
p


18
Wp

2


+3

18
Wp


+2 =

8
3

(3)2 + 4
18
=
Wp
2
3 3.42
18
=
Wp
2
18
= 0.208
Wp
3

WP = 86.6 ft
Lp = 173.2 ft
Check

Crosscut spacing = Wc + Lp
= 18 + 173.2
Crosscut spacing = 191.2 ft

Ap
(86.6)(173.2)
=
A
(18 + 86.6)(18 + 173.2)

Ap
= 0.75 checks
A
Entry spacing = Wp + W0
= 86.6 + 18
Entry spacing = 104.6 ft

,2-

(a)

294

54.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given tabular ore body: strike = due North


dip = 22 East, gravity premining stress, depth = 2,590 ft, lane and pillar (2D)
mining rooms:
W0 = 52 ft, C0 = 18,500 psi, T0 = 1,650 psi, E = 11 (106 ) psi, = 0.19
FS wrt max = 1.5 required
(no size effect on strength)
Find:
(a) extraction ratio R.
(b) pillar width.
Solution:
Surface

h
y

d
d

w0

x
x

wp
w0

y

Tp

Sp

x

Pillar section

By definition:
FS =

max (strength)
max (stress)

1
and max = (1 3 )
2
4

x x + y y
x x y y
1
after mining:
=
+ x2 y

2
3
2
After mining in pillar coordinates (x , y )
x x = 0
y  y  = Sp
x y = Tp

Vertical
section

Pillars in Stratified Ground

Extraction ratio formulas:


Sn
1R
Ts
Tp =
1R
Sp =

Transformation formulas from (x, y) to (x , y )




Sx + Sy
Sx S y
Sn = Sy y =

cos 2 + xy sin 2
2
2
 


Sh Sv
Sh + Sv

=
cos(2 ) + 0.sin(2)
2
2
= 22
Sv = h

Sh =
s : assuming complete lateral restraint under gravity only
1
Sv = 2,590 psi @ 144 pcf
0.19
(2,540)
1 0.19
Sh = 608 psi

Sh =

2,590 + 608
Sn =

2
Sn = 1,599 + 713
Sn = 2,312 psi


2,590 + 608
cos(44 ) + 0
2


Sx Sy
sin(2 ) + 0
2
&
%

2,590 + 608
=
sin(44 )
2
Ts = 688 psi

Ts =

x y = 0
y y = Sp
x y = Tp
1/2




0 + Sp
0 Sp 2
1
2
=
+ Tp

3
2
2
1/2

  2 
2
1
Sn
Sn
1
Ts2

=
+
2 1R
2
1R
(1 R)2





1/2
1
Sn
Sn
2
=

+ Ts
1R
2
4

295

296

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

+
&1/2 
%
1
2,312
(2,312)2
=

+ (688)2
1R
2
4



1
1
(1,156 1,345)
=
3
1R
1
(1 3 )
2

 
1
1
=
(1,345 + 1,345)
1R
2


1,345
=
: stress
1R

max =
max
max

max (strength) = m sin + c cos


C0 + T0
C0 + T 0
18,500 1,650
=
18,500 + 1,650
sin = 0.8362, = 57

sin =

1
C0 (1 sin )
2 

1
(1 0.8362)
=
(18,500)
2
cos(57 )
c = 2,740 psi

c =

2Sn
1
1 + 3
=

2
2(1 R) 2
2,312
1,156
m =
=
psi
2(1 R)
1R

m =

1,156
sin(57 ) + (2,740)cos(57 )
1R
969
max (strength) =
+ 1,492 psi
1R

max (strength) =

m (strength)
m (stress)
, 969
+ 1,492
1R


(1.5) =
FS =

1,345
1R

Pillars in Stratified Ground

969
1,492
+
(1 R)
1,345 1,345
1 R = 0.703
R = 0.297

297

1.5 =

R=

(a)

Am
ATotal

R = R=

W0
W0 + W p

W0
W0
R
52
=
52
0.297
Wp = 122 ft

Wp =

55.

Given: Data from problem 1 and joints strike due north


dip 45 East j = 18
Find: cj for FSj = 1.5 wrt .
Solution:
From sketch and equilibrium requirements:
0

Fn = 0
0 = Nj Aj Sp Ap cos + Tp Ap sin

Ap = Aj cos
Nj = Sp cos2 Tp cos sin
0

Fs = 0
0 = Tj Aj Sp Ap sin Tp Ap cos
Tj = Sp cos sin + Tp cos2

Sp = 2,312 psi

Tp = +688 psi (per diagram)

Nj = (2,312)cos2 (23 ) (688)(cos 23) sin(23)


Nj = 1,716 psi
Tj = (2,312) cos 23 sin 23 + 688 cos2 23
Tj = 1,414 psi

Wp (b)

298

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


surface

section
ds  22
dj  45

Sp
Tp
Ap
: pillar block
after mining

ds dj
Tj

Aj
Nj

:d  ds dj
(d  23
)

(j tan j + cj )
j
cj = FSj j j tan j

FSj =

= (1.5)(1,414) 1,716 tan 18


cj = 1,564 psi

(cj )

7 Three-Dimensional
Excavations
3D Caverns
1.

Given: oblate spheroid and:


Surface

SALT

Sv
650 ft.

c  75 ft
a  b  150 ft
Sh  SH  Sv
(hydrostatic, in salt)
a,b

a,b

Find: Peak stresses, location.


Solution:
Text Fig. 7.6, page 353 Stress concentration (at a, b)
Kc = 1.1784(a/c) + 0.2464
Kt (n.a.)
Kc = 2.60
estimate Sv = 650 psi of 1 psi/ft
a,b = (2.60)(650) (peak compression)
a,b = 1,692 psi (no tension)
2.

Given: An oblate spheroid


a = b = 46 m c = 23 m depth = 200 m
Find: Peak stresses, locations.
Solution:
Text Fig. 7.6, page 353 regression eqs.
Kt not a factor
Kc = 1.1784(a/c) + 0.2464
Kc = 2.60

300

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics


Surface

Sv

200 m

Salt hydrostatic
C  23 m

pk

Sh  SH  Sv

pk

a  b  46 m

2.60 =

pk
,
Sv

Sv = rH

estimate:
Sv = (25)(200) = 5.0 Mpa
pk = (2.60)(5.0)
pk = 13.0 Mpa
(no tension)
3.

Given: Salt cavern, sphere


D = 150 ft, E = 5(106 ) psi, G = 2(106 ) psi, d = 1,450 ft
Sv = Sh = SH (hydrostatic), C0 = 13,200 psi, T0 = 1,230 psi
Find: FSc .
Solution:
C0
c
c = Kc 10

FSc =

estimate 10 = d = Sv = (1 psi/ft) (1,450)


10 = Sv = 1,450 psi
E
5.0
1=
1
2G
2(2.0)
v = 0.25

v=

Ex. 7.1 text, also Table 7.1 data, page 347.


Kc = 1.5
c = (1.5)(1, 450)
c = 2,175 psi

compression

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

13,200
2,175
FSc = 6.07

301

FSc =

4.

Given: Spherical cavity in salt, hydrostatic stress


3
d = 442, = 22.8 kN/m , C0 = 91.0 MPa, T0 = 8.5 MPa
Find: FSc , FSt .
Solution:
FSc =

C0
c

FSt =

T0
t

hydrostatic stress = Sv = H
Sv = (22.8)(442) = 10.07 Mpa
c = Kc Sv t = Kt Sv
Text Ex. 7.1 & Table 7.1, page 347: Sphere
Kc = 1.5
c = 1.5(10.07)
c = 15.1 MPa

Kt (nil)
t (nil)

91.0
15.1
FSc = 6.02

FSc =

FSt = n.a.
5.

Given: Salt cavern prolate spheroid 100 ft high 50 ft wide @ 1,340 ft


Find:
(a) required salt strength C0
(b) show stresses in vertical section.
Solution:
Surface
a

Sv

1,340 ft

Salt assume hydrostatic


preexcavation stress
3,480 psi

c 1,470

Sh  SH  Sv

C0
, c = Kc SH
c
C0 = c
= (2.60)(1,340)
C0 = 3,480 psi

FSc =

302

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Note: Treat as oblate, then use Fig. 7.6 data


Kc = 1.1784(a/c) + 0.2464
Kc = 2.60
Sv = (1 psi/ft)(1,340)
Sv = 1,340
estimate

Kc (a + c) from Fig.


Kc 1.1
c = (1.1)(1,340)
c = 1,470 psi
C0 = 3,480 psi

6.

Given: Tabular excavation, 65 dip, 40 ft thick, 6,000 ft on strike, 2,000 ft down


dip
Find: Peak stresses & location.
Solution:
Sketch
65

40 ft
6,000 ft
depth
Cross-section

35

n
long section
plane is vertical

2,000 ft

Because the mined region is more than twice as long as it is wide, it may be seen
as a tunnel like excavation.
W0 2,000
=
aspect ratio:
H0
40
= 50

y
40

x
2,000

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

303

W0
=k
H0
Kc 65 or very high when k is high 2 + 1.27 k
1
Estimate: M = = K0
3

From text, p. 107, stress concentration is

average depth = (1000)(sin 65 )


d = 906 ft


Sx + S y
Sx S y
Sn =
+
cos 2 + Sxy sin 2
2
2
' , ( ', (

1
1
+1
1
3
3
= 906
+
cos 2.25 + 0
2
2
Sn = 605 + (195)
Sn = 410 psi
c = Kc S n
= 65(410)
c
= 26,000 psi

peak compression

For M = 1/3 estimate Kt = 0.2


t = 0.2(410)
t
= 80 psi

peak tension

region of sc
65

region of st

The peak compression is located on the long edges of the opening away from the
ends.
The peak tension is located along the intermediate edges of the opening.
7.

Given: 100 ft stopes, vertical walls, 12 plunge.


Find: Safe shaft distance D.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
Sketches:
Shaft

PLAN

D?

100 ft

Stopes

SECTION 1.
12

Plunge

Shaft
1,000

2,850 L

100 ft

3,850 L

SECTION 2.
Shaft
2,850 L

100 ft

100 ft

The mining region, stopes, are tunnel-like


as they progress, up and down the plunge
of the fold. 100 ft is given as a typical
dimensions.

1,000 ft

100 ft

304

Stopes

3,850 L

Stope

200
(no mining)

100 ft
Shaft

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

305

Because of the importance of the shaft, separating stopes and shaft should be
more than 1-D to be certain to the beyond the zone of stope influence and stress
concentration, say 2D, i.e., Distance = 200 ft

Back fill
Given: Cut and fill stope, 15 ft wide, level & raises @ 175 ft c-c
Fill: = 100 pcf, n = 35%, 12 ft per lift
Find:
(a) Tons of solid in fill
(b) Gallons water.

15

175 ft

15

New fill
12 ft

Level

Fill new

15
raise

Ore

raise

8.

15 ft
Old fill

Level
175 ft
(a) Cross-section

(b) Long-section

estimate drift and raises at 15 ft wide, so L = 175 15 = 160 ft


no dip is given, so will use 15 ft for fill width also
fill volume Vtotal = (15)(12)(160) = 2.88 (104 ) ft3
Vv = Vn = Vw (water volume)
= (2.88)104 (0.35)
Vw = (1.01)(104 ) ft

231 Cu in./gal = 0.134 ft3 /gal


gals = (1.01)(104 )/0.134
gals = 7.54 (104 ) gal. H2 O
WH2 O = (62.4 lb/ft3 )(1.01)104 (ft3 )
WH2 O = 6.29 (105 ) lbs
Wtotal = V = (100)(2.80)104 = 2.8(106 ) lbs
Wsolids = Wt Ww = 2.8(105 ) 6.29(105 )

(b)

306

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Ws = 21.7(105 ) lbs
Ws = 1.09(103 ) tons

Given: A cut and fill stope 4.6 m wide level & raises @ 53.3 m fill 3.66 m high
= 15.8 kN/m3 , n = 35% (porosity).
Find: Tons of fill liters, of water in fill.

4.6 m

Ore (rock)

Old fill

New fill

Old fill

raise

New fill
3.66 m

4.6 m

53.3 m

Drift.

Ore

raise

9.

(a) Ws

3.66 m

4.6 m
Drift
175 ft
(a) Cross-section

(b) Long-section

L = 53.3 4.6
L = 48.7 m

no dip given, assume a reasonable


4.6 m width of fill

Volume: V = (48.7)(4.6)(3.66)
V = 820 m3
Void volume: Vv = nV = 0.35 (820)
Vv = 287 m3
H2 O

Vv = 287(103 ) liters
Vs = V Vv
= 820 287
Vs = 533 m3
Ws = W W w
3

= (15.86 kN/m )(820) 287(9.86 kN/m )


Ws = 10.17 MN
(1.02(103 ) tonnes)
(2240 lbs.)

wt

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

10.

307

Vv
Vs
Find: e(n): n = porosity

Given: Void ratio e =

Solution:
Vv
Vs
Vv
=
V Vv

e=

Vv
V

1 VVv
n
e=
1n
Also: n =
11/12.

e(n)

e
1+e

Given: Narrow vein cut and fill stope, over hand, rock modulus Er and fill
modulus Ef with uniform closure.
Find:
(a) Safety factor for crown pillar,
(b)[convert units]
Ef = 25 ksi, Er = 1,000 ksi
Cp (rock) = C1 (0.78 + 0.22 Wp /Hp )
C1 = 28,000 psi
HP = Measured across the dip = 15 ft
Wp = pillar width, on the dip
Level = raise interval = 175 ft.
dip = vertical
Sv = 1.1 d
Sh = SH = 2Sv
Sp
Hp (@ failure, pillar width)=?

n(y)
Wp
Sn

FSP 

Cp
Sp

s(x)
Wf

Solution:
Equilibrium in normal direction
(reference sketch)

Sf

Ap Sp + Af Sf = Sn A

(1)

where A = Ap + Af
Uniform closure, 1-D Hookes law =
f =

Sf
Sp
& p =
Ef
Ep

(2)

308

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

since f = p
Sf =

Ef
Sp
Ep

and from (1)


 
Ef
Sp
Ap Sp = Sn A + Af
Ep
 
Ef
RSp
(1 R)Sp = Sn +
Ep

S
n


Sp =
1 R 1 EEFp


W
%

&
C1 0.78 + 0.22 Hpp
Ef

FSp =
1R 1
Ep
Sn


where Sn =

Sh + Sv
2


+

Sh Sv
2

R=1


cos (2)

W p Lp
(Wp + Wd )(Lp + Wr )

Wd = drift width = vein width = Hp


Wn = raise width = Wd = Hp

Drift
Rock

175

Lp

VR

Fill

Wp

Drift

raise

Long Section

Wf

Wd

175

at failure FSp = 1.0


at d = 5,000 ft, Sv = 5,500 psi & Sh = 2Sv = SH = 11,000 psi
vein is vertical, Sh = Sn = SH = 11,000 psi

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s 309

estimate drifts and raises are full vein width (Hp )


Wd = Wr = 15 ft & Lp = 175 15 = 160 ft
Ef /Er = 25(103 )/103 (103 ) = 0.025
&
%
Wp
[1 R(1 0.025)]
(11,000 psi) = (28,000) 0.78 + 0.22
15
  %
&
11
0.22
= 0.78 +
Wp [1 R(1 0.025)]
28
15
0.3929 = [0.7800 + 0.01467Wp ][1 0.975R]
1 R = Ap /A
Wp (175 15)
R = 1
(175)2
R = 1 Wp (0.005225)
0.975 R = 0.975 0.005094 Wp
0.3929 = [0.7800 + 0.01467 Wp ][1 0.975 + 0.005094 Wp ]
77.12 = [0.7800 + 0.01467 Wp ][4.908 + Wp ]
0 = 0.01467 Wp2 + 0.7947 Wp 73.29
0 = Wp2 + 54.17 Wp 4,997
54.17 1
[(54.17)2 + 4(4,997)]1/2
2
2
= 27.08 75.7
Wp = 48.62 ft.
Wp =

Note: No size effect


11
= 1 0.975 R
28
R = 0.6227

(without fill)
11
=1R
28
(R = 0.6071)
Fill helps some
Wp 160
(175)2
(Wp > Hp )

1 R = 0.3773 =
Wp = 72.2 ft.
with size effect

(48.62)(160)
(175)2
R = 0.746

1R=

i.e. (Wp > Hp ) increases strength and allows higher extraction.

Wp

310

13.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Laboratory test data falling head permeameter


Data: Time (min) 0
1.9
4.22
7.22 11.4
Head (in.)
36.0 30.0
24.0
18.0
12.0
k
k

0.361 0.361 0.361 0.361 (in./hr)

Find: An estimate of hydraulic conductivity


(in./hour).
Solution:

0.5 in.
(Standpipe)

Apply Darcys law:


h
dh
=k A
dt
L
dh
Ak
=
dt
h
La
Ak
ln h =
t + constant
aL

4.0
Sample

at t = 0, h = k0 ln h0 = constant
Ak
t
ln (h0 /h) =
aL  
aL
h0
k=
ln
At
h



2
(0.5) (4)
36.0
4
k = , - 2 ln
h
(4) t
4


0.0625
36.0
h
=
ln
Tabulated above:
(in./hr)
(1/60)t
h
14.

Given: Falling head permeameter data


Head (in.) 35.8 29.9 16.2 10.8 7.3 4.9
Time (sec) 0
45
90
135 180 225
k

1
2
3
4
5
Find: h (hydraulic conductivity) and whether satisfactory/fill.
Solution:
adh
kAh
(Darcys law)
=
L
dt
dh
kA
=
dt
h
aL
kA
ln h =
t + const.
aL
at h = h0 t = 0

4 in.

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

   1 2
k=
k=
k1 =
k2 =
k3 =
k4 =
k5 =

aL h0
=
ln
At
h

h0
(8)(3600s/hr) ln
2
h

2
(4) t( sec )
4

450 36
ln
t
h
36
450
ln
= 1.857 in/hr (data x ?)
45
29.9
36
450
ln
= 3.99 in/hr
90
16.2
450
36
ln
= 4.013 in/hr
135 10.8
450
36
ln
= 3.99 in/hr
180 7.3
450
36
ln
= 3.99 in/hr
225 4.9

1
d
2
h0  36

4
D

All tests near 4 in./hr or 100 mm/hr, (first test low, however) fill o.k.
15.

311

Given: Falling head permeameter data.


Find: h (hydraulic conductivity).
Solution:
 
aL
h0
ln
At
h

  1 2
(4)  
h0
4
2
k = 
60(min/hr)
ln
h
(4)2 t
4
 
3.75
h0
k=
ln
: (in./hr)
t
h

a 1 diam
2

k=

3.75 36
ln
1.9
30
3.75 36
k2 =
ln
4.22 24
3.75 36
k3 =
ln
7.22 18
3.75 36
k4 =
ln
11.4 12
k1 =

= 0.36 in./hr

Sample
A

L 4 4 diam.

= 0.36 in./hr
= 0.36 in./hr
= 0.36 in./hr

(very consistent data!) k = 0.36 in./hr

312

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Cable Bolting
16.

Given:
Large mechanized cut and fill slope

5/8 diameter, per-hole cable bolt


Ultimate cable strength 56,000 lbf
Bond strength between grout and cable steel 700 psi
Shear failure in steel grout interface expected.

Free body diagram


5/8

Find:
(a) How many inches of hole length are required to provide
anchorage capacity shear equal to the bolt tensile
strength.
(b) Develop a formula that relates the thickness h of a slab
that could be supported in the stope back to the spacing
S of the bolts assumed n bolts per hole.
(c) Plot the formula with h on the x axis and S on the y axis
for slab thickness ranging from 0 to 10 ft use n = 1, 2,
3, 4 as a parameter.
(d) If the spacing is 10 ft what slab thickness could be
supported with two bolts per hole.

T  tA

W
h

Solution:
(a) = 700 psi
A = DL
FV = 0 = P T
P = DL
P
56,000
 
L=
=
5
D
(700)(3.14)
8
L = 40.74 in

(a)

(b) Using dead weight load


W = F
W = S2 h
nP
F =
FSb
nP
h= 2
S (FSb )
%
(c)

S=

nP
(FSb )h

&1/2

(b)

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

313

Assume
= 144 pcf
FSb = 2
h = 0 10 ft
n = 1, 2, 3, 4
(c)

See graph
(d) @ S = 10 ft; n = 2; FSb = 2
(2)56,000
(144)(100)(2)
h = 3.9 ft
h=

H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

n=1
S
13.94
9.86
8.05
6.97
6.24
5.69
5.27
4.93
4.65
4.41

n=2
S
19.72
13.94
11.39
9.86
8.82
8.05
7.45
6.97
6.57
6.24

n=3
S
24.15
17.08
13.94
12.08
10.80
9.86
9.13
8.54
8.05
7.64

(d)

n=4
S
27.89
19.72
16.10
13.94
12.47
11.39
10.54
9.86
9.30
8.82

Spacing vs Slab thickness for various n


30
n1
n2

25

n3
n4

Spacing (S) ft

20

15

10

0
0

Slab thickness (h) ft

10

314

17.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given:
d
Top sill
b
Bolts

fw

hw

vein
h

Bottom sill

Find: Equilibrium requirement, normal direction.


Solution:
0
n

F =0

d
T

0 = Wn N b

Wn = W cos ,
Nb = T cos

= +
2

= +
2
cos = sin ( + )

b
a

Tb

Free body
Wn

Nb

Ws

p d

2

W cos = Tsin ( + )

where W = S2 h (square pattern)


Hence: S2 h cos = nfb sin ( + ) & T = nfb

= specific weight of rock

S = spacing(square pattern)

h = slab thickness

= vein dip

n = number of bolts per hole

f = force per bolt

b
= bolting angle
18.

Given: Cable bolt drift, 50 ft wide vein, 65 deg. dip, 10 ft max spacing, 2 25-ton
bolts per hole, level interval = 150 ft

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

315

Find: Bolt pattern, angles and length.


Solution:
Sketch
Cable bolt
drift

l0

d dip

bi
Li
fw
150

hw

For the i-th bolt and block


Equilibrium in the normal direction
across the dip

Fb
d

b
Nb
u

b (

p
d)
2



Fb cos +
= W cos ()
2
within allowable bolting force
Tb
FSb
Tb = bolt strength
Fb =

Wn

FSb = bolt safety factor

,
Tb cos + 2
Thus FSb =
S2 h cos
where W = S2 h
S = Spacing on a square pattern
h = slab thickness

316

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Bolt length, angle? Assume no bolt goes past vertical


l0
d

150 = L0
L0
tan =
l0

bi

l0
Lb
=
sin ( )
sin

(sin )(l0 )
(i)

Lb =
sin( i ) fixes bolt length for given
i

L0

l0 =
tan

Lb

p (d  b)

lo
d

bi
Bolting geometry

L(i)
b

S
Li

p (d  b)

(1) Li sin = Lb (i) sin i


(2) Li cos + Lb (i) cos i = l0
Lb (i) cos i = l0 Li cos
tan i =

Li sin
l0 Li cos

S
sin
L0
2
tan i =
, l0 =
S
tan
l0 cos
2
 
16
sin 65
2
=
150
10

cos 65
tan 65
2
tan i = 0.0668
i = 3.82

5

69.9 ft
65

bi
h (1)
0

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

317

156
sin 65

i = 16 bolts

Note: Li (max)
= 166 =

19.

Given: Cable bolted medium width cut and fill stope, = 65 , width = 50 ft, level
interval = 200 ft, 5/8-in., 25-ton cables, one per hole.
Find:
(a) formula
(b) specify pattern
Solution:

Ore

Nb

Fb
b

hw

Tb
fw
h
S
Stope
Fill

use dead weight approach, than for equilibrium:


Fn = 0
0 = Nb W
0 = Fb sin W
Fb = allowable bolt tension =

n
Sb

S
h

bolt strength
FSb

nSb
sin = S2 h
FSb


nSb sin
FSb =
S2 h

= bolts per hole


= 25-ton = 50,000 lbf
= bolting angle from horizontal
= rock specific weight
= spacing (assumed square)
= slab thickness imagined in the back

318

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Bolt length must provide for secure anchorage of block next to hanging wall. Say,
use 1 ft per inch of hole diameter La = 2 ft using 2 inch diameter bolt holes.
For maximum FSb , should be vertical. This would lead to a bolt length in ore
of L0 = W tan where W = vein width (horizontal not true)
fw

L0

hw

hW
u

L0

fw

W
L0
L0 = W tan

cotan =

u  p (d  b)
d

Bolt length Lb = La + L0 (vertical)


When, <

, then
2

L0
sin( )
sin
W sin
L0 =
sin( )
W=

Bolt length Lb = La + L0 angle bolted


(b) Specify bolting pattern
try on 8 8 ft square pattern if vertical, then at FSb = 1, assuming = 156 pcf
50,000 = (156)(8)2 (h)
h = 5 ft
which is a reasonable slab thickness.
If FSb = 1.3, then



65
 d
1
50,000
h=
1.3
(156)(82 )
50
h = 3.85 ft
L0 = W tan
= (55.2)(tan 65)
L0 = 118 ft.
La = 2.25 ft.
Lb = 120 ft.

W
W  50 / sin 65

W  55.2 ft

Spacing = 8 ft square pattern


Bolting angle = vertical one bolt per hole
5/8 -diameter, 2.5-ton bolts maximum length = 120 ft.

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s 319

20.

Given:
S2 =
Find:
Identify terms, derive
Handout:
S = spacing
N = number in a hole
U = tensile strength '
V = specific weight

ft
ton

NUV
T(SF) sin3

T = slab thickness
SF = safety factor
= bolting angle from horizontal
Bolt block

Fb

Equilibrium (vertical)
W = Fb cos
hS = Fb sin
2

Bolt strength
FS (safety factor)
FY
Fb =
FS

But also Fb =

FT
sin
FS
FY sin
S2 =
(FS)(h)

hS2 =

Translation:
S=S
T=h
SF = FS
1
V=

Nu = FT
S2 =
[given formula is incorrect]

(NV)(V) sin
(SF)(T)

W
S

Subsidence

Chimney Caving
1.

Given: Shrinkage stope, vertical.

W  35 ft

L  165
H  120

f  30
c  0

Stope muck
f  30

Cross-section

c0

  105 pcf

Long-section

Find:
(a) v formula per unit of strike length L
(b) v , h , at stope bottom (dry)
(c) v , h , where water filled.
Solution:
Slice equilibrium
Fv = 0
Fv W + Fs = 0
A v A dz + C dz = 0

sy  0

z0

A = area of slice normal to Fv


C = circumference
v = average vertical stress
= side wall shear stress
= h friction side slip
h
k=
estimate from MohrCoulomb condition
v
dv
Ck
+
v = 0
dz
A
But A = WL & C = 2L (no end walls, muck on muck)

C
2
=
A
W
2k
C1 =
W

Fy

dz

W
Fy  Fy

FS

S u b s i d e n c e 321

after integration
v =

[1 exp(C1 z)]
C1

(a)

where = 0 at z = 0
,1-

2 tan (37 )
(b) C1 =
35

1 sin
1 + sin
1 sin 30
k=
1 + sin 30
1
k=
3
k=

C1 = 0.01435

105
=
C1
0.01435

= 7.315(103 )
C1

v = 7.315(103 ){1 exp[0.01435(120)]}

v = 6,008 psf (41.7 psi)

h = v = (13.9 psi)

= h

= tan (37)(13.9)

= 10.5 psi
Rederive with water equilibrium:
dv
+ C1 v = 0
dz
where v , h , are effective stresses
e.g. v = v pf
where pf = water pressure
i.e., pf = w z
also since saturated, = sat
then

v , h , at bottom (b)

since = h = kv

d(v + w z)
sat + C1 v = 0
dz

dv
+ C1 v = sat w
dz
sat w
& v =
[1 exp(C1 z)]
C1

where v = v = pf = 0 at z = 0
i.e. water to the top.



sat w

v =
[1 exp(C1 z)] + w z

C1
h =
=

kv +
h

w z,

h =

kv

wet formulas (water


at the top of the muck)

322

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

at z = 120
w = 62.4 pcf
sat = 105 pcf (same as before assuming saturation)
C1 = 0.01435


105 62.4
v =
{1 exp[(0.01435)(120)]}
0.01435
v = (2.969)(103 )(0.8213)

v = 2,438 psf (16.93 psi)

pf = (62.4)(120)

pf = 7,488 psf (52.0 psi)

v = v + pf = (68.9 psi)

,
1


h = 3 (v ) = (5.64 psi)

h = h + pf = (57.6 psi)

= h

= tan(37)(5.64)

= (4.25 psi)

Note (total stress)


v
h

dry (psi)
41.7
13.9
10.5

wet stresses (c)

wet (psi)
68.9
57.6
4.25

(+65.2%)
(59.5%)

per foot of strike length?


W = WLH
v A = WLv
H
Fp =
C dz
0

= h
h = hv
Fp

H
=

kCv dz

H 

= (kC)
0


C1

(1 eC1 z )dz

Subsidence

C1 =

323

kc
A

)H

eC1 z ))
= (  A) z +
C1 )0


eC1 H
= A H +
e0
C1

A
Fs =  AH
(1 eC1 H )
  
C1



wt
But W = v A +

Fs

v A

W = (v + f )A +  AH v A
= f A +  AH
= w AH + (sat w )AH
W = sat AH checks!
2.

Given: Chimney caving figure


Find: Derive a formula for H.

Vy

Solution:
b

Bulking porosity
Vv
B=
; VT = Vv + Vs
VT
Vv = Volume of voids
Vs = Volume of solids
Vv = Initial cut volume
Vv = a2 h + 23 a2 b
Vs = a2 (H b)
,
a2 h + 32b
,
B=
a2 [ h + 32b + (H b)]
B=

h+
H+

2
3b

2
3b

+hb

solving for H
(h + (2/3)b)(1 B)
H=
+b
b
3.

Given: Chimney caving


a = 105 ft
h = 14 ft
h + b = 35 ft b = 21 ft
H = 1,150 ft
Find: Bulking porosity.

pa 2

b
H

b
a

324

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
B=

h+
H+

2
3b

2
3b

+hb

(from Problem 2)

14 + 32 (21)

B=

1,150 + 23 (21) + 14 21
= 0.0242
B = 2.4%

Given: Inclined stope, figure L = 115 ft


h = 35 ft
B = 0.072
stope depth Hs = 4,650
strike length 105 ft and 205 ft
Find: Cave height H for 105 & 205 ft strike.
Solution:

a  38

C x

B
H

115

L
65

35

Vv
Vv
=
VT
Vv + V s
Vs = A + B
Vv = D C
B=

25

1 
HW
2

a
, a = h tan(13)
h
b
tan(25) = , b = h tan(25)
h

tan(13) =

38

13

65
C
b

Vs = (H H  )W +

l
65

h

4.

S u b s i d e n c e 325

x = a + b = h[tan(13) + tan(25)]
x = 35[tan(13) + tan(25)]
x = 24.4 ft
l=

h
35
=
= 38.6 ft
sin(65)
sin(65)
1
xl sin(65)
2
1
= (24.4)(38.6) sin(65)
2
2
C = 427 ft

Area C =

Area D = hL = (35)115 = 4,025 ft


Vv = 4,025 427
2
Vv = 3,598 ft

H  = L sin(65) = 115[sin(65)] = 104 ft


W = L cos(65) = 115[cos(65)] = 49 ft
1
(104)(49)
2
= 49H 5,096 + 2,548

Vs = (H 104)49 +
Vs = 49H 2,548

3,598
3,598 + 49H 2,548
3,598
0.072 =
1,050 + 49H
3,598
49H =
1,050
0.072 

B =

H =

3,598
0.072

H = 998 ft

1,050

49

H is independent of strike length. Same in both cases.


5.

Given: Panel Block Caving


Depth 4,250 ft
Panel dimension 150 ft 300 ft
Initial undercut = 21 ft
Bulking porosity = 0.37
Find: Cave height possible before must be drawn.

326

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution: B =

Vv
Vv + V s
3

Vv = (150)(300)(21) = 945,000 ft

Vs = (150)(300)(H) = 45,000 H ft

945,000
0.37 =
945,000 + 45,000 H
945,000(1 0.37)
H =
45,000(0.37)
H = 35.8 ft

6.

h  21 A  150 300

Given: Block caving Problem 5.


BULK = 105 pcf
 = 23 (muck on rock)
= 33 (muck on muck)
h /v = 0.32
Find:
(a) v at bottom of cave as f (z)
(b) Plot v versus depth
(c) v , h , when cave is 300 , 600 .
Solution:
= h ;
h = kv ;

= tan 
1 sin
k=
1 + sin

Equilibrium analysis:

sy
A

dv A A dz + P dz = 0
v kP 
dv dz +
dz = 0
A

dz

Integrating

v =

A
kP



1e

kP 
A z

sh

P Perimeter
A Area

sy  dsy

as a function of z; z = H z H = cave height & z = H z



v =



kP
A 
1 e A (Hz)
kP

(a)

Subsidence
Ground line

Z
4,250

H0
B0  0.32

H
Z

h  21
150 300
A

(b) P = 2(150) + 2(300) (ft) = 900 ft


= tan(23) = 0.4245
2
A = (150 300)(ft ) = 45,000 ft2
= 105 pcf
1 sin(33)
= 0.2948
1 + sin(33)
kP
(0.4245)(900)(0.2948)
=
A
45,000
kP
= 2.50285 103
A
A
= 4.1952 104
kP
k=

y Stress (psi)
100

200

300

Cave depth (z) ft

200
H gravity
400

600
y
800
Plot of y Vs depth

400

327

328

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

@ z = 0 ft
@ z = 200 ft
@ z = 400 ft


@ z = 600 ft
@ z = 800 ft

v = 0 psi

z = 0 psi

v = 115 psi z = 146 psi


v = 184 psi z = 292 psi
v = 226 psi
v = 252 psi

v =

4.1952 104
3
[1 e2.5028510 (400) ]
144

(c) @ z = 300 ft.


4.1952 104
3
[1 e2.5028510 (300) ]
144
v = 154 psi

v =

v @ z = 300 ft

h = kv
= (0.2948)154
h = 45 psi

h @ z = 300 ft

= h
= (0.4245)(45)
= 19.1 psi

@ z = 300 ft

@ z = 600 ft
4.1952 104
3
[1 e2.5028510 (600) ]
144
v = 226 psi

v =

h = (0.2948)(226)
h = 67 psi

v @ z = 600 ft

h @ z = 600 ft

= h
= (0.4245)(67)
= 28 psi
7.

Given: Block caving panel.


B (initial) = 0.25
S.G. (solid) = 2.60
S.C. (caved) = 1.73
(muck on rock) = 23
(muck) = 33
Sh \Sv = 0.32

@ z = 600 ft

Subsidence

Find:
(1) Initial cave height
(2) v , h , when H = 183 m
(3) B when cave reaches surface.

329

Section

1,295 m

Solution:
(1) By definition
Vv
Vv + V s
Vv = (6.4)(46)(92)
Vs = (H)(46)(92)
B=

6.4
H + 6.4
6.4
H =
6.4
0.25
H = 19.2 m

0.25 =

B  0.25

6.4 m

Undercut

46 m

Plan

92 m

(1)

(2) z = 183 m
Notes:

(1 eC1 z )
C1
kC
C1 =
A
%
&
(3)(92 + 46)
= tan(23)(0.32) +
(92)(46)
v =

C1 = 8.859(103 )
= (S.G.)(w ): w (N/m3 ): water = 9.806(103 )N/m3
(1.73)(62.4)
=
6.366(103 )
= 1.696(104 )N/m3
1.696(104 )
3
[1 e8.859(10 )(183) ]
8.859(103 )
v = 1.9144(106 )(1 0.198)
v = 1.535(106 )N/m2
v = 1.535 MPa

h = 0.32v

= 0.32(1.535)

= 0.492 MPa
v =

= tan(23)h

= tan(23)0.492

= 0.209 MPa

(2)

330

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(3) B when cave reaches surface.


W (in chimney bulk) = V
But also W = s Vs
W = s (V Vv )
bulk V = solid (V Vv )
Vv
b
= 1
s
V
Vv
However B =
V
b
B = 1
s
1.73
B = 1
2.60
B = 0.335
8.

(3)

Given: Block caving data.

initial B = 0.25
bank = 162 pcf
bulk = 108 pcf
muck = 33
muck/rock = 23
h
k=
= 0.32
v

(b)
600

Find:
(a) initial height before pull necessary
(b) v , , h @ z = 600 ft
(c) B when surface breached.
Solution:
(a) B =

21

(a)

300

Vv
V

Ah
Ah + HA
h
H =
h
B
21
=
21
6.25
H = 63 ft.
B=

(b)

(c)

Section

4,250 ft

z = 600 ft

v =
(1 eC1 z )
C1

Plan

150

(a)

S u b s i d e n c e 331

Notes:
C1 =

kC
A

(600 + 300)
(300)(150)

C1 = tan(23)(0.32)
C1 = 2.717(103 )

108
3
(1 e(2.717)10 (600) )
3
2.717(10 )
= [ ][1 0.1959]

v =

v = 3.196(104 ) psf

(222.1 psi)

(71.03 psi)

h = kv = (0.32)3.196(104 )
h = 1.0228(104 ) psf
= h

= tan(23)[1.0228(104 )]
= 4.342(103 ) psf

(30.15 psi)

v , u ,

@600 ft.

(c) B at surface breach


W (in chimney) = V
= (108)(300)(150)(4,250 + 21)
W = 2.076(1010 ) lbf. (not needed)
This corresponds to a solid weight of
W = s Vs = s (V Vv )
W = (162)(V Vv )
i.e. V = s Vs
(108)(V) = (162)(V Vv )


Vv
(108) = (62) 1
V
But B =
Hence: 1

9.

Vv
V

by definition

108
=B
162

 
1
B = 0.333 =
3

Given: Block caving


B = 0.015 D = 1,570 ft A = 20,000 ft2
Find: ore extracted before cave reaches surface.

(B)

332

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Solution:
(Plan)
 20,000 ft2

Surface

Vs

(Section)
Caved

(20,000)0.015(1,570) = hA
Ah = 4.71(105 ) ft

Vy
Vy  Vsolids extracted
Vy  hA
V  (H  h)A

10.

H + h = 1,570 ft
Vv
B =
V
hA
B=
(H + h)A

(h = 23.6 ft)

Given: Ore pass muck = 105 pcf


= 38
= 0.57
k = 0.33
a = 4 g (muck dump)
W = 3 tons (6,000 lbs)
H = 150 ft
h = 9 ft
diameter = 13 ft

Volume of solids

extracted

extraction height

13

150

Find: Increase in v due to muck drop.

Circular

 Ma  M 4g

9
W  mg
 F  4W
F  (4)(3)(2,000)
F  24,000 lbf.

Solution:
Formula for equilibrium with surcharge:
v =


kC
kC
A 
1 e A z + v0 e A z
kC
kC

v = v0 e A z

+ '
( 

(0.57)(0.33)13
24,000
exp
9
=
2
(13)2
(13)
4
4
= (180.8) exp (0.521)
v = 107.4 lbf/ft
11.

Given: Rock and joint data, depth = 4,650 ft, panel cave 250 600 ft in plan,
14 ft high, bulking porosity B = 0.075, 12 ft3 /ton & 50,000 tons per day.

Subsidence

333

Find:
(a) Cave zone height
(b) Additional draw to reach surface
Solution:
Surface

at
 4,650

Surface

H

H
14  h
A

(to some scale)

Vv
Vs + V v
Ah
=
Ah + AH
h
B=
h+H
B=

h
h
B
14
=
14
0.075
H = 172.7 ft

H =

(a)

(b) When caving extends to surface?


Vv
, Vv + Vs = (H  + H + h)A = V 
Vv + Vs
Vv = Vv + Vs
Vs = Vs Vs
B=

B=

Vv
,
Vv + Vs

Vv = Vs

Vv = B(H  + H + h)A


= 0.075(4,650 + 14)(250)(600)
3
Vv = 5.247(107 ) ft , Vv Vv = Vv

H  = 335.8 ft.

334

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Vv = 5.247(107 ) (14)(250)(600)
3

Vv = 5.04(107 ) ft
Vv = Vs (new void volume comes from solid removed)
(107 )
12
tons = 4.20(106 )tons
tons
time =
tons/day
4.20(106 )
=
5(104 )
days = 84.0 days

tons solid = 5.04

time elasped from undercut to sink hole appearance at surface.


Alternative:
To cave H  A ft3 at (50,000)(12) ft3 /day

(4,650 173)(250)(600)

(0.075)
5(104 )12

t = 84.0 days

t =

void space rate & solid


draw rate (b)

(checks)

Combination Support
12.

Given: Paper by F. Kendorski (Chapter 4 reference)


FD = Ff + Fr + Fri
(48,400)(0.707) = (10)(144)(5)(1.414) + (48,000)(0.707)(0.21)
+ (0.5)(0.60)(60,000) + 126(144)Ari
Find: Explain meaning of each number, where obtained, physical meaning, are
they correct?
Solution:
FD = driving force down the joint = Wt
Ff = joint shear resistance
Fr = shear resistance of the reinforcement, bolt
Fri = shotcrete wall shear resistance
W
sin 45
2
= abutment load factor

FD = Wt =

Subsidence

W
= one-half of back arch weight
SHOT
2
= 2 & W = BHp per foot of drift CRETE
Hp = 1.0(B + Ht )
= 1.0(12 + 12);

45

Rock

joint Kj, fj

Wn
W F
D

Drift size 12 12

Af

Wt

= 168 pcf

Ff

Hp = 24 ft
W = (168)(12)(24)
W = 48,384 lb/ft
W
(48,384)
=2
 48,400 lb/ft
2
2
1
sin(45) =
2

Fr

A ri

Fri

Am
Drift support design

FD = (48,400)(0.707) LHS ok
Ff = Aj (j tan j + Kj )
bolt length = 5
Am
cos 45

2
Aj = (5)( 2)(ft per foot of drift)
Aj =

Kj = 10 psi; j = 12
Kj = 10(144) pcf
Aj j = Wn (per foot of drift)
= W cos(45)
Aj j = (48,400)(0.707) lbs/ft
Ff = (48,400)(0.707)(tan(12)) + Aj Kj

Ff = (48,400)(0.707)(0.213) + (5)( 2)(10)(144)


joint friction joint cohesion
Fr = b Ab
b = bolt shear stress.
Ab = bolt area
T0 = 60,000 psi (steel strength)
 
7
7 2 2
Db = in Ab =
(ln )
8
4 8

335

336

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Ab = 0.601 ln

Tb = 12 T0
Fr = (0.5)(0.601)(60,000) bolt shear resistance for thin shotcrete
wall in shear
.
Fri = 2 fc Ari
fc = 4,000 psi
3
Fri = 2 4,000 Ari
Ari in ln2
Fri = (126.5)(144)Ari

Fri is the shotcrete shear resistance.


13/14.

Given: Grizzly drifts 9 ft high by 12 ft wide below the undercut level, 1st
supported with bolts and wire mesh
Bolts: 3/4 diameter, bolts 55 grade
Lb = 6 ft, grouted full length
Concrete: C0 = 5,500 psi
Rock: = 180 lb/ft3 = 42 c = 3,450 psi
Joints: 3 sets of orthogonal joints.
27 < j < 38
7 < cj < 70 psi
Fracture persistence: 87% Intact rock.
13%
FS rock 1.5
FS concrete 1.4
= 185% = 1.85
Find: Liner thickness needed.
Solution:
Using the F. Kendorski article
hp = 1.0(b + ht )
= 1.0(9 + 12)
hp = 21 ft
3

W = (180 lb/ft )(9 ft)(21 ft)(1 ft)


= 34,020 lbf
cm = (0.87)(cj ) + (0.13)(cr )


7 + 70
= 0.87
(psi) + (0.13)(3,450)(psi)
2
cm = 481 psi

Subsidence
W

22

joint
Wn

lW 45

2
Wt
12
45
b

bolt

Shot
crete
9
Ts

Tm

Grizzly drift
tan m = (0.87) tan j + (0.13) tan r


27 + 38
+ (0.13) tan(42 )
tan m = (0.87) tan
2
m = 33.9
2cm sin m
1 sin m
2(481) sin(33.9)
=
1 sin(33.9)
= 1,213 psi

cm =

cm
Equilibrium

W
= Ts + Tm
2
'
(
2
34,020
ln
Ts =
lbf (1,213 psi) 144 2 (6 ft)
2
ft
Ts = 1,031,022 lbf/foot of drift
No support needed for back arch
FD = Ff + Fr + Fri
FD = Wt @ = 1.85



1
= (1.85)(34,020)
2

337

338

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

FD = 44,503 lbf/ft
Ff = Aj j tan j + Aj Cj
use low joint properties for a conservative estimate.

Ff = (44,503) tan(27) + (b)( 2)(7)(144)


Ff = 31,228 lbf/ft
F r = b A b
=

1
(18,400 lbf)/ft
2

(Table 3.4, page 124)

Fr = 9,200 lbf/ft
.
Fri = fc Ari
= 2(4,500)1/2 Ari
Fri = 134 Ari
44,503 = 31,228 + 9,200 + 134 Ari
2
Ari = 30.4 ln /ft
Ari
12
t = 2.5 inches

t =

Given:
Find: If conventional bolting sufficient.

Set 1
60
l0

Solution:

Rib:

lmax
= tan 30
10
lmax = (10) tan 30
lmax = 5.8 ft

(rib)

60

Block
12 7'
7'
30
30

Set 2
lmax

17

East

Main consideration is bolt length

lmax
West

15.

10
30
60 l0
14

L0 < lmax Conventional (rib) bolts sufficient


Back:

lmax
= tan 60
7
lmax = (7) tan 60
lmax = 12.1 ft (back)

this is long and a high estimate


l0 = lmax 7.0
l0 = 5.1 ft
Yes, conventional length bolts should also work in the back.

yes

Subsidence

16/17.

[convert units for 17] Given: Caving operation


joint persistence = 0.88
Rock: C0 = 12,750 psi, r = 29
= 157 pcf
Ht  18
Joints:

cj = 75 psi j = 20
depth = 3,750 ft
B  13
= 2.00 (100% increase)
FS = 1.5
13
Find: Combination support with FSs = 1.5

6

339

3 diam. high
4 strength

Solution:
Equilibrium
W
= Ts + T m
2
W = Hp BS
B = 13

Hp
lw
2

Hp = 1.0(B + Ht )
Hp = 1.0(13 + 18)
Hp = 31

S = 1 (per ft of tunnel)
W = (157)(31)(13)(1)
W = 6.327(104 ) lbf
(2)(6.327)(104 )
= Ts + Tm
2
Tm = C0 A
C0 = pC0j + (1 p)C0m
2cj cos j
c0j =
1 sin j
(2)(75) cos 20
=
1 sin 20
c0j = 214 psi
C0m = 0.88(214) + (1 0.88)(12,750)
C0m = 1,718 psi
Ts = 6.327(104 ) (1,718)(144)(6)
Ts = 6.327(104 ) 1.484(106 )
Ts = 1.42(106 )
No external support needed for equilibrium (FS > 1.5 clearly)

Ts

Tm

340

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Joint failure:
Equilibrium:
FD = Ft + Fr (if shotcrete not needed)


W
2

wn

ws

joint



1

7
= 4.474(107 )
sin 45 = 6.327(10 )
2

W
2
45

Ff = Nc/ tan j + Cj



1
= 6.327(104 )
tan 20 + (75)(144)(6)( 2)
2
4
Ff = 1.628(10 ) + 9.164(104 )

6'

bolt

Ff = 10.79(105 )lbf.
even without bolt, joint is safe and has FS > 1.5.
Fr =

1
1
bolt strength = (18,400) = 9,200 lbf.
2
2

(This is not per ft of tunnel)


18.

Given: Block caving underground data, drifts 16 16 , semicircular backs, at
3,000 5,000 ft ramped down.
Find:
(a) FSc , FSt no support
(b) combination support
FS = 1.8 rock mass,
1
Bolts @ (16 ) = 8
2
Solution:
Assume c at sharp corner and treat as rectangle with W0 /H0 = 2,
i.e. 10 = vertical gravity only, Sv assume M = 1/3 then from USBM Bulletin 587
or text Table 3.2, approximately:
Kc = 4.0
c = Kc 10

Kt = 0.1

s01

t = Kt 10

at 5,000 ft, assume 1 psi/ft or better


10 = (156/144)(5,000) = 5,418 psi
c = (4)(5,418)
c = 21,667 psi
FSc =

C0
c

 8

t = (0.1)(5,418)
T0
t

s03
8

t = 542 psi
FSt =

8

16

Subsidence

2c cos
1 sin
(2)(332) cos 28.7
=
1 sin 28.7
C0 = 1,120 psi

C0 =

1,120
397
FSt =
21,667
542
FSc = 0.0517 FSt = 0.732

341

From previous problem:


C = 332 psi
= 28.7
T0 = 393 psi

FSc =

FS

naturally supported (will need support)


g  156 pcf

(b)
Hp  32

16

Joint

Bolts

8

16

Ts
Tm

C0 A
A
C0
=
FS
Fv = 0
W
>
= Tm + T s
2
FS =

: ( = 2, caving)
: (per ft of drift)

(8)(1,120)(144)(1)
+ Ts
1.8
Ts = 7.987(104 ) 7.168(105 )

(156)(16)(32)(1) =

since Ts < 0, no support needs for rock arch.


Check: Shotcrete, bolt, joint slip
Wf + Wn + Wri
Equilibrium.
(joint) (bolt)(shortcrete)

342

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Joint only?
WD = W sin 45
Wf = Wn tan  + cA
Ws

A = (1)(Lj )


H
= (1)
sin 45

A = (1)(8)( 2)

Wn
Joint
W

45

Bolt

Wf = W sin 45 tan 27 + (17)(144)(8) 2


W
= tan 27 + 2,770(10)
2
W  W tan 27 + (17)(144)(8)2
1 0.510 +

Shortcrete

W = (156)(32)(16)

(17)(144)(8)(2)
(156)(32)(16)

1  0.510 + 0.490 = 0.999


Barely in equilibrium, bolts will get FS > 1.0 will still need shotcrete to get FS
higher probably.
Note: Very low FS for natural supported rock mass from stress concentration
but using rock and load of rock mass gives no support needed. Support needed
only to avoid slip on joints. Conflicting views (arch load is small independent of
depth and thus not reliable for deep opening!)
19/20.

Given: Caving operation joint persistence is 88%


[Units convert for 20]
C0 = 12,750 psi
= 29
= 157 pcf
depth = 3,750 ft
cj = 75 psi
j = 20
Development drift, 13 18 ft, = 100%

rock mass is not self supporting with a safety factor of 3.0


rock bolts, shotcrete and wire mesh
shotcrete compressive strength 3,800 psi
required FS = 1.5

Find: Design combination support system


bolt size
length
steel grade

S u b s i d e n c e 343

spacing
shotcrete thickness
Solution:
Need cohesion of the intact rock
sin() =

C0 T 0
;
C0 + T 0

Assuming M C criterion

(C0 + T0 )sin(r ) = C0 T0
T0 (1 + sin(r ) = C0 (sin r )C0


1 sin(r )
T0 = C 0
1 + sin()r


1 sin(29)
= 12,750
1 + sin(29)
T0 = 4,424
 3
 
1
1
cr =
C0 T 0 =
[12,750(4,424)]1/2
2
2
cr = 3,755 psi
c = cf + R(cr cf )
= 75 + (0.12)(3,755 75)
c = 517 psi
tan = tan f + R(tan r tan f )
= tan(20) + 0.12[tan(29) tan(20)]
tan = 0.5315
= 21





2
1 = 2c tan
+
+ 3 tan
+
4
2
4
2


21
1 = 2(517) tan
+
+ 0 = 1,504 psi
4
2
1
m =
FSm
1,504
=
3
m = 501 psi
hp = 1(b + hf )
= 13 + 18
hp = 31 ft

344

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Assume a bolt length of 6 ft.


To satisfy equilibrium. 1/2 weight to each sides
hp BS
2
2(157)(31)(6)
2
s A s
s As

= m Am + s As ;

= 200%

= (501)(6)(144) + s As
= 29,202 4,32,864
= 4,03,662 lbs.

No artificial support is necessary during abutment loading.


Checking shear loading during abutment loading of 100% on a through going
fault unfavorably oriented at 45 .
FD = F f + F r + F r ;
Wt
FD =
sin(45); = 200%
2
Wt = (157)(13)(31)(1)
= 63,271 lbf.
 


1
1
FD = (2)
(63,271)
2
2
FD = 44,739 lbf.
Ff = Aj j tan j + Aj Cj ;

Aj j = Wn

= (44,739) tan(20) + (6)( 2)(75)(144)


Ff = 1,07,923 lbf
Fr = b A b
TD = 60,000 psi
7
Db = in
8
 
7 2
Ab =
= 0.601 in2
4 8
1
b = T0 = 30,000 psi
2
Fr = (30,000)(0.601) = 18,030 lbf
Fr = 18,030 lbf

The joint cohesion is high and the factor of safety mobilized by joint friction and
cohesion alone is
Ff
1,07,923
=
= 2.41
Fb
44,739
No artificial support is required.

S u b s i d e n c e 345

Subsidence Troughs
21.

Given: A longwall panel with trough subsidence and UK conditions


W = 820 face length, panel width
h = 1,300 deep
m = 16.5 mining height, seam thickness
L = 6,200 panel length
Find:
1. Smax
2. Smax /w = 520
3. Surface fully developed subsidence profiles.
4. Surface strain profiles, E+, E, e
5. Barrier pillar width Wp
6. Required time t @ 7,600 T/shift; 2 shifts/day; 250 days/year
7. Face advance rate f (ft/day)
8. Max subsidence and trough width after mining 4 identical panels adjacent
to the 1st panel
9. Max subsidence and trough width after mining identical panel 80 below the
1st panel
10. Utah conditions, subsidence factor = 0.65, angle of draw = 28 , estimate
Smax , trough width, for 1 panel, 5 panels (adjacent)
11. Max tensile and compressive strains 1 panel, Utah conditions.
Solution:
1. Smax

1,300
= 396 m
3.281
820
Width in meters =
= 250 m
3.281
W
820
=
H
1,300
250
=
396
W
= 0.63
H
From Figure 3 in (SEH) Subsidence Engineers hand book UK, text,
Figure 8.15 or eqn.
Smax
0.6.
m
Smax
Smax = (0.6)(16.5)

Smax = 9.9 (3.0 m)


Depth in meters =

2.

S
= 520 = 158 m
W
L
158
=
= 0.399
h
396

346

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

From Figure 8.16 text or SEH figure 4


s
= 0.36
S
s = (0.36)9.9
s = 3.6 , (1.1 m)

3. Surface subsidence profile


820
W
=
= 0.63  0.62
h
1,300
Assume horizontal seam, need only half profile
From Table 1 SHE or Table 8.1 text interpolating.
s/Smax

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.95

1.00

l/h

1.01

0.59

0.47

0.37

0.31

0.27

0.23

0.19

0.16

0.13

0.09

0.06

S(ft)

0.50

0.99

1.98

2.97

3.96

4.95

5.94

6.93

7.92

8.91

9.41

9.90

l(ft)

1,313

767

611

481

403

351

299

247

208

169

117

78

1313 1250

1000

750

500

250

5

10
h  1,300
Subsidence scale 1  5
Distance scale 1  250

d  tan 1 1,313 410


1,300
d  35

Seam

d
410

i.e., vertical to horizontal scale ratio is 5:250


4. Surface strain profile
From Table 5 in SEH or text Table 8.3, page 445
820
W
=
= 0.631
h
1,300
x 0.8
0.631 0.5
+E =
=
0.65 0.8
0.8 0.5
S
+E = 0.73
h
x 1.35
0.631 0.5
E =
=
0.7 1.35
0.8 0.5

Subsidence

S
h
x 3.35
0.631 0.5
G=
=
2.8 3.35
0.8 0.5
S
G = 3.11
h
From Figure 14, SEH or text figure 8.21
e
W
= 0.89 @
= 0.631
E
h
S
e = (0.89)(1.09)
h
S
= 0.97
h
S
Smax
since =
h
h
9.9
=
= 7.62 103
1,300
+E = 5.563 103 ft/ft

347

E = 1.07

+E, E, e

E = 8.153 103 ft/ft


e = 7.391 103 ft/ft

Now using Table 4 SEH or text Table 8.2 and W/H = 0.62, interpolating
Extension (+E)
e
E
l
h
e 103
l (ft)

Compression (E)

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.00

1.01

0.63

0.52

0.45

0.41

0.34

0.30

0.23

0.21

0.18

0.15

0.12

0.05

1.13

2.25

3.38

4.51

5.64

4.51

1.66

3.32

4.98

6.64

8.30

1,313

819

676

585

533

442

390

299

273

234

195

156

65

Extension
E
1,500 1,313 1,250

1,000

750

500

250

E
Compression

h  1,300

Strain scale 1  5 10 3 ft/ft


Distance scale 1  250

Seam

410

348

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

5. Barrier Pillar width

d=

35

h = 1,300

Wp = h tan
Wp = 1, 300 [tan(35 )]
Wp = 910

Wp

Wp

6. Total panel volume = (6,200)(820)(16.5)


= 83,88,600 ft3
@ 7,600 Tons/Shift; 2 shifts/day; 250 days/year; Assuming 20 ft3 /ton for
coal i.e. = 100 lbf/ft3
Volume moved in a year = (7,600)(2)(250)(20)
= 7,60,00,000 ft3 /year
to move 83.886 106 ft3 it will take 1.1 years.

7. Cubic feet moved per day = (7,600)(2)(20)


3

= 304 103 ft
cubic ft/day mined
Face advance/day =
Face Area
= 304 103 /(820)(16.5) = 22.5 ft
Average face advance/day = 22.5 ft

8. Maximum subsidence after mining


4-adjacent panels
Now the face width = (5)(820) =
4,100
Using Figure 3 SEH P-9
4,100
Face width =
= 1,250 m
3.281
Depth = 396 m
Smax

= 0.9
m
Smax = (0.9)(16.5) = 14.9

Trough width (WT)


(0.7h)

(w)

d
h

(0.7 h)

= 35
WT = 2(910) + 4,100
WT = 5,920

Subsidence

9. Calculate subsidence for each panel


then use superposition principle
Panel 1 Smax = 9.9 , from 1.

349

Surface

Subsidence due to Panel 2

1,300

h = 1,397 = 426 m
W = 820 = 250 m

Panel 1

Smax
= 0.55
m

165

80

Smax = (0.55)(165) = 9.1

Panel 2


Smax (Total) = 9.9 + 9.1 = 19 = 5.8 m

10. Assuming Utah conditions


Smax
= 0.65;
m

= 28

@ critical width

Single panel
Wc = 2h tan(28)
= 2(1,300) tan(28)
Wc = 1,382 ft
A single panel is only 820 i.e. sub-critical
If sub-critical width.


0.65 Smax (UK)
Smax (Utah) =
m
0.9
m
0.65(0.6)(16.5)
=
0.9
Smax (Utah) = 7.16 ft, (2.18 m)

Trough width(WT ) = 2(tan 28)(1,300) + 820


= 2,202
WT = 671.3 m

Four Adjacent panels.


Panel width = (5)(820) = 4,100 supercritical
Smax = (0.65)(16.5)
Smax = 10.73 = (3.3 m)

WT = 2[tan(28)](1,300) + 5(820)
WT = 5,482 (1,671 m)

350

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

11. For Utah conditions, single panel.


Smax
7.16
=
= 5.508 103 ft/ft
h
1,300
+E = (0.73)(5.508 103 )
+E = 4.021 103 ft/ft
E = (1.09)(5.508) 103
E = 6.004 103 ft/ft
W
for
= 0.62
h
Max tensile strain = 6.108 103 ft/ft
Max Compressive strain = 8.997 103 ft/ft
22.

Given: Long wall panel.


1,900 m long
250 m Face length
396 m deep
5.0 m thick
UK conditions apply
Find:
(1) Smax for a Single panel
Fig. 3. SEH or text Figure 8.15, S/m = 0.60
Smax = (5)(0.60)
Smax = 3.00 m.

(1)

(2) Smax at a face advance of 158 m


Fig. 4. SHE, text Figure 8.16
l
158
=
h
396
l
= 0.399
h
s
= 0.38
S
S = (0.38)(3.00)
Smax = 1.14 m
(3) Peak strains E+, E, e, SHE Table 5, text Table 8.3
W
250
=
h
396
W
= 0.631
h

(2)

Subsidence

W/h

E+

0.5

0.80

1.35 S/h

0.631

0.735 S/h

1.066 S/h

6.8

0.65 S/h

0.7 S/h

351

(interpolation)

3.0
S
=
h
396
S
= 7.576(103 )
h
E+ = 0.735(7.576)(103 ) = 5.57(103 ) tension
E = 1.066(7.576)(103 ) = 8.076(103 ) compression
E = 0.9E = 0.9(8.076)103 = 7.268(103 )compression

(3)

(4) WB
tan 35 = 0.7
z
0.7 =
396
z = WB = 277 m

x?

35

h  396 m Vertical.
section
Panel

(5) 4 Panels, Smax

Surface
Smax

h  396

35

(4) (250)
w  1,000 m

35

(4)

352

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

w
1,000
=
h
396
w
= 2.525
h
But critical width Wc = h tan
Wc = (396)(0.7)(2)
Wc = 554 m
Smax = 0.9 m
Smax = 0.9(5.0)

(5)

Smax = 4.5 m.
(6) Two panels Smax W-trough

S1
S2
396 m
421 m
250 m
25 m
(W/h)1

(W/h)2

Smax = S1 (max) + S2 (max)


= 0.6 m + 0.6 m
Smax = (2)(0.6)(5.0)
Smax = 6.0 m
W = 2 h tan + 250
= (2)(421)(0.7) + 250
W = 839 m
(7) Utah conditions
0.65 = Subsidence factor
28 = angle of draw

(6)

(6)

S u b s i d e n c e 353

UK: S/M = 0.9


UT: S/M = 0.65
0.9
0.65
m=
=
S(OK)
S(UT)


0.65
S(UT) =
(3.0)
0.90
S(UT) = 2.17 m.
W = 2h tan (UT) + 250 m
= (2)(396) tan 28 + 250 m
W = 671 m
23.

(7)

(7)

Given: Long wall trough data, depth = 1,300 ft, thickness = 16.5 ft (full
height mining), length = 6,200 ft, face = 820 ft
Find:
(a) Smax
face width = (820)(0.3048) = 250 m
depth = (1,300)(0.3048) = 396 m
Fig. 3 SEH, text figure 8.15 S/m = 0.60
Smax = (0.60)(16.5) = 9.9 ft

(a)

(3.02 m)
Fig. 11 SEH, text Figure 8.16
520
l
=
= 0.40
h
1,300
s
= 0.38
S
s = (0.38)(9.9) =

3.76 ft
(1.15 m)

Table 5 SHE, text Table 8.3


820
W
=
= 0.631
h
1,300

Between:

0.5
0.631
0.8
0.631

+E
0.8 S/h

E
1.35 S/h

0.65 S/h
0.735 S/h

0.7 S/h
1.066 S/h

(b)

354

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

x?

1,300

35

S
9.9
=
h
1,300
E+ = 5.60(103 ) tension
(c)

E = 8.12(103 ) compression
e = 7.30(103 ) compression
e
= 0.9
E
e = (0.9)(8.12)(103 )

W
= 0.631
h

e = 7.307(103 )
x
1,300
x = (0.7)(1,300)

tan 35 =

(d)

x = 910 ft
5. Smax
Smax
1,300
(4)(820)  3,280

width is greater than 1.4 (1,300)

Smax
= 0.9
m

Subsidence

355

(5a)

Smax =(0.9)(16.5) = 14.9 ft


(4.54 m)

(5b)

Trough width 3,280 + (2)(910) = 5,100 ft


6. Smax

W
Smax

1,300

820

1,380

Subsidence at 1,380 depth is nearly the same as at 1,300


Smax = 2Smax
= (2)(9.9)
Smax = 19.8 ft

(6a)

Trough width = ?
W = 820 + (2)(0.7)(1,380)
W = 2,752 ft

(6b)

7. UT condition
UK = Smax/m = 0.90 unlimited
UT = Smax/m= 0.65

0.65
UT(S) =
UK(S)
0.90
Note
Smax (UK)
Smax (UT)
=
0.65
 0.90
0.65
UT(Smax ) =
(9.9) = 7.15 ft
0.90
m=

(7a)

through:
W = 820 + (2) tan 28 (1,300)
W(UT) = 2,204 ft

(7b)

356

24.

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

Given: Longwall panel, UK conditions.


M = 5 m (thick, mined)
H = 400 m (depth)
Flat
300 m wide
3,000 m long
3,000 t/shift, 2 shifts/day = 16,000 t/day.
@ 5 days per week = 80,000 t/week.
Find:
S
(1) Smax :
= 0.68
m
S = (5)(0.68)

Smax

Smax = 3.40 m
(2) Critical area
Wc

Ac = Wc2

Wc = 1.4H
= (1.4)(400)
Wc = 560 m
Ac = (560)2
Ac = 3.136(105 )m2

(3)

Ac (2)

Trough

35

trough W  = W + 1.4 H
= (300) + (1.4)(400)
Width = 860 m
(4) E+

W 300
=
H
400
W
= 0.75
H

(Table 5)

0.5
0.75
0.8

0.8 S/h
0.675
0.65 S/h

Trough width (3)

S u b s i d e n c e 357

x
0.25
=
0.3
0.15
x = 0.125
S
E(+) = 0.675
h


3.4
= 0.675
400
E(+) = 5.738(103 )

E(+)

(5) max E
(Table 5)

0.5
0.75
0.8

0.135 S/h
0.606
0.7 S/h
0.25
x
=
0.30
0.565
x = 0.471


3.4
E() = 0.606
400
E() = 5.1496(103 )

E()

(6) Severity of change: depends on structure length at 5 + (103 ) tensile strain


will be severe for 25 m long structure.
(7) e at center of subside profile.
W
300
=
= 0.75
H
400
e
= 0.76
E
e = (0.76)(5.15)103
e = 3.91(103 )

(8) Smax at face = 200 m


s L
200
=
S H
400
L
= 0.5
H
s
= 0.5
S
s = (0.5)(3.4)
s = 1.7 m

s @ 200 m

358

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

(9) time required for mining


rate = 16,000 t/day,
Volume = (5)(300)(3,000) = 4.5(106 )m3
Assume: = 100 pcf
wt = (4.5)(106 )(35.3)(100)/2,000 lb/s
wt = 7.95(106 )tons
days = 7.95(106 )/16(103 )
days = 497

@35.3 ft3 /m3

Working days

(10) Smax for 4 panels


W = 4(300)
W = 1,200

400 m

W = 400
W
=3
H

1,200 m

Supercritical

Smax = 0.9 m
= 0.9(5)

Smax (4 panels)

Smax = 4.5 m

(11) Two panels


S1 = 3.4 m from(11)
S2 = (0.65) m
S2 = 0.65(5)
S2 = 3.25 m

200

S1
420
S2
300

Superposition: S1 + S2 = S
S = 6.65 m
25.

400

Smax (2 panels)

Given: Subsidence trough information, depth = 1,500 ft, 750 ft face length,
7,500 ft panel length, mining height 15 ft, Utah conditions
Find:
(a) Smax single panel
(b) critical width
(c) Smax six panels adjacent
(d) E+ single panel
(e) E six panels adjacent.

Subsidence

359

Solution:
Utah condition assume Smax /m = 0.67 and = 28 then reduction factors from
U.K. condition will be
0.90
1
=
Sf
0.67
Sf = 0.74
(a) depth = 1,500 ft = 457 m
Width = 750 ft = 229 m

S
= 0.45 U.K
m

S
(Utah) = 0.45 Sf
m
S
= 0.45(0.74)
m
S
= 0.333
m
S = 0.333(15)
S = 5.0 ft

Smax single (R)

panel

(b) Critical width


Surface

Wc
= h tan
2
1,500 ft  h
Wc = 2(1,500) tan 28
Wc = 1,595 ft.

(b)

Wc

(c) 6 panel adjacent


W = 6(750)
W = 4,500 ft
L = 7,500 ft
Area is Super critical i.e., W > Wc (wide and long)
S = Smax


Smax
Smax =
m
m
= 0.67(15)
Smax = 10.0 ft
(d) E+ single panel, SEH, Table 5
750
= 0.5
W/h (width/depth ratio) =
1,500

(c)

360

Solutions Manual to Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

+E = 0.8 S/h
= (0.8)(5 ft)/1,500 ft
(d)

+E = 2,667 min/in (2.67)(103 )


(e) E Six panels
W
d
W
d
W
h

= 6(750) = 4,500 ft
= 1,500 ft
4,500
=
1500
= 3.0

Tops out at 0.51 S/h (table 8.3 text)


E() = 0.51 S/h : supercritical
= (0.51)(10.0/1,500)
E() = 3,400 in/in.
26/27.

(e)

3,400(103 )

Given: Solution miningnahcolite [units conversion]


Surface
S
d

1,800

5
dip

90

20%

dissolved

Wc
Colorado

Wtrough

Find:
(1) Subsidence factor, angle of draw
(2) Smax
(3) Wc (critical width)
(4) trough width at Wc .
Solution:
For western U.S. Colorado, use Utah conditions, say
Smax
= 0.67,
m

= 28

(1)

S u b s i d e n c e 361

Smax = 0.67 m
m = 20% of 90 ft
m = 18 ft
Smax = 0.67(18)
Smax = 12.06 ft
Wc = 2h tan
= (2)(1,800) tan 28
Wc = 1,914 ft
Wtrough = Wc + 2h tan
= 2Wc
Wtrough = 3,828 ft.

(2)

(3)

(4)