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in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences

Solutions Manual to

Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics

William G. Pariseau

Malcolm McKinnon Endowed Chair,

Department of Mining Engineering,

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Taylor & Francis is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group,

an informa business

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008.

To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledges

collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.

contained herein may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,

or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written prior

permission from the publishers.

Although all care is taken to ensure integrity and the quality of this

publication and the information herein, no responsibility is

assumed by the publishers nor the author for any damage to the

property or persons as a result of operation or use of this

publication and/or the information contained herein.

British Librar y Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Pariseau, W.G.

Solutions manual for elements of design analysis in rock mechanics /

W.G. Pariseau.

p. cm.

ISBN 978-0-415-45725-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-203-93250-6

(e-book : alk. paper) 1. Underground construction. 2. Structural

design. 3. Rock mechanics. I. Title.

TA712.P29 2007

624.15132076dc22

2007041118

Published by: Taylor & Francis/Balkema

P.O. Box 447, 2300 AK Leiden,The Netherlands

e-mail: Pub.NL@tandf.co.uk

www.balkema.nl, www.tandf.co.uk,

www.crcpress.com

ISBN 0-203-93250-1 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN: 9780203932506 (ebk)

Contents

Introduction

Basics

Review of Stress

Review of Strain and Elasticity

1

5

21

Slope stability

39

Wedge Failures

Rotational Slides

Dynamics, Toppling

39

60

73

83

Shafts

87

Supported Shafts, Liners, Bolts, Rings

Multiple Shafts

87

128

149

Tunnels

157

Supported Tunnels

Rock Mass Classification Schemes, RQD

157

161

191

193

Bolted Roof

193

202

230

Three-dimensional excavations

299

3D Caverns

Back Fill

Cable Bolting

299

305

312

VI

Contents

Subsidence

320

Chimney Caving

Combination Support

Subsidence Troughs

320

334

345

Introduction

Basics

1.

Identify the three major categories of equations needed to calculate rock mass

motion. Give examples.

(a) Physical laws

e.g. conservation (balance) of linear momentum

F = P

where

F is resultant of external forces

P is time rate of linear momentum.

(b) Kinematics (geometry of motion)

e.g. a = v where a and v are acceleration and velocity

u where xx is normal strain in the x-direction and u is

e.g. xx =

x x-direction displacement.

(c) Material laws

e.g. = E is the one-dimensional form of Hookes law of linear elasticity.

and are stress and corresponding strain, E is youngs modulus.

2.

Explain why or why not

=

M

dV

V

Solution:

dm

by definition

dV

where dm is a mass element with volume dV.

= 0 and

Conservation of mass requires M

d

=

dm

M

dt

B

d

0=

( dV)

dt

V

0=

( dV + dV)

=

Now dV is not generally zero because motion may cause dV to change. Hence

= dV (Since M

= 0)

M

3.

Two types of forces in mechanics are contact forces and body forces. Water

pressure is a contact force and weight is a body force.

4.

Show that the center of mass of a boulder in flight travels along its original

trajectory even if it disintegrates.

Solution:

By definition, the mass center position is s and

Ms = r dm

r

ma

the mass center.

+ Ms = Ms since M

=0

Now Ms

Ms = v dm where v = r is velocity

Hence M s = B a dm where a = v is acceleration

But according to Newtons second law

F = P

d

=

v dm

dt

F =

a dm

V

F = Ms

which shows that the mass center moves like a mass particle regardless of law the

mass of the body is distributed.

5.

where R = resisting force

D = driving force

Show: FS < 1 a > 0.

R

D

Solution:

F = ma

that is D R = ma since F = D R (sum algebraic of external forces)

Introduction

if FS < 1, a > 0

Note: If FS > 1, a < 0 but when the body considered is at rest, a = 0 because of

equilibrium (if in motion, the considered body will slow down, decelerate).

6.

D = diameter

h = length (height)

L

=2

D

F = vertical (axial) load

Find:

(a) Normal and tangential forces N, T acting on an inclined plane (angle to the

vertical).

(b) Average normal and shear stresses , on the inclined plane in terms of the

average vertical stress v = F/A.

Note: Area of an ellipse is ab where a, b are major & minor semi-axes.

Solution:

x

x

F

N

N

y

or

b

y

(b)

(a)

N = F cos , T = F sin

where the minus arises from the axes chosen in (b)

A = ab

D

a=

by inspection

2

D

2

b=

cos

N

F sin cos

= , =

D2

A

4

=

=

=

, F = v A & A =

D2

4

D2

v 4 cos2

,

D2

4

v cos2 &

D2

4

2

v D

sin cos

4

D2

4

= v sin cos

F

F

s

A

F

s0

A

A

p

T

s0

A

A

h

p

7.

F cos2

Find: N, T, , .

Solution:

Free body diagram

F

A

A2

H1

A1

A

u

T

H2

Introduction 5

F(normal direction) = 0

0 = N F cos H1 sin + H2 sin

N

A

F

(H1 H2 )sin

= cos

A

A

v A cos

p(A1 A2 )sin

A

=

,

A

A

=

1

2

A

A

sin

cos

cos

= v cos2 p sin2

D2

N = (v cos p sin )

cos

2

, N

F(tangential direction) = 0

0 = T + F sin + H2 cos H1 cos

T = F sin + (H1 H2 ) cos

T

=

A

v A sin

p(A1 A2 )cos

A

=

+

:

A

A

=

1

2

A

A

sin

cos

= v sin cos + p cos sin

= (v p)sin cos

T = A

8.

D2

cos

The equation

Ms =

r dm

V

that defines the mass center of a material body is purely geometrical and is thus

a kinematic type of relationship.

9.

The equation

t

simply defines a stress rate, says nothing about physical or mechanical behavior

and thus is a kinematic relation relating to geometry of motion.

=

10.

Darcys law is a material law because it relates dependent variables (v, h) and

thus says something about material behavior. Recall: the independent variables

are position and time.

Review of Stress

11.

xx = 2,500 yy = 5,200 xy = 3,700 and units in psi.

5,200

Solution:

3,700

From notes

1

3

xx + yy

3 = 89 psi

= +55

tan 2 =

=

xy

1

(

2 xx

s1 7,789

yy )

3,700

35

5,000)

tan 2 = 2.7407

2 = 70

1

(2,500

2

= 35

12.

= 3,850 [3,939]

1 = 7,789 psi

or

2,500

2

xx yy

+ (xy )2

2

1/2

2,500 + 5,200

2,500 5,200 2

2

=

+ (3,700)

2

2

=

55

s3 89

= +55

xx = 2,500 yy = 5,200

(tension+)

Find: max .

xy = 3,200 psi

Solution:

From notes

1/2

xx yy 2

2

max =

+ (xy )

2

1/2

2,500 5,200 2

2

=

+ (3,200)

2

max = 3,939 psi

2

100

1

3

t min

9

3,93

10

psi

Introduction

tan 2 =

=

12 (xx yy )

xy

2,5005,200

2

3,700

= 0.36486

tan 2

2 = 20

= 10

or = 100

13.

xx = 17.24 Mpa yy = 35.86 xy = 25.52

Find: 1 , 3 , .

Solution:

1

3

Formulas:

1/2

xx yy 2

2

+ (xy )

2

1/2

17.74 + 35.86

17.24 35.86 2

2

=

+ (25.52)

2

2

xx + yy

=

1

3

= 26.55 [27.17]

1 = 53.72 MPa

3 = 0.62 MPa

35.86

25.52

17.24

tan 2 =

+55

xy

yy )

(2)(25.52)

=

17.24 35.86

tan 2 = 2.741

2 = 70.0 , 110

1 , 3

1

(

2 xx

= 35 , +55

1

35

s1 53.72 MPa

3

55

0.62

14.

xx = 17.24 MPa yy = 35.86 xy = 25.52

Find: max , .

Formulas

max =

=

xx yy

2

1/2

2

+ (xy )

17.24 35.86

2

1/2

2

+ (25.52)

y

1

t min

55

tan 2 =

Pa

10

17 M

27.

12 (xx yy )

xy

12 (17.24 35.86)

25.52

= 0.3648

=

tan 2

2 = 20.0 , 200

= 10 , 100

15.

xz = 0 yz = 0 zz = 400 psi

Find: 1 , 2 , 3 .

Solution:

Assume tension is positive. The plane that zz acts on is shear-free and therefore

is a principal plane. Thus, zz is a principal stress. Also (from prob. 11) in the

xy-plane

1 = 7,789 & 3 = 89 psi

1 = 7,789, 2 = 4,000(zz ) & 3 = 89 psi

Introduction

16.

Solution:

Since xz = yz = 0, it seems

max = 3,939 psi : = 12 (1 3 )

= 10

10

17.

yz = 0 zx = 0

Find: 1 , 2 , 3 .

Solution:

Assume tension is positive. The plane that zz acts on is a shear-free plane

(yz = zx = 0) and therefore is a principal plane. Thus, zz is a principal stress.

From problem 13,

1 = 53.72 MPa

in x-y plane

3 = 0.62 MPa

2 = zz = 27.59 MPa

1 = 53.72, 2 = 27.59, 3 = 0.62 MPa

Given: Problem 17 data:

Find: Maximum shear stress and orientation

Solution:

tmax 27.17 MPa y

Because yz = zx = 0

1

and

max = (1 3 )

2

max = 27.17 MPa

= 10

(from problem14)

10

18.

10

10

19.

with tension(+)

Find: 1 , 3 , .

Solution:

1

3

1

3

1/2

xx yy 2

2

+ (xy )

2

1/2

5,200 + 2,500

5,200 2,500 2

2

=

+ (3,700)

2

2

xx + yy

=

= 3,850 3,939

1 = 7,789 psi

3 = 89 psi

tan 2 =

=

xy

yy )

3,700

1

(

2 xx

2,500)

tan 2 = 2.7407

2 = 70

1

(5,200

2

s3 89

x

35

= 35

or = +55

20.

xx = 35.86 yy = 17.24

in MPa (tension +)

Find: 1 , 3 , , sketch.

s1 7,789

xy = 25.52

Solution:

1

3

1/2

xx yy 2

2

+ (xy )

2

1/2

35.86 + 17.24

35.86 17.24 2

2

=

+ (25.52)

2

2

xx + yy

=

= 26.53 27.17

Introduction

1 = 53.72

3 = 0.62

y

3

s3 0.62

1 , 3 MPa

tan 2 =

55

yy )

25.52

1

(35.86

2

= 35 , + 55

1

s1 53.72 MPa

21.

xy

1

(

2 xy

17.24)

tan 2 = 2.7411

2 = 70 , 110

35

11

where units are psi & compression (+)

Find: 1 , 2 , 3 & directions.

xy = 0

zx = 0

yz = 2,500

Solution:

By inspection, the x-direction shear stresses are zero and so the yz-plane is a

principal plane (x-direction is principal). In the yz plane:

1

3

1

3

yy + zz

=

yy zz

2

1/2

2

+ (xy )

= 3,000 2,693

z

34.1

s1 5,693 psi

s3 307 psi

55.9

y

y

x

SKETCH

1 = 5,693 psi

3 = 307 psi

xx = 3,000 xx = 2

2 = 3,000 psi

1 , 3

12

tan 2 =

=

yz

1

(

2 yy

zz )

2,500

1

(2,000

2

tan 2 = 2.5

2 = 68.2

= 34.1

or

22.

= +55.9

4,000)

with compression (+)

Find: aa , bb , cc , ab , bc , ca , where (abc) is rotated about the z-axis 30 CCW.

Solution:

(1) Establish table of direction cosines

(2) Apply Formula (abc) = R(xyz)Rt

z, c

PP

b

30

PP OLD

x

NEW PPP

P

a

cos 30

b

cos 120

c

cos 90

cos 60

cos 30

cos 90

cos 90

cos 90

cos 0

1 1

0

3 2

[R] = 1 1

0

2

3

0 0 1

60

30

a

x

120

30

60

3

1

I n t r o d u c t i o n 13

c = cos

s = sin

= rotation angle

0

xx xy xz

c s 0

0 xy yy yz s

c 0

1

xz yz zz

0

0 1

s 0

(cxx + sxy ) (sxx + cxy )

c 0 (cxy + syy ) (sxy + cyy )

0 1

(cxz + syz ) (sxz + cyz )

c s

(abc) = s c

0 0

c

= s

0

2

(c xx + s2 yy + 2scxy )

= [scxx + scyy + (c2 s2 )xy ]

(cxz + syz )

xz

yz

zz

(+s2 xx + c2 yy 2csxy )

(sxy + cyz )

(cxz + syz )

(sxz + cyz )

zz

1

& c2 = (1 + c2)

2

1

c2 s2 = c2 & s2 = (1 c2)

2

s2 = 2sc

xx yy

xx + yy

+

=

cos 2 + xy sin 2

aa

2

2

xx + yy

xx yy

cos 2 xy sin 2

2D part bb

2

2

xx yy

sin 2 + xy cos 2

ab

ba

ab

2

cc = zz

ac = ca = xz cos + yz sin

since: c2 + s2 = 1

3,000 + 2,000 3,000 2,000

aa

=

cos 60 0. sin 60

bb

2

2

aa

= 2,500 250

bb

cc = 4,000

3,000 2,000

ab =

sin 60 + 0. cos 60

2

ab = 433

bc = 0. sin 30 + 2,500 cos 30

bc = 2,165

ac = 0. cos(30 ) + 2,500 sin(30 )

ac = 1,250

14

aa = 2,750 psi

bb = 2,250 psi

cc = 4,000 psi

ab = 433 psi

bc = 2,165 psi

ca = 1,250 psi

23.

in MPa and compression is positive.

Find: 1 , 2 , 3 and orientations, sketch.

(abc)

zz = 27.59 zx = 0

Solution:

yz = 17.24

zero, xx is a principal stress, x- is a principal

direction and the yz-plane is a principal plane.

In the yz-plane

yy + zz

1

=

3

2

2

1/2

yy zz

+ (yz )2

2

1/2

13.79 + 27.59

13.79 27.59 2

1

=

+ (17.24)2

3

2

2

1

= 20.69 18.57

3

1 = 39.26 Mpa

3 = 2.12 Mpa

z

1

2 = xx = 20.69 Mpa

= +55 ,

tan 2 =

=

s1 39.26 MPa

yz

1

(

2 yy

zz )

17.24

1

(13.79

2

27.59)

tan 2 = 2.499

2 = 68.2 , 111.8

3

a* 55.9

s3 2.12 MPa

2

x

s2 20.69 MPa

= 34.1 , 55.9

= 55.9

Introduction

24.

15

Find: Stress state (aa . . . ca ) relative to (abc) rotated 30 CCW about z.

Solution:

(1) Establish axes and direction cosines.

PP

PP OLD

x

NEW PPP

P

a

cos 30

b

cos 120

c

cos 90

c

b

cos 60

cos 30

cos 90

cos 90

cos 90

cos 0

30

y

60

1

3

[R] = 1

2

0

30

a

x

3

1

2

30

60

3

1

2

1

3

0

120

1

1

(2) apply formula (abc) = [R] (xyz)[R]t (more generally for z-axis rotation)

c = cos , s = sin , = rotation angle

0

xx xy xz

c s 0

0

s

c 0

xy yy yz

1

xz yz zz

0

0 1

s 0

(cxx + sxy ) (sxx + cxy )

c 0 (cxy + syy ) (sxy + cyy )

0 1

(cxz + syz ) (sxz + cyz )

c s

(abc) = s c

0 0

c

xz

= s

yz

0

zz

2

(c xx + s2 yy + 2scxy )

[scxx + scyy + (c2 s2 )xy ] (cxz + syz )

2

2

2

2

(sxz + cyz )

(cxz + syz )

(sxy + cyz )

zz

16

xx + yy

xx yy

=

+

cos 2 + xy sin 2

aa

2

2

xx + yy

xx yy

cos 2 xy sin 2

bb

2D part

2

2

xx yy

sin 2 + xy cos 2

ab

ba

ab

2

cc = zz

ac = ca = xz cos + yz sin

Plug in: = 30 etc.

aa

bb

aa

bb

cos 60 0. sin 60

2

2

= 17.24 1.73

aa = 18.97 Mpa

bb = 15.51

cc = 27.59

20.69 13.79

ab =

sin 60 + 0. cos 60

2

ab = 2.99 Mpa

bc = 0. sin 30 + 17.24 cos 30

bc = 14.93 Mpa

ac = 0. cos 30 + 17.24 sin 30

ac = 8.62 Mpa

Summary:

aa

bb

cc

ab

bc

ca

= 18.97 Mpa

= 15.51 Mpa

= 27.59 Mpa

= 2.99 Mpa

= 14.93 Mpa

= 8.62 Mpa

(abc)

I n t r o d u c t i o n 17

25.

b

xx + yy

= m

Find: Invariate

2

Solution:

xx + yy xx yy

aa

=

cos 2 xy sin 2

bb

2

2

xx + yy

aa + bb

m =

=

2

2

u

z, c

26.

$1/2

#

2

Find: m = 12 (xx yy )2 + xy

invariant

Solution:

From rotation formula.

xx yy

aa bb

=

cos 2 + xy sin 2

(1)

2

2

xx yy

(2) ab =

sin 2 + xy cos 2

z

Square (1) and (2) then add to obtain

xx yy 2

aa bb 2

(3)

+ (ab )2 =

+ (xy )2

2

2

Using cos2 2 + sin2 2 = 1 take square root of (3) to obtain

m (a, b) = m (x, y) is invariant

&1/2

%

(xx yy )2

1

2

Note: m = 2 (1 3 ) = +

+ (xy )

2

&

xx xy

An alternative is to look at the 2D stress state as a 2 2 array

xy yy

Form the characteristic equation then look at principal invariant combina2

tions to obtain results. [2 (xx + yy ) + (xx yy xy

) = 0 is the characteristic

equation].

27.

Given: NX-core 2 18 in. (5.40 cm) diameter, L/D = 2.0 axial load F = 35,466 lbf

(158.89 kN)

Find:

(1) Stress state relative to (r z)

(2) Stress relative to (abc) rotated to 60 dip.

18

(4) directly calculate ac and compare.

Solution:

z

D2

4

()(2.125)2

=

4

szz F/A

A=

F 35,466 lbf

(158.89 kN)

A = 3.5466 in.2

35,466

3.5466

zz = 10,000 psi

rr = = 0

r = z = zr = 0

&

(22.90 cm2 )

158.89

2.290

(69.38 Mpa)

zz =

(Cylindrical

coords)

(5.40)2

4

(1) (rz)

by inspection,

vertical loading.

D

F

z(u)

szz 10,000 psi (other ss, ts 0)

(69.38 MPa)

d

60

z(u)

y(N)

c

x(E)

60

b, y(n)

[R] = 0

s

cos 90

cos 0

cos 90

cos 150

cos 90

cos 60

1

2

s = sin 60 =

2

c = cos 60 =

60

60

a

PP

PP OLD

x

NEW PPP

P

a

cos 60

b

cos 90

c

cos 30

I n t r o d u c t i o n 19

[R] = 0

3

2

00

(xyz) = 0 0

00

3

0

1 0

1

0

2

0

0

zz

(abc) = R(xyz)Rt

1

3

3

1

00 0 2 0 2

2

2

= 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 104 3

1

3

1

0

0

2

2

2

2

3

1

104 3

0 0 2 2 0 2

= 0 0

0 1 0

0

104

1

3

00

0

2

2

2

4

4

10 3

10 3

3

3

+

0

69.38

0

69.38

4

4

4

(abc) =

0

0

0

0

0

0

104

69.38

3

104 3

0

69.38 0

4

4

4

4

3

3

aa =

104 psi

69.38

MPa

bb = 0 psi

10

69.38 MPa

cc =

psi

z c

4

4

(abc)

check: x a

0

ab = 0 psi

yb

' (

' (

69.38 MPa

ac =

104 psi

0

bc = 0 psi

zz xy

zz + xx

cc

=

cos 2 xz sin 2

aa

2

2

zz xx

ca =

sin 2 + xz cos 2

2

20

10,000 10,000

1

0

2

2

2

1 1

cc

: checks

= 10,000

aa

2 4

' (

10,000

3

ac =

: checks

2

2

cc

aa

bb = yy = 0: checks

From Problem 7.

F

ab = bc = 0

z = F/A

N = F cos 60

A

c

T = F sin 60

D2

A=

4

A

A =

cos

= 60

cc =

= N/A

z A cos2

=

A

4 1

= 10

psi

4

1

= 69.38

MPa

4

(4)

N

T

60

A

1

104 psi checks

4

1

cc =

69.38 MPa

4

cc =

ac =

T

=

A

z A sin 60 cos 60

=

' A(

' (

1

1

3

3

= 104

, 69.38

2

2

2

2

' (

3

ac =

104 psi checks

4

' (

3

=

69.38 MPa

4

(3)

(4)

Introduction

21

28.

(0) = 1,480 in/in. (45) = 300 in/in. (90) = 2,760 in/in.

E = 12.7(106 ) psi v = 0.27

tension (+)

N(y)

Find:

(45)

(1) xx , yy , xy in/in.

(2) zz , yz , yx (psi)

(3) xx , yy , xy (psi)

PLAN VIEW

(4) zz (in/in.)

(5) yz , zx

E

(6) 1 , 2 , 3 (directions)

60

(90)

N

(7) 1 , 2 , 3 (magnitudes)

)

(0

(8) 1 , 2 , 3 (magnitudes)

75

(9) 1 , 2 , 3 (directions)

120

(10) v (volume change/unit) if

relieved by overcovering.

Solution:

Equations of transformation strain

Alt.1

xx + yy

xx yy

+

cos 2a + xy sin 2a

2

2

xx + yy

xx + yy

b =

+

cos 2b + xy sin 2b

2

2

xx + yy

xx + yy

c =

+

cos 2c + xy sin 2c

2

2

a = 30 b = 75 c = 120

a =

Alt.2

(0) = 1,480 in/in. = a

a + b

+ ab

(45) = 300 in/in. =

2

(90) = 2,760 in/in. = b

(a + b )

2

1

= 300 (1,480 2,760)

2

= +1,820 in/in.

ab = (45)

ab

(x)

22

xy

yy

xy

yy

a + b

a b

cos[2(30)] ab sin[2(30)]

2

2

' (

1

3

= (2,120) (640)

(1,820)

2

2

xy

yy

=

3, 376 in/in.

864 in/in.

xy

a b

=

sin[2(30)] + ab cos[2(30)]

2

' (

1

3

= 640

+ 1,820

2

2

xy = 1,464 min/in.

xx = 3,376

yy = 864 in/in.

xy = +1,464

(1)

zz = +1,568

By inspection:

(2)

zz = zx = zy = 0

(stress free surface)

Alt.1

xx + yy

2

xx yy

2

c = S + D cos 2(120 ) + T sin 2(120 ) T = xy

a = S + D cos 2(30 ) + T sin 2(30 )

3

1

3 1 S

D

{} =

1

2

2 T

1

3

1

2

2

1

2

S=

Introduction

240

1

150

60

1

23

)

))

)

3 )

)1 1

)

)

2

2 )

)

'

(

)

)

) 3 1 )

3

1

1 3

3

3

)1

) = (1)

+

(1)

+

+

(1)

+

)

)

4 4

4

4

4 4

2

2 )

)

)

)

)

)

)1 1 3 )

)

)

2

2

=2

)

)

)a Sa Da )*

)

)

S = ))b Sb Db ))

) c Sc D c )

)

))

)

1

3 )

)

)

) a

2

2 )

))

1 ) 3 1 ))

=

)

)

2 )b 2

2 ))

)

)

)

) 1 3 )

)

) c

2

2

a + c

S =

2

1,480 2,760

S =

2

S = 2,120 in/in.

)

)

)

3 ))

)1 a

)

2 ))

)

)

1 )

1 ))

D =

1 b

)

2 )

2 ))

)

)

3)

)

)

)1 c

2

'

'

'

(

(

(

1

1

3 1

3

3

3

=

a

+ b

c +

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

24

1

[1,480( 3 + 1) + 300(2 3) + 2,760(1 3)]

4

1

D = [4,043 + 1,039 2,020]

4

D = 1,256 in/in.

D=

xx = S + D

= 2,120 1,256

xx = 3,376 in/in.

yy = S D

yy = 2,120 + 1,256

yy = 864 in/in.

)

)

)1

)

)

1 ))

T = )1

2)

)

)

)

)1

1

2

)

)

a ))

)

)

)

b ))

)

)

)

c )

3

2

1

2

'

(

(

'

1

1

1 1

3

3 1

=

a +

b

+ c

2

2

2

2 2

2

2

1

= [1,480( 3 1) (300)(2) 2,760(1 3)]

4

1

= [1,083 600 + 7,541]

4

T = +1,464 in/in.

xy = 1,464 in/in.

[xy = 2,928 in/in.]

xx = 3,376 in/in.

yy = 864 in/in.

xy = 1,464 in/in.

(3) Hookes law

G

1

1

Ezz = zz vyy vxx & 2zx = zx = zx

G

(1)

I n t r o d u c t i o n 25

zz = 0 & yz = zx = 0

E

xx =

(xx + vyy )

1 v2

E

yy =

(yy + vxx )

1 v2

xy = G(2xy )

12.7(106 )

[3,376(106 ) + 0.27(864)]

1 (0.27)2

= 13.7(3,376 233)

xx =

xx = 49,438 psi

yy = 13.7[864 + 0.27(3,376)]

yy = 24,325 psi

xy = G(2xy )

12.7(106 )(2)(1,464)

2(1 + 0.27)

= 14,640 psi

=

xy

xx = 49,438 psi

yy = 24,325 psi

xy = +14,640 psi

(3)

zz = 0: by inspection, fraction free surface

0.27

(49,438 24,325)

12.7(106 )

zz = +1,568(106 )

zz =

zz = +1,568 in/in

(5) yz = zx = 0: by inspection

yz =

1

1

yz , xz =

xz

G

G

yz =

1

yz = 0

2

xy =

1

yz = 0

2

(4)

26

direction. In the x-y plane

tan 2 =

=

z(u)

y(N)

S1 0 psi

xy

1

(

2 xx

S2 17,594 psi

yy )

14,640

1

[49,438

2

(24,325)]

65

x(E)

tan 2 = 1.1659

2 = 49.4

25

= 24.7

S3 56,169 psi

SKETCH (tension )

(7) S2 = 0.

S1

S3

S1

S3

xx + yy

x y 2

=

+ (xy )2

2

2

49,438 24,325

=

2

1/2

49,438 + 24,325 2

2

+ (14,640)

2

= 36,882 19,287

S1 = 56,169 psi

(7)

S3 = 17,594 psi

(a)

with the principal stresses when the

material is isotropic.

S1 = 1 = 0 S3 = 3 = 56,169 psi

S2 = 2 = 17,594 psi

1

y(N)

Hookes Law

24.7

E1 = 1 v2 v3

(12.7) 106 1 = 0 0.27(17,594 56,169)

1 = +1,568 in/in

(Parallel to z-dir, = zz ) check,

E2 = 2 v3 v1

12.7(106 )2 = 17,594 0.27(56,169)

2 = 19,121 in/in.

E3 = 3 v1 v2

(106 ) 12.7 3 = 56,169 0.27(17,594)

3 = 40,487 in/in.

24.3

2

x(E)

3

(b)

Sketch

Introduction

27

v = x + y + z = 1 + 2 + 3

= +(40,487 + 19,121 1,568)in/in.

v = 58,040 in/in. (expansion)

29.

xy = 600, yz = 300, zx = 500

Find: 1 , 3 (zx-plane) of sketch.

Solution:

[comp.(+) units = psi]

z

sz 3,500 psi

z

13.3

500 psi

Tzx

s3 1,382

sx 1,500

x

comp.()

x

SKETCH

tan 2 =

=

zx

1

(

2 zz

xx )

500

1

(3,500

2

1,500)

tan 2 = 0.5

2 = 26.6

= 13.3

1

3

1/2

zz xx 2

2

+ (zx )

2

1/2

3,500 1,500 2

3,500 + 1,500

2

=

+ (500)

2

2

zz + xx

=

28

1

3

= 2,500 1,118

1 = 3,618 psi

3 = 1,382 psi

Given (in MPa): xx = 10.35 yy = 13.79

2.07 zx = 3.45

zz = 24.14

xy = 4.14

yz =

z

Compression is (+), units are MPa

Find: Secondary principal stresses in the zxplane. 1 , 3 ,

24.14

3.45

Solution:

tan 2 =

=

10.35

zx

1

(

2 zz

xx )

3.45

1

(24.14

2

10.35)

tan 2 = 0.5004

2 = 26.6 , 153.4

= 13.3 , 76.7

1

3

1

3

13.3

30.

zz + xx

2

1/2

zz xx 2

2

+ (zx )

2

24.14 + 10.35

2

24.14 10.35 2

2

&1/2

+ (3.45)2

s3 9.54

s1 24.96

Sketch

= 17.25 7.71

1 = 24.96 MPa

3 = 9.54 MPa,

= 13.3

I n t r o d u c t i o n 29

31.

225 in in/in. and compression is (+) x = east, y = north, z = up E = 5(106 ) psi,

G = 2(106 ) psi

Find: The stresses (xx , yy , zz , xy , yz , zx )

Solution:

Hookes law

xx =

E

((1 v)xx + vyy + vzz )

(1 + v)(1 2v)

zz =

xy = Gxy

Note:

E

v=

yz =

1

2G

5

zz =

v= 1

4

v = 0.25

xx =

E

5(106 )

=

= 8.0(106 ) psi

(1 + v)(1 2v)

(1.25)[1 2(0.25)]

xx = 8(106 )[(1 0.25)2,000 + 0.25(3,000) + 0.25(4,500)]106 = (8)(3,375)

xx = 27,000 psi

yy = 8(106 )(106 )[0.75(3, 000) + 0.25(4,500 + 200)]

yy = 31,000 psi

zz = 8(106 )(106 )[0.75(4,500) + 0.25(2,000 + 3,000)]

zz = 37,000 psi

xy = 2(106 )(200)(106 )

xy = 400 psi

yz = 2(106 )(300)(106 )

yz = 600 psi

zx = 2(106 )(225)(106 )

zz = 450 psi

32.

Summary:

xx = 27,000 psi

yy = 31,000

zz = 37,000

xz = 400

yy = +600

zx = +450

compression = 3,000 psi

zz = 3,000, rr = 3,000, = 3,000 rz = 0, z = 0, r = 0

E = 2.4(106 ) psi

v = 0.20

isotropic

axial

30

Find:

(1) rr , , zz , rz , z , r

(2) zz for zz = 0

(3) Strain energy and density

Solution:

Hookes law

1

(zz v vrr ), etc.

E

1

= r , etc.

G

6

10

=

(1 2v)(3,000)

2.4

(1) zz =

rr

zz

(1)

rr = = zz = 750 in/in.

r = z = zr = 0

1

(zz vrr v )

E

= 0.25(3,000 + 3,000)

(2) zz = 0 =

zz

(2)

zz = 1,500 psi

(3) Strain energy W, strain energy density (per unit volume)

one form:

1 2

V

2

2

( + yy

+ zz

) (xx yy + yy zz + zz xx )

2E xx

E

1 2

2

2

+

( + yz

+ zx

)

2G xy

another form:

1

(rr rr + + zz zz + r r + z z + zr zr )

2

1

= [3,000 750(106 )(3) + 0. + 0. + 0.]

2

3

Strain energy

= 3.375(lbf-in./in )

W = V

(2.125)2 (4.25)

= 3.375

4

W = 50.9 lbf-in.

(Strain energy)

I n t r o d u c t i o n 31

33.

x = east, y = north, z = up units are micrometers per meter, E = 34.48 GPa,

G = 13.79 GPa

Find: Stresses for a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, elastic response.

Solution:

By Hookes law

E

xx =

(1 v)xx + vyy + vzz

(1 + v)(1 2v)

yy =

zz =

xy = G xy

yz =

=

zx

E

1

2G

34.48

v=

1

2(13.79)

v = 0.25

with v =

and

34.48

E

=

= 55.17 GPa.

(1 + v)(1 2v)

(1 + 0.25)(1 0.5)

then xx = (55.17)(109 )[(1 0.25)2,000 + 0.25(3,000) + 0.25(4,500)]106

= 55.17(109 )[3,375]106

xx = 186.2 MPa

yy = 55.17(109 )[0.75(3,000) + 0.25(4,500 + 200)]

yy = 213.8 MPa

zz = 55.17(109 )[0.75(4,500) + 0.25(2,000 + 300)]

zz = 255.2 MPa

xy = (13.79)(109 )(106 )(200)

xy = 2.76 MPa

yz = 13.79(109 )(106 )300

yz = 4.14 MPa

32

zx = 3.10 MPa

34.

p = 20.69 MPa = rr = zz = 20.69 MPa

Find:

(1) rr , , zz , rz , z , r

(2) zz for zz = 0

(3) strain energy and density

NX-core L/D = 2 E = 16.55 GPa

v = 0.2

rz = z = r = 0

G =?

Solution:

(1) Hookes law

1

rz , etc.

G

= z = z = 0

rz =

rz

implies :

(1)a

rz = z = r = 0

1

v

v

rr zz

E

E

E

=

rr =

zz =

rr = = zz =

1 2v

(20.69 MPa)

E

1 0.4

(20.69)106

16.55(109 )

rr = 750(106 )meter/meters

=

(2) zz = 0 zz = v(rr + )

= 0.25(20.69 + 20.69)

zz = 10.35 MPa

(3) Strain energy W, density =

One form:

=

W

V

1 2

v

2

2

( + yy

+ zz

) (xx yy + yy zz + zz xx )

2E xx

E

1 2

2

2

+

+ zx

)

( + yz

2G xy

I n t r o d u c t i o n 33

Second form:

1

(nn nn + + zz zz + r r + z z + zr zr )

2

1

= [(20.69)(106 )(750)(106 )(3) + 0 + 0 + 0]

2

= 2.33(104 ) N-m/m3

W = V

= 2.33(104 )

(5.4)2 (104 )(10.8)(102 )

4

W = 5.76 N-m

35.

Show that under complete lateral restraint that under gravity load

(1) Sv = z

v

(2) Sh = SH =

Sv

1v

where = Specific weight, z = depth, v = Poissons ratio, homogeneous, isotropic

rock.

Solution:

Complete lateral restraint means no horizontal strain, displacement. From

Hookes law

Exx = 0 = xx vyy vzz

Eyy = 0 = yy vzz vxx

Eliminate zz to obtain xx = yy, then back substitute to obtain

xx = yy =

v

zz

1v

v

v

1v

(yy) (zz)

h = H =

(xx)

From stress equations of equilibrium

yy

xx

=

= 0 & xy = yz = zx = 0

x

y

zz

+ = 0 and

z

zz = z + constant

at z = 0 surface zz = 0

(2)

34

Constant = 0

zz = z

If z is depth (opposite of + vertical up), and compression is +, then

zz = z

i.e. Sv = z

36.

uniaxial compression

E = 10(106 ) psi

v = 0.35

(1)

Find:

(1) Axial load and stress at failure

(2) Relative displacement between ends at failure.

Solution:

Hookes law

Ezz = zz vrr v

Unconfined: rr = = 0

zz = 0.1(10)2 (10)(106 )

zz = 10,000 psi

F = Azz

= (2.125)2 (104 )

4

F = 35,466 lbf.

zz =

=

z

Bottom

zz dz

Top

= 0.00425 in.

rel

37.

v = 0.35 f = 0.1.

Find:

(1) Axial load (kN) and stress (MPa) at failure

(2) Relative end displacement (m).

Solution:

Hookes law

Ezz = zz vrr v

I n t r o d u c t i o n 35

Unconfined rr = = 0

zz = (0.001)(68.97)109

zz = 68.97 Mpa

F = zz A

= 68.97(103 )kN

F = 158 kN

4

(5.40)2 (104 )

by definition

z

10.8 cm

=

zz dz

zz =

= (0.001)(10.8 cm)(10)

= 0.108 cm

38.

weight to any depth, v = Poissons ratio, z = depth, water bearing Ss 250 ft thick

at 1,300 ft pressure at Ss top is 80 psi

Find: Total and effective stresses at center sandstone.

Solution:

Sv = ave z

250

Sv = ave 1,300 +

2

Sv = 1,425ave /144

v

Sh = SH =

1,425 ave /144

1v

Effective stress:

Sv = Sv p

Sh = SH

= Sh p = SH p

250

p = 80 psi + w

2

(125)

= 80 + (62.4)

144

p = 135 psi

36

ave

Sv = 1,425

135

144

v

ave

Sh = SH

1,425

135

=

1v

144

39.

Given: Gravity loading in flat strata compression positive ave = average specific weight to any depth, v = Poissons ratio, z = depth, water bearing sandstone

76.2 m thick at z = 396 m at z = 396 m

p(top) = 552 kPa

Find: Effective and total stresses at center depth of sandstone.

Solution:

Sv = ave z

76.2

= ave 396 +

12

Total stress: Sv = 434ave

+

3

ave (kN/m )

Sv (kPa)

2

Sv (kN/m )

Under complete lateral constraint via Hookes law

v

Sv

1v

v

Sh = SH =

434 ave (kPa)

1v

Sh = SH =

Effective stress:

Sv = Sv p

by definition

Sh = SH

= SH p = Sh p

76.2

p = 552 kPa + w

2

w = sp. wt. water = 9.87 kN/m3

p = 552 + 376

p = 928 kPa at center of Ss .

Sv = 434ave 928 (kPa)

v

Sv = SH

=

434ave 928 (kPa)

1v

Introduction

40.

37

Surface

Find: Sh = SH (Ss bottom) & (Lm top).

Solution:

v

Sv

1v

120

Sv = 1,000 psi +

134

144

25

178

+

95 +

30

144

144

Sv 1,000 psi

Sh = SH =

= 1,000 + 112 + 16 + 51

Shale

120

Coal

25

Sandstone

50

Limestone

74

Mudstone

133

Sv 1,179 psi

Sv = 1,179 psi

Sh (Ss ) =

v=

v(Ss ) =

v(Lm ) =

Sh (Ss ) =

Sh (Ss ) =

v

Sv

1v

E

1

2G

3.83

1 = 0.25

2(1.53)

5.72

1 = 0.19

2(2.41)

0.25

(1,179)

1 0.25

393 psi

1,179 psi

393 psi

393 psi

Ss

Lm

277 psi

277 psi

SKETCH

Bottom of Ss

0.19

(1,179)

1 0.19

Sh (Lm ) = 277 psi

Sh (Lm ) =

41.

top of Lm

Find: Sh = SH at bottom of sandstone

and at top of limestone.

Solution:

Sv = 6.9 MPa + (36.6)(2.15)(9.87)

+ (7.6)(1.52)(9.87)

+ (15.2)(2.37)(9.87)

= 6.9 + 0.78 + 0.11 + 0.36

Sv = 8.14 MPa

v

Sh = S H =

Sv

1v

Surface

6.9 MPa

Shale

36.6 m

Coal

7.6

Sandstone

15.2

Limestone

22.6

Mudstone

40.5

Sv

38

0.25

(8.14)

1 0.25

Sh = SH (Ss ) = 2.71 MPa

Sh = SH (Ss ) =

0.19

(8.14)

1 0.19

Sh = SH (Lm ) = 1.91 MPa

Sh = SH (Lm ) =

Note:

8.14

E

1

2G

26.4

v(Ss ) =

1

26(10.6)

v(Ss ) = 0.25

v=

2.71

1.91

Sandstone

2.71

Interface

Limestone

1.91

8.14

39.4

1

v(Lm ) =

2(16.6)

v(Lm ) = 0.19

42.

Sv = 25 kPa/m (1.1 psi/ft) SH = Sh = 3Sv

Find: Sh , SH parts caused by gravity and by other forces.

Solution:

(1) Assume complete lateral constraint for gravity loading

(2) Also assume a reasonable poissons ratio, v, say, v = 0.25

then Sh = SH (gravity) =

v

Sv

1v

1

Sv

3

Sv = (500)(25), 1,640(1.1)

Sv = 12.5 MPa, (1,804 psi)

(not gravity)Sh = SH = 37.5 4.17

54.2 601

Sh = SH (not gravity) = 33.3 MPa

(4,811 psi)

Sh = SH (g) =

Slope Stability

1.

Find: Algebraic FS.

b

Solution:

By definition

FS =

R

D

Wn

Ws

b

MohrCoulomb

D = driving forces

W = weight: W = W1 W2

W

a

c, f, g

N

By inspection:

W=

H 2 b

h2 b

(cotan cotan )

cotan

2

2

R = Wn tan + cA

Note: Fn = 0 0 = Wn N & N = Wn

FS

Also

H

h

A=b

sin sin

And Wn = W cos

R = W cos tan + cA

D = W sin

W cos tan + cA

FS =

W sin

4.0

2.0

tan f

tan a

0

0

0.0005

1/H 0.001

Note: almost linear in 1/H

H

h

cb

sin

sin

tan

#

FS =

+

tan (sin ) H 2 b (cot cot )

2

h2 b

cotan

2

40

2c 1 Hh

tan

$$

#

#

FS =

+

tan (sin )2 (H) (cot cot ) h2 cotan

2

H

h

2c 1 H

tan

%

&

FS =

+

2

tan

H(sin )2 1 Hh

cotan cot

2.

Find: Max (algebraically).

Solution:

Solve FS for then set

df

=0

d

Find relative maximum

Find absolute maximum (end pts) or note by inspection that as increases the FS

decreases so will be max when FS is min, that is, when FS = 1, then

'

[H(sin )2 ]

1

'

cotan max = 1

Note:

h

H

2 (

h

H

2c 1 Hh

cotan cotan = ,

1.0 tan

tan

2 (

2c 1 Hh

cotan

,

H(sin )2 1.0

2

cotan max = cotan

3.

tan

tan

2c

,

H(sin )2 1

tan

tan

Given: Problem 1, data allow for water (below bottom of tension crack)

Find: FS (with water).

Solution:

W cos tan + cA

W sin

2

h2 b

H b

(cotan cotan )

where W =

cotan

2

2

b

and A =

(H h)

sin

(previous) FS =

Slope Stability

41

Now

FS =

N tan + cA

W sin

(3)

Ws

hw

Wn

W

W.T

H

Lw

z

2

N

P

z

2

as before Wn = W cos()

but P = ?

w , Aw = bLw

P = pA

pmax

p =

(rectangle)

2

pmax = w z/2 (a linear increase of water pressure with depth below water table is

assumed)

z

1

=

(H hw )

2

2

where hw = water table depth below crest

z

sin

w z

P =

(b)(Lw )

2

2

w bz2

P =

4 sin

Lw =

Hence:

FS =

(W cos P) tan + cA

W sin

where:

w bz2

; z = H hw

4 sin

b

A=

(H h); h = tension crack depth

sin

h2 b

H2b

(cotan cotan )

cotan

W =

2

2

P =

(4)

42

4.

Find: FS for seismic load.

Solution:

Sn

W

as

g

where as = seismic acceleration

i.e. as = a0 g where a0 = seismic

coefficient

e.g. a0 = 0.15

S = a0 W

Sn = a0 W sin

Ss = a0 W cos

By definition

S=

S

h

W

Ss

a

N

N = Wn Sn

R = N tan + cA

D = Ws + Ss

FS =

where

(5)

Ws = W sin ,

Ss = a0 W cos

Wn = W cos ,

Sn = a0 W sin

b

A=

(H h)

sin

W=

5.

(Wn Sn )tan + cA

Ws + S s

b2 H 2

(cotan cotan )

2

surcharge with FS = 1.1 and b = 25

Find: .

Fn

Solution:

N tan + cA + Fn tan

FS =

Ws + F s

F = bl

Fn = F cos

Fs = F sin

then

(FS)Fs Fn tan = N tan

+ cA FS(Ws )

F[(sin )FS cos tan ]

FS

= N tan + cA

Ws

W = V

Fs

l

s

W

c 50 psi

500 ft

50

f 29

40

N

g 156

Slope Stability

43

bH 2

(cotan cotan )

2

(25)(500)2

=

(cotan 40 cotan 50 )

2

V = (3.125)106 (0.35265)

3

V = 1.102(106 ) ft

V=

W = (156)(1.02)(106 )

W = 1.719(108 ) lbf

N = W cos

N = 1.719(108 ) cos 40

N = 1.317(108 )

N tan = 7.3001(107 ) lbf

(25)(500)

sin 40

(50)(144)(25)(500)

cA =

sin 40

cA = 1.4002(108 ) lbf.

A=

1.1

FS(Ws ) =

108 (sin 40)

1.719

FS(Ws ) = 1.2156(108 )

N tan + cA FS(Ws ) = 7.3001(107 ) + 1.4002(108 ) 1.2156(108 )

[9.146(107 )lbf]

[(sin 40)(1.1) cos 40 tan 29]

9.146(107 )

=

0.2824

F = 3.238(108 ) lbf

F=

3.238(108 )

(25)(500)(cot cot )

= 7.346(104 ) psf

= 510 psi

FS without surcharge.

[N tan + cA]

Ws

1.317(108 ) tan 29 + 1.4002(108 )

=

1.719(108 ) sin 40

FS = 1.93(1.928)

FS =

44

6.

Find: Hmax .

Solution:

Hmax occurs when FS is min i.e., when

1=

R

D

(1)

R = N tan + cA

D = Ws

Ws = W sin

Wh = W cos = N

H

A=b

sin

bH 2

(cotan cotan )

W =

2

tan

+

tan

%

Hmax =

Hmax =

N

Solving (1)

1=

c, f, g

Rb

H

sin

bH 2

(cotan

2

cotan ) sin

&

2c

1

tan

(2)(50)(144)

,

cotan 50) 1

tan 29

tan 40

Hmax = 1,867 ft

7.

Bolt spacing vertical = 50 ft

Bolt angle = 5

Bolt spacing horizontal = 25 ft

Bolt tension = 60% ultimate

Bolts: 12 strand type 270

Find: FS, F.

Solution:

25

h 5

50

500 ft

c 50 psi

156 pcf

Tb 40

f 29

5

45

Fb nfb

50

40

Nb

n number of bolts

fb load per bolts

Slope Stability

fb : using Table A1.1 270 k ultimate strength = 495,600 lbf for 12 strands.

fb = 4.956(105 ) lbf.

H

(vert. space)

500

n =

50

n = 10 holes (benches)

n =

10

Fb = (10)(4.956)105 lbf

Nb = Fb cos 45

1

Nb = (10)6 (4.956)

2

Tb = Fb sin 45

1

Tb = (10 )(4.956)

2

(60% mobilized)

W sin

(Nb tan + Tb )(0.6)

FS = FS +

W sin

#

$

(0.6) (106 ) 12 (4.956) tan 29 + 106 12

= 1.928 +

(sin 40) 1.719(108 )

FS =

5.447(106 )

0.6

1.105(108 )

FS = 1.928 + (0.049)(0.6)

FS = 1.928 +

FS = 1.958, F = 0.30

8.

Find: FS.

Solution:

W.T.

W

b

250

a

500

b

250

N

f 29

a 40

b 50

45

46

R

D

R = N tan + cA

D = Ws

N = Wn p

bH 2

(cotan cotan )

W=

2

Wn = 1.317(108 )lbf

prior

Ws = 1.105(108 )lbf

calculations

cA = 1.400(108 )lbf

+t

shear

FS =

c

(t, s)

s

normal

s

(negative)

w

P = pA

bH

Aw =

sin

pmax

p =

2

w z

pmax =

2

z

= 250

2

250

500

P = (67.4)

(25)

2

sin 40

P = 1.5168(108 )

R = N tan + cA

R = (1.317 1.517)108 tan 29 + 1.400(108 )

R = 1.109(107 ) + 1.4(108 )

D = 1.105(108 )

1.289(108 )

FS =

1.105(108 )

FS = 1.167

9.

Find: acceleration a

Solution:

R

then FS =

D

But also for the slide mass center

F = ma

W

m=

g

F =DR

D(1 FS) =

W

g

a

500

50

40

c0

g 156 pcf

f 790

Slope Stability

a > 0 if FS < 1

FS =

FS =

FS =

FS =

FS =

47

N tan

Ws

W cos tan

W sin

tan

tan

tan 29

tan 40

0.66

FS = 0.66

W

then D(1 0.66) = a

g

D = W sin

a = g sin (1 0.66)

a = 32.2(sin 40)(0.34)

tangential direction

a = 7.04 ft/s2

10.

Find: for FS = 1.5.

Solution:

H 475 ft

(Free body)

Wn N P = 0

N = Wn P

Wn = W cos

Ws = W sin

bH 2

W =

(cot cot )

2

475 2

(cot 35 cot 45)

= (150)(1)

2

= 7.728

W = 7.252(106 ) lbf

Wn = 7.252(106 ) cos 35

Wn = 5.941(106 ) lbf

n F = 0

H

2

wT

f 28

45

b

a 35

Wn

Wp

b

c?

g 160 pcf

W

N

a

P

Ws = 7.252(106 ) sin 35

Ws = 4.156(106 ) lbf

Water force must check for water head if tan > 2 tan , then hw =

hw =

z

tan

1 +

2

tan

z

else

2

H

2

48

check

tan 45 > 2 tan 35

(1) > 2(0.700)

no.

hw

hw

475

1

tan 45

=

1 +

2

2

tan 35

= 50.84 ft

pmax = (62.4)(50.84)

pmax

(6.24)(50.84)

p =

=

2

2

p = 1.586(103 ) psf

P = pA

Hw

' sin (

= 1.586(103 )(1)

= 1.586(103 )(1)

475

2

sin 35

P = 6.567(10 ) lbf

5

N = 5.941(106 ) 0.6567(106 )

N = 5.284(106 )

N tan + cbL

Ws

cbL = (1.5)(4.156)(106 ) tan 28(5.284)106

= 3.424(106 )

3.424(106 )

c=

(1)(475)

FS =

sin 35

c = 4.135(103 ) psf

11.

V1

hc

hw

V0

g

C, f

H

b

a

W.T. (a)

Find:

(a) Formula for FS with relieving bench V1

(b) Formula for FS with toe berm

W.T.

Slope Stability

49

Solution:

By definition: FS =

R = resisting forces

D = driving forces

Ws

R

D

Wn

W.T.

W.T.

n

W

N

(Same.)

(a)

(b)

N tan + C

W sin

tan

C

FSa =

+

tan V0 sin

FSa =

N tan + C

W sin

tan

C

FSb =

+

tan (V0 V1 )sin

FSa =

C = cA,

A = area of failure surface

N = (W cos P)

W = V0

N

Ws W

(W cos P)tan + C

FSa =

W sin

But P = 0 when W.T. is below to toe.

The first terms are the same, but the

second term in FSb is greater because

V0 V1 is less then V0 is FS.

FS =

C,

Wn

W1

C1, f1

A1

(N tan + C) + W1 tan + C1

Ws

W1 tan 1 + c1 A1

> FS(without berm)

Ws

The added resistance W1 tan 1 + C1 , comes without added driving force and

thus increases the FS.

50

12.

No tension crack, no benches, = 29 , = 156 pcf, = 50 , persistence = 0.87

cr = 64,800 psf cj = 1,620 psf

r = 32

j = 25

Find:

(a) Hmax when WT at crest

Wn

n

(b) Hmax when WT at toe

N

Solution:

Ws

R

FS =

D

D = W sin

R = N tan + C

N = (Wn p)

C = cA

Wn = W cos

H 2

(cot cot )

2

H

A=

sin

W =

FS =

cH

W cos tan

+ sin

W sin

W sin

cH

tan

sin

+ H 2

tan

(cotan cotan )sin

2

(

'

tan

1

cotan cotan

FS

=

c

tan

2

H

sin2

FS =

1

is minimum when FS is minimum

H

occurs of FS = 1.

By inspection

Hmax

c = (1 p)cr + pcj

= (1 0.87)64,800 + 0.87(1,620)

c = 8,424 + 1,409

c = 9,833 psf

tan = (1 p) tan r + p tan j

= (1 0.87) tan 32 + 0.27 tan 25

tan = 0.08123 + 0.4057

tan = 0.4829

= 25.96 26

Slope Stability

1

=

H

0.4829

1

0.5543

156

2

'

0.96495

51

9833

(0.4848)2

4

= (0.12157)(78)(0.2307)(10 )

1

= 2.188(104 )

H

H = 4.571 ft

Hmax dry

W. T

Z

Wn

Ws

0

5

Z0

2

N

Z0

2

a 29

Pmax

Water force:

z0

if tan > 2 tan then use

2

tan(50) > 2 tan 29

1.1918 > 2(0.5543) = 1.1086

o.k.

z 1

0

P = 2 w

Lw

2

2

H H2

2 sin

w H 2

P =

4 sin

= w

cH

(W cos p)tan + sin

W sin

c

tan

sin

=

+ , tan

H(cotan cotan )sin

2

FS =

,

K = , -

2H 2

w H 2

4 sin

tan

w tan

,1(62.4)tan 26

4

= , 156 (sin2 29 )(cotan 29 cotan 50)

2

K = 0.4301

%

&

tan

cotan cotan

1

FS

+K

=

c

tan

2

H

sin2

2

formula

52

156

[0.5502]

2

1

cotan 29 cotan 50

=

1

H

(9,833) sin2 29

1

H

H = 1,010 ft

9.899(104 ) =

13.

Hmax wet

= 158 pcf

n = 38

j = 27

MohrCoulomb

cr = 1,000 psi cj = 15 psi

Aj /A = 0.93

bench height = 55 ft

b = breadth

Find: Hmax .

Solution:

W.T.

H

2

R

FS =

D

R = Wn tan + cLb

D = Ws

H

49 b

N

32 a

H

2

Ws = Wn tan + cLb

W sin = (W cos P) tan + cLb

H 2

(cotan cotan )

2

1

= (158)

H 2 (cotan 32 cotan 49)

2

W =

W = 57.75 H 2

57.75 H 2 sin 32 = 57.75 H 2 cos 32 tan P tan +

30.60 = 48.98 tan +

c

P tan

1.887

H

H2

c = (1 0.93)cr + 0.93cj

= 0.07(1,000) + 0.93(10.0)

c = 79.3 psi(11,719 psf)

cH(1)

sin 32

Slope Stability

tan = 0.5286 = 27.9

return

30.60 = 48.98(0.5286) +

P

(11,419)(1.887)

2 (0.5286)

H

H

need: P = pLb

w H

H

=

(1)

4

sin

P

(62.4) H 2

=

H2

4 sin

30.60 = 25.89 +

1

62.4

(22,812)

(0.5286)

H

4 sin 32

1

30.60 25.89 + 15.56

=

H

21,549

H = 1,065 ft.

14.

FS(min) = 1.05

Bench height = 60

Aj

Persistance = 79%

A

Wt = 1.351(107 ) lbf per ft of thickness.

Sn

S 0.15 W

50

W

540

Ss

32

45

240

r = 33 cr = 2,870 psi j = 28

Find: If FS = 1.05 possible.

z 240

pmax

cj = 10.0 psi

= 158 pcf

60

53

54

Solution:

Assume water distribution as p = w z where z is 1/2 distance (vertical) to toe

(540 60)

2

z = 240 ft,

z=

(62.4)(240)

144

= 104 psi

pmax =

pmax

pmax

2

P = 52 psi

P = pA

P=

480

(144)

sin(32)

P = 6.783(106 ) lbf

= p(1)

L

Wn = W cos

Wn = 1.351(107 ) cos 32

Wn = 1.146(107 ) lbf

Ws = 1.351(107 ) sin 32

Ws = 7.159(106 ) lbf (no seismic force)

Wn = Wn P

= 1.146(107 ) 6.783(106 )

Wn = 4.6745(108 ) lsf (no seismic force)

Wn = Wn P Ss

Sn = S sin

= 0.15 W sin 32

= 0.15 Ws

Sn = 0.15 (7.159)(106 )

Sn = 1.074(106 ) lbf

Ss = S cos

= 0.15 W cos

= 0.15 Wn

= 0.15 (1.146)107

Ss = 1.719 (106 ) lbf

Wn = 3,600(106 ) lbf

with seismic force

need: c,

c = 0.79 cj + 0.21 cr

c = (0.79)(10) + (0.21)(2870)

c = 7.9 + 603

c = 610.9 psi

tan = (0.79) tan 28 + (0.21) tan 33

tan = 0.556

= 29.1

FS =

=

Wn tan + cA

,

Ws + S s

3.60(106 ) tan 29.1 + (611)(144)(92.5)(1)

7.159(106 ) + (1.719)(106 )

Note:

540 50

L=

sin 32

2z

sin a

Slope Stability

55

2.004(106 ) + 8.139(107 )

8.878(106 )

81.72(106 )

=

8.878(106 )

FS = 9.39

Yes.

=

15.

Find: max (dry).

Solution:

Ws

R

W

613 H

?

D

N tan + cA

=

N

Ws

N = Wn

A

Wn = W cos

H

A=

(1 ft thick)

sin

Ws = W sin

tan

cH

FS =

+

tan ( sin )2 W

H 2

(1)( cot cot )

But W =

2

So FS is min when is max.

FSmin = 1.0

tan

cH

1 =

+

2

tan sin ()W

tan 30

(1,440 psf)(613 ft)(1 ft)

1=

+

tan 34

sin2 (34 ) W

FS =

Wn

30

34

c 1440 psf

g 162

2.823(106 )

W

2.823(106 )

W=

0.144

W = 19.598(106 )lbf

1 = 0.856 +

H 2

(cot cot )

2

(2)(19.598)(106 )

cot cot =

(162)(613)2

cot cot = 0.64387

cot = cot 34 0.64357

W=

cot = 0.83869

max = 50

max

56

16.

W. T.

Wn

H

2

Ws

b 48

H?

W

a 37

g 162 pcf

Rock

33

2580 psi

Joint

33

0.0

Aj 0.86 A

Find: H at FS = 1.15.

Solution:

FR

FD

FD = W s

= W sin

H 2

FD =

(b)(cot cot ) sin(j )

2

(162)(1)

(cot 37 cot 48) sin(37)

= H2

2

FD = H 2 (81)(0.4266) sin(37 )

FD = 20.80 H 2

FS =

FR = Wn tan + cL

Wn = Wn P

Wn = W cos

= H 2 (81)(0.4266) cos(37)

Wn = 27.60 H 2

pmax

, A = Lb

P = pA

p =

2

1

H

H

= w

(1)

2

2

sin

62.4

1

=

H2

4

sin 37

P = 25.92 H 2

Slope Stability

57

H

sin

H

= (0.14)(2,580)(144)

sin 37

Aj

An

+ cj

cL = cr

A

A

cL = 8.643(104 )H

But FS =

FR

(27.60 H 2 25.92 H 2 ) tan(33) + 8.643(104 )H

=

FD

20.80 H 2

FR

4.155(103 )

= 0.0525 +

FD

H

FR

FD

1.15 = 0.0525 +

4.155(103 )

H

1

= 2.641(104 )

H

H = 3,786 ft

17.

depth at FS = 1.15

Find:

(a) Factor-of safety of a cable bolted slope when the water table is drawn down

100 ft

Bench height = 40 (vertical bolt spacing)

Horizontal bolt spacing = 20

Bolt angle = 5 down

Bolt loading = 700 kips/hole

(b) Factor of safety of the same slope but without bolts when the water table is

drawn below the toe

(c) Reasons for preferring one over the other.

Tension crack

Bench ft

37

40

b 40

100

WT

320

a 32

Failure Surface

f 28

c 1440 psf

g 158 pcf

Not to Scale

Solution:

Free body diagram.

hc

Wn

nP

a b

Bolted Wet

Slope

W Wn

100 WT

58

Dry Slope

= bolting angle = 5

n = number of holes per row

320

=

=8

40

Fn = 0

N = W cos() Ps + n Pb sin( )

&

%

H hc

b

T = N tan() + c

sin()

R = T + nPb cos( )

D = W sin()

FS =

R

D

$

#

c

b

[W cos() Ps + nPb sin( )] tan() + c Hh

sin()

+n Pb cos ( )

=

W sin ()

tan() Ps tan() c(H hc )b nPb [sin( )tan + cos( )]

FS =

+

+

tan() W sin()

W sin

W sin2 ()

tan() Ps tan() c(H hc )b nPb cos( )

+

=

+

tan() W sin()

W sin cos

W sin2 ()

usingsin(A) sin(B) + cos(A) cos(B) = cos(A B)

FS = FSwet unbolted + FS bolt

100

Assume e = 18%

dry

G=

(1 + e)

w

220

158

G=

(1.18) = 2.99 grain SG gravity

62.4

dry

Wet

37

Slope Stability

59

2.99 + 0.18

G + Se

62.4 =

w

1.18

1+e

= 168 pcf

wet =

(Hw )2

[cotan() cotan()]b

2

(220)2

[cotan(32 ) cotan(40 )]1

=

2

3

= 9,888 ft

Vwet =

%

&

H2

1 2

[cotan() cotan()]b

hc cotan(30 )

2

2

2

320

37 2

=

[cotan(32 ) cotan(40 )]1

cotan(32 )

2

2

Vdry =

= 1,9824 ft

= 64,621,440 lbs

l

Ps = 2

Pb dl

o

l

= 2 bw l sin()dl

o

110 h

220

w h l b

= w hlb

2

%

&

110

= (62.4)(110)

(20) = 28,496,420 lbf

sin(32 )

=2

110 h

1,440(320 37)(20)

tan(32 )

(64,621,440) sin(32 )

(64,621,440) sin2 (32 )

(8)(700 103 ) cos(32 + 5 28 )

+

(64,621,440) sin(32 ) cos(28 )

= 0.851 0.442 + 0.449 + 0.183

FS wet, bolted slope

FS = 1.041

FS =

W = dry Vdry

= (158)19,824(20) = 6,26,43,840 lbs

60

Fn = 0

N = W cos()

T = N tan + c(H hc )

b

sin()

R= T

= [W cos()] tan() + c(H hc )

b

sin()

D = W sin()

W cos() + tan() + c(H hc ) sin()

R

=

FSdry =

D

W sin

tan() c(H hc )b

=

+

tan()

W sin2 ()

1440 (320 37) (20)

= 0.851 +

6,26,43,840 sin2 (32)

= 0.851 + 0.463

FS dry, unbolted

FS = 1.314

Wedge Failures

18.

A: = 0 = 60

B: = 90 = 60

CB

Find: normals CA , CB .

CA

A

Solution:

C

A:

B:

x

sin sin

3

(0)

2

3

(1)

2

y

sin cos

3

(1)

2

3

(0)

2

z

cos

,12

,12

A = 0, 3 , 1

C

2 2

direction cosines

3

1

B =

C

,

0,

2

2

A : (90 , 30 , 60 )

C

B : (30 , 90 , 60 )

C

direction angles

Slope Stability

19.

61

cA = 0, 23 , 12

cB = 23 , 0, 12

Find: Dip direction and dip of the line of intersection s.

Solution:

s = cA cB

form determinant

i

cA :

0

3

2

|s| =

|s| =

3

4

3

4

3

4

15

16

3

2

1

2

1

2

CB

CA

3

4

5

1

direction cosines:

S

tan s =

Sx

Sy

tan s =

1

5

1

5

Sx

Sy

1

5

1

5

Sz

3

5

s = 45

s ,

s = 50.8

z, U

y (N)

tan s = 1

s = 45

tan s =

Sy

S3

[Sx2 +

+ 35

tan s = .

20.

dir. numbers

2 , -2 &1/2

+ 43 + 34

%

2

3

4

cB :

s =

2

5

as

Sz

1/2

Sy2 ]

3

= + s = 50.8

2

Sx

x(E)

ds

Find: Joint plane areas AA , BA (no tension crack).

Solution:

Vectors S1 , S3 along lines 1 and 2 can be found from intersections of (1) Joint

plane A and Face F, and (2) Joint Plane A and Upland U, since normals to F and

62

c

u35

S3

B

A

u13

S1

1

120 ft

u51

U can be found from their dip directions and dips. The normal to A is known

from problem 18.

The angle 13 can be found from S1 S3 = |S1 ||S3 | cos 13 |S1 | = 1 |S3 | = 1 by

normalization

Similarly angles 35 & 51 can be found

The distance L1 can be found from the dip of line 1 (S1 ) and H = 120 .

The distance L3 can be found.

From the sine law

L3

L1

L5

=

=

sin 15

sin 35

sin 13

4

3

a

u35

d1

120

u13

H

L1

sin d1

d

S3

CU

CA

S3

3

F face

U upland

CA

5

CF

CB

B

5

S1

CA

S5

u15

Slope Stability

63

A C

B

Need vectors S1 , S3 , S5 that are formed by planes of intersection e.g. S5 = C

(as in problems 18 & 19) Need direction cosines of CA , CF , CU , CB

C: sin sin

(problem 18) CA = 0

sin cos

0.8660

cos

0.5000

|CA | = 1

0.5000

|CB | = 1

CF = 0.7044

0.7044

0.08716

|CF | = 1

CU = 0.06163

|CU | = 1

0.06163

0.9962

CROSS PRODUCTS

CA CB =

0.4330

(0.4472)

0.4330

(0.4472)

0.7500

(0.7746)

|S5 | = 0.9682

normalized

CA C F =

0.2767

(0.3657)

0.3522

(0.4654)

0.6100

(0.8060)

|S1 | = 0.7568

normalized

CA C Z =

0.8321

(0.9973)

0.0308

0.0534

|S3 | = 0.8344

(0.03692) (0.06400) normalized

S5

S1

S3

dir. cos

x

0.4472

0.3657

0.9973

0.4472

0.4654

0.03692

0.7746

0.8060

0.06400

DOT PRODUCTS

S13 = |S1 ||S3 | cos 13 = S1x S3x + S1y S3y + S1z S3z

S13 = 0.2959 13 = 107 (or 73 alt. sol.)

S15 = 0.6689

15 = 48.0 [Look of direction of S3 ]

S35 = 0.5102

35 = 59.3

Note: 15 + 35 + 13 = 180 13 = 73

Sine law for length

L1

L3

=

sin 35

sin 15

H

L1 =

sin 1

need dip of L1 , 1

tan 1 =

S1z

2

+ S1y

]

2

[S1x

(0.8060)

[0.36572 + 0.46342 ]1/2

tan 1 = 1.3617

=

64

1 = 53.70

120

L1 =

sin 53.7

L1 = 148.9 ft

( sin 48)

sin(59.3)

L3 = 128.7 ft

L3 = (148.9)

, = 12 (148.9)(128.7) sin 73

AA = 9,161 sq ft.

AA

BA

BA = 9,161 sq ft

20.

(Alternative)

Given: Data in Table where the vertical distance between a and d is 120 ft,

Find: Areas of A and B (without a tension crack)

Solution:

This is a lengthy calculation best done with the aid of a computer program:

Using WEDGE from course downloads

2

Given: Data in Table & vertical distance ad = 120 ft, = 158 pcf water below

toe slope tension crack offset = 90 ft

Find: A, B areas and FSdry and volume.

Solution:

Using WEDGE course download.

2

A = B = 8,072 ft

FSdry = 1.28

Volume = 11,683 yds3 .

Same results using SWEDGE from ROCSCIENCE.

Slope Stability

21.

WEDGE

PLANE A

PLANE B

LINE OF INTERSECTION

SLOPE FACE

UPLAND

TENSION CRACK

EXTERNAL LOAD

DEGREES

DEGREES

0.0

60.0

90.0

60.0

45.0

50.8

45.0

85.0

45.0

5.0

45.0

75.0

0.0

0.0

LENGTH PLANE A TRACE (UPLAND)

TENSION CRACK OFFSET (PLANE A TRACE)

EXTERNAL LOAD MAGNITUDE

ROCK UNIT WEIGHT

120.0 FT.

128.8 FT.

128.8 FT.

0.0 KIPS

158.0 PCF.

DEGREES

PSF.

PLANE A

32.0

1080.0

PLANE B

37.0

1640.0

AREA

SQ. FT.

PLANE A

9160.1

PLANE B

9160.1

TENSION CRACK

0.0

WATER FORCE

KIPS

0.0

0.0

0.0

WEDGE WEIGHT =

51,688.5 KIPS

FACTOR OF SAFETY = 1.33

Checks Table 18.

WEDGE

PLANE A

PLANE B

LINE OF INTERSECTION

SLOPE FACE

UPLAND

TENSION CRACK

EXTERNAL LOAD

DEGREES

DEGREES

0.0

60.0

90.0

60.0

45.0

50.8

45.0

85.0

45.0

5.0

45.0

75.0

0.0

0.0

120.0 FT.

LENGTH PLANE A TRACE (UPLAND) 128.8 FT.

65

66

EXTERNAL LOAD MAGNITUDE

ROCK UNIT WEIGHT

FRICTION ANGLE

DEGREES

PLANE A

32.0

PLANE B

37.0

AREA

SQ. FT.

PLANE A

8071.9

PLANE B

8071.9

TENSION CRACK 1312.0

90.0 FT.

0.0 KIPS

158.0 PCF.

COHESION

PSF.

1080.0

1640.0

WATER FORCE

KIPS

0.0

0.0

0.0

WEDGE WEIGHT = 49837.8 KIPS

F.S.

Given: Wedge data

Wedge forms as shown in sketch.

Line of intersection has dip direction of 135 and is in the same

direction as the face dip direction.

When the face dips 90 to line of

intersection, then kinematic failure is impossible. Thus, the range

of concern is for face dip directions. (45 , 225 ).

z, U

y(N)

A

90

x(E)

180 B

B

Wedge

A

23.

K1 joints = 110 = 38

K2 joints = 147 = 42

n1 : (0.5785, 0.2106, 0.7880)

n2 : (sin sin , sin cos , cos )

sin(42) sin(147) sin(42) cos(147) cos(42)

n2 : (0.3644, 0.5662, 0.7431)

n

1 n

2 = S(0.2857

0.1427 0.2479)

|s| = [(0.285)2 + (0.1427)2 + (0.2479)2 ]1/2

|s| = 0.4043

dir. cos : s = (0.7067, 0.3530, 0.6132)

sx

tan s =

sy

cos = 0.6132

= 127.8

0.7067

=

= 90

0.3530

s = 37.8

tan s = 0.2002

F 135

N

20

22.

K2

57

K1

Slope Stability

s = 63.5 or 116.5

sx > 0 sy < 0 in 4th quadrant

s = 116.5

67

z (U)

y (N)

y(N)

K2

143

116.5 a

110

38

x(E)

K1

77

as 116.5

ds 37.8

37.8

K1

24.

Ss

Find:

(a) dip direction and dip of lines of intersection of A & B

(b) Range of azimuths that are safe

(c) Length of line formed by A & F (Face)

Solution:

(a) Need normals to A & B

Notes:

A:

B:

S:

S:

S:

Cx = sin sin

x

31

2 2

3 3

2 2

3

1

31

+

4

2

4 2

3+ 3

8

Cy = cos cos

Cz = cos

y

z

3 3

1

2 2

2

1

1

3

2

2

2

'

( ' (

3 3

31 31

3

3

4 2 42

4

4

4 4

3 3

9+3

8

16

0.9915

0.1585

0.7500

68

2

3

3

1

sin =

0.5915

Sx

= 2

(0.59152 + 0.15852 )1/2

(Sx + Sy2 )1/2

sin = 0.9659

= 75

Sz

sin = 2

(Sx + Sy2 + Sz2 )1/2

AB

0.75

(0.59152 + 0.15852 + 0.752 )1/2

sin = 0.7746

= 50.8

=

AB

(b) The face dip direction is 75 if a line of intersection does not penetrate the

face, then sliding cannot occur. Thus 75 90 defines range of dip direction

that are unsafe (15 , +165 )

safe s

safe (165 , 345 )

(c)

A:

3 3

2 2

31

2 2

z

1

2

F:

sin 85 sin 75

sin 85 cos 75

cos 85

F:

0.9623

0.2578

0.0872

SAF :

0.0654 0.1289

(0.03776 0.48115)

0.1116 0.7217

SAF :

0.0635

0.44339

0.6101

0.0635

[(0.0635)2 + (0.44339)2 ]1/2

sin = 0.1418

= 8.2 quadrant!

sin =

sin =

(0.06352

sin = 0.8062

= 53.7

(0.6101)

+ 0.44332 + 0.61012 )1/2

Slope Stability

69

H

sin

85

=

0.8062

L = 105.5 ft

L=

25.

Find: If can obtain FS = 1.10.

Solution:

Try quick screening for sliding down line of intersection assuming zero cohesion

and lowest (28 )

C

CA

CB

dc

0

S

x

A

C

0.7501

0.4321

0.5000

B

C

0.4337

0.7501

0.5000

A C

B = (Sx , Sy , Sz )

S = C

= (0.4321)(0.5000) (0.7501)(0.5000)

(0.7501)(0.5000) + (0.4333)(0.5000)

+ (0.7701)(0.7501) (0.4337)(0.4321)

S = (0.5911, 0.5911, +0.3753)

0.5911

tan =

(0.5911)

= 135 dip direction

Sz

tan = .

Sx2 + Sy2

=

0.3753

+ (0.5911)2 ]1/2

[(0.5911)2

tan = 0.44895

= 24.2

70

tan

tan

tan 28

=

tan 24.2

FS = 1.18

FS(dry, C = 0, = min ) =

yes

(>1.10)

26.

Find: dip, dip direction, length of AO

Solution:

y(N)

y (N)

O

(PLAN)

O

F

Trace AO

F

A

O

a

x(E )

A

O A

A

x(E)

Note:

Ca

Cb

x

sin a sin a

sin f sin f

a = 0

f = 90

S

y

cos a sin a

cos f sin f

a = 45

f = 45

Sx

Sy

Sz

Ca

1

2

Cb

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

12

Ss

tan AO =

z

cos a

cos f

1

2

Sx

=

Sy

tan AO = .

1

2

1

2

= 1: AO = 45

1

1

= ., - 2 , - = : AO = 35.3

2

2

1 2

Sx2 + Sy2

+ 12

2

Sz

= 45

= 35.3

Slope Stability

71

length

A

d 35.3

120 ft

l = 208 ft

27.

length

Find:

(a) Dip direction and dip of lines of intersection of A & B

(b) Range of azimuths that are safe

(c) Length of line formed by A & F (face)

Solution:

(a) Need normals to A & B

Notes:

Cx = sin sin

x

B:

S:

S:

S:

Cz = cos

31

2 2

3 3

2 2

3

1

31

+

4

2

4 2

3+ 3

8

y

z

3 3

1

2 2

2

3

1

1

2

2

2

'

( ' (

31 31

3

3 3

3

4 2 42

4

4

4 4

3 3

9+3

8

16

0.5915

0.1585

A:

Cy = sin cos

sin =

0.7500

0.5915

Sx

= 2

(0.59152 + 0.15852 )1/2

(Sx + Sy2 )1/2

sin = 0.9659

= 75

AB

72

sin =

=

Sz

(Sx2 + Sy2 + Sz2 )1/2

(0.59152

0.75

+ 0.15852 + 0.752 )1/2

sin = 0.7746

= 50.8

AB

(b) The face dip direction is 75 if a line of intersection does not penetrate the

face, then sliding cannot occur. Thus 75 90 defines range of dip direction

that are unsafe (15 , +165 )

Safe s

safe (165 , 345 )

(c)

A:

31

2 2

3 3

2 2

z

1

2

F:

sin 85 sin 75

sin 85 cos 75

cos 85

F:

0.9623

0.2578

0.0872

SAF :

0.0654 0.1289

(0.03776 0.48115)

0.1116 0.7217

SAF :

0.0635

0.44339

0.6101

0.0635

[(0.0635)2 + (0.4433)2 ]1/2

sin = 0.1418

= 8.2

quadrant!

sin =

(0.6101)

(0.06352 + 0.44332 + 0.61012 )1/2

sin = 0.8062

= 53.7

sin =

H

sin

25.9

=

0.8062

L = 32.13 m

L=

Slices Problem

Total = 2,01,865

R = 60 ft

b = 1 ft spwt = 100 pcf

coordinates

Slice x(ft) h(ft) h(ave)ft vol(ft3 ) wt(lbf)

y

16 0.00

1

2.53

20.26

2,026 5.07

8 5.07

2

6.82

54.54

5,454 3.50

0 8.57

3

14.84

237.38

23,738 3.30

16 21.10

4

25.18

402.94

40,294 1.08

32 29.26

5

31.02

496.33

49,633 5.72

48 32.78

6

32.07

384.85

38,485 8.34

60 31.36

7

28.79

267.21

26,721 10.49

69.28 26.23

8

18.04

144.35

14,435 16.37

77.28 9.86

9

4.93

10.80

1,080 9.90

79.47 0.00

28.

Rotational Slides

0.20328

11.65

3.86

19.68

34.81

48.51

63.95

77.53

16.00

16.00

16.00

12.00

9.28

8.00

2.19

RocSci:

Slide

0.41268

23.64

8.00

1,72,764

233

6,339

17,701

31,596

46,735

40,202

23,249

4,996

1,712

Wn =

MR =

MD =

6,288

6,818

10.14

7,303

18.22 13,116

14.01 10,086

14.62 10,524

16.99 12,234

16.04 11,546

16.34 11,762

8.73

9.47

56,134

13,261

89,677

WET

DRY

6.6601E+06 9.2325E+06

4.5261E+06 4.5261E+06

1,497

70

0

3,715

416

0

15,124

2,640

0

25,200

4,874

0

32,892

4,498

0

29,250

762

0

25,171 2,427

0

20,510 4,605

0

3,120

938

water = deg

C = psf

P(slice) N tan() L = ft cLb = lbf

75,435 dry =

8,064 wet =

1,054

12,968

20,017

21,972

16,713

2,711

4,792

2,187

1,084

Ws =

1.471 wet

2.040 dry

dry wet

Simplified Bishop = 2.318 1.58

Janbu = 2.000 1.425

FS =

Totals

1.35316

1.11614

0.84674

0.60762

0.34344

0.06732

0.56451

rads

32.34

chord slope

angle = deg

8.00

40

20

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

L7

L8

L4

L5

L6

L1

L2

L3

Circle

60

Radius

Face

40

20

Slices example

80

100

1.1192

0.609

7.654

1.929

0.725

7.654

B -OLD

JG-MED

C-YOU

C -OLD

C -MED

GD-LEAN

105

125

125

110

125

125

110

105

1.6788

B -YOU

110

125

1.051

B-YOU

LEAN

3.407

110

110

D -MED

0.885

TOT-KJ

125

0.074

A-YOU

125

D -OLD

0.326

KJ-OLD

110

1.211

110

SPWT

(PCF)

13

38

57

74

ANGLE

Total driving =

121,800

385,800

400,000

528,000

1,435,600

121,800

223,840

295,468.8

6,41,108.8

155,760

65,200

220,960

51,744

(LBF)

1 FT THICK

D-YOU

0.294

AREAS

(SQ FT)

(SQ IN)

AREAS

1 = 40

SCALE

SEC

A part W.T. 1

SLICES

29.

FS = 0.504

FS = R/D =

952,697.9

322,939.7

394,706

185,312.6

49,739.53

WS

0.503937

1398,806

505,200.6

120,343.4

14,262.58

WN

0.649408

40, 960.6

746,226.5

0.726543

11, 695.8

155,448.6

TAN

WN

Total friction =

652,579.2

349,752

161,304

25,958.4

160

83

59

Total cohesion =

700

2,800

2,300

480,100

112,000

232,400

135,700

cL

1.1192

0.609

7.654

1.929

0.725

7.654

B -OLD

JGMED

C-YOU

C -OLD

C -MED

GD-LEAN

105

125

125

110

125

125

110

105

1.6788

B -YOU

110

125

1.051

B-YOU

LEAN

3.407

110

110

125

0.885

TOT-KJ

D -MED

0.074

A-YOU

125

D -OLD

0.326

KJ-OLD

110

1.211

110

SPWT

(PCF)

Total driving =

121,800

385,800

400,000

528,000

1,435,600

121,800

223,840

295,468.8

641,108.8

155,760

65,200

220,060

51,744

(LBF)

1 FT THICK

D-YOU

0.294

AREAS

(SQ FT)

(SQ IN)

AREAS

1 = 40

SCALE =

SEC

B part W.T.2

SLICES

13

38

57

74

ANGLE

FS = 0.597

FS = R/D =

952,697.9

322,939.7

394,706

185,312.6

49,739.53

Ws

0.596846

1,398,806

505,200.6

120,343.4

14,262.58

WN

92,7061.7

402,115.8

120,343.4

14,262.58

WN

Total friction =

4,71,744

1,03,084.8

88,514.31

0.649408

0.726543

TAN

78,151.94

10,362.37

160

83

59

Total

cohesion =

700

2,800

2,300

480,100

112,000

232,400

135,700

cL

1.6788

1.1192

0.609

7.654

1.929

0.725

7.654

B -YOU

B -OLD

JG-MED

C-YOU

C -OLD

C -MED

GD-LEAN

105

125

125

110

125

125

110

110

105

1.051

B-YOU

125

3.407

110

110

LEAN

0.885

TOT-KJ

125

0.074

A-YOU

125

D -MED

0.326

KJ-OLD

D -OLD

1.211

110

SPWT

(PCF)

110

0.294

AREAS

13

38

57

74

ANGLE

Total driving =

121,800

385,800

400,000

528,000

907,600

121,800

223,840

295,468.8

184,976

456,132.8

155,760

13,024

65,200

207,936

51,744

(LBF)

1 FT THICK

D-YOU

AREAS

(SQ FT)

(SQ IN)

SEC

1 = 40

SCALE =

SLICES

FS = 0.795

FS = R/D =

709,118.3

2041,65.6

280,823.4

174,389.8

49,739.53

Ws

0.795365

884,338.3

359,437.6

113,250.1

14,262.58

WN

412,594.3

256,352.8

113,250.1

14,262.58

WN

Total friction =

471,744

103,084.8

83907.82

0.649408

0.726543

TAN

73,545.45

10,362.37

160

83

59

Total

cohesion =

700

2,800

2,300

480,100

112,000

232,400

135,700

cL

1.6788

1.1192

0.609

7.654

1.929

0.725

7.654

B -YOU

B -OLD

JG-MED

C-YOU

C -OLD

C -MED

GD LEAN

105

125

125

110

125

125

110

110

105

1.051

B-YOU

125

3.407

110

LEAN

0.885

TOT-KJ

110

125

0.074

A-YOU

125

D -MED

0.326

KJ-OLD

D -OLD

1.211

110

SPWT

(PCF)

110

0.294

AREAS

13

38

57

74

ANGLE

Total driving =

121,800

385,800

400,000

528,000

907,600

121,800

223,840

295,468.8

184,976

456,132.8

155,760

13,024

65,200

207,936

51,744

(LBF)

1 FT THICK

D-YOU

AREAS

(SQ FT)

(SQ IN)

SEC

1 = 40

SCALE =

L = 378 ft

FS = R/D =

709,118.3

204,165.6

280,823.4

174,389.8

49,739.53

Ws

1.05

884,338.3

359,437.6

113,250.1

14,262.58

WN

231,759.1

L=

377.8203

ft

0.649408

48, 053.9

0.726543

11, 695.8

9,685.551

TAN

WN

Total friction =

652,579.2

349,752

161,304

25,958.4

160

83

59

Total

cohesion =

700

2,800

2,300

480,100

112,000

232,400

135,700

cL

Slope Stability

30.

O

Xi

a

b

r

Yi

R

S

W

(ti)

(si)

N

P

Rn1 (Wi sin i + Si Rri cos i )

when Ni = Wi cos i Pi Si sin i .

Show: FS =

Solution:

Sn

Overall equilibrium

n1 (Wi xi + Si yi ) = n1 i Ai R

[Wi R sin(i ) + Si Ri cos(i )]

Ai R

= i max

fsi

assume fsi = fsj = fs = FS

and MC strength so

i max = i tan i + ci

S

WS

SS

(i + tan i + ci )Ai R

=

FS

FS =

ni

Free body

,

Wi sin i + Si Rri cos i

Normal force equilibrium

Neglect side forces

n F = 0

0 = Wn N P Sn

Ni = Wi cos i Pi Si sin i (each slice i)

Wn

W

T

N

P

79

80

31.

R = 300 ft H = 120 ft = 95 psf

C = 367 psf

Find:

(1) Seismic force on slice 7, as = 0.15

(2) Water force on bottom of 7

(3) FS of 7

(4) FS slip surface, dry & no seismic force.

= 16

= 29

s

S

Ws

Sn

Wn

Ss

Solution:

(1) S = ma

W

=

0.15 g

g

S = 0.15 W

S = 0.15(10.29)(105 )

N

24

S = 1.544(105 ) lbf.

(2) P = pA

p = rH

= (62.4)(82)(75)(1)

(1)

(2)

P = 3.838(105 ) lbf

(3) FS(7) =

R(7)

D(7)

D = Ws + S s

= (10.29)(105 ) sin 24 + 1.544(105 ) cos 34

D = 5.596(105 ) lbf

R = N tan + cL

N = Wn P S s

= 10.29(105 ) cos 24 3.838(105 ) 1.544(105 ) sin 24

N = 4.934(105 ) lbf.

5.596(105 )

FS(7) = 0.302

FS(7) =

MR

(4)

FS =

(dry, no seismic force)

MD

/10

/10

/5

1 Wr tan +

1 C+

1 Ws

=

/10

6 Ws

(3)

Slope Stability

12.93(105 )

FS = 1.78

81

32.

(4)

FS = 1.78

MR

MD

/5

/10

1 R(W cos tan + cL) +

1 R W sin

FS =

10

R

W

sin

6

FS =

as in 31(4).

33.

Given: Circular are failure data in Fig. 2.33 and Table 2.14.

Find: FS(2), FS(7), show total FS.

Solution:

FS = MR /MD , R = radius of slips circle

Slice 2

R[(Wn tan ) + C]

RWs

P = w WL(1)

= (62.4)(1)(52)(30)

FS =

P = 9.734(104 ) lbf.

C = cL(1)

= (367)(30)(1)

C = 1.101(104 ) lbf

normal equilibrium:

Wn = W cos P

= 27.78(104 )(cos 28 ) 9.734(104 )

Wn = 24.49(104 ) 9.734(104 )

Wn = 14.76(104 ) lbf

Ws = W sin

But is resisting!

[(Wn

0

FS Slice 2

FS =

Slice 2

82

Slice 7

P = (62.4)(1)(75)(82)

P = 3.838(105 )lbf

Wn = 10.29(105 ) cos(24) 3.838(105 )

Wn = 5.563(105 ) lbf

C = (367)(75)(1)

C = 2.753(104 ) lbf

Ws = 10.29(105 ) sin 24

Ws = 4.185(105 ) lbf

MR = R(Wn tan + C)

= R(5.563(105 ) tan 16 + 0.275(105 )

MR = R(1.870)105 lbf

MD = RWn

MD = R(4.185)(105 )

R(1.870)(105 )

R(4.185)(105 )

FS = 0.447

FS =

Slice 7

Algebraically

FS =

FS =

34.

MR

MD

/10

i=1

/10

i=6 R(Ws )i

/5

i=1

R(Ws )i

Find: Expression for safety factor

Solution:

By definition

MR

Moments resistance

FS =

=

MD

Moments driving

0

MR =

(forces)(lever arm)

slices

R

0

MD =

(forces)(lever arm)

slices

D

Slope Stability

lever arm = R

since circular failure

MR = R

5

0

(N tan + C)i +

i=1

MD = R

5

0

2

0

RTi

i=1

i=1

T

N

N

T

=

=

=

=

=

Normal component of weight

inclination of slice bottom from horizontal

W cos()

W sin()

/5

FS =

/5

i=3 RTi

where cA = C and A = area of slice base

i=1

/2

i=1

RTi

Dynamics,Toppling

35.

A

n

a

Solution:

Mass center obeys

F = ms where s = down hill distance

s = velocity

s = acc. of mass center

Choose origin of coordinates n, s at mass center starting point A

At time t = 0, s = s = s = 0

83

84

So F = D R

D = downhill component of weight

Free body of slide mass

D = W sin

N = W cos

P = 0 dry assumption

M.C

T

Wn

Frictional resistance

Ws

N

Ff = N tan

W

s

g

W

W sin W cos tan =

s

g

%

&

sin( )

s = g

( )

cos

W sin W cos tan =

At constant slope

s = st + s(0)

&

sin( )

( 0)

t

s = g

cos

%

& 2

sin( ) t

s=g

( 0)

cos

2

%

36.

Given: Profile = 15

1,200

2

5

h5

15

20

20

4

100

Find: h5

35

650

Slope Stability

85

Solution:

(1) Draw -line

(2) From notes on dynamics of sliding, 0 = Wh Wd tan

h

d

h = 1,200 + 650 h5

tan =

d = d1 + d2 + 100 + d5

1,200

tan 35 =

d1

650

tan 70 =

d2

h

5

tan 70 =

d5

1,200

65

h5

d =

+

+ 100 +

tan 35 tan 20

tan 20

tan 15 =

(1,200 + 650 h5 )

1,200

tan 35

65

tan 20

+ 100 +

h5

tan 20

(0.260) 1,713.0 + 1,786 + 100 +

964 +

37.

h5

tan 20

= 1,850 h5

0.268 h5

= 1,850 h5

tan 20

1,738 h5 = 886

h5 = 510

h5

Solution:

Equilibrium requires

n F = W

s F = 0

o M = 0

b

tan b h

Ws

W cos = N

W sin = T

h

b

0 = Ws + Nx N

2

2

W Wn

O

a

N

b

3

86

h

b

+ W cos x

=0

2

2

h

b

tan = x

2

2

b h

x = tan

2 2

W sin

x

b

3

b b

b

tan

2 2

3

b

h

b

tan ,

= tan

6

2

h

1

tan tan

3

38.

Find: Dimension necessary to prevent

toppling.

To prevent toppling, must be in equilibrium

b

W

F = 0: N = Wn = W cos

T = Ws = W sin

h

M = 0 Nx T = 0

2

h

T

x=

2

N

h

b

x=

( tan ) & x <

2

2

W

W

a 28

b

h

tan

2

2

b

tan

h

b h tan 28

b h(0.5317)

square base b into page = b.

e.g. if h = 10 b = b 5.317 ft.

f 32

c0

3 Shafts

Single, Naturally Supported Shafts

1.

C0 22,000 psi

Section

T0 1,200 psi

g 144 pcf

3,000 ft.

E 5(106) psi

Plan

G 2(106) psi

20

sy

(a)

(b)

Gravity only

Solution:

By definition:

FSc =

C0

;

c

FSt =

T0

t

c = Kc 10 ;

t = Kt 10

Gravity only

v = h

v (max) = (144)

3,000

144

v = 3,000 psi

88

FSc =

22,000

3,000

FSc (vertical)

FSc = 7.33

In plan view:

Sh

Gravity only

SHAFT

SH Sh S1 S3

SH

& M

S3

S1

1

Sh = SH =

v

Sv

1v

v=

E

1

2G

v=

5(106 )

1

2(106 )2

v = 0.25

Sh = SH =

1

Sv

3

Sh = SH = 1,000 psi

FSc =

=

C0

Kc S1

(text for Kc )

22,000

(2)(1,000)

FSc = 11.0

no tension

FSt is not a factor

Shafts

2.

89

But h = v

i.e., Sh = SH = Sv = 3,000

Find: FSc , FSt .

Solution:

In plan view

Sh 3,000

3,000

=1

3,000

Kc = 2 & Kt not a factor

22,000

FSc =

(2)(3,000)

FSc = 3.67

M=

SH 3,000

3.

Find: FSc , FSt .

Solution:

Sh SH 30 psi

SH (0.01)(3,000)

PLAN

M=1

Kc = 2 & Kt not a factor

22,000

FSc =

(2)(30)

FSc = 361

FSt not a factor

4.

C0 = 152 MPa T0 = 8.3 MPa = 23 kN/m3

E = 34.5 GPa G = 13.8 GPa depth = 915 m

gravity load only

Find: FSc , FSt .

90

Solution:

Sh

6m

915 m

6m

SH

By definition:

FSc =

C0

,

c

c = Kc 10 ,

FSt =

T0

t

t = Kt 10

(a) Kc = 1,

10 = h = Sv

= (23)(915)

10 = 21.05 MPa

FSc =

152

21.05

gravity only Sh = SH

Sh = SH =

v

Sv

1v

E

1

2G

34.5

=

1

2(13.8)

v=

v = 0.25

S3

=1

S1

& Kc = 2, Kt n.a.

M=

Shafts

91

1

(21.05)

3

Sh = SH = 7.02 MPa

Sh = SH =

FSc =

152

(2)(7.02)

no tension FSt not a factor

5.

Find: FSc , FSt .

Solution:

Sh 21.05

SH 21.05

S3

=1

S1

Kc = 2

Kt not a factor

152

FSc =

2(21.05)

FSc = 3.61

M=

6.

Find: If failure possible FSc , FSt = ?

Solution:

Sh 0.21 MPa

M = 1 Kc = 2

152

FSc =

(2)(0.21)

FSc = 361

Kt = no tension

92

7.

Given: (a) M =

1

3

(b) M = 0 for

W0

= 2.0

H0

Solution:

Best means highest FSs or equivalently lowest stress concentration factors.

(Bull. 587 p.11, 12, 14 or text)

W0 /H0 = 2

Fig. 4c

PP

PPShape

Ellipse

PP

P

P

Fig. 5c

Fig. 6d

Ovaloid

Rectangle

Tens.

Comp.

Tens.

Comp.

Tens.

Comp.

M = 1/3

0.3

4.7

0.4

3.2

0.1

4.0

M=0

1.0

5.0

0.9

3.4

0.8

4.0

(a) for M =

1

3

(b) for M = 0

Rectangle is best in tension

Ovaloid is best in compression, still

Rectangle is best in tension, still

Since rock is often much stronger in compression, than in tension one may choose

a rectangle. However, the choice is now really site-specific.

s10

s30

s10

H0

H0

W0

8.

s10

W0

H0

W0

s30

W0 s10

xx = 1,141 yy = 2,059 zz = 1,600

xy = 221

yz = 0

zx = 0

x = east, y = north, z = up, compression (+)

E = 4.5(106 )psi, v = 0.20, C0 = 15,000 psi, T0 = 900 psi

Find:

(a) Most favorable orientation

(b) FSt , FSc

(c) Sketch peak stress.

Shafts

93

Solution:

The most favorable orientation is with the long axis (20 ft) parallel to S1 rule of

thumb.

y

xy

tan 2 =

1

(

2 xx

3

1

u

x

yy )

221

1

(1,141

2

2,059)

tan 2 = 0.4815

= 12.9 (cw from y axis)

(a)

1/2

&2

1

2

(xx yy ) + (xy )

2

1/2

+%

&2

1

1

S1

2

= (1,141 + 2,059)

(1,141 2,059) + (221)

S3

2

2

S1

S3

S1

S3

1

= (xx + yy )

2

+%

= 1,600 509

2,109 psi

=

1,091 psi

S3

S1

1,091

=

2,109

M=

M = 0.517

Kt = 0.0,

y(N)

S1 2,109

12.9

x(E)

1

2

1

K = 0.5,

2

Kc = 4.57+

20

M 0.5,

10

Sketch

No tension

C0

FSt = not a factor, FSc =

c

15,000

FSc =

(4.57)(2,109)

FSc = 1.56

9.

(a), (b)

xx = 7.9, yy = 14.2, zz = 11.0

xy = 1.5, yz = 0, zx = 0 MPa

x = east, y = north, z = up, E = 31.0 GPa

v = 0.20, C0 = 103 MPa, T0 = 6.2 MPa

(b)

94

Find:

(a) Most favorable orientation

(b) FSc , FSt in this orientation

(c) Sketch peak stress.

Solution:

Rule: . . . Most favorable orientation is with long axis parallel to the major

compression.

tan 2 =

1.5

1

(7.9

2

14.2)

tan 2 = 0.4762

2 = 25.5 , 154.5

= 12.7 , 77.3

= 77.3

1

2

1/2

xx yy 2

+ (xy )2

2

1/2

1

7.9 14.2 2

=

+ (1.51)2

(7.9 + 14.2)

2

2

1

= (xx + yy )

2

= 11.05 3.49

1 = 14.54 MPa

3 = 7.56 MPa

s1 14.54

s3 7.56

sc

77.3

S3

M=

S1

7.56

=

14.54

M = 0.52

Kt = 0,

(Table 3.2a)

1

2

1

K = 0.5,

2

Kc = 4.57

Sketch

x1

M 0.5,

6m

3m

no tension

peak compression occurs at corners

FSt not a factor

103

(4.57)(14.54)

FSc = 1.55

FSc =

Shafts

10.

95

Sv = 1.2h

Sh = 120 + 0.5h :

Premining (psi)

SH = 3,240 + 0.3h

h = depth (ft)

Find:

(a) Best orientation,

(b) At all depths?

Solution:

If h = 0, then SH = 10 , Sh = 30 and best orientation is with the long dimension

parallel to SH .

Sh

SH

12

(a)

24

Sh < SH

120 + 0.5h < 3,240 + 0.3h

0.2h < 3,120

h < 15,600

Best at all depths of shaft (3,000 ft)

11.

Sv = 27.24

Sh = 826 + 11.3h

SH = 22,345 + 6.8h

h = depth in meters

Stresses in kPa

Find:

(a) Best orientation

(b) Best orientation at every depth

Solution:

At h = 0 (depth)

(b)

96

same orientation for:

h

Sh s 30

Sh < SH

826 + 11.3h < 22,345 + 6.8h

4.5h < 21,519

h < 4,782 m

SH s 10

H

3.66

7.32

12.

x

PLAN

y (N)

N30E

6

(45) 500(10

30

(0) 1,000(106)

y

(90) 3,000(106)

x (E)

Find: State of strain, & stress.

Solution:

Normal strain rotation of axis

=

x + y

x y

+

cos 2 + xy sin 2

z

z

w.r.t x y z

x x = (0)

y y = (90)

x x + y y

x x y y

+

cos 2.45 + x y

2

2

= 2(45) [(0) + (90)]

(45) =

2x y

x x

y y

2x y

x y

= 1,000(106 )

= 3,000(106 )

w.r.t x y z

= 3,000(106 )

= 1,500(106 )

Shafts

x x + y y

x x y y

xx

=

cos 2 xy sin 2

yy

2

2

x x y y

xy =

sin 2 + xy cos 2

2

x

= 60

2 = 120

60

1

cos 2 =

2

3

sin 2 =

2

y

30

3

1

2

x

x x + y y

1,000 + 3,000 6

=

10

2

2

x x + y y

= 2,000(106 )

2

x x y y

1,000 3,000 6

=

10

2

2

x x y y

= 1,000(106 )

2

' (

3

1

xx

6

6

6

= 2,000(10 ) (1,000)(10 )

(1,500)(10 )

yy

2

2

6

xx

= 3,799 (10 )

6

yy

201 (10 )

' (

3

1

6

6

xy = (1,000)10

+ (1,500)(10 )

2

2

xy = 116(106 )

The surface is shear stress free & normal stress free

zx = zy = 0 = zz : from Hookes law

Gzx = zx & Gzy = zy

zx = zy = 0

Also

xy = G(2)(116)106

E

G=

2(1 + 0)

2.4(106 )

G=

2(1 + 0.2)

97

98

xy = 2xy

xy = +(2)1.0(10 )(116)106

6

xy = 232 psi

+

Exx = xx vyy

: zz = 0

Eyy = vxx + yy : zz = 0

E

(xx + vyy )

1 v2

y =

(vxx + yy )

1 v2

%

&

(2.4)(106 )

xx =

[3,799 + 0.2(201)] 106

1 0.04

=

x

or

xx = 9,598 psi

%

yy

&

2.4(106 )

=

[0.2(3,799) + 201] 106

1 0.04

yy = 2,402 psi

v

zz = (xx + yy )

E

%

&

0.2

zz =

(9,598 + 2,402)

2.4(106 )

zz = 1,000(106 )

(a) Summary

Strain:

Stress:

6

xy = 3,799(10 )

Compression(+)

yy = 201(10 )

xx = 9,598 psi

yy = 2,402 psi

zz = 1,000(10 )

6

xz = 116(10 )

yz = 0

zx = 0

zz = 0

xy = 232 psi

yz = 0

zx = 0

Find:

(a) Best orientation

(b) Strengths for FSc = 2, FSt = 4.

Compression(+)

Shafts

99

Solution:

Best orientation is long axis

Parallel to 10 (compression t)

tan 2 =

=

xy

1

(

2 xx

yy )

232

1

(9,598

2

N,y

2,402)

txz 232 psi

tan 2 = 0.064

2 = 3.76

E,x

= 1.89

Orientation (b)

N91.8 E

y (N)

s30

10

1.8

s01

20

10

30

10

30

x (E)

1/2

xx yy 2

2

+ (xy )

2

1/2

9,598 + 2,402

9,598 2,402 2

2

=

+ (232)

2

2

xx + yy

=

= 6,000 + 3,605

10 = 9,605 psi

30 = 2,395 psi

30

10

2,395

M=

9,605

M = 0.249

M=

100

For: M = 0.249,

W0

10

=

, Bull. 587 p.14 Fig. 6b [T3.2a text]

H0

20

M = 15

M = 13

k = 12

Kmin

0.41

0.14

Kmax

3.70

4.05

1

M=

3

Kc 4.0

1

M=

3

Kt 0.1

FSt =

T0

, T0 = (4)(0.1)(9,605), T0 = 3,843 psi

Kt 10

(low)

FSt =

C0

Kc 10

tension

C0 = (2)(4.0)(9,605)

(high) compression

C0 = 76,840 psi

13.

= 28 kN/m3 , FSc = 2, h = 1,234 m, FSt = 4

Find: Strengths needed at depth.

Solution:

At depth

zz (gravity) = h

3

vg

= 34.6 MPa

hg =

0.2

34.6

1 0.2

= 8.65 Mpa = Hg

=

hg

v

vg

1v

Shafts

101

S1 = hg + S10

9,605

= 34.6 +

145

S1 = 100.8MPa

S3 = hg + S30

2,395

= 8.65 +

145

S3 = 25.2 MPa

S3

S1

1

M=

4

M=

C0 = (FSc )(Kc )(S10 )

= (4)(0.1)(100.8)

= (2)(4)(100.8)

C0 = 806 MPa

T0 = 40.3 MPa

(117,000 psi!)

( 5,850 psi)

The high stress requires high strength, probably greater than laboratory strengths.

14.

x

y (N)

N30E

30

y

PLAN

(45)

500(106)

(0) = 1,000(106)

(90)

3,000(106)

Find: State of strain & stress.

Solution:

Normal strain rotation of axis

=

x + y

x y

+

cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

x (E)

102

w.r.t x y z

x x = (0)

y y = (90)

x x + y y

x x y y

(45) =

+

cos 2.45 + x y

2

2

2x y = 2(45) [(0) + (90)]

x x = 1,000(106 )

y y = 3,000(106 )

w.r.t x y z

2x y = 3,000(106 )

x y = 1,500(106 )

w.r.t xyz rotation of axis

x x + y y

x x y y

xx

=

cos 2 xy sin 2

yy

2

2

x x y y

xy =

sin 2 + xy cos 2

2

y

1

cos 2 =

2

3

sin 2 =

2

x

= 60

60

x x + y y

2

x x + y y

2

x x + y y

2

x x + y y

2

xx

yy

xx

yy

30

2

3

1

1,000 + 3,000 6

10

2

= 2,000(106 )

=

1,000 3,000 6

10

2

= 1,000(106 )

' (

1

3

6

= 2,000(10 ) (1,000)(10 )

(1,500)(10 )

2

2

6

3, 799(106 )

201(106 )

xy = (1,000)10

xy = 116(106 )

' (

3

1

+ (1,500)(106 )

2

2

S h a f t s 103

zx = zy = 0 = zz from Hookes law

Gzx = zx & Gzy = zy

zx = zy = 0

xy = G(2)(116)106

Also

E

2(1 + v)

16.55

G=

2(1 + 0.2)

G=

G = 6.895 Gpa

xy = (6.895)109 (2)(116)106

xy = 1.60 Mpa

,

E

xx + vyy : zz = 0

2

1v

,

E

yy + vxx : zz = 0

=

2

1v

xx =

yy

xx =

16.55

[3,799 + 0.2(201)]109 106

1 0.04

xx = 66.2 Mpa

16.55

yy =

[201 + 0.2(3,799)]

1 0.04

yy = 16.56 Mpa

v

(xx + yy )

E

%

&

0.2

=

(66.2 + 16.56)106

16.55(109 )

zz =

zz = 1,000(106 )

(a) Summary

xx = 3,799(106 )

yy = 201(106 )

6

zz = 1,000(10 )

xy = 116(106 )

yz = 0

zx = 0

xx = 66.2 Mpa

yy = 16.56

zz = 0

xy = 1.60

yz = 0

zx = 0

104

y (North)

s30

tan 2 = 1

2

=1

2

3m

1.8

xy

(xx yy )

1.60

(66.2 16.56)

tan 2 =0.0644

2 =3.7 , 176.3

= 1.8 , 88.2

x (East)

6m

s10

orientation is N91.8 E

1/2

10

xx yy 2 , -2

1

= (xx + yy )

+ xy

2

2

30

1/2

66.2 16.56 2

1

= (66.2 + 16.56)

+ (1.60)2

2

2

10

= 41.38 24.87

30

10 = 66.25 MPa

30 = 16.51 MPa

16.51

66.25

M = 0.25

M=

M = 15

M = 13

Kmin

0.41

0.14

Kmax

3.70

4.05

k = 12

estimate:

Kc 4.0

Kt 0.2

FSc =

C0

,

Kc 10

FSt =

T0

Kt 10

C0 = (2)(4.0)(66.25),

T0 = (4)(0.2)(66.25)

C0 = 530 MPa,

T0 = 53 MPa

S h a f t s 105

15.

= 28 kN/m3 , h = 1,234 m, FSc = 2, FSt = 4

Find: Strengths needed at depth.

Solution:

At depth

zz (gravity) = h

,

= 28 kN/m3 (1,234)

vg = 34.6 MPa

Estimate horizontal gravity stress as

hg =

v

= vg

1v

0.2

34.6

1 0.2

= 8.65 MPa = Hg

=

hg

S1 = vg + S10

S3 = hg + S30

9,605

145

S1 = 100.8 MPa

2,396

145

S3 = 25.2 MPa

= 34.6 +

= 8.65 +

S3

S1

1

M=

4

M=

C0 = (FSc )(Kc )(S10 )

= (2)(4)(100.8)

= (4)(0.1)(100.8)

C0 = 806 MPa

T0 = 40.3 MPa

(117,000 psi!)

(5,850 psi)

The high stress requires high strength, probably greater than laboratory strengths.

106

16.

C0 = 23,700 psi

T0 = 1,450 psi

y(N)

SE = 350 + 0.2 h

SN = 420 + 0.35 h

Sv = 1.12 h

20

x(E)

deeper to 1,800 ft

Find: FSc , FSt at 1750

10

Solution:

C0

,

c

c = Kc S1

S1 1,033

T0

c

t = Kt S1

SN = 420 + 0.35(1,750)

SN = 1,033 psi

FSc =

FSt =

y

x

H0 20

S3 700

SE = 350 + 0.2(1,750)

SE = 700 psi

W0 10

SN = S1

700

M=

1,033

M = 0.678

W0

10

=

H0

20

W0

= 0.5

H0

Table 3.2 Text, estimate between

Kmax

Kmin

M = 12

M = 34

4.57

0.19

5.48

0.69

Kc 4.9

(no tension)

23,700

4.9(1,033)

FSc = 4.68

FSc =

FSv =

23,700

= 12.1

(1.12)(1,750)

Shafts

17.

107

Find: Favorable shape ellipse, rectangle, ovaloid with semi-axes ratio of 2?

(USBM Bull 587)

Solution:

M=1

Ellipse

Rectangle

Ovaloid

Kc

4.0

4.6

3.2

Kt

Note: Hydrostatic M = 1

Ovaloid is best lowest Kc no-tension

(Note: Ovaloid has well-rounded corners, max radius, in fact)

18.

C0 = 164 MPa

T0 = 10.2

E = 36.5 GPa

v = 0.27

= 26.6 kN/m

SN = 2,897 + 7.9h (y)

Sv = 25.3h

(z)

Find: FSc , FSt , FSv for Shaft of 533 m.

Solution:

FSc =

C0

C0

C0

FSt =

FSv =

c

t

Sv

c = Kc S v

y(N)

t = Kt S v

S1 7.11 MPa

6m

x(E)

S3 4.81 MPa

Sv = 25.3(533)

Sv = 13.49 MPa

SE = 2,414 + 4.5(533)

SE = 4.81 MPa

SN = 2,897 + 7.9(533)

SN = 7.11 MPa

S3

4.81

=

S1

7.11

M = 0.68

M=

108

Table 3.2a:

Kmax

Kmin

M = 12

M = 34

4.57

0.19

5.48

0.69

estimate Kc 4.9

Kt not a factor

164

(4.9)(7.11)

FSc = 4.71

FSc =

FSv =

164

= 12.2

13.49

FSv = 12.2

19.

Find: Favorable shape ellipse, rectangle, ovaloid with semi-axes ratio of 2?

(USBM Bull 587, text for ellipse, rectangle)

Solution:

M = 1:

Kc

Ellipse

4.0

Rectangle

4.6

Ovaloid

3.2

Kt

Note: Hydrostatic M = 1

Ovaloid is best lowest Kc , no-tension

(Note: Ovaloid has well-rounded corners, max r, in fact)

20.

xx = 750 + 0.5h

yy = 800 + 0.2h

zz = 1.1h

E = 6.2(106 ) psi, v = 0.33

c = 5,600 psi, = 52

= 158 pcf

Find:

(a) Best orientation

(b) FSt , FSc

Shafts

109

Solution:

Near surface yy = 1 in plan view

xx = 3

at depth: yy > xx ?

800 + 0.2 h > 250 + 0.5h

550 > 0.3h

1,833 > h

at depth > 1,833 xx = 1

yy = z

Since stresses are greater with depth & strength constant, plan for depth. Best

orientation is with long shaft axis parallel to 1 , that is, East at depth greater

than 1,833 ft.

y(N)

18

x(E)

24

21.

1 = 250 + 0.5(4,800) = 2,650 psi

3 = 800 + 0.2(4,800) = 1,760 psi

M=

30

1,760

= 0.66

=

0

2,650

1

W0

18

=

= 0.75 (W0 to 1 = xx )

H0

24

Kt

Kc

M=1

0

(0)

3.8

(4.6)

W0

H0

= 1.0

M = 13

0.3

(0.2)

3.2

(3.1)

W0

H0

= 6.5

110

for M = 0.66

W0

= 0.75

H0

2c cos

2(5,600) cos 52

C0

=

=

T0

1 sin

1 sin 52

C0

32,527

=

3,857 psi

T0

FSt =

3,857

= 14.6 high FSs

(0.1)(2,650)

FSc =

32,527

= 3.23

(3.8)(2,650)

But consider

FSc =

22.

Given:

xx = 2,155

yy = 3,045

No support needed

32,527

= 6.16 (o.k. vertical)

(4,800)(1.1)

+ = Compression

x = East

zz = 4,200

yx = 1,222

xz = 0 = yz

y = North

z = Up

Solution:

By inspection, the x-y plane with normal z is shear-free and therefore a principal

plane. Thus z is a principal direction and zz = 2 (for now)

In the x-y plane

1/2

xx + yy

xx yy 2

1

2

=

+ (xy )

3

2

2

1

3

2,155 + 3,045

=

2

1/2

2

+ (1,222)

= 2,600 1,300

3,900

=

psi

1,300

1 = 4,200 psi

reording 2 = 3,900 N 35 W

= 1,300 N 55 E

1

3

2,155 3,045

2

(Vertical)

(Horizontal)

(Horizontal)

1 , 2 , 3

Shafts

tan 2 =

=

z(u)

xy

1

(

2 xx

+ yy )

1,222

1

(2,155

2

3,045)

35

s1 = 4,200 psi

tan 2 = 2.746

2 = 70

s3 1,300 psi

= 35

35

x(E)

23.

111

SKETCH (directions)

xx = 1,724 + 11.3h (E)(kPa, m) = units

yy = 5,517 + 4.5h (N)

zz = 2.49h

(U)

E = 42.8 GPa, = 0.33

c = 38.6 MPa, = 52

= 25.0 kN/m

Find:

(1) Best orientation

(2) FSc , FSv , FSt .

Solution:

Near surface: yy = 1

(h = 0)

xx = 3

but strength high, stress low at depth : xx = 18.67 MPa (h = 1,500 m)

yy = 12.27

Best orientation is with long (8 m) axis parallel to x(E)

y (N)

s3

s1

x (E)

(favorable orientation)

24.

3

1

12.27

=

18.67

M = 0.66

M=

112

W0

18

= 0.75

=

H0

24

i.e. k = 0.75

Table 3.2.

M = 0.66

M = 0.5 (interpolate)

Kmax

4.57

4.39

Kmin

0.19

0.02

M = 0.75

5.15

4.77

5.48

4.97

0.69

0.40

1

2

k=1

M = 0.66

k=

k = 12 , k = 1

(tension na)

3

4

= 4.77 : interpolate

Kmax = 5.15

Kmax

M = 0.66

Kmax = 4.96

3

tension

absent

k=

4

k=

2c cos

(2)(38.6) cos 52

=

=

1 2sin

1 sin 52

224

FSc =

= 2.42

(4.96)(18.67)

FSt (n.a)

C0

T0

FSv =

224

= 6.00

(24.9)(1,500)

224 MPa

26.5 MPa

FSc

FSv

25.

zx = 0

Shaft: 4 8 m (rectangle, ellipse, ovaloid)

Find:

(1) 1 , 2 , 3 and directions

(2) Select best shape.

x = east

y = north z = up

Solution:

By inspection, the z-direction is a principal direction

zz = 2 = 29.0 MPa (for the moment)

Shafts

113

In x-y plane

1

3

1

3

1/2

xx yy 2 , -2

+ xy

2

1/2

1

14.9 21.0 2

(14.9 + 21.0)

=

+ (8.4)2

2

2

1

= (xx + yy )

2

9.01

1 = zz = 29.0 (Vertical)

2 = 26.89

(Horizontal)

3 = 9.01

tan 2 =

1 , 2 , 3

8.4

1

(14.9

2

21.0)

tan 2 = 2, 754

2 = 70 , 250

= 35 , 125

z(u)

S1 s2

y(N)

PLAN

s1

35

S3 s3

3

s2 N 35W

y(N)

N 55E

x(E)

8

Directions sketch

35

s3

4m

2

x(E)

in plan view

S1 = 2 N35 W

S3 = 3 N55 E

1

9.01

1

k=

M=

= 0.335 =

2

26.89

3

114

Rectangle Kc = 4.05 Kt = 0.14

Ovaloid (rectangle with very rounded corners would have Kc , Kt smaller.

ellipse is best.

26.

C0 = 21,500 psi E = 6.25(106 ) psi = 144 pcf T0 = 1,530 psi

G = 2.5(106 ) psi

SE = 200 + 0.3h

preshaft stress (psi)

SN = 600 + 0.9h

h in ft.

Sv = 1.14

Find:

(a) Most favorable shape ellipse, rectangle ovaloid when shaft is 14,478 ft

(b) FSt , FSc at 2,800 ft

Solution:

Plan view, minimize stress concentration (best alignment)

28

W0

14

=

H0

28

W0

= 0.5

H0

M=

y (N)

14

SN s10

at 2,800 ft

30

10

x (E)

1,040

3,120

1

M=

3

M=

Ovaloid

Ellipse

Rectangle

SE 200 0.3h

SE 1,040 psi

SE s30

Kc

2.65

3.10

Kt

1.65

0.25

Fig 5

Fig 6

(minimum Kc , no Kt )

FSc =

SN 600 0.9h

SN 3,120 psi

C0

0

21,500

(1.65)(3,120)

FSc = 4.18

=

Shafts

27.

115

C0 = 148.3 MPa E = 43.10 GPa = 22.78 kN/m3 T0 = 10.6 G = 17.24 GPa

:x

SE = 1,379 + 6.8 h

SN = 4,138 + 20.4 h : y

Sv = 24,94 (kPa, m) : z

Find:

(a) Best shape (rectangle, ellipse, ovaloid)

(b) FSs at 854 m.

Solution:

Best orientation is with long axis parallel to S1 in plan view

1

4.5

W0

=

=

2

H0

9.0

7.19

1

M =

= =M

21.56

3

1

1

Table 3.2b: M =

k=

3

2

Ellipse:

Kmax = 1.67 = Kc

y (N)

k=

x (E)

S3 1,379 6.8(854) 7.19 MPa

9m

Kmin = Kt = nil

Rectangle: Kmax = 4.05 = Kc

4.5

Kmin = 0.14 = Kt

Ovaloid (rounded corners; less than rectangle Ks)

Ellipse is best, least Kc , Kt

FSt not a factor

148.3

= 4.12 = FSc

FSc =

(1.67)(21.56)

28.

Find: FSs

Solution:

y(N)

30

Sy 600 0.9(2,150)

Sy 2,535 psi

x(E)

24

Sx 200 0.3(2,150)

Sx 845 psi

12

FSs

116

Sy > Sx

Sy = 10

W0

24

=

H0

12

W0

= 2.0

H0

= 30

30

10

845

M=

2, 535

1

M=

3

s30

M=

Kc = 4.85 between

Kt = (no tension)

22.5 & 45

4.7 5.2

W0

24

H0

30

s01

12

C0

21,500

=

c

4.85(2,535)

FSc = 1.75, FSt (n.a)

FSc =

29.

Sxx = 2,000 + 1.1d

Syy = 50 + 0.9d

Szz = 1.15d

xy = 350 0.3d

yz = yx = 0

Find:

(a) Best orientation of a single shaft

(b) Sketch peak stress concentration

(c) Estimate peak stress.

Solution:

Best orientation is with long axis parallel to major compression

Find 1 , 3 at great depth, i.e., 3,850 ft

Sxx = 2,000 + (1.1)(3,850)

Sxx = 6,235 psi

Syy = 50 + 0.9(3,850)

Syy = 3,515 psi

Szz = 1.15(3,850)

Szz = 4,428 psi

xy = 3.50 0.3(3,850)

xy = 1,505 psi

Shafts

tan 2 =

=

117

xy

Syy )

1,505

1

(S

2 xy

3,515)

tan 2 = 1.1066

2 = 47.9

1

(6,235

2

= 23.9

y (N)

W0

S3

sc

12

Peak tension st

st

sc

x (E)

sc

st

23.9

24

H0

sc

S1

Peak compression sc

S1

S3

Sx S y 2

+ (xy )2

2

6,235 3,515 2

6,235 + 3,515

=

+ (6,505)2

2

2

Sx + Sy

=

= 4,875 2,028

S1 = 6,904

S3 = 2,847

S3

S1

2,847

M=

6,904

M=

M = 0.412 &

W0

= 0.5

H0

118

1

3

at M = 1

at M = 0.412

at M =

Kt = 0.2

Kc = 3.1

no tension; 0

Kt = 0.18

Kc = 4.7

Kc = 3.29

Peak tension occurs of mid-span along short dimension and peak compression

occurs at the corners.

(b)

30.

t = Kt 10

= (+0.18)(6,904)

t = +1,234 tension (psi)

(c)

c = Kc 10

c = 3.29 (6,904)

c = 22,714 (psi)

(c)

Given:

C0 = 148.3 MPa

T0 = 10.55 MPa

E = 43.10 GPa

G = 17.24 GPa

= 22.8 kN/m3

SE = 1,379 + 6.8h

SN = 4,138 + 20.4h

Sv = 24.9h (kPa,m)

3.7 + 7.4 m rectangular shaft

long axis is N30W

y(N)

SN S1 4,138 20.4(655) 17.5 MPa

x(E)

7.

(w.r.t x y z)

3.7 m

Solution:

3

S3

(w.r.t 1,3)

30

H0

S1

1

W0

W0

H0

7.4

3.7

2

M

5.83

1

17.5

3

S h a f t s 119

Table 3 (B. 587)

M=

Estimate at 22.5

45.0

30.0

FSt not a factor

Kc = 4.7

Kc = 5.2

Kc = 4.86

1

3

W0

=2

H0

Kt nil

Kt nil

Kt nil

148.3

= 1.74

4.86(17.5)

148.3

FSc =

= 9.09

24.9(655)(11)3

FSs

FSc =

31.

Sxx = 13,793 + 24.9d

Syy = 345 + 20.4d

Szz = 26.0d

xy = 2,414 4.8d

yz = 0 = zx

Find: Best orientation, peak stress sites, Kc , Kt .

Solution:

Best orientation is with long axis parallel to S1 at 1,175 m

Sxx = 13,793 + 24.9(1,175) = 43.05 MPa

Syy = 345 + 20.4(1,175) = 24.32 MPa

Szz = 26.0(1,175) = 30.55 MPa

xy = 2,414 6.8(1,175) = 10.40 MPa

z is a principal direction, by inspection

tan 2 =

xy

1

(S

2 xx

Syy )

2 = 48 , 132

= 24 , +66

10.40

1

(43.05

2

2,632)

= 1.1105

120

y (N)

A, B, C, D sites of

peak compression

S3

D

E, F sites of

peak tension

E

C

x (E)

A

24

F

7.4

S1

S3

S1

1/2

Sxx Syy 2

+ (xy )2

2

1/2

43.05 24.32 2

1

= (43.05 + 24.32)

+ (10.40)2

2

2

1

= (Sxx + Syy )

2

= 33.69 14.0

S1 = 47.69 MPa

S3 = 19.69

S3

19.69

=

= 0.412 = M

S1

47.69

W0

1

= k = = 0.5

H0

2

M=

Table 3.2.

M=

1

3

Kmax

Kmin

at M = 0.412

1

2

4.05

0.14

M=

1

2

4.57

0.20

k=

Kmin = 0.17

c = Kc 1

= (4.31)(43.05)

c = 185.5 MPa

t = Kt 1

= 0.17(43.05)

t = 7.31 MPa

Shafts

32.

121

Find: Unlined wall FS.

Solution:

Circular shaft, gravity stress horizontal stresses are equal

S1 = S3 in plan view and M = 1

Kc = 2,

Kt = 0 (no tension)

c = Kc S1

S1 estimate: gravity alone

v , v = H

h = H =

1v

(

'

1

156

4

h =

(2,780)

144

1 14

h = 1,004 psi

c = (2)(1,004)

c = 2,008 psi

C0

FSc =

c

6,750

=

2,008

FSc = 3.36 (in Plan)

In vertical section:

6,750

v

6,750

= , 156

2,780

144

FSc = 2.24 (in section)

(a)

FSc =

33.

rectangular shaft 12 24 ft,

depth = 3,000 ft, 0 from

gravity loading only.

C0 = 8,000 psi, T0 = 750 psi

E = 4.5 104 psi, v = 0.25

= 162 pcf

Find:

(1) FSt & FSc at the unlined

shaft wall.

(2) Optimum orientation

of shaft.

sh

sh

12 W0

24

H0

sh

sh

122

Solution:

1

W0

= , under gravity loading

H0

2

&

%

v

h =

v

1v

where:

v = H =

16,216

ft

'

(3,000 ft)

1 ft

144 in2

v = 3,375 psi

%

&

0.25

h =

3,375 psi

1 0.25

h = 1,125 psi

Vertical element:

C0

v

8,000 psi

=

3,375 psi

FSv = 2.37 Stable in vertical compression

FSv =

Horizontal FSs:

FSc =

FSv

C0

K c h

1

M = 1, K =

2

Kc = 6.46

Kt = nil

W0 1

h

= 1;

=

@ M=

h

H0 2

Kc = 4.75

Kt = 0

FSc =

8,000 psi

(4.75)(1,125 psi)

FSc =

8,000

6.46(1,125)

FSt =

FSc

T0

K t h

FSc

Because of gravity loading, horizontal stresses are equal in all directions. Therefore there is not a single optimum orientation. If the horizontal stresses were not

Shafts

123

equal in all directions. The shortest span of the shaft (W0 ) should be aligned with

the greatest horizontal stress as shown below, i.e., long axis parallel to major

compression.

s30

H0

s10

s10

W0

s30

34.

0

EW

= h + 1,250 psi

0

NS = h + 2,500 psi

Find:

(1) Orient shaft in optimum

directions

(2) Calculate FSs.

E

s30

H0 24

s10

s10

W0 12

Solution:

h = 1,125 psi

0

10 = NS

= 3,625 psi

0

0

3 = EW

= 2,375 psi

s30

Vertical:

FSv is the same as in Problem 33

FSv = 2.37

Horizontal:

W0

12

1

=

=

H0

24

2

M=

30

2,375 psi

=

3,625 psi

10

M = 0.655

FSv

124

Estimate Kc & Kt from graph

(low)

Kc = 5.1

Kt = nil

Kc = 3.75

FSt (n.a.)

Kt = 0

FSt =

FSc =

FSt

8,000 psi

(3.75)(3,625)psi

FSc

FSc = 0.59

35.

USE CIRCULAR SHAFT D = 18 ft

Find: FSs

Solution:

10 = 3,625 psi

30 = 2,375 psi

s10

s30

s30

18

Vertical:

FSv is same

FSv = 2.37

FSv

Horizontal:

30

10

M = 0.66

M=

s10

Text formula

Kmax = 1 + M + 2(1 M) = 1 + 0.66 + 2(1 0.66)

Kc = 2.25

Kmin = 0.98 no tension

Kt = 0

Kmax = 2.34

FSt =

FSc =

8,000 psi

(2.25)(3,625 psi)

FSc = 0.98

36.

FSt (n.a)

FSc =

FSt

8,000

(2.34)(3,625)

FSc = 0.94

FSc

Given: In-situ stress field for Problem 34 & 35 changes between 3,000 & 3,500 ft

to one described by:

v = 1.125h

H = 3, 500 + 0.33h

h = 3, 500 + 0.33h

Shafts

125

Find: Unlined FSs @ 4,500 ft.

Solution:

@ 4500 ft:

v0 = (1.25)(4,500) psi

v0 = 5,063 psi

H = h = 3,500 + 0.33(4,500)

h0 = 4,985 psi

Vertical:

C0

v0

8,000 psi

=

5,063 psi

FSv = 1.58

FSv =

FSv

Horizontal:

M=

0

H

=1

h0

Kc = 2

Kt = 0

FSt =

Text formula

Kc = 2

same

Kt = nil

FSt

8,000 psi

2(4,985)

FSc = 0.80

FSc =

37.

vertical depth = 914 m, gravity only

C0 = 55.17 MPa T0 = 5.17 MPa

E = 31.0 GPa v = 0.25

= 25.6 kN/m3

Find: FSc , FSt , best orientation.

Solution:

Gravity implies equal horizontal stress

there is no one best orientation

FSc

sh sH

sH sh

3.7 m

7.4

orientation

126

C0

Sv

estimate: Sv = H

= (25.6)(914)

Sv = 23.4 MPa

FSc =

55.17

= 2.36

23.4

C0

FSv =

,

c

FSv

FSv =

FSt =

T0

t

c = Kc 10

t = Kt 10

v

0.25

h = H = 10 (plan view) = 30 =

Sv =

(23.4)

1v

1 0.25

h = H = 7.8 MPa

M = 1 (K = 12 , h = 2) hydrostatic case

Table 2

FSc =

55.17

= 1.14

6.46(7.8)

FSc , FSt

FSt (n.a.)

38.

data and

EW = h + 8.62 MPa

NS = H + (2)(8.62) MPa

y(N)

Best orientation

7.4 m

Find:

(a) Best orientation

(b) FSs.

x(E)

Orientation

3.7

Solution:

EW = 7.8 + 8.62 = 16.42 MPa

NS = 7.8 + 17.24 = 25.04

FSv same as in 37

FSv = 2.36

FSv

1

M = 0.66

2

Using Table 3.2 text interpolating, estimating

In favorable orientation: K =

Kc = 5.1

& Kt = nil

55.17

= 0.43 (low!)

(5.1)(25.04)

FSt n.a.

FSc =

FSc

FSt

Shafts

39.

v = 23.4

EW = 16.42

NS = 25.04 Mpa

Circular shaft, 5.5 m diameter

Find: Shaft wall FSs.

127

y(N)

s1 25.04

s3 16.42

Solution:

Sv is same, C0 same, FSv = 2.36

M = 0.66 (as before)

Text formula

5.5 m

x (E)

Kmax = (1 + M) + 2(1 M) = 2.34

no tension

FSc =

FSt n.a.

55.17

(2.34)(25.04)

FSc = 0.94

40.

v = 25.45h

H = 24,138 + 7.47h

h = 24,138 + 7.47h

(kPa, m)

Find: FSs at 1,372 m (circular shaft).

Solution:

(a) FSv =

55.17

25.45(1,372)(103 )

FSv

FSv = 1.58

(b) In plan view H = h M = 1, K = 2, no tension

FSc =

(Text formula)

55.17

(2)(H )

H = 34.4 MPa

FSc =

FSt n.a.

55.17

= 0.80

(2)(34.4)

FSc

FSt

128

41.

Find: If rock safety factor = 3.0, C0 = ?

Solution:

C0

c

C0 = c (3.0)

FSc =

SH K0 Sy

2SH

M 1, Kc 2

In plan view

Sv = h,

estimate at 1 psi/ft

Sv (max) = 3,750 psi

1

estimate K0 =

3

Sh K0 Sy

1

c = (2)

(Sv )

3

2

C0 =

(3.0)(Sv ) : (less)

3

In vertical section:

C0

Sv

C0 = (3.0)(Sv )

FS =

C0 = (3.0)(3,750)

Vertical rules

3,750

C0

C0 = 11,250 psi

(77.6 MPa)

Sy

42.

I.D. = 19 ft

Find:

(a) FSc , FSt unlined at

4,250 ft depth

(b) Liner thickness t for

90 psi water pressure

f0 = 3,500 psi

(concrete).

y (N)

(super-position)

x (E)

M

1,200

1,908

0.629

S h a f t s 129

Solution:

1, 3 uniaxial superposition

N = 1(908) + 3(1,200) = 1,692 psi

E = 1(1,200) + (1,908) = 4,524

FSc =

23,700

= 5.24

4,524

FSv =

23,700

= 4.98

(1.12)(4,250)

SN + 3SE

SE + 3SN

(b) FSc =

C0

c

Max. allowable c =

But also c =

3,500 =

3,500 =

1

9.5

b

9.5

b

2

=

2

C0

= 3,500 psi

FSc

2Pb

, -2

1 ba

(2)(90)

, -2

1 ba

t

(2)(90)

, -2

1 9.5

b

180

3,500

=1

180

3,500

1

= 1.05(102 )

b2

b = 9.754 ft

t =ba

= 9.754 9.50

t = 0.254 ft (3.05 in.)

43.

Find: D at failure.

130

Solution:

D = 2u|r=a

(

'

1+v

Pb a

Pb a

= (2)

(1 2v)

, -2 +

, -2

E

1 ba

1 ba

(1 + 0.25)

Pb a

D = (2)

(1.0 0.5 + 1.0)

, -2

4.75(106 )

1 ba

at failure: c = C0

2Pb

, -2 = 5,740 psi

1 ba

(

'

(2)(1.25)

Pb

D =

(0.75)(2)

, -2 a

4.75(106 )

1 ba

(2.5)(0.75)(5,740)(9.5)(12)

4.75(106 )

D = 0.258 in.

=

44.

[Rock]

C0 = 163.5 MPa, T0 = 10.21

E = 36.48 GPa, v = 0.27

= 25.63 kN/m3

[Stress]

SE = 2,414 + 4.53h : x

SN = 2,897 + 7.92h : y (kPa, m)

Sv = 25.3h

:z

y(N)

SN 13.15 MPa

SE 8.28

Unlined

[Concrete]

C0 = 39.6 MPa, T0 = 2.93

E = 32.76 GPa, v = 0.25

Find:

(1) FSs unlined at 1,295 m

(2) Liner thickness h, P = 0.621 MPa, fc = 24.14 MPa (concrete).

Solution:

N = 2,897 + 7.92(1,295)

N = 13.15 MPa

Text formula:

Kmin = 1 + M 2(1 M)

E = 2,414 + 4.53(1,295)

E = 8.28 MPa

Kmax = 1 + M + 2(1 M)

x(E)

Shafts

8.28

13.15

M = 0.63

M=

FSc =

C0

c

Kmax = 1 + 0.63 + 2(1 0.63) = 2.37

FSt =

c = Kc 10

T0

t

FSv =

t = Kt 10

163.5

(7.37)(13.15)

FSc = 5.25

FSc =

131

C0

v

163.5

(25.3)(1,295)(103 )

FSv = 4.99

FSt (n.a.)

FSs

2p

, -2

1 ba

(2)(0.621)

I.D.

, 2.9 -2 : a = 2

1 b

(24.14) =

1

2.9

b

2

= 0.05145

5.8

2

2.9

= 0.9485

b

2.9

= 0.9739

b

b = 2.978 m

h = ba

= 2.978 2.900

h = 0.078 mm

h = 7.8 cm

45.

Find: Di at failure (change in inside diameter).

Di = 5.8 mm

E = 36.48 GPa

E = 32.76 GPa

v = 0.27 [rock]

v = 0.75 [concrete]

Solution:

D = 2u|r=a

132

Text derivation

Di = 2u|r=a

1+v

=2

E

Di = 2u|r=a =

[(1 2v)Pb a + Pb a]

#

, -2 $

1 ba

(1 + 0.25)

a 2 Pb

(1 0.51 + 1)

, -2 ; a = 2.9 m

32.76 GPa

1 a

b

2Pb

at failure : c = C0 =

, -2

1 ba

C0 = 39.6 MPa

Di = 0.00657 m

0.657 cm

46.

Di at

liner failure

D = 26 ft (inside)

depth = 3,200 ft

Pw = 210 psi

Find: Unlined FSs, t for liner (not needed).

Solution:

sH 200 0.4h

h = 3,200 ft

H = 200 + 0.4(3,200)

H = 1,480 psi

sh 600 0.3h

h = 600 + 0.3(3,200)

h = 1,560 psi

PLAN

h = E = 1 & H = N = 3 (plan)

30

10

1,480

=

1,560

M = 0.9491 1

M =

Kc

= 2.0

Kt nil

C0

c

27,400

=

(2.0)(1,560)

FSc = 8.78 (plan)

FSc =

FSt =

T0

t

FSt

Shafts

Vertical FSv =

133

C0

Sv

27,460

(3,200)(1.12)

FSv = 7.65 (vertical)

=

(b)

C0 (concrete)

= 3,500 psi

and for

FSconcrete

(max allow stress)

max = 3,500 psi,

210 psi

%

a 2 &

3,500 1

b

a 2

1

b

a 2

b

a

liner

s

b D0

2

(2)(210)

, -2

1 ba

= 420

= 0.12

= 0.88

= 0.88 b

1

26

b=

0.88 2

b = 13.86 ft

b a = 13.86 13.00

t = ba

t = 0.86 ft

t = 10.3 inches

47.

aD

2

2p

But also: =

, -2

1 ba

3,500 =

1/3

FSc

Find: Inside diameter change.

Solution:

Pressure at failure = C0

2p

, -2

1 ba

%

a 2 &

C0

p=

1

2

b

5,500

13 2

=

1

2

13.86

C0 =

p 331

s C0

Concrete

134

u=

1+v

E2

'

(

p

p

(1 2v)

a

, -2 a +

2

1 ba2

1 ba

1+v

2pa

(1.5)

, -2 : concrete

E

1 ba

%

&

1 + 0.25

=

(1.5)(5,500)(13)(12)

5.5(106 )

2u =

2u = 0.293 in.

(at failure)

D = 0.293 in.

48.

Pb

concrete

b

a

E = 37.93 GPa, v = 0.25

Pw = 1.45 MPa

Di = 8 m

liner

smax

Note: Fc = 24.14 MPa

Solution:

max

(allow) =

24.14 =

a 2

b

2Pb

, -2

1 ba

(2)(1.45)

, -2

1 ba

= 0.88

a

= 0.938

b

b =

8

2

0.938

b = 4.264 m

h = ba

= 4.264 4

h = 0.264 m

h = 26.4 cm

S h a f t s 135

49.

Find: Di at failure (cm)

Solution:

Find failure load

C0 =

2P

, -2

1 ba

C0 = 37.93 MPa

Di = 2u|r=a

1+v

aPb

= (2)

[(1 2v) + 1]

, -2

E

1 a

b

1 + 0.25

[1 (0.25)(2) + 1](4)(37.93)

37.93 GPa

Di = 0.0075 m

Di = 0.75 cm

Di =

50.

Di at failure

pw = 123 psi

D0 = 22

H = 2,890

E = 35(106 ), v = 0.30

C0 = 4,500 psi, T0 = 450 psi

= 152 pcf

FS = 3.85

Find: h, D.

Solution:

a

C0

4,500

=

= 1,169 psi

3.85

FS =

But also

=

1

a 2

b

2P

, -2

1 ba

(2)(123)

= 0.2105

1,169

a

= 0.889

b

136

22

(0.889)

a=

2

a = 9.77 ft

t = b a = 11.0 9.775

t = 1.23 (14.8 in.)

D = 22 2(1.23)

Di = 19.54 ft

51.

Equilibrium analysis:

Vertical

F

rock

liner-ring

1

a

F F

W

Fv = 0

0 = F + T W

0 = F + T (b2 a2 )(1)

if F = 0 then T supports weight of a one ft ring one ft thick, typical

e.g.

2

21 2

20

T = (144)()(1)

, A = (3.1415)(21)(1)(144)

2

2

T

= 0.5 psi

A

Thus a slight bond strength between concrete and rock is sufficient for support

of weight.

52.

Given: Large shaft, vertical 32 ft finished diameter needed, depth 1,270 ft, water

pressure = 240 psi

Concrete:

C0 = 3,500 psi E = 5.6(106 ) psi

v = 0.27 FS = 2.5

S h a f t s 137

Find: (a) t.

Solution:

FS =

C0

32

2p

, c = #

, a -2 $ , a = 2

c

1 b

(2)(240)

3,500

, a -2 =

2.5

1 b

a 2

1

= 0.343

ba

= 0.8106

b

16

b=

0.8106

b = 19.74 ft

t =ba

= 19.74 16.0

t

t = 3.74 ft

Find: (b) D at liner failure.

1 2v

2G

Pa

, -2

1 ba

1

u=

+

2G

1 2v

Pa

1

=

+

, -2

2G

2G

1 ba

1v

2Pa

=

, a -2

G

1

Pa

, -2

1 ba

Note:

2P

E

= 2.21(106 )

, a -2 = |r=a = 3,500 psi, G =

2(1+v)

1 b

%

= (3,500)(16)(12)

1 0.27

2.21(106 )

&

u = 0.222 in.

2u = D = 0.444 in.

53.

Find:

(a) (FSs unlined not needed)

(b) Liner thickness.

138

Solution:

Circular shaft, gravity stress

horizontal stresses are equal

S1 = S3 in plan view and M = 1

Kc = 2, Kt = 0 (no tension) (hydrostatic case)

c = Kc S1

S1 estimate: gravity alone

v

h = H =

v & v = H

1v

(

'

1

156

4

h =

(2,780)

144

1 14

h = 1,004 psi

c = (2)(1,004)

c = 2,008 psi

C0

FSc =

c

6,750

=

2,008

FSc = 3.36 (in plan)

In vertical section:

6,750

v

6,750

= , 156 (2,780)

144

FSc =

(b) Liner thickness?

C0

FS

C0

FS =

allow =

2P

, -2

1 ba

(2)(210)

3,500 =

, -2

1 18

2b

2

18

(2)(210)

1

=

2b

3,500

=

(a)

S h a f t s 139

18

2b

2

= 1 0.12

a

= 0.938

b

b = 9.594

t =ba

= 9.594 9.0

t = 0.594 ft (7.13 in.)

54.

(b)

pw = 1.66 MPa

Concrete: C0 = 24.2 MPa, E = 38.62 GPa, v = 0.27 FSc = 2.5 required

Find:

(a) h-liner

(b) Di at failure.

Solution:

C0

c

2pw

& c =

, -2

1 ba

24.2 MPa

a 2

(2.5) =

1

(2)(1.66 MPa)

b

a 2

1

= 0.343

b

a

= 0.8106

b

FSc =

i.e.

b=

9.75

2

0.8106

b = 6.01 m

h = 6.01 4.875

h = 1.125 m

(112.5 cm)

Di = 2u|r=a (at failure)

(2) (1 + v)

aPw

=

[(1 2v) + 1]

, -2

E

1 a

b

i.e.

(2)(1 + 0.27)

=

(2 0.54) (4.875) (24.2) MPa

38.62 GPa

Di = 0.0113 m

Di = 1.13 cm

140

55.

(concrete) = 24.14 MPa

Find: h (liner thickness).

Solution:

max =

2pw

, -2

1 ba

(24.14) =

(2)(1.45)

, -2

1 ba

56.

a 2

b

= 0.120

a

= 0.938

b

2.75

b=

0.938

b = 2.932 m

h = 2.932 2.75

h = 0.182 m

h = 18.2 cm

Liner: Concrete

1 ft thick

E = 5 106 psi, v = 0.20

= 156 pcf

MC failure criterion

Assume: Circular shaft D = 18 ft.

Find: What uniform radial stress would just cause liner to fail?

Solution:

Using MC Criteria:

r

+ r

=

sin + c cos

2

2

= m sin + c cos

t 1 ft

max =

max

+ r

Pb b 2

= 2

2

b a2

r

(Pb Pa )b2 a2

= 2 2

2

r (b a2 )

Pb

a

b

18

LINER

Rock

S h a f t s 141

P b b2 a2

Pb b2

=

sin

+ c cos

r2 (b2 a2 )

b2 a 2

@ r = a the stress must be less then 4,500 psi and at r = a; r = 0; Pa = 0

2Pb b2

b2 a 2

C0

FS =

@ failure FS = 1

Solving for Pb :

( )(b2 a2 )

2b2

2

C0

b a2

Pb =

FS

2b2

&

%

4, 500 psi (9 ft)2 (8 ft)2

=

1

2(9 ft)2

Pb = 472 psi

Pb =

57.

Find: Reduction in diameter of the liner when liner first fails.

Solution:

From previous problem:

@ failure FS = 1

= C0

Pb = 472 psi

1 P a P b b2 a2

1 2v Pa a2 Pb b2

r

+

2G

b2 a 2

2G b2 a2

r

Pa = 0

2 2

1

b a

1 2v Pb b2

Pb

r

+

u=

2G

b2 a 2

2G b2 a2

r

u=

E

2(1 + v)

5 106 psi

=

2(1 + 0.20)

G = 2.08 106 psi

G=

Pb

142

@ r = a = 8 ft b = 9 ft

1 2(0.2)

(472 psi)(9ft)2

u=

8 ft

2

2(2.08 10+6 psi)

(92 82 )ft

1

472 psi (9 ft)2 (8 ft)2

+

2(2.08 106 psi) (92 82 )ft2

(8 ft)

2u = 1.382(102 ) ft

Di = 0.17 in.

58.

Di

Find: Radial displacement of the interface between the liner & shaft wall when

line first fails. u|r=b = ?

Solution:

u=

%

%

&

&

1 2v Pb b2

Pb b2 a2

1

r

+

2(G) b2 a2

2G b2 a2

r

Assuming: The rock must displace the same amount as the outside diameter of

the liner. @ r = b = 9 ft a = 8 ft

2

1 2(0.2)

472 psi(9 ft)

u=

9 ft

2(2.08 10+6 psi) (9 ft)2 (8 ft)2

1

472 psi

(9 ft)2 (8 ft)2

+

2

2(2.08 106 psi)

9 ft

(9 ft) (8 ft)2

u

59.

Find: Liner thickness.

Solution:

Allowable stress:

C0

4,500 psi

=

2.5

= 1,800 psi

FSc =

And:

=

Pb b2

P b a2 b2

+

b2 a 2

r2 (b2 a2 )

S h a f t s 143

Stress is maximum @ r = a

Pb b2

P b a2 b2

+

b2 a 2

a2 (b2 a2 )

2

Pb b + P b b 2

=

b2 a 2

2Pb b2

= 2

b a2

(b2 a2 ) = 2 Pb b2

2Pb b2

b2

2Pb b2

a2 = b2

%

&1/2

2(80 psi)(9 ft)2

a = (9 ft)2

1, 800 psi

a = 8.59 ft

a2 =

t =ba

= 9 ft 8.59 ft

t = 0.41 ft = 4.92 in.

make a liner t = 5 in except minimum is 1 ft.

60.

Find: Thickness of steel.

Solution:

C0

36,000 psi

=

2.5

= 14, 400 psi

FSc =

(allowable)

And:

%

&1/2

2Pb b2

a = b2

&

%

2(80 psi)(9 ft)2

= (9 ft)2

14,400 psi

a = 8.95 ft

144

t =ba

= 9.0 ft 9.95 ft

t = 0.05 ft = 0.6 in.

61.

C0 = 31.0 MPa, T0 = 3.10 MPa E = 34.48 GPa,

3

v = 0.20, = 24.7 kN/m v = 25.45h,

H = 24, 138 + 7.47h, h = 24, 138 + 7.47h

Find: p at failure.

Solution:

max

1 ft

2P

=

, -2

1 ba

Di

2

D0

b=

2

Di

a=

smax

p

at failure max = C0

31.0 = #

5.5 m

Pi 4.89 m

a 2.45

b 2.75

2p

, 2.45 -2 $

2.75

p = 3.25 MPa

62.

Find: Di of failure.

Solution:

Di = 2u|r=a =

1+v

2aP

[(1 2v) + 1]

, -2

E

1 a

b

2P

But

, -2 = C0 at failure

1 ba

Di =

1 + 0.2

(1 0.4 + 1)(2.45)(31.0 MPa)

34.48 GPa

Di = 4.23(103 ) m

Di = 0.423 cm

S h a f t s 145

63.

Find: Rock-liner radial displacement.

Solution:

bP

=

(1 2v) +

, -2

b

1 ba

31.0

1 + 0.2

2.45 2

2.75

=

1 0.4 +

MPa

34.48 GPa

2.75

2

u|r=b

1+v

E

%

u = 2.068(103 ) m

64.

a 2 &

u = 0.207 cm

pw = 0.552 MPa

d = 1,372 m

FS(liner) = 2.5

Minimum thickness = 0.3 m

Find: Liner thickness.

Solution:

FS =

C0

c

2p

, -2

1 ba

#

, -2 $

1 ba

2.5 = (31.0)

(2)(0.552)

a 2

1

= 8.903(102 )

b

a

= 0.9545

b

a = 2.75(0.9545)

c =

a = 2.62 m

h = ba

h = 0.13 m

but minimum is 0.30 m

h = 0.30 m

65.

Find: Liner thickness h.

146

Solution:

C0

c

248

c =

2.5

c = 99.2 MPa

FS =

but also

2p

, -2 $

1 ba

c = #

1

, -2

1 ba

a 2

b

a

a

h = 2.75 2.735

h = 1.535(102 )m,

66.

99.2

(2)(0.552)

= 0.989

= 2.75(0.9944)

= 2.735 m

h = 1.54 cm

E = 3.4(106 ) psi, v = 0.25

C0 = 3,500 psi, T0 = 350 psi

pw = 190 psi at z = 3, 750 ft.

D = 18 ft, FS = 2.5

Find: h (thickness), D0 (outside

diameter).

PLAN

pw 190 psi

a 9 ft

Solution:

Require FSc =

c =

c =

But also c =

a 2

b

=

=

a 2

b

C0

c

3,500

2.5

1,400 psi (max. stress, inside)

2p

, -2

1 ba

2p

1

c

(2)(190)

1

1,400

= 0.729

a

= 0.854

b

Shafts

147

9

0.854

9

=

0.854

b = 10.54 ft

b=

t=ba

= 10.54 9.0

t = 1.54 ft (18.5 in.)

D0 = 18 + 2t

D0 = 21.1 ft

67.

E = 3.4(106 ) psi, v = 0.25

C0 = 3,500 psi, T0 = 350 psi

D = 22 ft, h = 1 ft

Find: Contact pressure between

liner & rock on verge of failure?

Rock

a 11

Concrete

Solution:

At failure

2P

, -2

1 ba

#

, -2 $

C0 1 ba

|r=a = C0 =

P =

=

2#

(3,500) 1

P = 280 psi

68.

, 11 -2 $

12

contact pressure P

Find: Change in inside shaft

liner diameter from no load

condition.

Solution:

r, u

Rock

a

liner

D = 2u u = radial

displacement

u|r=a

2(1 v2 )b2 a

Pb

=

E(b2 a2 )

2(1 0.04)(11)(12)

#

=

, -2 $ 280

3.4(106 psi) 1 11

12

P 280 psi

(at failure)

u = 0.131 in.

D = 2(0.131)

in inside diameter from no-load to failure load

D = 0.262 in. decrease

148

69.

E = 23.45 GPa, v = 0.25

C0 = 24.1 MPa, T0 = 2.41 MPa

Pw = 1.31 MPa at 1,143 m

Di = 5.5 m, FS = 25

Find: D0 .

PLAN

Di

Solution:

sc

h

C0

by definition

c

24.1

c =

2.5

c = 9.64 MPa

FS =

2p

, -2 $

1 ba

But also c = #

1

a 2

(2)(1.31)

b

9.64

2.75

b =

0.853

b = 3.22 m

=

h=ba

h = 3.22 2.75

h = 0.473 m

h = 47.3 cm

D0 = 2b

D0 = 6.44 m

70.

E = 23.45 GPa v = 0.25

C0 = 24.1 MPa T0 = 2.41 MPa

Di = 6.7 m h = 0.3 m at failure

Find: Contact pressure p0 .

p

Rock

Liner

Solution:

At failure

2p

, -2

1 ba

#

,

-2 $

1 3.35

(24.1)

3.65

max = C0 =

p=

2

p = 1.90 MPa

6.7

3.35 m

2

b 3.35 h

b 3.65 m

a

Shafts

71.

149

a = 3.35, b = 3.75

C0 = 24.1 MPa, E = 23.45 GPa, v = 0.25

Find: Di at failure (mm).

Solution:

Di = 2u|r=a text formula

a2P

1+v

2u|r=a =

(1 2v + 1)

, -2

E

1 a

b

(1 + 0.2)

=

(1 0.5 + 1)(3.35)(24.1 MPa)

23.45 GPa

Di = 6.197(103 ) m = 6.197 mm

Multiple Shafts

72.

Sh = 120 + 0.5h : premining (psi)

Sh

h = depth(ft)

SH = 3,250 + 0.3h

Find:

(a) Best orientation

(b) Orientation at depth

(c) Best orientation & location

of two identical shafts.

SH

12

(a)

24

Solution:

If h = 0, then SH = 10 , Sh = 30 and best orientation is with the long dimension

parallel to SH .

For same orientation at depth

Sh

120 + 0.5h

0.2h

h

< SH

< 3,240 + 0.3h

< 3,120

< 15,600

(b)

(c) best orientation for several shafts in a row is for the row axis to be parallel

to the major compression

to minimize, practically, stress concentration from interaction shafts should

be separated at least 1-D

150

Sh

SH

12

24

24

24

Sh

PLAN

SH

3.7

dimension)

73.

Sv = 27.2 h

Sh = 828 + 11.3h

SH = 22,345 + 6.8h

(kPa, m)

Find:

(a) best orientation

(b) best orientation all depths

(c) best position and orientation of a second and third shafts

Solution:

Rule: Best orientation of a single opening is with long axis parallel to 10

Rule: Best row orientation is with row axis parallel to 10

(a) at surface Sh = 828 kPa, SH = 22,345

long axis should be parallel to SH

Sh

SH

3.7

(a)

(b)

7.4

Shafts

151

(b) at depth

SH > Sh

22,345 + 6.8 h > 829 + 11.3 h

21,516 > 4.5 h

for h < 4,781 m best

orientation at all depths

74.

C0 = 23,700 psi T0 = 1,480 psi

SE = 350 + 0.24 h SN = 420 + 0.354 h

Sv = 1.124 h

y(N)

20

x(E)

Solution:

C0

,

c

c = Kc S 1

T0

t

t = Kt S1

SN = 420 + 0.35(1,750)

SN = 1,033 psi

FSc =

10

FSt =

SE = 350 + 0.2(1,750)

SE = 700 psi

S1 1,033

SN = S1

700

M=

1,033

M = 0.678

W0

10

=

H0

20

W0

1

= 0.5 k =

H0

2

W0 10

S1

y (N )

23,700

(1,033)

x(E)

20

1

3

2

Estimate between M = & M = at M =

2

4

3

Kc

4.57

5.48

Kc = 5.2

Kt

+0.19 +0.69

Kt = (n.a.)

FSc =

S3 700

Ho 20

(no tension)

23,700

FSc = 4.40

FSv =

= 12.1

(1.12)(1,750)

2nd identical 10 20 shaft

Show: most favorable orientation & location.

10

S3

20

20

S1

152

Solution:

Orientation: long axis parallel to S1

Orientation: row axis parallel to S1

Use 1-D rule for separation.

75.

Given:

xx = 2,155 psi

yy = 3,045

zz = 4,200

yx = 1, 222

xz = 0

yz = 0.

(+) compression

x = East, y = North,

z = up

Find:

(a) 1 , 2 , 3 and directions, sketch.

(b) Best shape

(c) 2nd shaft location.

Solution:

By inspection, the x-y plane with normal z is shear-free and therefore a principal

plane. Thus z is a principal direction and zz = 2 (for now)

in the x-y plane

1/2

xx + yy

xx yy 2

1

=

+ (xy )2

3

2

2

1/2

2,155 + 3,045

2,155 3,045 2

=

+ (1,222)2

2

2

1

= 2,600 1,300

3

3,900

1

=

psi

1,300

3

2 = 3,900 N35W (horizontal)

reordering

1 2 3

= 1,300 N55E (horizontal)

3

Z (u)

tan 2 =

=

xy

1

(

2 xx

yy )

1,222

1

(2,155

2

tan 2 = 2.746

2 = 70

= 35

+ CCW from y-axis

3,045)

s1 4,200 psi

35

s3 1,300 psi

35

x(E)

Sketch direction

Shafts

153

In most favorable position

W0

1

13

= and k =

=

H0

26

2

0

1,300

1

M = 30 =

=

3,900

3

1

1

(text)

2

=M

Ellipse Kmax = 1.67 Kt = n.a.

Rectangle Kmax = 4.05 Kt = 0.14

Ovaloid (well-rounded corners, rectangle Kc , Kt less)

Choose ellipse

Separate by 1-D rule

y(N)

26

35

sketch

s30

26 ft

x(E)

26

13

s10

154

76.

E = 36.48 GPa, v = 0.27, = 25.6 kN/m3

y(N)

SN 2,897 7.9h

SE 3,414 4.5h

6m

x(E)

Sy 25.3h

(kPa, m)

d 550 m

3m

Solution:

Rule: Row axis parallel to 10 . Rule: Separate by 1-D

Second shaft

6m

Sketch

6m

3m

6m

SE = 3,414 + 4.5(550) = 5.89 MPA = 30

shaft is in favorable orientation

Shafts

77.

155

Given: Shaft: 4 8 m.

xx = 14.86 MPa,xy = 8.43

yy = 21.00, yz = 0

zz = 29.00, zy = 0

Find:

(a) 1 2 3 , directions

(b) Best shape (rectangle, ellipse, ovaloid), orientation

(c) Second shaft location, orientation.

Solution:

Need 10 , 30 in x-y plane (z-dir. is prin)

10

30

1

= (xx + yy )

2

xx + yy

2

1

= (14.86 21.0)

2

2

+ xy

14.86 21.0

2

-2

1/2

1/2

2

+ (8.43)

= 17.93 8.97

10 = 26.9 MPa,

tan 2 =

=

30 = 8.96 MPa

z

xy

yy )

8.43

1

(

2 xx

1

(14.86

2

s1 29 MPa

21.0)

s2 26.9

tan 2 = 2.746

2 = 70 , 25

= 35 , 125

35

35

1

W0

1

at 4 8 m

= and k =

H0

2

2

in favorable orientation

30

in plan view

10

8.96

=

2.69

M=

M=

1

3

Ellipse

Rectangle

Kc = 1.67

Kc = 4.05

Kt = n.a.

Kt = 0.14

s3 8.96

Sketch

156

Ellipse is best

y(N)

s10

8m

35

s30

x(E)

8m

8m

4m

SKETCH

Separate by 1-D

4 Tunnels

Naturally Supported Tunnels

1.

Find: Kc , Kt for circular tunnel

driven due east.

z

4,200 psi szz s1

Solution:

3

3,045

=

= 0.725

1

4,200

Kt is nil

M=

tyz 0.

sc

sc

(peak compression)

y

Kc = 2.28

[Text formula]

Note: Kmin = (1 + M) 2(1 M) = (1 + 0.725) 2(1 0.725) = 1.175

Kmax = (1 + M) + 2(1 M) = (1 + 0.725) + 2(1 0.725) = 2.275

2.

Find: max. width

Solution:

FSc =

Cc

Kc S1

y (N)

5,000

x(E )

23,700

at failure 1 =

Kc (1,960)

Kc = 12.09

PLAN

Kmax = 0.69 + 1.27k

1,750

1

+ 0.68

+ 3.83 M

k

10

for k: Kmax = 12.09

W0

= 7.8 k = 7.8

H0

W0 = 78.0 ft width at failure.

S3 350 0.2(1,750) 700 psi

20

M

700

0.357

1,960

W0 max

158

3.

Given: Tabular ore body depth = 2,300 ft mined by 20 ft slices, 5,000 ft long

E = 5.7(106 ) psi, v = 0.25 C0 = 25,300 psi, T0 = 2,600 psi FSc = 2.2,

FSt = 4.4 gravity stress field

Find: Slices @ 20

Solution:

Ground line

s10

2,300

W0

s30

H0

...

20 20

Practical height of 15 , mining can proceed until FSc = 2.2 is reached, FSt = 1

assumed not to change significantly with mining, check tension safety.

FSt = 4.4

T0

: assume 1 psi/ft depth

4.4 ?

Kt 10

2,600

4.4 ?

(not equal)

(1)(2,300)

Cannot meet tensile safety criterion at start, will need support.

Compression check (with roof support)

C0

Kc 10

(25,300)

Kc =

(2.2)(2,300)

Kc (max) = 5.0

FSc =

need

W0

, M

H0

Sv

1

where SH = 30 : Sv = 10

Gravity field : SH =

k=

= 4

1

1

1

M=

3

M =

W0

1

=4 M=

H0

3

1

4

Kc = 7.37

Tunnels

W0

=3

H0

W0

k=

=2

H0

k=

1

3

1

M=

3

M=

Kc = 6.25

159

(estimate)

Kc = 5.15

W0

= (2)(15)

W0

= 30(ft)

W0

n =

20

30

n =

20

n = 1 slice (round down)

4.

Circular tunnel driven due East

Find: Kc , Kt

zz = 28.97

xy = 8.43

xz = yz = 0

z, u

28.97 MPa

Solution:

Kc = 1 + M + 2(1 M)

Kt = 1 + M 2(1 M) (if negative)

21

M =

= 0.724

28.97

21.00 MPa

y, N

Kt n.a

5.

C0 = 174.4 Mpa

Sz = 25.34(533) = 13.51 MPa

PLAN N

1,524 m

Sx

4.83

M=

=

= 0.357

Sz 13.51

Find: Maximum width.

Surface

z, u

SECTION

533 m

3

6

x, E

160

Solution:

C0

c

c = Kc 10

FSc =

at failure

Kc =

174.4

= 12.91

13.51

1

+ 3.83 M

k

1

12.91 = 2.06 + 1.27k + 0.68

k

1.27k2 10.85k + 0.68 = 0

k = 7.83 (physically realistic root of quadratic)

Kc = 0.69 + 1.27k + 0.68

W0

= 7.83, H0 = 3 m

H0

W0 = 23.5 m

6.

Given: Tabular excavation 4.6 m high & 700 m deep mined by 6 m wide slices

1520 m long. C0 = 174.4 MPa T0 = 17.9 MPa

Premining stress = gravity only, E = 39.3 GPa v = 0.25 FSc = 2.2 FSt =

4.4 required

Find: Excavation wide, number of slices.

Solution:

s10

700 m

T0

Ft =

Kt 10

. ..

6m

6m

estimate: Kt

= 1(no more)

0

estimate: 1 = h

= (25.0)(700)

0

1 = 17.5 MPa

4.4 ?

(17.9)

(1)(17.5)

Need support at outset

C0

c

c = Kc 10

174.4

2.2 =

Kc (17.5)

Kc = 4.53(max)

FSc =

s30

4.6 m

Tunnels

161

(gravity only)

M =

1

30

v

4

=

=

1

10

1

1

M=

3

1

4

Text M = 1/4

Kmax = 5.15

Kmax = 4.06

1 < k < 2 Possible

Hence only one slice can be made (the first slice)

Table 2

k=2

k=1

Supported Tunnels

7.

Given:

Find:

(a) T, M

(b) A of A36 steel

(c) S = 30 in3 , b .

Hp 10

4

4

Steel beam

R 7.5

Ht 18

Pin

Pin

Spacing: S 6

g 156 pcf

B 16

Solution:

(a) Equate W/2 to T ignoring rock arch weight

transmitted to abutments or do an approximate

force polygon.

small angles suggest N2 W2 & W2 = (W/4)

Note: Also overall equilibrium suggests

Rv = W/2, (then N2 Rv W/2).

Then

N2 T12 sin(45 )

Rv = T12 sin 45

N1

Ry

T12

45

RH

N2

162

w2

N2

i.e. T12

2 W

W

= 0.71

1

2

2

l/2

reasonably

h

w1

45

7.5

T12 = 0.85

W

2

N1

W

S

= BHp

2

2

(156)(16)(10)(6)

=

2

W

= 7.488(104 ) lbf

2

T12 = 0.85(7.488)104

T12 = 63,648 lbf

M = Th (pin-Connected)

h = R

R2

%

2

&

1

1

l

l

l

=

&

2R = =

2(7.5) = 5.303 ft

2

2

2

2

2

h = 2.197 ft

M = (63,648)(2.197)

M = 1.405(105 ) ft-lbf

T = Y A

63,648

A=

36,000

A = 1.763 square inches

(c)

b =

=

Area A36

M

S

1.405(105 )lbf-ft (12)(in/ft)

30(in.3 )

b = 56,200 psi

Tunnels

8.

163

Given:

2-piece continuous steel set

try 1 in. of steel (web) per 3 ft of tunnel

12 ft radius, 13 ft leg

4 ft set spacing

8 blocks, spaced 50 in.

rock sp. wt. = 170 pcf

rock load Hp = 10 ft.

Find:

1. Scale diagram of tunnel of rib

6. Do force polygon

2. Show blocks

7. Find max moment

3. Show rock arch to scale

8. Find max steel stress

4. Use Rv for leg reaction

9. Estimate steel safety factor.

5. Show chords between blocks

Solution:

(similar to example in handout)

some calculational details follow using same number of blocks but uniformly

spaced

5

4

3

#1

#2

#3

2

#4

w4

w5

w3

1

#5

5

w2

4

Blocks @ 18

w1

3

b

Hp 10

a

R 12

1 40

Spacing 4

g 170 pcf

1

s (12)

Block

1

2

3

4

5

(w)

Width

(w SH p )

Weight

4

1.5

1.02(10 ) lbf

2.7

1.43(104 )

3.2

2.18(104 )

3.4

2.31(104 )

1.8

1.22(104 )

12.0

8.16(104 )

checks: (12.0)

(8.16)104

18

p(12) 45.2

180

(angle)

2

18

36

54

72

Wn = Wcos

1.02 (104 ) lbf

1.36(104 )

1.76(104 )

1.36(104 )

0.38(104 )

-angle

12: 9

23: 27

34: 45

45: 63

56: 81

W

2

= 8.16(104 ) lbf

W

2

Rv = 65.3(104 ) lbf

2.1

1.

Estimate: Rv = 0.8

N1

2.

1

N2

N3

T23

2.2

N4

6.

Ry

6.7

T12

6.7

6.6

164

T34

6.7

T45

N5

T56

2.

6.7

6.6

N6

1.

Tmax = 6.7(104 ) lbf

(almost uniform with equal blocking point spacing)

2 1/2

l

2

h = R R

2

1/2

45.2 2

2

= 12 (12)

2(12)

h = 42.0 11.85

h = 0.149 ft

M = 0.85 Th

Rule of thumb: 1 steel per 3 ft of tunnel

8 steel (web depth)

AISC HB p. 22

try WF 8 5 14 @ 20 lbf/ft

A = 5.88 in.2 S = 17.0 in.3

O.K. just

at equality

Tunnels

T

0.85 m

+

A

S

6.7(104 ) 0.85(6.7)(104 )(0.149)(12)

=

+

5.88

17.0

= 1.14(104 ) psi + 0.599(104 ) psi

= 1.74(104 ) psi

Then

A36 Steel

36,000

17,400

FS = 2.07

FS =

Mmax = 0.85 Th

= (0.85)(6.7)(104 )(0.149)(12)

Mmax = 10.2(104 ) ft-lbf

9.

Hp 3 m

1.25

1.25

1.

2.

R 2.3 m

Ht 5.5

B5

S = (spacing) = 2 m,

= 25.0 kN/m3

Find:

(a) T, M

(b) As (250 MPa steel)

(c) b (S = 500 cm3 section modulus)

165

166

N2

N1

2

Ry

N2

T12

l/2

45

l/2

45

N1

RH

R 2.3 m

N2 T12 sin 45

T12 =

But T12

W

2

W

2

1

W

= 0.71

2

2

small angles: N2 W2

W

equilibrium suggests:

= Rv

2

also suggests T = Rv

T12 = 0.85

W

2

W

S

= BHp

2

2

3

2.0

2

W

= 375 kN

2

then T12 = 0.85(375)

T12 = 319 kN

M = Th (pin-connected)

2 1/2

l

h = R R

;

2

2

= 2.3 1.62

h = 0.677 m

l

= R sin 45

2

1

= 2.3

2

l

= 1.626 m

2

M = (319 kN)(0.677 m)

M = 216 kN-m

Tunnels

167

at FS = 1.0

T = As

A=

319 kN

250(103 ) kN/m2

A = 1.28(103 ) m2

A = 12.76 cm2

As

M

s

216 kN-m

=

500 cm3

b = 432 MPa

b =

10.

7 m = B 2.5 cm for each 1 m of width (steel/estimate), S = 1.2 m 20 cm blocks,

spaced = 127 cm, Hp = 3 m, = 26.9 kN/m3

Find:

(1) Neat sketch

(2) Block positions

(3) Rock arch and forces

(4) Use Rv for leg reaction

(5) Show cords

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

4

3

#3

Do force polygon

Find maximum moment

Find steel stress

Find steel FS.

5

#1

Hp 3 m

#2

Wt gw SHp

2

#4

6

(W)

5

56 81 Block Width

b 1

4 63

0.58 m

45

2

0.93 m

44

3

0.93 m

3 34

4

0.70 m

5

0.36 m

3.5 m

23 28

(checks)

2

1

#5

12 9

(W)

Wt.

93.6

150.1

150.1

113.0

58.1

564.9

(kN)

15 squares 3.5 m

1

B 7m

(b)

angle N W cos b

4

93.4 kN

16

144.3

35

123.0

53

68.0

71

18.9 kN

W

2

Rv = 452 kN

estimate Rv = 0.8

high

62

168

600

500

70

152

(kN)

452

N1

N2

125

400

N3

T12

T23

300

N4

140

T34

200

N5

140

(low)

T45

100

(kN)

N6

T56

0

76

(low)

94

O.K.

RH

Tmax = 620 kN

(almost uniform)

2 1/2

l

h = R R

;

2

2 1/2

l

2

= 3.5 (3.5)

2

h = 0.0441 m

2

l

=

2

4.75

(0.233)

2

l

= 0.554 m

2

M = 0.85 Th

= 0.85(620 kN)(0.0441)

M = 23.21 kN-m

Try 2.5 cm steel for 1 m width.

17.5 cm web depth (7 m steel)

Try 1-beam 7 35/8 @ 4.43 lbf/ft

AISC Hand book p 28 A = 4.43 in.2

S = 10.4 in.3

T u n n e l s 169

T

M

+

A

S

620 kN

23.21 kN-m(102 )

=

+

2

(4.43)(2.54)

(10.4)(2.54)3

2

= 35.3 kN/cm , 353 MPa

Steel @ 250 MPa too high

Try 8 5 14 A = 5.88 in.2 S = 17.0 m3

Repeating:

Note: FS near 1.01 which is low. Need a larger beam as a practical matter.

11.

Given: ATA = (C0 /T0 )Pb tlr spacing = S & MohrCoulomb rock, 45 point load

cone angle.

Find: Equivalence to Bischoff and Smart, reference under Chapter 4 list in text.

Solution:

C0 = Unconfined compressive strength

T0 = tensile strength

Pb = bolting pressure

t = rock arch (supporting) thickness

lr = set spacing

B & S handout (reference)

b Ab

TA = q 2 (L S) : per ft. of tunnel

S

q = tan2

+

4

2

b = bolting stress

Ab = bolt area

S = set spacing

h = bolt length

Also: t = L S: arch thickness

Fb = b Ab : bolt force

Fb

Pb = 2 : bolt pressure & square pattern

S

S = lr with these identifications and equivalences B & S becomes TA = qPb tlr

after multiplying by lr to obtain total TA between sets (from TA per foot of

tunnel). Must now show that for MC rock,

q = tan2

+

4

2

=

C0

T0

170

C0 T0

,

C0 + T0

2 =

2

For MC sin =

Substituting

C0 1 + sin

=

T0 1 sin

&

C0

1 + cos2

=

T0

1 cos2

Double angle formulas

1 + cos2

2

1 cos2

2

sin =

2

C0

= cot2 () = tan2

gives

T0

2

C0

= tan2

Hence

+

T0

4 2

cos2 =

12.

Find: Equivalent bolting pattern using 1 inch diameter steel @ 60,000 psi

Solution:

From Problem 8.

T = 6.7(104 ) lbf

R 12

TA = 6.7(104 ) lbf

25

C0 Fb

TA =

(L S)lr

T0 S 2

t=LS

L = bolt length

S = set spacing

Fb

Pb =

bolting pressure

As

C0

= ratio of unconfined compressive to tensile strength.

T0

C0

1

T

C0

0

Assume

= 10, So that = 55 : sin

C0

T0

+

1

T0

reasonable for rock

b A b

S2

= (60,000)

(l)2

4

4.71(10)4

Pb =

S2

Pb =

24

Tunnels

171

T = TA

LS

4

4

6.7(10 ) = (10)(4.71)(10 )(4)

S2

LS

= 0.0338(55 ), L = 0.0338S2 + S

S2

C0

= 10.0 = 55

T0

C0

= 3.85 = 36

T0

S

3 4 5 6 7

L(55) 3.3 4.6 5.9 7.3 8.7

L(36) 2.4 3.1 3.8 4.5 5.3

done with more details about the rock mass).

13.

Hp = 15 ft.

Find: (a) As , (b) proportion for bending.

Solution:

2 PbRS

Pb

R

R

Previous derivation:

T = pRS

p = Hp

estimate 1 psi/ft

p = 15 psi

AM 0

0 2pbRSRTR

no end moments

(also true throughout)

(15)(RS)(144)

36,000

As = 0.06 RS

As =

As

area is needed to resist bending stress.

bending area = 0

14.

Find: Bolt length spacing for Problem 10 equivalent

Solution:

From Problem 10 TA = 565,620

kN say, 595 kN

C0

Pb tlr

From Problem 11: TA =

T0

where

t=LS

L = length

R 3.5

7.5 m

7m

172

S = spacing

Pb = Fb /S2 (square pattern)

lr = 2 m

set spacing was 2 m

Fb = b Ab

C0

Assume reasonable

= 10

T0

Fb = (410) MPa

Fb = 201 kN

595(103 ) = (10)

if

15.

4

(201)103

(L S)(2),

S2

LS

= 0.148

S2

S = 2 m then L = 2.59 m

S = 1.5

L = 1.83 m

S = 1m

L = 1.15 m

(say) S = 1.5 m L = 1.83 m

(square pattern)

Estimate: Steel area As

Solution:

p

T = pRS

p = Hp

= 25 kN/m3

T = 25(103 )(4.6)RS

T = (115)(RS) : (kN)

As = T

(115)(RS)kN

750(103 ) kN

As = 0.46 RS

As =

16.

R = radius

S = (spacing)

moderately blocky and seamy T4.2 text:

Hp : 0.25(14) = 3.5

Hp : 0.35(11 + 14) = 8.75

H p = 6.125

Use Hp = 6

11

14

Tunnels

173

W = Hp BS

(162)(6)(S)(14)

W/B (per ft of width) =

14

S = 4

S = 6

S = 8

= 5, 832 lb/ft

= 7, 776 lb/ft

(Handout)

8 spacing

max. block point spacing = 40

W

2

(162)(14)(6)(8)

T=

= 54,432 lbf

2

(c) T

17.

Find: Equivalent bolting.

Solution:

S

L

TA = Ts

Ts

= 54,432 lbf/8 =

11

6.80(103 )

per ft. of

tunnel length

14

b Ab

Also: TA = q 2 (L S)

S

q = tan2

+

4

2

sin =

=

C0 T0

C0 + T 0

23,700 1,480

23,700 + 1,480

sin = 0.8825

= 61.9

61.9

q = tan2 45 +

2

q = 16.0 Note: q =

C0

, estimate between 10 20 try 1 diameter @ 60,000 psi

T0

Fb = (1)2 (60,000)

4

Fb = 4,712(104 )lbf

174

1

Try L

= W

3

Say L = 6 ft

(16)(4.71)(104 )(6 5)

TA =

S2

S2 (0.68)(104 ) = 452(104 ) 75.4(104 )S

75.4

452

S2 +

S

=0

0.68

0.68

[(1111)2 + 665(4)]1/2

S = 111 +

2

11.4

S =

ft

2

S = 5.7 ft

1 diam, 60,000 psi steel

Length = 6 ft,

18.

Find: Yieldable arch area.

Solution:

T = pRS and T = s As

pRS

As =

, p = Hp

s

(62)(575)(7)(8)

=

A36

36,000

As = 1.45 sq in.

19.

R

t

7.0

T pRS

As

From: Table 3 Commercial shearing & stamping

or text Table 4.2

Hp = 0.25(4.3) to 0.35(4.3 + 3.4)

Hp = 1.08 to 2.70 m

Hp = 1.89 m

3.4 m

4.3

W =

=

W =

(S =

W =

(S =

(25)(1.5)(1.89)(4.3), try S = 1.5 m, S = 2.0 m

305 kN

1.5)

406 kN

2.0)

Tunnels

W/B

(S

W/B

(S

W/B

(S

=

=

=

=

=

=

175

1.5)

94.5 kN/m (6,473 lbf/ft)

2.01)

118.1 kN/m (8,091 lbf/ft)

2.5)

(a) A Light Beam 6 4 @ 16 lbf/ft would do when spaced 2.5 m and

maximum blocking point spacing of 40

6 4 (depth flange width) = 15.2 10.2 cm

16 lbf/ft = 234 N/m

40 spacing = 102 cm

W BSHp

1.89

(c) T

=

= (25 kN/m3 )(4.3)(2.5)

= 254 kN

2

2

2

20.

Given: Problem 19

Find: Equivalent bolting pattern

Solution:

R

3.4m

TA = Ts = 254 kN/2.5 m

Ts = 102 kN/m(kN per m of tunnel length)

C0 b As

But also: Ts =

(L S) : (square pattern)

T0

S2

4.3

C0

between 10 20, say, 15

T0

steel estimate: = 414 MPa

try 2.54 cm bolt diameter

then b As = (414 MPa)

(2.54)2 (104 )

4

b As

= 210 kN

102 kN = (15)(210 kN)(L S)/S2

estimate:

(other L, S combinations possible in this design)

21.

Find: Yieldable arch area

176

Solution:

T = pRS, S = set spacing

p = Hp

2

p = 47.25 kPa

T = (47.25)(2.15)(2.5)

T = 254 kN

But also T = Y As , Y = 250 MPa

1

= 250(103 ) kPa/254 kN

As

As = 1.02(103 ) m2

As = 10.2 cm2

22.

p

R 4.3/2

R

T

Given: arched tunnel 18 21 , d = 970 ft moderately, blocking and seamy wet

Find:

(a) Steel sets

(b) How to handle high side pressure.

Solution:

Table 4.2, Rock mass = Type 4

Hp = 0.25B to 0.35(B + Ht )

= 0.25(18) to 0.35(18 + 21)

Hp = 4.5 to 13.65

Hp

Hp (ave) = 9.08

use Hp = 9 ft (wet)

Ht 21

BHp S

W

=

B

B

W

(159)(9)(S)

=

(load per ft. of width)

B

4

try S = 5 ft

4

5,724

W

5 = 7,155

lbf/ft

B 6

8,586

B 18

Handout T.1 continuous ribs, B = 18 @5 spacing, a 5 5 H-beam

(7190) @ 18.9 lbs/ft (depth) (width) (max blocking pt spacing = 44 )

(a)

Tunnels

23.

177

Given: Hp = 9 ft from 3

Find: Yieldable arch area.

Solution:

p = h =

(159)(9)

= 9.94 psi

144

T = pRS

= (9.94)(144)(9)(5)

try S = 5

9.94 psi

T = 64,395 lbf

But

24.

9

64,395

A=

36,000

A = 1.79 sq in

Find: Equivalent bolting pattern.

Solution:

T = 64,395 lbf

C0

TA =

(p)(t)(s)

T0

27,400

64,395 =

(994 psi)(L S)(S)(144)

1,840

4,350 = (LS S2 )144, (give L S)

S

cone angle = 45

LS

Fb

p = bolting pressure = 2

S

Fb = b Ab

D2 b

pS2 = b Ab & Ab =

4

try 5 spacing 10 spacing

25

4,350

100

4,350

+

, L=

+

L=

(144)5

5

144(10)

10

L = 11 ft

L = 13.0

then

try 4 spacing

L=

4,350

+ 4 = 11.6 ft

(144)(4)

(9.9)(144)(5)2 = 60,000 Ab

TA

178

2

Ab = 0.594

in.

4

D2 =

(0.594)

D = 0.87 in.

length = 11 ft

spacing = 5 ft

Given: Arched tunnel in wet ground moderately blocky and seamy

d = 297 m B = 5.5 m Ht = 6.4 m

Find:

(a) Steel set design, web depth, flange width weight/foot, spacing, blocking point

spacing.

(b) How to handle heavy side pressure.

Table 3 handout, Text T4.2

Hp

Hp = 0.25 B to 0.35(Ht + B)

= 0.25(5.5) to 0.35(6.4 + 5.5)

Hp = 1.375 to 4.17

Use Hp = 2.8 m. Estimate = 25 kN/m3

then

6.4 m

25.

all

BSHp

W

=

B

B

(25)(5.5)(2.8)(S)

= 70S

=

(5.5)

W

W

= 105 kN/m (S = 1.5),

= 140 kN/m (S = 2.0),

B

B

W

= 175 kN/m (S = 2.5)

B

5.5

Table 1 from C & S on 8 51/4 wide flange beam @ 20 lbf/ft would do

with max. block pts @ 44

(a)

wt/pt = 292 N/m

set spacing = 2 m

(b) Heavy side pressure handled by full circle ribs.

Tunnels

26.

179

Hp = 2.8 m

Find: Yieldable arch steel area As .

Solution:

Formula: T = pRS

p = Hp

estimate = 25 kN/m3

p = (25)(2.8)

p = 70 kPa

T = (70 kN/m2 )(2.75)(2)

also T = 385 kN

T = Y As estimate Y = 250 MPa

385 kN

As =

2

250(103 ) kN/m

As = 1.54(103 ) m2

As = 15.4 cm2

27.

T

S spacing 2 m

B

R 2.75 m

2

As

Find: Equivalent bolting pattern.

Solution:

Estimate T =

T=

W

,2 1

2

L

S

(140 kN/m)5.5

T = 385 kN

Check:

3

= 25 kN/m

S = 2.0 m

B = 3.5 m

Hp = 2.8 m

S bolt spacing

W = SBHp

W = 770 kN

W/2 = 385 kN (checks)

Fb

C0

formula TA =

(L S): per m of tunnel

T0

S2

T

= 192.5 per m of tunnel

Ts =

2

Fb

192.5 kN/m = (15) 2 (L S)

S

where C0 /T0 ranges between 1020, say 15.

L bolt length

180

then Fb = Y Ab

(2.5)2 (104 )415 MPa

=

4

Fb = 204 kN

LS

192.5 kN = (15)(204 kN)

S2

LS

192.5 = 3,060

S2

if L = 3 m then S = 2.58 m

bolt length = 3 m

spacing = 2.58 m (square pattern)

28.

p = 20 psi R = 6.75 ft H = 2,350 ft

P

A 36

Find: As , S, FS = ?

6.75

Solution:

R

T

allow =

FSs

allow =

36,000

= 32,730 psi

1.1

32,730 As = (20)(6.75)(5)(144) S = 5 ft

As = 2.97 sq in.

Given: Problem 28 conditions but fixed steel sets

and Ht = 11.75 ft

Find: Steel size, spacing

6.75

Solution:

at 20 psi

Hp =

150

(Hp )

144

(144)(20)

= 19.2 ft.

(150)

13.5 B

11.75 Ht

29.

T u n n e l s 181

W = Hp BS,

S = 5 ft.

W

B

(152)(19.2)(13.5)(5)

13.5

W = 13,511 lbf/ft

W =

Table 1. Ribs

tunnel width 13.5 use 14

Closest is 6 6 ft beam @ 25

(for 13,270 lbf/ft)

max. blocking point spacing = 40

30.

E = 4.9(106 ), v = 0.18 C0 = 7,500 psi, T0 = 750 psi = 148 pcf, 1 diameter Steel

Find: Equivalent bolting pattern

Solution:

TA =

C0 b Ab

(L S) = T

T0 S 2

W (0.85)

(per ft)

S

2

BHp S

0.85

=

2

S

0.85

=

(148)(13.5)(19.2)

2

T = 16,304 lbf/ft of length

Estimate T =

TA =

S=5

S = 10

S = 3

7,500

LS

2 LS

5

= 4.712(10 )

(60,000)

(1)

750

4

S2

S2

LS

4.712(105 )

= 16,304

S2

LS

= 0.0346

S2

L = 5.9

L = 13.5

L = 3.3

6 bolts on 5 centers

182

31.

Y (steel) = 250 MPa

Find:

(a) reasonable FS

(b) set spacing.

Solution:

T = pRS & T =2

Y As

where 2

Y = max allowable = Y /FS

FS = 1.1 for yieldable arches (slip before yield)

2

Y =

250

= 227 MPa

1.1

then T = 552 kN

552 kN

227 MPa

As = 0.00243 m2 ,

As =

As

spacing

FS

24.3 cm2

S = 2m

FS = 1.1

Given: Problem 31 data

sets (fixed).

Solution:

p = 138 kPa (from Problem 31)

p = Hp est. = 25 kN/m3

138

25

Hp = 5.52 m

Hp =

3.6 m

32.

W = SBHp ,

try S = 1.5 m

W = (25)(1.5)(4)(5.52)

W = 828 kN

W

828

=

B

4

W

= 207 kN per meter of tunnel width

B

(14,178 lbf/ft) @ (13.1 ft wide)

4m

Tunnels

183

Off Column, try S = 1.0 m

W

= 9,452 lbf/ft

B

a 6 6 H-beam @ 20 lb/ft would do

then

Wt/ft = 292 N/m

Spacing = 1 m.

33.

E = 33.8 GPa, v = 0.18

C0 = 51.7 MPa, T0 = 5.17 MPa

3

One-inch diameter (2.54 cm)

Find: Bolt spacings (in-row,

between-row) & bolt length.

S

Solution:

TA TS

C0

Fb

TA =

(L S): on a square pattern

T0

S2

C0

= 10

T0

Fb = (410) MPa

(2.54)2 (104 ) = 208 kN

4

L Bolt length

S Spacing length

TA

W

: estimate

2S

828

=

2(1.5)

Ts =

LS

276 kN = (10)(208)

S2

try L = 2 m then 276S2 + 20,805S (2)(2,080) = 0

S = 1.64 m

bolt length = 2 m

bolt spacing = 1.64 m (Square pattern, would do)

184

34.

C0 = 14,300 psi, T0 = 1,430 psi

E = 4.25(106 ) psi, G = 1.8(106 ) psi

= 156 pcf

moderately blocky and seamy, wet

B = 14 ft Ht = 17

Find: steel sets.

Solution:

17

14

estimate: Hp = 0.3(B + Ht )

Hp = 0.3(14 + 17)

Hp = 9.3 ft

BHp S

W

=

, try S = 6

B

B

(156)(14)(9.3)(6)

=

14

W

= 8,705 lbf/ft of width

B

Table 1 Handout @ 14 Spacing = 6 ft

5 5 H-beam @ 18.9 lb/ft will do

with max blocking pt spacing @ 40

35.

Find: Equivalent bolting pattern

Solution:

Same thrust capacity

s = allowable stress

s = 27,000 psi, say

T = T

Tsteel = s As

LA = W

18.9(lb/ft)(1 ft)(144)

A=

1 ft 4903lb

ft

A = 5.55 sq in.

Tsteel = (27,000)(5.55)

Tsteel = 1.5(105 ) lbf

C0

pS(L S)

T =

T0

Tunnels

185

C0

= 10

T0

= (156)(9.3)

p = Hp ,

p = 1.45(103 ) lb/ft

S=?

1

L = (14)

2

T = (10)(1,450)(7S S2 )

1.5(105 )

(10)(1,450)

S(7 S) = 1.04

S(7 S) =

S2 7S + 1.04 = 0

72 4(1.04)

2

S = 4.88 ft, say

S = 5 ft

S=

= (1, 450)(5)(5)

Fb = 3.625(104 ) lbf

But Fb = Ab b , b = 60,000 psi

Ab =

3.625(104 )

6(104 )

Ab = 0.604 in.2

Ab 4

Db = 0.769 in.2

Db =

36.

Find: Yieldable arches support.

Solution:

P

7

T = pRS,

p = Hb

= (156)(9.3)(7)(6),

T = 6.09(104 ) lbf

T = s As

try S = 6

T

186

6.09(104 )

3.6(104 )

As = 1.69 sq. in.

As =

(9)

set spacing @ 6

Given: An arched back tunnel where depth = 863 m

C0 = 98.6 MPa, T0 = 9.86 MPa

E = 29.3 GPa, =?, G = 12.4 GPa

= 24.7 kN/m3 ,

B = 4.3 m,

Ht = 5.2 m,

Find: Steel

Solution:

Table 3 C & S

Hp

Hp = 0.25B to 0.35(B + Ht )

Hp = 0.25(4.3) to 0.35(4.3 + 5.2)

i.e. Hp = 1.08 to 3.33 m

5.2 m

37.

Use Hp = 2.20

W = BHp S,

try S = 2 m

= (24.7)(4.3)(2.2)(2)

4.3

then W = 467 kN

W

467

=

= 109 kN/m of tunnel width

B

4.3

(7,444 lbf/ft), (14.2 ft wide)

Tables C & S

@ 40 max

spacing = 2 m

web depth = 12.7 cm

flange width = 12.7 cm

weight = 234 kN/m

max block pt. spacing = 102 cm.

Tunnels

38.

187

Find: Square pattern bolt equivalent.

Solution:

L bolt length

S spacing length

TA

formula TA =

C0

T0

Fb

S2

(L S)

1

: fixed steel set thrust

S

1

1

= (467 kN)

2

2

Ts = 117 kN

Also Ts =

W

2

C0

= 10

T0

Fb = Y As estimate Y = 415 MPa try 2.54 cm diameter

= (415)

(2.54)2 (104 )

4

Fb = 210 kN

LS

117 = (10)(210)

S2

try L = 2.5 m

& S = 2.2 m

other combinations possible

2.54 cm diameter bolts

415 MPa Y

2.5 m long

2.2 m spacing square

bolting

188

39.

Find: Yieldable arch support.

Solution:

T = pRS & T = Y As

use mild steel Y = 250 MPa

estimate: p = Hp

= (24.7)(2.20)

p = 54.3 kPa

p

R

try S = 2.5 m then

T

S Spacing

R B/2 4.3/2 2.15 m

As = 1.168(103 ) m2

As = 11.8 cm2

yieldable arches

S = 2.5 m

Y = 250 MPa

40.

dry, moderately blocking & seamy

Find:

(a) Steel sets

(b) T same for yieldable arches

(c) pb if bolted

14

14

Solution:

28

Use handout for selection (a) Table 3 or 4.2, moderately blocky & seamy

Hp = 0.25B to 0.35(B + Ht )

= 0.25(28) to 0.35(28 + 28)

Hp = 7 ft to 19.6 ft

Hp (ave) 13.3 ft

Dry, so use 1/2

W = BHp S

= (156)(28)(6.7)(4)

W = 1.171 106 lbf

W

B

1.171(105 )

=

28

W = 4,180 lbf/ft of tunnel width

W =

Tunnels

189

Smallest in table is 6 6 H beam @ 20 lb/ft corresponding to 5,780 lbf/ft of

width, should increase spacing but this is the procedure for arches.

p

14

T

T

but p

p

T

T

= pRS

= (p)(14)(4)

= Hp

= (156)(6.7 ft)

= (156)(6.7)(14)(4)

= 58,531 lbf

(b)

C0

Pb tlr

TA =

T0

TA = (10)(Pb )(t)(4)

58,531

pb =

(10)(4)(10)

pb = 146 psf

(1 psi)

Pb

(which is low because of the relatively close set spacing compared with rock

head Hp .)

t=LS

S = lr (set spacing assume square)

C0

= 10 : assume for rock

T0

L = ? : select

estimate L = 12

then t = 14 4

t = 10 ft.

Given: An arched back tunnel 8.5 m 8.5 m is

dry moderately blocky and seamy ground.

Find:

(a) Fixed steel sets

(b) Yieldable arches alternative

(c) Bolting alternative.

Solution:

Hp

8.5 m Ht

41.

Hp = 0.25(B) to 0.35(B + Ht )

= 0.25(8.5) to 0.35(8.5 + 8.5)

Hp = 2.71 m to 5.95 m

B 8.5 m

190

Hp (average) = 4.33 m

DRY! use 1/2

Hp = 2.17 m

estimate = 25 kN/m3

try 2 m spacing

W = SBHp

W = (25)(2)(8.5)(2.17)

W = 922 kN

W

= 108 kN/m of tunnel width

B

Table 1 C & S

(7,397 lb/ft) @ (28 ft wide) an 8 6 1/2 wide flange @ 24 lb/ft will do with

54 in. (max. blocking point spacing)

spacing = 2 m

web depth = 20.3 cm

flange width = 16.5 cm

weight = 350 kN/m

(b) Yieldable arches

B

8.5

=

= 4.25 m

2

2

p = Hp

(25)(2.17)

p=

p = 54.3 GPa

T = pRS & T = Y As try S = 2 m

T = (54.3)(4.25)(2)

T = 462 kN at 2 m spacing

R=

R

T

T(b)

equivalent TA = Ts

Fb

C0

and TA =

(L S)

T0

S2

C0

estimate

= 10

T0

given S = 2 m

Fb

p= 2

S

8.5 m

TA

T u n n e l s 191

T0 =

T 462

=

= 231 kN/m

S

2

if L = 3 m then p = 23.1 kN/m2

at L = 3 P = 23.1 kPa

S = 2 (low) 3.4 psi

(c)

42.

(a) The objective of a rock mass classification scheme is to allow for estimation

of rock support system requirement. The main components are (1) rock

strength (2) joint strength orientation and spacing (3) water pressure.

RQD is important because it correlates with the values output from the

scheme and thus allows for comparisons. Main differences are in numerical

weighting. RMR ranges to 100%; Q ranges over orders of magnitude, but

RMR and Q correlate well. Q does include a stress factor that RMR does not.

(b)

2.4

2.9

5.3

2.9

8.2

6.0

14.2

3.5

7.7

7.6

25.3

4.0

43.

L

D

=

1

4

=

2.125

L

D

2

29.3

5.0

34.3

2.6

36.9

10.6

47.5

7.3

54.8

49.2

RQD

= 0.82 82%

60

4

L2 =

(1.875) = 3.5

2.125

RQD =

(a) The main objectives of rock classification schemes are to determine support

requirements for tunnels. RQD is important because it indicates the intensity

or spacing of joints or fractures. The main features are: the intact rock

strength, joint strength and water,

The differences are slight, RMR and Q are well-correlated.

(b) 1.5 m of NQ-core (D = 1.875 in.) = 4.75 cm

L

L

NX:

NQ =

[correction for core size]

D 1

D 2

4.0

L2

=

L2 = 3.53 in

2.125

1.875

or L2 = 9.0 cm.

if L > L2 keep for RQD

0.0 > 8.4

8.4 > 9.9

18.3 > 15.2

33.5 > 6.4

192

66.8 > 10.2

77.0 > 13.7

90.7 > 4.8

95.5 > 15.0

110.5 > 23.6

134.1 > 3.6

137.7 > 12.3

150.0

150, = 126.6

126.6

RQD =

100

150

RQD = 84.4%

44.

(a) Objective is primarily to determine and quantity need for tunnel support

Main components are:

rock strength

joint strength

water

Main difficulties are:

method of assessing components.

(b) Large, stiff sets will limit tunnel wall displacements to a tiny amount,

provided they hold; flexible light-weight support is used when ground

squeezes and cannot be hold.

1.

load P.

Sign convention tension positive. x axis left, z axis down, y axis out of page,

CCW moment positive.

Downward shear force is positive.

Find: An expression for shear force V, Bending Moment M, Sag w

Plot shear & Moment diagrams.

Solution:

L

b

h

MA

x

RA

z, w

Due to Symmetry RA RB

Fz = 0

0 = 2R PbL

R A RB =

0

Fz = 0

PbL

2

0 = RA Pbx V

V=

0

PbL

Pbx.

2

M=0

Pbx2

+ Vx M

2

PbL

Pbx2

M = MA +

+

x Pbx2

2

2

Lx x2

M = MA + Pb

2

2

0 = MA +

194

Find: MA

known

d2 w

M

=

dx2

EI

%

&

1

Lx x2

=

MA + Pb

EI

2

2

2

%

&

1

Lx

dw

x3

=

MA x + Pb

+ C1

dx

EI

4

6

Boundary

condition (BC)

)

dw ))

= 0 C1 = 0 {Note: Built-in means no end plane rotation}

dx )x=0

%

3

&

1

x2

x4

Lx

w=

MA + Pb

+ C2

EI

2

12

24

BC: w|=0

x=0

C2 = 0

%

4

&

L4

L

L2

1

=0

BC: w|x=L 0 =

MA

+ Pb

EI

2

12 24

PbL2

MA =

12

2

L2

Lx x

+

12

2

2

2 2

Pb

Lx3

L x

x4

w=

+

EI

24

12

24

w|x=L/2 = wmax

M = Pb

wmax =

V

x0

y PbL

2

x0

2

M PbL

12

PbL4

384EI

xL

L

x

2

L

2

2

M PbL

24

x

M

y PbL

2

x

xL

M PbL

12

Not to scale

2.

195

Show: Maximum tension t occurs at the top of the beam at the beam ends and

is given by the expression [(1/2)(PL2 )]/h2

Solution:

Mz

;

I

bh3

I=

(rectangular section)

12

h

z=

top of beam.

2

+z

L2

Lx x2

b

M = Pb

+

12

2

2

dM

PbL

L

PbL2

=

Pbx = 0 x = is a point of relative max/min, M =

dx

2

2

24

=

L2

12

L2

at x = L; M = Pb

12

2

at x = 0; M = Pb

max =

t =

3.

PbL

12

3

bh

12

h

2

,12

(PL2 )

h2

PL2

2h2

Show:

sag wmax occurs at L/2 and is given by the expression

Maximum

1

PL4

.

32

Eh3

Solution:

From Problem 1

2 2

Pb

L x

Lx3

x4

+

EI

24

12

24

2

2

3

dw

L x Lx

x

=

+

dx

12

4

6

)

3

3

3

dw ))

L

L

L

=

+

dx )x= L

24 16 48

2

1

1

1

= L3

+

=0

24 16 48

w=

196

L

2

L

w = , wmax =

2

bh3

but I =

12

wmax at

4.

PbL4

384EI

wmax =

PbL4

3

384E bh

12

wmax =

PL4

.

32Eh3

T0

t

for built-in ends case.

Given: Ft =

Find: Lmax

Solution:

From Problem 2 t =

PL2

2h2

Ft =

L=

T0

=

2

PL

2h2

2h2 T0

PFt

2h2 T0

PL2

1/2

Lmax at Ft minimum = Ft = 1

Lmax =

5.

2h2 T0

P

1/2

E = 3.7 106 psi, = 0.28 = 134 pcf T0 = 690 psi

Find: t , wmax , Ft for SS, BI.

Solution:

(a) SS;

3 PL2

; P = h

4 h2

2

3

22 2

ft

3

lbf

=

(134)(2.25)

(ft)

=

3

4

2.25

4

ft

ft

lbf

lbf

1

= 2

= 2 = psi

144

in

ft

t =

= 21618.67

197

1

= 150.13 psi

144

t = 150 psi

wmax =

=

5

32

5

32

PL4

Eh3

1

134

(22)4

(12)

(2.25)

144

(2.25)3

3.7 10+6

wmax = 0.0218 in

T0

690

=

= 4.6

t

150

Ft = 4.6

Ft =

(b) BI;

1 PL2

2 h2

1

134

22 2

=

(2.25)

2

144

2.25

t = 100 psi

t =

1

wmax (SS)

5

0.0218

=

5

wmax (BI) = 0.0043

wmax (BI) =

T0

690

Ft =

= 6.9

=

t

100

Ft = 6.9

6.

SS case

Find: h .

Solution:

b = h + t

Given b = 0.

h = t

h = 150 psi (compression)

Tension + sign convention.

198

7.

Given: Entry: 3.66 m high 6.71 m wide, depth = 290 m, immediate roof layer

separation, h = 0.69 m, E = 25.52 GPa, = 0.28, = 21.2 kN/m3 , T0 = 4.7 MPa

Find: t , wmax , FSt

(a) simply supported,

(b) built-in.

Solution:

(a) SS

3 PL2

t =

; P = h

4 h2

2

3

3 (6.71 m)

=

(21.2 kN/m )

4

(0.69 m)2

t = 1.04 Mpa

T0

t

4.7 MPa

=

1.04

FSt = 4.5

FSt =

FS1

4

5

PL

32

Eh3

5

3

(21.2 kN/m )(0.69 m)(6.71)4 (100)

32

=

(25.52 GPa)(0.69)3

wmax =

wmax = 0.055 cm

wmax

(b) BI

1

L2

t =

P 2

2

h

1

6.71 2

3

=

(21.2 kN/m )(0.69)

2

0.69

t = 0.692 MPa

T0

t

4.7 MPa

=

0.692 MPa

FSt = 6.79

FSt =

FSt

199

1 PL4

wmax (BI) =

32 Eh3

1

=

wmax (SS)

5

1

wmax (BI) =

(0.055)

5

wmax (BI) = 0.011 cm

8.

wmax

Find: h to reduce tension to 0.

sh

Solution:

Need:

0 = t + h

h = 1.04 MPa [compression ()]

st

L

2

Given: Geologic column & properties, depth = 1450 ft, dip = 8 , mining height

12 ft.

Find: Bed separations.

Surface

(106 psi)

E

4.7

2.5

over burden

h(ft)

8.9

g (pcf)

155

R5

3.6

138

R4

0.35

0.5

90

R3

3.1

2.5

142

R2

2.5

1.5

138

R1

4.8

12

0.35

90

H 1,450 ft

9.

L

2

Sean

L

F1

F2

Solution:

Need Pi (n)s

90

(4.8) = 3.00 psi

144

1 h1 + 2 h2

P1(2) = E1 h31

E1 h31 + E2 h32

&

%

(0.35)(106 )(4.8)3

(90)(4.8) + 138(1.5)

=

144

0.35(106 )4.83 + 2.5(106 )(1.5)3

P1(1) = 1 h1 =

200

= (0.2689)

P1(2) = 3.65 psi

639

47.1

P1(3) = (0.2689)

639 + 3 h3

47.1 + E3 h33

639 + 142(2.5)

= (0.2689)

47.1 + 3.1(2.5)3

994

P1(3) = 0.2689

95.5

2.80 = P1 (3) < P1 (2) = 3.64 psi

Beds separate between shale (R1) and layered sandstone (R2)

Restart analysis with R2 as #1 layer

P1 (1) = 1 h1

42

(2.57)

=

144

P1 (1) = 2.47 psi

142(2.5) + 90(0.5)

P1 (2) = (3.1)(106 )(2.5)3

3.1(106 )2.53 + 0.35(0.5)3 106

(3.1)(2.5)3 400

=

144

48.5

P1 (2) = 400 psf 2.77 psi

48.4 400 + 138(3.6)

144 48.5 + 2.5(3.6)3

48.4 897

P1 (3) =

144 165

P1 (3) = 1.83 psi

P1 (3) < P1 (2) Beds separate between R3 & R4

P1 (3) =

P1 (1) = 4 h4

138

=

(3.6)

144

P1 (1) = 3.45 psi

(138)(3.6) + 155(8.9)

2.5(106 )(3.6)3

144

2.5(106 )(3.6)3 + 4.7(8.9)3 106

1,876

= (0.81)

3,430

P1 (2) = 0.44 psi Beds separate between R4 & R5

201

P1 (2) =

10.

Find: Lmax ( min ), maximum roof span with FS 1.0.

Solution:

FSt (i) =

T0 (i)

t (i)

3 L2

will assume SS (simply supported ends) so that t (i) = Pi 2

4 hi

2

T0 (i)hi

Least FSt (i) occurs when

is least.

pi

For first two roof layers (coal & R1 )

P1 (2) = 3.64 psi

E2 h32

P2 (2) = P1 (2)

E1 h31

(2.5)(106 )(1.5)3

(0.35)(106 )(4.8)3

P2 (2) = 0.79 psi

= (3.64)

T0 (1)h21

(25.0)(4.8)2

2

=

= 1.582(102 ) ft

P1 (2)

(3.64)

T0 (2)h22

(400)(1.5)2

2

Shale R1:

=

= 1.389(103 ) ft

P2 (2)

(0.79)

P1 (2) = 4.00 psi

Coal:

0.35(106 )(0.5)3

(4.00)

3.1(106 )(2.5)3

P2 (2) = 0.036 psi

P2 (2) =

Laminated SS R2:

T0 h2

(620)(2.5)2

2

= 969 ft

=

P1 (2)

4.00

Coal R3:

T0 h 2

(2.5)(0.5)2

2

=

= 174 ft

P2 (2)

0.036

Shale R4:

T0 h 2

(400)(3.6)2

2

=

= 1,503 ft

P1 (1)

3.45

202

T 0 h2

(10,300)(8.9)2

2

= , 155 = 8.516(104 ) ft

P1 (1)

(8.9)

144

T 0 h2

4 1 T0 h

FSmin = 3

=

3 L2

Pi min

P L2

4 i

T0 h

occurs in the roof coal

Pi min

1

4 T0 h2

2

L =

FS = 1 for max

3

Pi

FS

4

=

(158)

3

L = 14.5 ft

SS R5 :

Lmax

Bolted Roof

12.

Given: Sag wmax from 5(b) (BI), assume bolt tension b = Uniformly distributed

acting upwards to reduce the sag wmax to zero.

Find: b |wmax =0

Solution:

1 PL4

32 Eh3

For wmax = 0; P = 0.

P = h b = 0

135

b = h =

(2.25)

144

b = 2.11 psi

wmax (BI) =

13.

Find: b , heq.

Solution:

2

Plan view

A = (5)(5) = 25 ft

F

16,400 1

b =

=

= 4.56 psi

A

25 144

b = 4.56 psi

b = heq.

b

4.56(144)

heq =

=

158

heq = 4.16 ft

14.

203

Find: Bolting pressure, equivalent layer h.

Solution:

Fb = Pb Ar

1.5

Bolt

plan

1.5

Ar

73.5 (kN)

(1.5)(1.5)

Pb = 32.7 kPa

Pb =

32.7 kPa

23.5 kPa/m

h = 1.392 m

h = 139 cm

Pb

h=

15.

Given: Sketch. Stratified mine roof data and 5/8 diameter bolts on 4 centers or

3/4 diameter bolts on 5 centers, High Strength, rib spacing is half.

Find:

(a) bolt safety factors from dead weight approach.

(b) best plan: 5/8 @ 4 or 3/4 @ 5

Solution:

Dead weight approach; for equilibrium weight of rock = Bolt Load, (volume) = Fb

By inspection of the sketch, the shale beds need support. The thick sandstone

(5.) will be used as an anchor stratum. Note that the decreasing thicknesses of

the shales which have the same modulus implies no bed separation within the

shales, but rather at the 45 interface.

4

/

Volume = l 2 hi

i=1

Note: For safety Bolt strength > Bolt load.

@ 4 centers

(4)2 (7 + 8 + 10 + 12)

12

3

V = 49.33 ft

V=

@ 5 centers

V = (5)

37

12

V = 77.08 ft

204

@ 4 centers

W = (135)(49.33)

W = 6,660 lbs

@ 5 centers

W = (135)(77.08)

W = 10,406 lbs

Bolt forces:

Strength 5/8 bolt, High Strength, Grade 55: Fy = 12,400 lbs.

3/4 bolt, High strength, Grade 55: Fy = 18,400 lbs.

(from Text, Table 3.4, pg 124)

tension to, say, 70% of yield point

@ 4 centers

Fb = (0.7)(12,400)

Fb = 8,680 lbs

@ 5 centers

Fb = 0.7(18,400)

Fb = 12,880 lbs

Both plans are certainly adequate since at 70% yield, the bolt forces exceed the

dead weight load.

Check: Bolt safety factors w.r.t. yield pt.

@ 4 centers

12,400

FSb =

6,660

FSb = 1.86

@ 5 centers

18,400

10,406

FSb = 1.77

FSb =

Both plans adequate and technically close. 3/4 on 5 centers would likely

be preferable because the fewer bolts installed would more than offset added

individual bolt losts.

16.

yield load. Sag is reduced 40%.

Find: Reduction in roof tension.

205

Solution:

For simply supported ends

5 PL4

32 Eh3

3 PL2

(max) =

4 h2

Let w / = stress with bolts

ww / = sag with bolts

w0 / = stress without bolts

ww0 / = sag without bolts

w(max) =

Pw/

Pw0

Pw/

=

Pw0

ww/

=

= 0.4

ww0 /

& w/ /w0

17.

w/

w0 /

40% reduction

Find: Safety factor ratio w/ to w0 /

Solution:

T0

w0 /

=

w/

1

=

0.4

FS =

FSw/

FSw0 /

w

But 0

w

FSw/

= 2.5

FSw0 /

18.

Given: Clamped shale beds from problem 1 that act as a single beam, friction

coefficient between shales = 0.35

Find:

(a) Maximum shear in monolithic beam (clamped unit)

(b) Bolting pressure estimate needed for clamping.

Solution:

20

37

g 135 pcf

n.a.

tmax

206

3 PL

; P = h

4 h

,

(135) 37

(20)

3

12

, 37 =

4

(144)

12

max =

max in fully

clamped unit

(occurs on neutral axis = n.a.)

Bolting pressure?

friction = b

b =

14

=

0.35

b = 40.2 psi

bolting pressure

required

(high, but not beyond reason, clamping would mobilize beam building

mechanism).

19.

Find: Equivalent distributed load in the vertical direction.

Solution:

R

F = 0 = T + Rh T cos 45

45

hor. dir

F = 0 = T sin 45 Rv

vert. dir

Rv = T sin 45

Total vertical Truss Load = 2Rv

Tv = 2Rv

Tv = 2T sin 45

The truss vertical force is distributed over the area

A = LS

207

The bolting pressure is then

Tv

A

2T

Pb =

LS

Pb =

20.

Find: S and T such that Pw/ = 0.65 Pw0 /

Solution:

Apparent unit weight formula

ha = P (i.e. a = P/h)

try1: P(1, n) =

E1 h31 (a1 hi i + Pg Pb )

n1 Ej h3j

h3 (hj Pb )

nj h3j

3

[(6 ) Pb ]

h

, 72 =

h3

4

P(1, n) =

(6)(130)

Pb

=

18

18

P(i, n) = 43.3

Pb

18

43.3

(i, n) = , 4 12

(identical strata just touch)

a (w/) = 0.65 a (w0/ )

= 0.65(130)

a (w/) = 84.5 pcf

equivalent

bolting pressure

208

4

= (84.5)

12

P(i, n)w/ = 28.2 psf

P(i, n)w/ = 43

Pb

18

Pb

= 43.0 28.2

18

Pb = 266.4 psf

Pb = 1.85 psi

From Problem 6.

2T

Pb =

LS

T

L

=

(266.4), L = 20 .

S

2

T

= 3,768 lbs/ft of entry.

S

Try: S = 4

S=8

T = 15,070 lbs

T = 30,140 lbs

Yield load = 18,400 lbs

So we are in range.

21.

Find: Optimum bolting angle.

Fb

Solution:

Optimum means greatest increase in FS.

By definition:

FS = strength/stress

With respect to shear on the joint

= tan + C, strength rock

Must add resistance from bolting b multiply by area to convert stresses to forces

FS =

Resisting Forces

Driving Forces

Resistance: R = Tf + Tb

(uphill)

a

Ar

T

b

209

Tf = N tan + K + Tn tan

Tb = Fb sin( )

Driving = Td

N tan + K + Tn tan + Fb sin( )

FS =

T

N tan + K

FS =

T

Fb [ tan cos( ) + sin( )]

+

T

p

2 f

p

a2

a

Horizontal

T should be

tensioned

Optimum Maximize FS

FS = FS +

Fb sin( + )

T cos

i.e. opt =

+

2

22.

cj = 0 j = 35 Fb = 12,000 lbs Ar = 4 sq ft. = 648 psi (horizontal) = 30

Find: FSw0/ , FSw/

Solution:

N tan + K

|T|

= Ar , T = Ar

x + y

x y

=

+

cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

648 648

=

+

cos 60

2

2

= 486 psi

FSw0 / =

N

(x y )

sin + xy cos 2

2

648

=

sin 60

2

= 281 psi

(486)(4)(144) tan 35 + 0

|(281)(4)(144)|

= 1.21

FSw0 / =

FSw0 /

unbolted joint FS

210

Bolting at optimum :

Fb

|T| cos

12,000

= 1.21 +

(281)(4)(144) cos 35

= 1.21 + 0.09

FSw/ = FSw0 +

FSw/ = 1.30

23.

bolted joint FS

the hole

Find: Shear stress in the bolt.

Solution:

Since the FSw0 / bolts is greater than 1, no motion occurs and the grouted bolt is

not loaded. Stress is zero.

b = 0 psi

24.

shear

stress in bolt

Given: 2-seam coal mine, mining full height, 24-ft wide entries, stratigraphic

column, rock properties.

Surface

1,719

5

Coal-top seam

1,746.5 32.5

7

T0 700 psi

Layered sandstorm

E 1.5(106) psi

3.0

Massive sandstorm

2.5

Sandy shale

E

psi, h 3.0 T0 850 psi

E 4.5(106) psi, h 2.5 T0 1,000 psi

27

3.0(106)

Coal-bottom seam

Massive SS

Find:

(1) lower seam Roof1 FSt (shale)

(2) lower seam Roof2 FSt (sand)

(3) bolting plan (length, diameter, steel, spacing)

Solution:

Look for bed separation

P1 (1) = 1 h1

= (170)(2.5)

P1 (1) = 425 psf

211

1 h1 + 2 h2

E1 h31 + E2 h32

%

&

(170)(2.5) + 148.2(3)

= (4.5)(106 )(2.5)3

4.5(106 )(2.5)3 + 3.0(106 )(3.0)3

869

= (70.31)

70.31 + 81.0

P1 (2) = 404 psf

P1 (2) = E1 h31

P1 (1) = 425 psf

3 L2

P

4 h2

3

425

24 2

t =

4

144

2.5

t = 204 psi

t (SS) =

T0

t

1,000

FSt (1) =

204

FSt (1) =

FSt (1)

By inspection, the second roof layer separates from the first & P = h

P2 (1) = (148.2)(3.0)

P2 (1) = 446 psf

3

446

2.4 2

t (2) =

4

144

3.0

t (2) = 148.6 psi

T0 (2)

FSt (2) =

t (2)

850

=

148.6

(2) FSt (2) = 5.72

FSt (2)

Bolt length = h1 + h2 + 0.5 ft (anchorage)

Lb = 2.3 + 3.0 + 0.5

Lb = 6.0 ft

212

@12,400?

Rock block

4

3.0

Wn = r Ar (h1 + h2 )

= (4)(4)[(170)(2.5) + (148.2)(3.0)]

Wn = 13,914 lbs

SS

Shale

2.5

Use

25.

3

4

Show:

(a) Favorable alignment of mains

(b) Panel entries

(c) w.r.t joints bearing NS, steeply dipping

B

panel

N

B

A

mains

outcrop

A

Submains

2 seam

lineaments

25 ft

Solution:

(a) Columnize the mains

Surface

A A

Section

Pillars entries

Column

Column

Column

BB

Long wall face

mine 1st

Chain pillars for panel entries

mine 2nd

below top longwall

213

(1) Joints are across mains and do not disrupt roof and are therefore conducive

to long-life!

(2) In panels, joints aid caving

26.

Surface

E(106) psi

C0(psi)

T0(psi)

g(pcf)

h(ft)

R5

12.6

0.19

12,700

1,270

160

21.5

R4

12.7

0.21

14,200

1,340

158

15.2

R3

12.6

0.19

12,700

1,270

156

6.0

R2

6.3

0.31

8,450

760

146

1.5

R1

5.4

0.23

7,950

610

152

2.0

6.75

0.27

3,750

425

92

15.0

F1

12.3

0.18

11,500

1,050

155

10.3

F2

8.1

0.33

13,700

1,240

160

17.0

Detail

R2

R1

2 ft

15 ft

13 ft

Solution:

FS =

T0

t

t =

2

3

L

P

4

4

P(1, 1) = 1 h1

= (92)(2)

P(1, 1) = E1 h31

1 h1 + 2 h2

E1 h31 + E2 h32

= (0.75)(106 )(2)3

184 + (152)(2.0)

0.75(106 )(2)3 + 5.4(106 )(2)3

214

184 + 304

6.0 + 43.2

(6.0)(488)

=

49.2

P(1, 2) = 59.5 psf

P(1, 2) = (6.0)

restart for next cluster

P(1, 1) = (R1)h(R1)

P(1, 1) = (152)(2)

P(1, 1) = 304 psf

(152)(2) + 146(1.5)

(5.4)(106 )(2)3 + 4.3(106 )(1.5)3

P(1, 2) = 339 psf > P(1, 1)

523 + (156)(6)

66.7 + 12.6(6)3

1,459

= 43.2

2,788

P(1, 3) = 22.6 psf

P(1, 3) = (5.4)(2)3

Separation of seam from R1, P(1,1) = 184 psf

Separation of R2 from R3, P(1,2) = 339 psf

T0

t

2

3

L

t =

(184)

4

22

FS (immediate roof) =

L=?

t = 34.5 L2 psf

(425)(psi)(144)

FS =

34.5 L2

1,774

FS = (roof) =

L = ft

L2

But entry width = 21

1,774

(21)2

FS = 4.02

FS =

immediate proof

S

2

(610)(144)

t

3

3

21

t =

(339)

4

2

t = 28,031 psf

87,840

FS =

28,031

layer above

FS = 3.13

FS (next) =

215

S

2

Ar

21

Stratum: anchor

W = Fb

Lb = 2 + 2 + 1.5

+ 0.5(anchor)

R3

6.0

Layer

R2

1.5

Layer

R1

2

Immediate

L b = 6

2 seam 2

[(92)(2) + (152)(2) + (146)(1.5)]S2 = Fb

707S2 = Fb

S = 4

S = 5

Fb = 17,475 lbf Ty = 23,5667 lbf

3

grade 55 bolts, 6 long, spaced on 4 centers (Ty = 18,400 lbf) will do (from

4

Table 3.4)

27.

Given:

Surface

R3

R2

R1

4

S1

12

F1

24

16

216

Find:

(1) Immediate roof FS

Solution:

T0

T0 = 250 psi (not mined full thickness)

t

t P(1, n), n = ? test for bed separation

FS =

P(1, 1) = 1 h

= (95)(4)

P(1, 1) = 380 psf

P(1, 2) =

=

P(1, 2) =

E1 h31 (1 h1 + 2 h2 )

E1 h31 + E2 h32

0.35(106 )(4)3 [(95)(4) + (136)(2)]

0.35(106 )(4)3 + (4)3 (106 )(2)3

652

1+

4.1 (2)3

0.35 (4)3

P(1, 2) < P(1, 1)

beds separate

n=1

assume SS bean ends

2

3

L

P

4

h

2

3

380

24

=

4

144

4

t = 71.25 psi

250

FSt =

71

11 FSt

FSt = 3.5

t =

Solution:

wmax P

P = 0 will reduce wmax to zero

,/n

E1 h31

1 i hi P b

P(1, n) =

/

Ei h3i

n

0

i hi Pb = 0

P(1, n) = 0 when

1

Pb =

n

0

i hi

217

Pb = 865 psf (6.0 psi)

12 Pb

(3) layout pf. anchored bolting pattern based on dead weight load

V

R3

R2

R1

S

2

Lb 4 2 1.5

0.5 (anchor)

Lb 8

Sb

S

24

W = Fb for equilibrium

(1 h1 + 2 h2 + 3 h3 )S2 = Fb (S = spacing square pattern assumed)

try 4 c-c (865)(16) = 13,840 lbf

5 c-c (865)(25) = 21,625 lbf

5 /8 Grade 75 bolt has yield load of 17,000 will do on 4 c-c.

Grade 75

4 ft c-c (square)

5 /8 diameter

8 ft length

bolts

FSt =

T0

t

since bolting supports dead weight and reduces sag to zero, t = 0 & then

14

FSt

(5) Before bolting, bed separation takes place between roof seam and R1

so P = 1 h1 + Pg

2

L

t = 34 P

b

T0

so FSt =

t

would be reduced by Pg

15

218

28.

Surface

H 1,324 ft

Burden

R3

R2

R1

3 ft

S

F1

15 ft

(mining height)

21 ft

Find:

(1) Immediate roof safety factor.

Solution:

Immediate roof is in coal 3 ft thick

P = h

95(3)

P(1, 1) =

44

P(1, 1) = 1.98 psi

possible bed separation

,

P(i, j) = Ei h3i j j hj /j Ej h3j

(0.35)(3.0)3 (95)(3) + 135(2.0)

144

0.35(3)3 + 3.1(2)3

(9.45) 550

=

144

34.3

P(1, 2) = 1.06 psi

P(1, 2) =

FSt =

T0

t

2

3

L

P

4

b

2

3

21

=

(1.98)

4

3

t = 72.8 psi

t =

18 ft

150

72.8

FSt = 2.06

219

FSt =

FSt (1)

Find: Pb needed to reduce sag to zero of all roof layers (seam, R1 & R2).

Solution:

P(1, 3) =

E1 h31

/

3

0

j hj P b

Ej h3j

/3

if wmax = 0 then P = 0

Pb =

3

1

+

+

144

144

144

Pb = 6.32 psi

=

Solution:

R 3 anchor

2.5

R2

2.0

R1

3 seam

S/2

then W =

S/2

' 3

0

(

j hj S 2

and Fb = W

+

But also

Pb S 2 = W

F b = Pb S 2

Fb = (6.32 psi)(S)2 (144)

S=4

Fb = (910)(S)2

Fb = 14,560 lbf

Pb (2)

220

S=5

F = 22,750 lbf

Grade 55

3/4

Fy = 18,700

Grade 75

5/8

Fy = 17,000

3/4

Fy = 25,100

Possible 3/4 Grade 55 on 4 center

5/8 Grade 75 on 4 center

3/4 Grade 75 on 5 center

bolt length = 3.0 + 2.5 + 2.0 + 0.5 (center)

hb = 8 ft.

(3)

bolt safety factor when tensioned to 2/3, 3/4 y , FSb = 1.5 to 1.33

Find: Immediate roof rock safety factor

FSt =

T0

t

(4)

Solution:

Gas Pg contributes directly to roof pressure through the formula

/

P =

FSt =

29.

Given:

Ei h3i (

i hj Pb + Pg )

/

Ej h3j

T0

for R1

P

P(R1) = h + Pg

Tensile safety factor of 4.0 required in the immediate roof

FSt = 3.0 for next two stratum

Rock and joint data in tables

= 156 pcf (overburden)

Mining height from floor is 15 ft leaving 1.5 ft of coal in the roof.

Solution:

Test for bed separation

(5)

West

Surface

East

d = 18

R3

R2

R1

1.5 ft c

oal

Coal

Lmax

coal only P(1, 1) = h = (90)(1.5) = 135 psf

1 h1 + 2 h2

coal + R1 P(1, 2) = E1 h31

E1 h31 + E2 h32

0.35(106 )(1.5)3 [(90)(1.5) + 138(1.3)]

0.35(106 )(1.5)3 + 3.62(106 )(1.3)3

%

&

179

= (1.181)

9.13

=

bed separation occurs between coal & R1

FS = 4.0: immediate roof coal

4.0 = T0 /t assume simply supported ends, so

t =

2

3

L

P

4

h

where P = h, = cos

2

3

86

L

=

4

1

1.5

t = 42.8 L2

4.0 = (310)(144)/42.8 L2

221

222

(310)(144)

L=

(4)(42.8)

L = 16.1 ft

&1/2

Lmax : coal constraint

P (1, 1) = (138)(1.3) = 179 psf

3.62(1.3)3 106 [(138)(1.3) + 142(2.7)]

3.62(1.3)3 106 + 4.16(2.7)3

(563)

= (7.95)

89.8

P (1, 2) = 49.8 psf

P (1, 2) =

FS = 3.0: for next 2 roof layers

2

T0

3

L

3.0 =

t =

(138)

cos 18

t

4

1.3

t = 75.7 L2

3.0 =

%

L=

(650)(144)

75.7 L2

(650)(144)

(3)(75.7)

&1/2

By inspection, the sandy shale will separate (sag more) than the overlying

mudstone because both E & h are less.

1/2

(72.0)(144)

Sandy shale: L = , 3 - , 135 (3)

4

2.7

L = 30.4 ft

Lmax = 16.1 ft

30.

Lmax

Find:

(a) Maximum sag

(b) Failure sag

223

Solution:

(a) Assume simply supported ends, then

5PL4

, I = bh3 /12, P = h, b = 1 ft

384 EI

4

5

L

=

32

Eh2 (1)

4

5

1 2

86

15

1

1

=

32

0.35

1

1.5

106

144

wmax =

wmax

(b) At failure t = T0 ,

(a)

(sag)

(0.072 in.)

FSt = 1.0

3 L2

= T0

4 h

4

T L2

L4

3 0

=

h2

h

%

&

4

(310)(144)(15)2

=

3

1.5

4

L

lbf

= 8.93(106 )

h2

ft

wmax

4

1

L

=

E

h2

5

1

1

1

6

=

(8.93)10

32

0.35

106

144

5

32

31.

(b)

failure sag

Given: Problems 29/30 data, dead weight approach to bolting using pointanchored mechanical bolts, and 20 ft wide entries.

Find: Bolting plan.

Solution:

Need an anchor stratum

The mudstone appears thick and strong and within reach

Try bolds that are 1.5 + 1.3 + 2.7 + 0.5 ft long (allowing 0.5 ft for anchorage) i.e. 6 ft bolts, dead weight & square pattern S c-c:

W = [(1.5)(90) + 1.3(138) + 2.7(142)]S2 cos(18 )

W = 664 S2 lbf.

224

T3.4: a 5/6 diameter High Strength bolt has an Fy = 12,400 lbf

Tension to 2/3 Fy , is less than W

i.e. W =

Fy =

2

Fy

3

3

W = 16,747 lbf.

2

@ 67% tension

a 5/8 bolt with Extra High Strength (Grade 75) will do with Fy = 17,000 lbf

bolt length = 6

diameter = 5/8

spacing = 4 c-c/square

(2/3Fy )

steel grade = Grade 75

32.

Given: Sketch and data for low coal room and pillar mining.

Surface

Burden

g 144 pcf

980 ft.

R5

R4

R3

R2

R1

2

4

F1

6

3

S

20

F2

Find:

(a) FS of R1

(b) FS of R2

(c) bolting plan.

Solution:

T0

t

Assuming simply supported ends: t = (3/4)P(L/h)2 , need P from bed separation

analysis.

By definition: FSt =

P(1) = 1 h1 =

225

156

(2)

144

(1 h1 + 2 h2 )

[(156)(2) + 146(1.5)]

= 12.6(106 )(2)3

12.6(106 )23 + 6.3(1.5)3 106

E1 h31 + E2 h32

(100.8)

(531)

P(1, 2) =

144 100.8 + 21.0

P(1, 2) = 3.04 psi

P(1, 2) = E1 h31

(100.8)(531 + 152(1))

(144)122.1 + 5.4(1.0)3

(100.8)(683)

=

144(122.1)

P(1, 3) = 3.75 psi

P(1, 3) =

144 (122.1) + 12.7(15.2)3

(100.8) 3,084

=

144 (4,472)

P(1, 4) = 0.048 psi

P(1, 4) =

P(1, 3) = 3.75 psi

2

3

20

t (1) = (3.75)

4

2

t (1) = 281 psi

1,270

310

FS(R1) = 4.52

FS(R1) =

FS(R2) =

P(2, 3) =

FS(R1)

760

t (2)

/3

i hi

E2 h32 /31

3

E

1 i hi

'

(

/

E2 h32 E1 h31 31 i hi

=

/3

3

E1 h31

1 Ei h i

E2 h32

6.3(106 )(1.5)3

P(1, 3) =

(3.75)

3

12.6(106 )(2)3

E 1 h1

P(2, 3) = 0.79 psi

=

226

3

20 2

t (2) =

(0.79)

4

1.5

t (2) = 105 psi

760

105

FS(R2) = 7.24

FS(R2) =

FS(R2)

Wt = Bolt tension

By inspection, and in consideration of bed separation, R4 is a candidate

anchor stratum.

Wt = [(152)(1.0) + (146)(1.5) + (156)(2)](4)(4)

where a 4 c-c square plan is assumed

Wt = 10,928 lbf.

Try a 5/8 diameter High Strength (Grade 55) bolt with yield load of

12,400 lbf

will be 10,928/12,400 = 88% tensioned

4 c-c square

(c)

Plan 5/8 diameter High strength (55)

33.

Neglect support effects

Cantilever roof model

Bed separation R1 & R2

G.L.

R3

Solution:

R1

model as uniformly distributed

load

Seam

Fz = 0

Fz = 0

R2

Separation

face

Cave

Flow

RA = PbL

P gh

0 = RA V Pbx

V = Pb(L x)

MA

h

b

RA PbL

MA = 0

2

Pbx

M

2

Pbx2

M = MA + Pb(L x)x +

2

0 = MA + Vx +

L0

L0 x

L

2

d w

M

=

2

dx

EI

dw

Pbx3

EI

= MA x + PbLx

dx

3

Pbx3

+

+ C1

6

at x = 0

dw

=0

dx

227

P

A

MA

RA

C1 = 0

PbLx2

Pbx4

Pbx4

MA x2

+

+

+ C2

2

2

12

24

at x = 0 w = 0 C2 = 0

PbL

Also: overall moment equilibrium requires

EIw =

L Shear

V

MA = 0

L

0 = MA + PbL

2

2

PbL

MA =

2

M

L Moment

x

PbL2

Mmax =

at x = 0

2

PbL2

2

Mc

(max tension)

I

PbL2 ( C)

2bh3

12

V2

= 6P

h3

t = 3P

FSt =

2

L

h

h

2

on top of R1

at the face

T0

t

at failure FSt = 1

L2

3P 2 = T0 , therefore L =

h

T0 h 2

3P

X = L L0

4

T 0 h2

X=

L0

3P

face advance

228

34.

Find:

(a) Maximum possible L, lower seam

(b) L at FSt = 4

(c) FSt of M.Ss. roof layer

Layered Ss

M.Ss

S. shale

Seam

27 ft

3.0 ft

2.5 ft

7.0 ft

2

1

L

Solution:

Need strata loads

Find: Bed separation

P(1, 1) = 1 h1

(170)(2.5)

=

(144)

P(1, 1) = 2.95 psi

P(1, 2) =

E1 h31 (1 h1 + 2 h2 )

E1 h31 + E2 h32

(144)[(4.5)(106 )(2.5)3 + (3.0)(106 )(3.0)3 ]

(70.31) (870)

P(1, 2) =

(144) (151.3)

P(1, 2) = 2.81 psi

=

* Also bed 2 (M.SS) separates from beds by inspection, very thick 27

(a) FS =

T0

t

2

3

L

t = P

4

h

% 2 &

3

L

t =

(2.95)

4

(2.5)2

3

1,000

L2

=

(2.93)

2

4

(2.5)

1

Note: max L at FS = 1

L2 = 2.83(103 )

Lmax = 53.1 ft

65.0

Lmax (a)

B.I.

3

L(BI)=

if FS = 4 , then

2 L(SS)

1,000

4

L = 26.5 ft.

(b) L2 =

(2.5)2

2.95

229

4

3

L (b)

(c) L = 53.1

t =

3

53.1 2

(148.2)(3)

(P)

= 3.09 psi

; P=

4

3

144

t = 725 psi

FS =

T0

t

850

725

FS = 1.17(SS)

FS =

FS(M.Ss) (c)

(1.75: B.I.)

35.

Find: Using dead weight load approach,

a bolting plan

Layered Ss

5.5 ft

Solution:

Seam

anchor stratum

(ii) try 5/8 Grade 55 bolts on 4 ft center s

WR = Vol.

= (4)(4)[(170)(2.5) + (148.2)(3)]

WR = 13,914 lbf.

2

2

try tension at Fy

Fy = WR

3

3

3

Fy =

(13,914)

2

Fb =

Fy = 20,870 lbf.

According to Table 3.4 text

3/4 extra high strength bolts (Grade 75) have Fy = 25,100 lbf,

on 4 ft centers, 6 ft long (1/2 ft anchor)

ans.

6

1.

Given: Room and pillar mine

depth = 1,150 ft

ave = 159 pcf

C0 = 13, 700 psi (lab core, L/D = 2)

T0 = 1, 250 psi

Find:

(a) Maximum safe extraction ratio (no size effects) and FS = 1.75.

(b) Evaluate:

Solution:

By definition: R = Am /A = 1 (Ap /A)

where A = Am + Ap

Equilibrium of overburden block and pillar:

Ap

W = Fp

AH = Sp Ap

Plan

Ap

H

=

A

Sp

H

Sp

But Sp is limited by the pillar safety factor, i.e.

R=1

Then

Cp

Sp

C0

Sp =

FS

FS =

so

Hence,

R(max safe) = 1

(H)(FS)

C0

(a)

C0 = 13,200 psi

159

1,180

R = 1

(1.75)

144

13,700

R(max safe) = 0.834(83.4%)

2.

231

(b)

Find:

(a) Pillar size.

Solution:

From Problem 1.

with

Ap

=R

A

R = 0.834

Ap

= 0.166

A

Wc 45

Wp

Square

Pillar

Entry

Ap = Wp2

Wp

Wp + W 0

A = (Wp + W0 )2

2

= 0.166

4

W0

1

1+

=

Wp

0.166

W0

= 1.45

Wp

45

Wp =

1.45

Wp = 30.9 ft

3.

Cross-cut

W0 45

(a)

Given: Problems 1 and 2 data, 45 45 pillars, 45 entries and crosscuts & size

effects:

Wp

Cp = C1 0.78 + 0.22

Hp

mining height changes from 30 to 120

Find:

(a) Pillar FS.

(b) Pillar FS without size effect.

232

Solution:

Section

Cp

FS =

Sp

1,180

30

120

lab data

45 45

13,700

C1 =

0.78 + 0.22

, 1 -

2

C1 = 15,393 psi

Sv

1R

Sp =

Ap

A

(45)(45)

=

(45 + 45)2

1 R = 0.25

1R=

, 159 -

(1,180)

0.25

Sp = 5,212 psi

Sp =

144

%

&

45

Cp = C1 0.78 + 0.22

120

Cp = 15,393(0.8625)

Cp = 13,376 psi

finally

No size effect:

4.

13,376

5,212

FS = 2.55

FS =

13,700

5,212

FS = 2.63

(a)

FS =

(b)

Given: Entries and crosscuts 45 ft wide, square pillars 45 ft wide, lab core

(L/D = 2) C0 = 13,700 psi T0 = 1,250 psi = 159 pcf H = 1,180 ft

233

= 68 (dip) = 54 (dip direction)

Find:

(a) Joint stress shear strength to just prevent slip.

(b) Cohesionless joint, MohrCoulomb strength, to prevent slips.

(c) Frictionless joint, c to prevent slip.

Solution:

Ground level

H

Sp

Sp

Ap

n

sj

tj

x

Aj

tj

sj

To just prevent shear slip: j (stress) = (strength)

j = (stress) = Tj (force)/Aj

Fs = 0 = j Aj (Sp Ap ) sin

j = Sp = Ap /Aj sin But: Ap = Aj cos

j = Sp cos sin

j = (5,212) cos(68) sin(68)

j = 1,810 psi

(a)

Tj (strength)

1,810 = j tan j + 0: (cohesionless)

Fn = 0 = j Aj = Sp Ap cos

j = Sp cos2

= 5,212 cos2 (68)

j = 731 psi

234

1,810

731

tan j = 2.475

j = 68

tan j =

(checks) (b)

(c) if j = 0 then

1,810 = 0 + cj

(c)

cj = 1,810 psi

5.

Given: Room and pillar mine, 360 m depth, = 25.2 kN/m3 , C0 = 94.5 Mpa

T0 = 8.63 MPa

Find:

(a) Safe extraction ratio (FS = 1.75, no size effect).

(b) Evaluate.

Solution:

By definition R =

Ap

Am

=1

,

A

A

A = Ap + Am

Equilibrium of overburden block

above A

W = Fp

HA = Sp Ap

Ap

H = depth

Sp = average pillar stress

By definition

Cp

FSp =

Sp

no size effect Cp = C0

Hence

C0

Sp

Ap

R=1

A

FSp =

Also by definition:

H = Sp (1 R)

C0 (1 R)

FSp =

H

(a) Hence R = 1

(FSp )(H)

C0

max safe R

94.5(103 ) kPa

R = 0.832 R = 83.2%

235

(b) R = 1

6.

Rmax (safe)

Given: Problem 5 data, square pillars with entries and crosscuts 13.7 m wide

Find: Pillar size.

Solution:

From Problem 5 Rmax = 0.832

W0 = Wc = 13.7 (given)

Wp = Lp (square)

By geometry

Wc

Wp

Ap =

Wp2

A = (Wp + W0 )2

2

Wp

Ap

=1

1

=R

A

Wp + W 0

Wp

Wp + W 0

Wp

Wp + W 0

Entry

W0

Wp

2

= 1 0.832

2

= 0.168,

W0 = 13.7

Wp = 9.52 m

7.

Cross-cut

WP = LP

Given: Problems 5 and 6 data, pillars are 13.7 13.7 m (square) with size effect

Cp = C1 (0.78 + 0.22 Wp /Hp ) Hp (1) = 9.14 Hp (2) = 36.6 m

Find:

(a) FSp (2).

(b) FSp (2) with no size effect.

Solution:

FSp =

Cp

Sp

%

&

Wp

0.22

Cp = C1 0.78 +

Hp

lab data: C0 = 94.5 MPa at Hp = 2

,

94.5 = C1 0.78 + 12 (0.22)

C1 = 106.2 MPa

236

Surface

360 m

9.14 m

36.6 m

Hp(2)

Wp(2)

Sill

%

&

13.7

Cp (2) = (106.2) 0.78 + 0.22

36.6

Cp (2) = 91.6 MPa

Sp (2) =

H

(1 R)

3

360

0.25

Note:

1R=

Ap

A

(13.7)2

(13.7 + 13.7)2

1 R = 0.75

(R = 0.75)

Sp (2) = 36.29 Mpa

=

91.6

36.29

FSp = 2.52

FSp =

94.5

36.29

FSp = 2.60

FSp =

8.

no size effect

Given: Entries and crosscuts 13.7 m wide, square pillars 13.7 m wide, lab

core (L/D = 2), C0 = 94.5, T0 = 8.63 MPa, depth = 360 m, = 25.2 kN/m3

(Problems 5 and 7 data) joints:

= 68 (dip) = 54 (dip direction)

237

Find:

(a) joint shear strength at FSj = 1.

(b) cohesionless joint, needed.

(c) frictionless joint, c needed.

Solution:

Surface

Fp Sp Ap

Sp

dj

Ap

Ap Aj cos(dj)

dj

Aj

Tj tj A j

Nj tj Aj

(1) at limit j (stress) = j (strength)

(2) MC-criterion j (strength) = j tan j + cj

Equilibrium:

Tj = Sp Ap sin(j )

Ap

j = Sp

sin j

Aj

j = Sp cos j sin .

j = 36.29(cos 68)(sin 68)

j = 12.6 MPa

(a)

(b) if c = 0

j = j tan j

Equilibrium:

j Aj = Sp Ap cos j

j = (36.29)(cos 68)(cos 68)

z = 5.09 MPa

12.6

= 2.474

5.09

j = 68

tan j =

(cj = 0)

j

(c) = 0 then

c = j = 12.6 MPa

(j = 0) cj

238

9.

Given: Average vertical stress = 3,870 psi (26.7 MPa), room and pillar mine,

joint set: cj = 130 psi (0.9 MPa), j = 28

Find: Range of dips prone to slip.

Sp 3,870

Solution:

Slip: If j (stress) (strength)

then slip may occur.

Sp

Ap

d

d

dj

tj

j (stress) = Sp cos2

Aj

j (strength) = j tan j + cj

sj

Sp

Sp

sin(2)

tan j (1 + cos2 ) + cj

2

2

2

sin(2 j ) sin j +

2 cj cos j

Sp

sin(2 j ) sin(28 ) +

sin(2 j ) 0.528

2cj cos j

Sp

2(130) cos(28)

3,870

Note: sin( ) = sin()

2 j sin1 (0.528)

1

(28 + 32 )

2

(1st solution)

30

180 (2 j ) 32

180 + 28 32

88

(2nd Solution)

unsafe for 30 88

10.

Given: Coal Seam 1,200 ft deep, dip = 15 , entries and crosscuts 20 ft wide,

C0 = 2,000 psi, T0 = 350 psi, gravity only premining stress state, Mohr

Coulomb failure FS wrt compression of 1.5 required.

Find:

(a) R extraction ratio

(b) FSs (wrt to shear).

239

Solution:

By definition:

Surface

Ap

Am

=1

A

A

C0

FSc =

Sp

R=

1,200

(1)

(2)

Extraction Ratio:

Sn

1R

Tn

Tp =

1R

Sp

Sp =

Tp

Pillar block

Tp

Sp

1R=

(3)

Sn

Sp

Sn

Sp

Sn (FSc )

R=1

C0

R=1

Sx S y

Sx + Sy

+

cos 2

Sn =

2

2

Sy = Sv

Sx =

Sv = Sn

1

y

n

S

d

Sv = 1,200 psi

= 0.25

(assume)

then

1

Sv

3

Sh = 400 psi

Sh =

1,200 + 400

1,200 + 400

+

cos[(2)(90 15)]

Sn =

2

2

= 800 + (400)(0.8667)

Sn = 1,147 psi

p

d

2

x

240

(1,147)(1.5)

2,000

= 1 0.860

R = 0.14 (14%)

R=1

(a)

FSs = (strength)/(stress)

(stress) = Tn /(1 R)

(strength) = tan + C

Note: = SP

C0

1

sin = T0

C0

+1

T0

M-C criterion

2c cos

C0 =

,

1 sin

sin =

2,000

350

2,000

350

1

+1

sin = 0.702,

c=

C0 (1 sin )

2

cos

c=

2,000

2

%

1 sin(44.6)

cos(44.6)

&

c = 418 psi

= 44.6

#

$

S x Sy

sin 2

2

2

400 1,200

=

sin(150)

2

Tn = 200 psi

Tn =

200

1 0.14

(stress) = 233 psi

(stress) =

(strength) = Sp tan + c

1,147

=

tan(44.6 ) + 418

1 0.14

= 1,315 + 418

(strength) = 1,733 psi

1,733

233

FSs = 7.44

FSs =

(b)

11.

241

W0 = Wc = 24 ft, Core (L/D = 2), C0 = 6,740 psi, T0 = ?, C.V. = 38%

FS = 1.67 required.

Find: Rmax (allowable).

Solution:

Cp

Sn

; Sp =

Sp

1R

Sn (FS)

1R=

Cp

FS =

Cp = C1 [0.78 + 0.22(Wp /Hp )]

%

&

1

6,740 = C1 0.78 + 0.22

2

C1 = 7,573 psi

%

30

Cp = 7,573 0.78 + 0.22

12

Cp = 10,072 psi

&

(1,560)(1.67)

10,072

R = 0.741(74.1%)

1R=

12.

C0 = 25,000 psi,

T0 = 2,850 psi,

Solution:

Cp

Sp

Sn

Sp =

1R

Cp (1 R)

FSc =

;

Sn

Sn (FSc )

1R=

C0

Rmax (allow)

FSc =

Cp = C0

no size effect

242

Surface

H depth 5,100 ft

d 60

Sy gH

Sh 2 Sy

s

u

Premining

20

p

d

2

u

g 165 pcf

Hp

Sx + S y

Sx S y

+

cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

H

H

(2 + 1) +

(2 1)cos(2.30) + 0. sin(60)

=

2

2

3

165

165

5,100

1

=

(5,100) +

+0

2

144

144

2

2

Sn = 10,277 psi

Sn =

(10,277)(1.0)

25,000

Rmax = 0.591(59.1%)

1R =

13.

Stope advance of 15 ft (beyond Rmax )

60

Ap

Solution:

At

15

Am

Rmax = 59.1%

Am

R=

A

and Ap = 41.9 ft, so Wp /Hp = 41.9/20

> 1.0

20

243

(o.k controlled)

After face advance of 15 , Wp /Hp = 26.9/20 > 1.0

(close)

After second face advance of 15 , Wp /Hp = 11.9/20 < 1.0

(over)

As a guide, fast failure threatens when Wp /Hp < 1.0, so until the Wp /Hp < 1.0

i.e. Wp < 20 is reached, fast failure, that is, bursting is not threatening.

14.

a regular grid with FSc .

Find:

(a) FSc needed to avoid failure of

nearest neighbors.

(b) FSc needed if load shared equally.

FSc

Solution:

Cp

Sp

If pillar fails, then nearest neighboring

pillars take up load, i.e. 1/4 Sp

Cp

4

Therefore FSc =

= FSc

(5/4)(Sp ) 5

5

So FSc : (if FSc 1.0)

4

(a) FSc =

FSc =

FSc

15.

Cp

9

S

8 p

8

FSc

9

(a)

(nearest neighbors)

1

Sp

8

9

: (if FSc > 1.0)

8

(b)

(equal sharing)

Given: Room and pillar mine, depth H = 980 , overburden = 156 pcf, rock

properties: laboratory data (L/D = 2) , C0 = 12,400 psi, T0 = 1,050 psi

Find:

(a) Expression for maximum extraction ratio Rmax

(b) Evaluate.

Solution:

(a) By definition

R=

Ap

Am

=1

A

A

244

C0

Sp

Sv

Sp =

1R

Sv = H

C0 (1 R)

Fc =

H

Fc =

(Fc )(H)

C0

By inspection: R is max when Fc is min

hence R = 1

(a) Rmax = 1

H

C0

, 156 -

(b) Rmax = 1

(a)

(980)

12,400

144

Rmax = 1 0.0856

(b)

Rmax = 0.914(91.4%)

16.

Find: Pillar size Wp .

Solution:

(Fc )(H)

C0

, (2) 156

(980)

144

= 1

12,400

R = 1 0.1712

R = 0.829

R = 1

Ap

A

(Wp )2

(1 R) =

(W0 + Wp )2

But also R = 1

substitute: r2 = 1 R

then

Wp

=r

W0 + Wp

W0 r

1r

(30)(0.1712)1/2

=

1 (0.1712)1/2

(30)(0.4138)

Wp =

0.5862

Wp = 21.2 ft

Wp =

or

17.

245

Given: Data

from problems- 15 and 16 and 30 30 pillars, a size effect:

,

Cp = C1 0.78 + 0.22 Wp /Hp , and a pillar height change from 25 to 90 .

Find: Fc .

Solution:

Wp = 30

Hp = 90

C1 =

C1

C1

Cp

Cp

C2

, -

0.78 + 0.22 12

12,400

=

0.78 + 0.11

= 13,933 psi

%

&

30

= (13,933) 0.78 + 0.22

90

= 11,889 psi

Sp =

Sv

1R

Ap

A

(30)(30)

=

(30 + 30)2

1 R = 0.25

1R =

156

980

Sp =

144

0.25

Sp = 4,247 psi

Cp

Sp

11,889

=

4,247

Fc = 2.8

Fc =

246

12,400

4,247

Fc = 2.92

Fc =

18.

Given: 30 entries and crosscuts 30 , square pillars, 980 ft depth, 156 pcf, joints:

dip = 60 , dip dir = N45E

Find:

(a) shear strength needed to

just prevent slip.

Sp

u

p

dj

2

dj

Solution:

xx yy

xx + yy

j =

+

cos 2

2

2

+ xy sin 2

xx + yy

j =

sin 2 + xy cos 2

2

sj

tj

xx = 0 xy = 0 yy = Sp : in pillar

Sp

sin 2; 2 = 2j

2

Sp

j =

sin 2j

2

Sv

Sp =

1R

Ap

1R =

A

(30)(30)

=

(30 + 30)2

1 R = 0.25

j =

156

980

Sp =

144

0.25

Sp = 4,247 psi

4,247

[sin(2)(60)]

2

shear strength to prevent slip

j = 1,839 psi

j =

247

Sp

Sp

cos 2( 2j )

2

2

Sp

Sp

+

cos 2j

j =

2

2

4,247

=

[1 + cos(120)]

2

j = 1,062 psi

j =

j = j tan j

1,839

tan j =

1,062

tan j = 1.732

j = 60

j (c = 0)

j = cj

cj (j = 0)

cj = 1,839 psi

19.

Given: Room and pillar mine, 300 m depth, = 25 kN/m3 , core: (L/D) = 2,

C0 = 86 MPa, T0 = 7 MPa

Find:

(a) Formula for max safe extraction ratio

(b) Evaluate.

Solution:

(a) By definition:

Ap

Am

=1

A

A

A = Am + Ap

Cp

FSp =

Sp

Sv

Sp =

, Cp = C0

1R

R=

C0 (1 R)

, Sv = H

Sv

(H)

R = 1 (FSp )

C0

FSp =

Rmax -safe

248

3

(1)(300)(25 kN/m )

86 MPa

where Rmax is at FSp = 1

(b) R = 1

Rmax = 1 0.0872

Rmax = 0.913, 91.3%

20.

Rmax

Given: Problem 19 data, square pillars, entry width = cross cut width = 9 m,

FS = 2, no size effects.

Find: Pillar size.

Solution:

(FSp )(H)

C0

(2)(25)(300)

R = 1

86(10)3

R = 0.826

(1) R = 1

(2)

21.

Ap

A

(Wp )2

0.826 = 1

(Wp + 9)2

Wp

= 0.417 &

Wp + 9

Wp = 6.44 m

R = 1

Wp

Hp (1) = 8 m, Hp (2) = 27 m

Find: FSp (2) with size effect and without.

Solution:

Cp

FSp =

Sp

L

= 2 = 86 MPa

C0

D

%

&

1

86 = C1 0.78 + 0.22

2

C1 = 96.6 MPa

%

&

9

Cp (2) = 96.6 0.78 + 0.22

27

249

Sp =

H

1R

(9)2

: W0 = Wc = 9 m

(9 + 9)2

1 R = 0.25

1R =

82.4(0.25)

(25)(300)(103 )

FSp = 2.75

FSp =

FSp =

86(0.25)

(25)(300)(103 )

FSp = 2.87

22.

Sp

joint data: = 60 (dip), = 45

(dip direction)

cross-cuts = entry widths = 9 m

depth = 300 m, 1 R = 0.25

Find:

(a) shear strength to just prevent slip.

(b) j needed when cj = 0.

(c) cj needed when j = 0.

Ap

dj

sj

Solution:

Equilibrium

j Aj = Sp Ap cos j

j = Sp (cos j )2

j Aj = Sp Ap sin j

j = Sp cos j sin j

at slip j (strength) = j (stress)

H

1R

3

(25 kN/m )(300 m)

=

0.25

Sp = 30 MPa

Sp =

Aj

Ap A j cos dj

250

Note:

Ap

1R=

A

(9)2

=

[2(9)]2

1

1R=

4

j = 13.0 MPa

(a) j

then tan j = j / j

j = Sp cos2 j

= 30 cos2 60

j = 7.5 MPa

13.0

tan j =

7.5

= 1.732

j = 60

(b) j

(c) if j = 0 then

cj = j = 13.0 MPa

23.

(c) cj

= 35 , c = 600 psi

Find: Range of unsafe dips.

Solution:

j (strength) from equations of

transformation

Sp

sin 2j

2

Sp

j (stress) =

(1 + cos 2j )

2

j (strength) = j tan j + Cj

j (stress) =

safe if:

Sp

dj

dj

tj

sj

Sp

Sp

sin 2j <

(1 + cos 2j )tan j + cj

2

2

Sp

Sp

(sin 2j cos 2j tan j ) <

tan j + cj

2

2

Sp sin(2j j ) < Sp sin j + 2cj cos j

2cj cos j

Sp

(2)(600)(cos 35)

< sin 35 +

4,247

sin(2j j ) <

sin(2j j ) <

i.e. 2j j <

2j <

0.5736 + 0.2315

0.8050

53.6

53.6 + 35

j < 44

2nd solution using sin( ) = sin :

sin[ (2j j )] < 0.8050

180 2j + j < 44

180 + 35 44 < 2j

j > 86

slip if

44 < j < 86

check: j at 44

range of

unsafe dips

Sp

sin 2j

e.g. j at 40 , at 88 , at 80

2

4,247

j (stress) =

sin 2j

2

j (stress) = 2,122 sin 2j

j = 2,091 psi, 148 psi, 726 psi

j =

Sp

(1 + cos 2j )

2

4,247

(1 + cos 2j )

j (stress) =

2

j = 2,197(1 + cos 2j ),

j (stress) =

j = 2,492,

5.2,

j(strength) = j tan + cj

= (2,197)tan35 + 600

strength = 2,138

strength = 2,138,

(safe)

24.

Joints: j = N45 W

j = ?

(safe) (safe) (unsafe)

128

251

252

MC:

j = j tan j + cj

cj = 4 MPa, j = 35

Sp

dj

dj

sj

Solution:

Slip occurs if j (stress) > j (strength),

rotation of axis wrt to x y

tj

Sp

sin 2j : (stress)

2

Sp

j =

(1 + cos 2j )

2

j = j tan j + cj : (strength)

j =

Safe if

Sp

Sp

sin 2j <

(1 + cos 2j )tan j + cj

2

2

Sp sin(2j j ) < Sp sin j + 2cj

2cj

sin(2j j ) < sin j +

Sp

2(4 MPa)

< sin(35 ) +

29 MPa

sin(2j j ) < 0.8494

2j j < 58.2

j < 46.6

Second solution:

sin( ) = sin

2j + j < 46.6

84.2 < j

unsafe

46.6 < j < 84.2

25.

Find: Minimum pillar size.

Solution:

Minimum pillar size occurs at minimum safety factor

C0

FS =

Sp

Ap

Sv A

Sp =

& R=1

Ap

A

C0 (1 R)

FS =

Sv

253

Sv = C0 (1 R)

Sv = (1psi/ft)(1,754 ft) assuming 1 psi/ft, consider deepest seam

or

Sv = (144)(1,694) + (148.2)(1,714 1,694) + (75)(5) + (22)(149.5)

+ (3)(148.2) + (7)(170)

Sv = 2.521(105 ) psf = 1,751 psi

1,751

3,500

1 R = 0.50

1R =

wp

102

Lp

120

But

Ap

1R =

A

wc 18

w0

L p Wp

(Wp + W0 )(Wc + Lp )

But Lp = 3Wp

=

0.50 =

3Wp2

(Wp + 24)(18 + 3Wp )

3Wp2 + (24)(18) + (72 + 18)Wp = 6.0 Wp2

3.0 Wp2 90Wp 432 = 0

(90) [(90)2 (4)(3.0)(432)]1/2

(2)(3.0)

90 115

Wp =

6.0

Wp = 34.2 ft

Lp = (3)(34.2)

pillar size

Lp = 102.6 ft, Wp = 34.2 ft

Wp =

Check:

1R =

Ap

A

(102.6)(34.2)

(24 + 34.2)(18 + 102.6)

1 R = 0.50

=

254

Note:

Lp + 18 = 120

Lp = 102 ft

102

Wp =

Wp = 34 ft

26.

Vertical

section

E

dj

1. K0 0.25

2. Gravity only

g 158 pcf

1,230 ft

y

s

75

15

15

Seam

R 0.75

Joints

Tp

Solution:

Stable if FS > 1, FSp > 1, FSj > 1

Need Sp , Tp where

Sp

Free body

Joint

Sn

Ts

, Tp =

1R

1R

Sn

Ts

Sp =

, Tp =

1 0.75

1 0.75

Tp = 4Ts

Sp = 4Sn ,

Sp =

Sp

Sx + Sy

Sx Sy

Sn =

+

cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

Ts =

(Sx Sy )

sin 2 + xy cos 2

2

= 15 ,

xy = 0,

Sy = h,

158

144

Sy = 1,349.6 1,350 psi

1

Sx =

(1,349.6) 337 psi

4

Sy = (1,230)

Sx =

1

Sy

4

Tp

2c cos

1 sin

C0 (1 sin )

c=

2cos

(15,000)(1 0.8182)

=

(2)(0.5749)

C0 =

c = 2,372 psi

cos 30

2

2

Sn = 843.7 (438.5)

Sn = 1,282 psi

Sn =

337 1,350

Ts =

sin 30

2

Ts = 253 psi

Sp = 4(1,282)

Sp = 5,128 psi

Tp = 4(253)

Tp = 1,012 psi

Text, P. 294, eqn. 29

#

FSp =

(1 R)

2c cos

1sin()

#

= (1 0.75)

= (0.25)

(2)(2,372)(cos 54.9)

1sin(54.911.2 )

2,728

0.3087

(0.25)(2,728)

=

(0.3087)(1.3067)

FSp = 1.70 stable

FSj = ?

C0 T0

C0 + T 0

15,000 1,500

=

15,000 + 1,500

sin = 6.8182

= 54.9

sin =

tan =

=

Tp

2

Sp

2

1,012

2

5,128

2

tan = 0.1973

= 11.2

Note:

Joints are vertical and essentially unloaded, therefore safe.

27.

100 c-c, 3Wp = Lp

Find:

(a) R(max, safe).

(b) Lp , Wp when FS = 1.5.

255

256

Solution:

100'

Wp

18 Wc

Plan view

depth 1,450

Lp

W0

Entry

Lp = 3Wp

Cp

FS =

Sp

Cp = (no size effects, assume)

Cp = 3,750 psi (Table)

Sv

1R

Sv = h 1,450 psi @ 1 psi/ft depth

Sp =

FS =

3,750

(1 R)

1,450

(2)(1,450)

3,750

1 R = 0.773

R = 0.227 (22.7%)

1R =

at max safe R

(b) Lp , Wp ? @ FS = 1.5

(1.5)(1,450)

(3,750)

1 R = 0.580

1R =

R = 0.420 (42%)

But also

FS =

Cp (1 R)

o.k.

Sv

1R=

And

257

Ap

Lp Wp

=

A

(Lp + Wc )(Wp + W0 )

100 = Lp + Wc

Lp = 100 18

Lp = 82 ft

Lp

Wp =

1

Wp = 27 3 ft

Note:

(82)(27 13 )

(82 + 18)(27

+ W0 )

22.39

1

3

27

1

3

+ W0

Lp , Wp

= 0.42

= 0.42

W0 = 25.97 ft.

28.

Dipping 75 E

depth = 1230 ft

= 158 pcf

Rock

Joint

C0

15,000 psi

T0

1,500

Sh =

20 psi

28 deg

1

Sv gravity field.

4

Find:

(a) premining , .

(b) post-mining Sp , Tp .

(c) R(max,safe) FS = 1.5 no size effects on Cp .

(d) (joint) for FSj = 1.5.

Solution:

1,230

75

15

Seam

y y

Sy

Joint

Sy

Sh

x

15

Sh

x

258

Sx + S y

Sx Sy

=

2

2

Sx Sy

=

sin 2.15 + xy cos 2.15

2

158

Sv = Sy =

1,230

144

Sy = 1,350 psi

1

1

Sh =

Sv = Sx =

(1,350)

4

4

Sx = 337 psi

337 + 1,350

337 1,350

=

cos 30 0

2

2

= 843 (506)(0.868)

(337 1,350)

sin(30 )

= 253 psi(Ts )

=

(b) Sp , Tp , Sn = , Ts =

Sn

Ts

Sp =

post-mining

, Tp =

1R

1R

(b)

Post mining:

Sp =

formula,

Sn

Ts

, Tp =

1R

1R

Sn = , Ts =

(all that can be said without R)

(c) Rmax at FS = 1.5 (no size effects)

Text. 294, Eq. (29)

#

FSp =

where

tan =

(1 R)

2c cos

1sin()

Tp

2

Sp

2

(29)

259

from given

c =

sin =

sin =

sin =

C0 (1 sin )

2

cos

C0 T0

C0 + T 0

15,000 1,500

15,000 + 1,500

0.8182

= 54.9

15,000

2

c = 2,322 psi

c =

tan =

Tp

2

Sp

2

1 0.8182

cos 54.9

Ts

1R

Sh (1 R)

253

1,281

tan = 0.1975

tan =

= 11.1

1.5 = (1 R)

Sp

Tp

1sin(54.911.1)

1/2

[(1,281)2 + (253)2 ]

Sp

Tp

1.5 = (1 R)

Joint

Tj

sj

Sp

Tp

any joint strength will do

29.

1.50

6,766

1 R = 0.222

Rmax = 77.8%

8,835

1,306

1R =

(c)

(d)

Given: Table data, and Wc = W0 (equal crosscut and entry widths) Lp = 3Wp

(pillar length = 3 pillar width).

Find:

(1) Rmax at FS = 1.4 no size effect.

Solution:

Cp

FS =

: Cp = 3,000 psi

Sp

Sv

Sp =

: Sv = H

1R

260

estimate Sv at 1 psi/ft

Sv = 1,670 psi

3,000

1.4 =

1,670

1R

(1.4)(1,670)

3,000

1 R = 0.779

Rmax = 0.221 22.1%

1R =

Rmax

(2) Lp , Wp

Solution:

Wc

Ap

1R =

A

=

Wp

L p Wp

(W0 + Wp )(W0 + Lp )

Lp

W0

3Wp2

1R =

3

=

W0

W0

+

1

+

3

Wp

Wp

W0

Wp

2

+4

24'

3

W0

+3 =

Wp

0.779

4 [42 + 4(0.851)]2

W0

=

Wp

2

W0

= 0.203

Wp

24

Wp =

0.203

Wp = 118.5 ft

Lp = 3Wp

Lp = 355.5 ft

(3) Sp , Tp

Strata dip = 25 , depth = 1,1670 ft, R = 20%

Solution:

Sp =

Sn

,

1R

Tp =

Ts

1R

Wp

Lp

261

Surface

y y

1,670 ft

25

x

25

x

Equations of rotation

Sx + Sy

Sx Sy

cos 2 xy sin 2

2

2

S x Sy

Txy = Tp =

sin 2 + xy cos

2

= 25 , Sx = Sh , Sy = Sv , Sv = 1 psi/ft = 1,670 psi,

S y = Sn =

1

Sv , assume = 0.2, Sh = Sv

1

4

xy = 0 (gravity only) Sh = 417 psi

estimate Sh =

cos(50 ) + 0

2

2

Sn = 1,044 (403)

Sn =

Sn = 1,446 psi

Sn

1,446

Sp =

=

1R

1 0.2

Sp = 1,808 psi

417 1,670

2

Ts = 480 psi

480

Tp =

1R

Tp = 600 psi

Ts =

Find: Joint dip slip range.

Sp

sin(50 ) + 0

Tp

262

Solution:

Sp

rotation

dj

Sp

Sp

cos 2j

2

2

Sp

=

sin(2j )

2

Sv

=

1R

1,620

=

1 0.2

= 2,088 psi

j =

j

Sp

Sp

Sp

j (strength) = j tan j + cj

j (strength)

j (stress)

j tan j

=

j

FSj =

Sp

(1

2

cos 2j ) tan j

Sp

2

sin 2j

cos j tan j

sin cos j

tan j

FSj =

tan j

=

i.e. where j > j

30.

Frictional slip

(1) Increase W0 /Wp to 1.0 from 0.5 by entry width increase from, 20 to 30

60

20

w0

40

wp

20

R0

30

30

60

20

1

3

60

R1 30 1

2

60

263

1

R1 40

80

2

Wp 40

W0 40

20

20

R1 20

40

20

1

2

C0

Sv

, Sp =

Sp

1R

in all cases FSc is the same final result.

T0

criterion: FSt =

t

FSt depends inversely on t L2

keep L small to avoid large t and smaller FSt

Thus (3) is best.

criterion: FSc =

31.

Find: R with FS = 1.8, no size effects.

Solution:

1R=

and also

where

Lp

Ap

A

wc

C0

Sp

Sv

Sp =

1R

FS =

wp

C0 (1 R)

Sv

(1.8)(1,394)

1R =

3,000

1 R = 0.794

R = 20.6% = 0.206

w0

FS =

Solution:

1R =

=

Lp Wp

(Lp + W0 )(Wp + W0 )

3Wp2

(3Wp + 21)(Wp + 21)

(1)

264

3

21

3+ W

1+

p

0.794 =

21

Wp

21

21

5

+1

+3

= 0

Wp

Wp

0.794

3

21 2

21

+3

= 0

+4

Wp

Wp

0.794

3

21

4 42 + 4(0.778)

=

Wp

2

4 4.372

=

2

21

= 0.186

Wp

21

Wp =

0.186

Wp = 113 ft

Lp = 2Wp

Lp = 226 ft

pillar size

cross spacing = 226 + 21 = 247 ft

Find: Sp , Tp

R = 20% = 30 .

Solution:

Sp =

Sn =

Ts =

Sy =

Sx =

Sn =

Ts =

c-c crosscuts

y

n

Sn

Ts

, Tp =

1R

1R

Sn

Ts

Sx + S y

Sx Sy

cos 2

2

2

Sx Sy

sin 2

2

Sv = h = 1,324 psi

0.3

0.3

Sv =

Sv =

1,324 = 575 psi

Sn =

1

1 0.3

0.7

1,324 + 575 575 1,324

cos 60

2

2

575 1,324

sin 60

2

959 + 187 = 1,146 psi Sn = 1,146 psi

Sn =

Tn = +(324)

Tn = 324 psi

x

d

s

1,146

(1 0.2)

324

Tp =

(1 0.2)

Sp =

265

Sp = 1,433 psi

Tp = 405 psi

(3)

Solution:

dj

Sp

j (strength)

FSj =

j (stress)

dj

Ap

Need: j , j

Equilibrium:

Geometry:

tj

Sp A p

cos

A

Sp A p

j =

sin

A

Ap = A cos

r

sj

j =

t

fr

j = Sp cos2

j = Sp sin cos

fj , cj 0

cr

dj

Sp cos2 tan j + 0

FSj =

Sp sin cos

tan j

FSj =

tan j

2dj

dj fj

min

i.e.

or tan j > tan j

Hence, if j > j then slip

32.

B-Level 102 ft, d = 950 ft

A-Level 18 ft, d = 921 ft

no size effect, ignore joints.

Find:

(a) Rmax .

(b) show layout, explain.

(c) cite FS recommended.

tan j

<1

tan j

j

266

Solution:

(a) criterion

Cp

Sp

Cp = C0 (given)

Sv

Sp =

(flat)

1R

Sv = 1.1d(given)

C0 (1 R)

FS =

1.1d

(FS)(1.1)d

R = 1

C0

& FSmin = 1.0

FS =

Rmax = 1

(1.1)(950)

(1.1)(950)

=1

18,270

5,210

Rmax = 0.943 = 0. 80

(a)

Surface

Square pillars

PLAN

950

ore

False

Davis

A-Level

11

102

ore

B-Level

18

Section

columnized

pillar

33.

Find:

(a) Max. roof span, (opening, width)

(b) Assume square pillar, find Wp (wrt to ore strength)

(c) Recommended FS for A-Level Roof.

Solution:

Davis shale

Bonneterre dolomite

L w0

Bonneterre:

E = 6.75(106 ) psi

A-Level

h = 6 ft

267

Davis:

E = 5.35(106 ) psi

h = 150 ft

Bed separation of Bonneterre (proof)

166.3(6)

144

P(1, 1) = 6.93 psf

P(1, 1) =

144[6.75(106 )63 + 5.35(106 )(150)3 ]

P(1, 2) = 2.03 psf, 0.014 psi

P(1, 2) =

3 L2

P

4 h2

T0

4T0 h2

FS =

=

t

3PL2

t =

4 T0 h2

,34 - P

(935)(6)2

= 3

6.93

= 80.5 ft

L2 =

Lmax

(FS)(1.1d)

C0

= 0.943 (ore)

Ap

Am

=

=1

A

A

2

Wp

=

W0 + W p

Wp

=

W0 + W p

(0.239)(80.5)

=

1 0.239

= 25.3 ft (min Wp )

R = 1

also

R

R

1R

0.057

Wp

Wp

(b) min Wp

(c) I would use an FSt = 4.0 for the roof, no less, because of tensile failure mode.

268

34.

Find: Determine a bolting plan solution.

150

...

Davis

Bonneterre

6

s/2

s/2

90

Solution:

Assume: Square pattern spacing S, anchor in Davis shale, allow 1 ft for

anchorage, so Lp = 1 + 6 = 7 ft

Use dead weight approach, bolt force must be at least equal to block weight

W = S2 h

trials: W = (166.3)(6)(S2 ) bolts, text Table 3.4, page 124.

W(5 5) = 24,945 lbf

W(4 4) = 15,965

W(6 6) = 35,921

Select:

7

8

3

EHS, Grade 75

4

3

HS, Grade 55

4

7

EHS, Grade 75

8

(a)

(b) Wp , FSp ?

Given: 90 ft W0 = Wc

Find: Wp , Lp , FSp

Solution:

Recommended FSp = 2.0 square pillars cross-cuts, have same width as rooms.

(20)(1.1)(950)

18,270

1 R = 0.114

R = 0.886

ore:

1R =

also

1R =

Wp

W0 + W p

0.338(90)

Wp =

1 0.338

Wp = 45.95 ft

2

Wp

35.

269

18

11

14

Bonneterre

A-Level

False Davis

Ore

43

B-level

ore

25

Ore

20

C-level

Ore

Solution:

Roof is in ore and has false Davis above, E, h:

False Davis: 3.79(106 ) psi, 11 ft

ore: 8.75(106 ) psi, 14 ft

ore is thicker and stiffer than the False Davis, so

8.75(14)3 (106 )[218.7(14) + 152(11)]

(144)[8.75(14)3 (106 ) + 3.79(106 )(11)3 ]

P(1, 2) = 27.4 psi

P(1, 2) =

3 pL2

T0

t =

, FS =

4 h2

t

,4(1,000)(14)2

L2 = 3

27.4

Lmax = 98 ft

36.

Lmax (B-Level)

Find: Joint set 2 FS.

Solution:

Set 2

Ap =

j =

cj =

j =

Aj cos j

30

10 psi

30

j (strength)

FSj =

j (stress)

j (strength) = j tan j + Cj

Equilibrium

Sp

Ap

Ai

dj

tj

sj

270

j Aj = Sp Ap cos

Sp =

(1.1)(950)

= 18,333 psi

1 0.943

j = (18,333)(cos 30)2

j = 13,375 psi

j = Sp Ap sin

= (18,333)(sin 30)(cos 30)

j = 7,938 psi

(13,375) tan(30 ) + (10)

7,938

FSj = 1.001

FSj =

37.

Given: Multi-level room and pillar metal mine, table data, geologic column,

mining plan.

Find:

(a) Rmax with no size effect.

(b) Sketch plan and sections.

(c) Recommend FS.

Solution:

Cp

,

Sp

Sv

Sp =

1R

C0 (1 R)

FS =

Sv

(FS)(Sv )

R = 1

C0

FS =

Rmax

at FSmin , FSmin = 1

Sv

Rmax = 1

C0

Sv = 25d (kPa)

Sv = (25)(290)

(deep)

False Davis, C0 = 35.9 MPa

7.25

126

Rmax = 94.2%

(ore pillars)

Rmax = 1

(0.942)

271

Rmax

(80%)

(b) layout

(c) FS = 2 recommended for tall pillars formed.

7.25

35.9

(in False Davis)

Rmax = 1

Square pillars

plan view

Surface

290 m

5.5 m

ore

A-level

Section view

31.1 B-Level

Columinized pillars

38.

Find:

(a) Max. opening width L.

(b) Minimum pillar width Wp (square).

(c) Recommend FS for roof.

Solution:

(a) consider bed separation

45.7 m

Davis shale

1.83 m

Bonneterre dolomite

[26.3(1.83) + 25.5(45.7)]

P(1, 2) = 46.6 GPa(1.83)3

[46.6(1.83)3 + 36.9(45.7)3 ]

P(1, 2)

= 0.1 kPa

272

ends, then

2

3

L

P

t =

4

h

At FSt = 1, t = T0 ,

3

1 2

3

2

6.45(10 ) =

(48.1)(L )

4

1.83

L2 = 598.8

L = 24.5 m

(b) pillars in ore R = 0.943

pillars in F.D. R = 0.800

(gives min. Wp )

1R =

Wp2

(Wp + W0 )2

2

Wp

0.057 =

Wp + 24.5

Wp

= 0.2388

Wp + 24.5

Wp = 7.68 m

min Wp (b)

(c)

39.

Find:

(a) Bolting plan.

(b) Pillar size & safety factor.

Solution:

burden

Davis

Bonneterre

1.83 m

27.4 m

A-ore

Lb = 2 m

Lb

273

block wt. W = S2 h = Fb (minimum)

W = (26.3)(1.83)S2

Bolts (Table-Text)

S = 1.5 m W = 108 kN

S = 2.0 m W = 193 kN

S = 2.5 m

Try

7

8

W = 300 kN

7

8

112

112

55Grade

60 Grade

100 Grade

and

Wp

1R=

Wp + W 0

C0 (1 R)

FS =

H

2

: square

(126)(1 R)

(25)(290)

1 R = 0.115

2

Wp

0.115 =

Wp + 27.4

Wp

= 0.339

Wp + 27.4

(2) =

pillar Wp

Wp = 14.1 m

40.

1.83

Bonneterre

A-level ore

3.35 m

False Davis

4.27

ore

13.1 m

B-level

ore

7.6 m

ore

6.10 m

C-level

ore

274

Solution:

E(GPa)

26.1

60.3

False Davis

Ore

h(m)

3.35

4.27

%

&

35.6(4.27) + 24.0(3.35)

3

P(1, 2) = (60.3)(4.27)

60.3(4.27)3 + 26.1(3.35)3

P(1, 2) = 192.2 kPa

Assume simply supported ends, so

t =

3 L 2

p

,

4

h

p = 192.2 GPa

, (6.94)(103 ) 43 (4.27)2

L =

192.2

2

h = 4.27 m

FSt = 1( max L)

Lmax

L = 29.6 m

41.

Find: If joints in pillar safe (set 2).

Solution:

Set 2

Sp

Ap = Aj cos j

j = 30

Ap

cj = 0.069 MPa

j = 30

dj

j (strength)

j (stress)

j (strength) = j tan j + cj

Equilibrium:

Criterion:

FSj =

j Aj = Sp Ap cos j

Sp =

(25)(290)

1 0.943

j = (127.2) cos2 30

j = 95.4 MPa

Sp = 127.2 MPa

Tj

Aj

sj

Tj = Sp

275

Ap

sin j

Aj

Tj = 55.1 MPa

(95.4) tan(30) + 0.069

55.1

FSj = 1.001

FSj =

42.

Given: data tables, convert units and FS = 1.75 wrt max , required for pillars.

Find: R (extraction ratio).

without joints

no size effect

Solution:

By definition:

max (strength)

FS =

max (actual)

max (strength) = m sin + c cos

assuming failure, max = (1/2)(1 3 )

after mining:

1

3

x x + y y

=

x x = 0

x x y y

2

y y = Sp

1/2

2

+ (x y )

x y = Tp

Surface

y

y

Tp

Sp

d

x

x

Sp =

Sn

,

(1 R)

Tp =

Ts

(1 R)

276

1

3

1

3

0 + Sn

=

2(1 R)

+%

Sn

2(1 R)

&2

+

Ts

1R

2 1/2

1/2

1 Sn

Sn 2

=

+ (Ts )2

1 R 2

2

Sx + Sy

Sx S y

2

2

Sx = Sh = 600 + 0.25(1,750)

Sx = 1,038 psi

Sn =

Sy = Sv = 1.05(1,750)

Sy = 1,838 psi

Txy = 0.0

&

= 18

1,038 + 1,838

2

Sn = 1,438 + 324

Sn = 1,761 psi

Sn =

1,038 1,838

cos(36 ) + 0. sin(36 )

2

Sx Sy

Ts =

sin 2 + Txy cos 2

2

1,038 1,838

=

sin(36 ) + 0.cos(36 )

2

Ts = 235 psi

1

1,761

1,761

1R 2

2

1

1

=

[881 911]

3

1R

1

3

1,792

1R

30

(!)

3 =

1R

1 =

2

+ (235)2

1/2

%

&

1

1,792 (30)

1R

2

911

psi

=

(stress)

1R

max =

max

Need:

sin =

=

C0 T0

C0 + T 0

C0 1 sin

2

cos

3,400

1 sin 56

=

2

cos 56

c=

3,400 310

3,400 + 310

sin = 0.833

c = 508 psi

= 56

1 + 3

=

sin 56 + 508 cos 56

2

1,792 30

=

sin 56 + 508 cos 56

2(1 R)

730

max =

+ 284 psi

1R

max (strength)

max (stress)

, 730 + 284

, 911 1.75 = 1R

FS =

1R

1 R = 3.04

R = 1 3.04

R = 2.04 !not possible

Note:

(FSmax )911 = 730 + (1 R)284

FSmax =

R=

FSmax =

0.179

1R

=

0.322

R 1 0.638 =

0

1.11

0.638

0.362

277

278

R = 0.20

FSmax = 1.05

R = 0.40

FSmax = 0.988

R = 0.362 FSmax = 1.000

At FS = 1.0 Rmax = 0.362(36.2%)

43.

Find: Rmax (considering joint set 3 only).

Solution:

j (strength)

FSj =

j (stress)

j (strength) = j tan j + cj

j (stress) = ?

Need: j , Tj in pillar after mining

Surface

35 dj

ds 18

Sea

y

Ts

Sn

nt

joi

t3

se

d

x

Sp

Tp

Ap

ds dj

Tj tj

Aj

Nj sj

Sp =

Need: Sn , Ts (premining)

Sn

1R

Tp =

Ts

1R

Sx + S y

Sx Sy

2

2

Sx = Sh = 600 + 0.25 d, = s = 18

Sn =

Sh = 600 + 0.25(1,750),

Sh = 1,038 psi

Txy = 0

Sy = Sn = 1.05d

= 1.05(1,750)

Sn = 1,838 psi

1,038 + 1,838

1,038 1,838

cos(2 18 ) 0

2

2

= 1,438 (400)(0,809)

Sn =

Sn = 1,761 psi

Sx S y

Ts =

2

Ts = 235 psi

Sp =

1,761

1R

Tp =

235

1R

sin(2 18) + 0

0

Fn = 0

0 = Nj , Aj Sp Ap cos Tp Ap sin

Ap = Aj cos

Nj = Sp cos2 + Tp cos sin

= 1,761 cos2 53 + 235 cos 53 sin 53

Nj (1 R) = 638 + 113

751

Nj =

1R

0

Fs = 0

0 = Tj Aj Sp Ap sin + Tp Ap cos

Tj = Sp cos sin Tp cos2

279

280

= 1,761 cos 53 sin 53 235 cos2 53

= 846 85

Tj (1 R) = 761

761

Tj =

1R

j (strength)

j (stress)

cj

= j tan j +

j

, 751

tan j + cj

1R

, 761 =

FSj =

, 751

FSj =

1R

tan 25 + 20

1R

, 761 1R

1 R = 49.1

R = 48.1

Thus cannot meet requirement

FSj = 1.75

1 R 2.05

R 1.05

Cannot achieve FSj = 1.0

Thus must consider premining reinforcement

Sx + S y

Sx Sy

cos(2 35)

2

2

Txy sin(+2 35)

j = 1,438 (400)0.342 0

j = 1,575 psi

y

j =

Sx S y

j =

sin(+2 35)

2

= (400)(0.940)

j = 376 psi

x

dj

35

x

281

j tan j + cj

j

1,575 tan 25 + 20

=

376

FSj = 2.00 before mining

FSj =

Sp Sn / (IR )

Tp Ts / (IR)

18

Ap

35

18

35

53

Tj

Aj

After mining

Nj

44.

each. Bond strength = 750 psi, 5/8 cable bolts

Find: Cable bolting plan to defend against caving.

Solution:

20

S/2

S/2

try square pattern S C-C with S/2 distance from rib, so number of bolts per row

is = 20/S

282

Limestone

Coal

Anchor

Seam

Rider

Supported

Seam

S/

1.4

Coal

9.8

Mudstone

2.7

Sandyshale

1.3 Shale

1.5 Coal

S/

(SECTION)

15

Floor

20

W = [1.5(90) + 1.3(138) + 142(2.7) + 9.8(153) + 93(1.4)]S2

W = 2,206 S2

Fb = nfb

Bolt force

fb = 56,000 lbf/bolt

Fb

Fb = FS

Formula

W = Fb

n56,000

2,206 S2 =

FSb

n

2

S =

25.4

FSb

try FSb = 1.5

and n = 2, then

2

(25.4)

1.5

S = 5.8

S2 =

try S = 5

try S = 8

try S = 6

(n = 2)

then FSb = 1.4

(n = 2)

(n = 2)

Space 4 from ribs, 6 between, so there are 3 bolts per row & bolt

length = 22 ft.

L (anchor length)

T tAe

4

6

6

4

P

20

separately considered)

tAr P

Bolt length:

5

L = 56,000 lbf

8

L = 38.0 in. at pull out & breakage

if allows = (strength)/FS

and FS = 1.4 (Same as direct pull FSb )

then

L = (38.0)/(1.4)

L = 53.2 in. (easily anchored in limestone)

bolt length = (53.2/17) + 1.4 + 9.8 + 2.7 + 1.3 + 1.5, bolt length = 21.2

(750)()

45.

old pillars gone

Find: Settlement.

Solution:

Surface

Plan

w

w

Ap

Fp

Ap

283

Fp

Am

Am 0.40

Ap 0.60

Originally: W = Fp

Now rooms filled and become pillars

284

Equilibrium:

W = Fp

Ad = Sp Ap

Ap = Am

But

Ad Am

:

=R

Am

A

d

Sp =

R

d

Sv

Sp =

=

0.4

0.4

1,750(1.05)

=

0.4

Sp = 4,594 psi

Sp =

Sp

E 100 ksi

Hookes law:

15 mining height

(coal mine)

L

L

Assume horizontal stresses are nil after mining, drainage implied

=E

Ev = Sp Sh SH

Sp L

E

(4,594)(15)(12)

=

105

L = 8.3 ln. (0.7 ft)

L =

L =

which would make L less.

[Sp (Sh + SH

)]L

E

46.

Lp = 2Wp , W0 = W0

285

24.4

20

Spacing:

Solution:

48.8

Am

R=

Ap + A m

&1 R = 1

Ap

A

20

Also

Cp

Sp

Sv

Sp =

1R

CP (1 R)

FSc =

Sv

(980)(1.0)

1R=

3,750

1 R = 0.26

FSc =

Rmax = 0.74

(980)(1.5)

3,750

1 R = 0.39

1R=

at FS = 1.5

R = 0.61

But

R = 1

= 1

R = 1

Ap

A

Lp Wp

(Lp + W0 )(Wp + W0 )

2Wp2

(2Wp + W0 )(Wp + W0 )

2

1R =

W0

0

2 + Wp 1 + W

Wp

2

W0 2

3W0

+

= 2+

1R

Wp

Wp

2

W0

W0

2

=0

+3

+2

Wp

Wp

1R

(a)

286

1 R = 0.39

W0

Wp

2

+3

W0

2

+2

=0

Wp

0.39

,

94 2

W0

= 3

Wp

2

3 4.64

=

2

W0

= 0.819

Wp

W0

Wp =

0.819

20

=

0.819

Wp = 24.4 ft

Checks 0.61 = 1

Now:

80

Wp

w0

w1

-1/2

Wp (b)

(24.4)2 (2)

[(2)(24.4) + 20](24.4 + 20)

47.

2

0.39

w0

R 20%

By definition

R =

0.2 =

W0

(W0 + Wp )

1

1+

Wp

W0

W0 = 20 ft

Check 0.2

(1) decrease pillar width W0 constant

(2) Increase W0 , Wp constant

(3) both.

20

O.K.

20 + 80

Spacing (c)

Cp

Sp

Sv

Sp =

1R

FSc =

FSt =

t =

T0

t

2

3

L

P

4

h

Chose plan (1) to keep W0 same (other plans increase W0 )

48.

now:

6

Wp

w0

wv

w0

R 20%

R =

By definition

0.2 =

W0

W0 + W p

1

1+

Wp

W0

W0 =

Check 0.2

6.0

O.K.

6.0 + 24.0

(2) Increase W0 , WP constant

(3) both.

Criterion: FSc for Pillars;

Cp

Sp

Sv

Sp =

1R

FSc =

287

288

FSt =

T0

t

2

3

L

t = P

4

h

where L = W0 increasing opening width will reduce roof span safety,

Chose plan (1) to keep W0 same (other plans increase W0 )

Given: Steeply dipping anthracite mine

55

depth 760 ft

w0

Sn

35

Sy Sy h

16

wp

Ts

Sx K0Sy

28

49.

2D-view

Pillar C = C1 (0.78 + 0.22 D/L)

C1 = 5,750 psi

M-C c = 1,210 psi = 35

Required: FS = 2.75

Find: Wp , R.

Solution:

Cp

Sn

, Sp =

Sp

1R

Cp (1 R)

FS =

Sn

(FS)

1 R = (Sn )

Cp

FS =

Sx + Sy

Sx Sy

+

cos 2 + Txy sin 2

Sn =

2

2

S x Sy

Ts =

sin 2 + Txy cos 2

2

1

h

3

289

Sy

1

1

1

(Sy )

+1 +

1

cos 2 35

2

3

3

2

1

2

Sn = (760) +

(760)0.34

3

3

Sn = 420 psi

Sn =

1

Ts = + (760) sin 2 35

3

Ts = 238 psi

Assume, neglect size effect, then

(assume L = D)

Cp = 5,250 psi

, 2.75 1R=

420

5,250

1 R = 0.22

R = 0.78

R=

Wp =

Max Safe R

W0

W0 + Wp

W0

1R

0.22

W0 = 16

= 16

R

R

0.78

Wp = 4.5 ft

This suggests pillars are relatively high (28 ft) and thus will show only a small

size effect that will reduce R somewhat with size effect (2D view).

Cp (1 R)

S

n

0.22Wp

Cp = C1 0.78 +

Hp

0.22 Wp

(Sn )(FS)

1R=

0.78 +

C1

Hp

W0

Sn

C1 0.22

1

C1 0.78 +

Wp =

W0 + W p

Hp

FS

C1 0.22 Wp

Wp C1 0.78 +

= (Sn )(FS)(W0 + Wp )

Hp

C1 0.22

Wp2

+ Wp [C1 0.78 FS(Sn )] Sn (FS)W0 = 0

Hp

FS =

290

Wp2 a + Wp b + C = 0

(5,250)(0.22)

= 41.25

28

b = (5,250(0.78) 2.75(420)) = 2,940

c = (420)(2.75)(16) = 18,480

a=

1/2

Wp =

(2)(41.25)

Wp = 35.6 41.4

Wp (With Size effect)

Wp = 5.8 ft

Coefficient of Wp2 0, i.e., a 0, b C1 (FS)(Sn ), c same

(FS)(Sn )W0

C (FS)(Sn )

(2.75)(420)(16)

=

5,250 (2.75)(420)

no Size effect

Wp = 4.5 ft checks

Wp =

50.

Given: Room and pillar limestone mine, depth = 845 ft, Joints: c = 630 psi,

= 40 , Hp = 95 ft, C0 = 21,500 psi (rock), = 156 pcf, FS = 2.5 required

Find: If can meet FS required.

Solution:

For pillar rock

Sv

1R

Cp

FS =

Sp

Cp (1 R)

FS =

Sv

(845)(2.5)

1R =

21,500

1 R = 0.098

R = 90.2%

Sp =

(845)

0.098

Sp = 8,622 psi

Sp =

291

j tan fj cj

joint estimate

5,000

es

ur

nt

joi

ail

pf

di

Sp circle estimate

5,000

10,000 psi

51.

Hp = 29 m, h = 258 m (depth)

Rock: E = 77.9 GPa, v = 0.20

C0 = 148 MPa, T0 = 11.6 MPa

= 24.7 kN/m3

Joints: c = 4.34 MPa, = 40

Find: If FS = 2.5 for pillars possible.

Solution:

FS =

Cp

,

Sp

Sp =

Sv

1R

148 MPa

1 R = 0.108

(a) Rock 1 R =

R = 0.89

(24.7)(258)

0.108

Sp = 59.2 MPa

Sp =

C0 = 148 MPa

292

(b) Joint

t Shear stress

29.6

MPa

Joint

j tan c

j

j

j

j

Unsafe

cj

Normal stress

29.6 MPa

52.

(b)

Find: Maximum extraction ratio.

Solution:

Cp

Sp

Sc

Sp =

, Sv = H

1R

Cp (1 R)

FS =

Sv

FS =

Sv

, Sv at 1 psi/ft

Cp

1,747

=

3,500

1 R = 0.499

Rmax = 0.501

1R =

53.

Given data:

FS = 1.5 wrt Cp

W0 = Wc = 18 ft

Wp = 12 Lp , Lp = 2 Wp

no size effect

Find:

(a) Wp , Lp

(b) entry and crosscut spacing.

Rmax

293

Solution:

Cp (1 R)

Sv

Ap

(2) 1 R =

A

(1.5)(1,747)

1R=

3,500

(1) FS =

Lp

W0

Wp

1 R = 0.75

Wc

Ap

W p Lp

=

A

(W0 + Wp )(W0 + Lp )

2Wp2

0.75 =

2

0.75 =

18

18

+1 W

+2

Wp

p

18

Wp

2

+3

18

Wp

+2 =

8

3

(3)2 + 4

18

=

Wp

2

3 3.42

18

=

Wp

2

18

= 0.208

Wp

3

WP = 86.6 ft

Lp = 173.2 ft

Check

Crosscut spacing = Wc + Lp

= 18 + 173.2

Crosscut spacing = 191.2 ft

Ap

(86.6)(173.2)

=

A

(18 + 86.6)(18 + 173.2)

Ap

= 0.75 checks

A

Entry spacing = Wp + W0

= 86.6 + 18

Entry spacing = 104.6 ft

,2-

(a)

294

54.

dip = 22 East, gravity premining stress, depth = 2,590 ft, lane and pillar (2D)

mining rooms:

W0 = 52 ft, C0 = 18,500 psi, T0 = 1,650 psi, E = 11 (106 ) psi, = 0.19

FS wrt max = 1.5 required

(no size effect on strength)

Find:

(a) extraction ratio R.

(b) pillar width.

Solution:

Surface

h

y

d

d

w0

x

x

wp

w0

y

Tp

Sp

x

Pillar section

By definition:

FS =

max (strength)

max (stress)

1

and max = (1 3 )

2

4

x x + y y

x x y y

1

after mining:

=

+ x2 y

2

3

2

After mining in pillar coordinates (x , y )

x x = 0

y y = Sp

x y = Tp

Vertical

section

Sn

1R

Ts

Tp =

1R

Sp =

Sx + Sy

Sx S y

Sn = Sy y =

cos 2 + xy sin 2

2

2

Sh Sv

Sh + Sv

=

cos(2 ) + 0.sin(2)

2

2

= 22

Sv = h

Sh =

s : assuming complete lateral restraint under gravity only

1

Sv = 2,590 psi @ 144 pcf

0.19

(2,540)

1 0.19

Sh = 608 psi

Sh =

2,590 + 608

Sn =

2

Sn = 1,599 + 713

Sn = 2,312 psi

2,590 + 608

cos(44 ) + 0

2

Sx Sy

sin(2 ) + 0

2

&

%

2,590 + 608

=

sin(44 )

2

Ts = 688 psi

Ts =

x y = 0

y y = Sp

x y = Tp

1/2

0 + Sp

0 Sp 2

1

2

=

+ Tp

3

2

2

1/2

2

2

1

Sn

Sn

1

Ts2

=

+

2 1R

2

1R

(1 R)2

1/2

1

Sn

Sn

2

=

+ Ts

1R

2

4

295

296

+

&1/2

%

1

2,312

(2,312)2

=

+ (688)2

1R

2

4

1

1

(1,156 1,345)

=

3

1R

1

(1 3 )

2

1

1

=

(1,345 + 1,345)

1R

2

1,345

=

: stress

1R

max =

max

max

C0 + T0

C0 + T 0

18,500 1,650

=

18,500 + 1,650

sin = 0.8362, = 57

sin =

1

C0 (1 sin )

2

1

(1 0.8362)

=

(18,500)

2

cos(57 )

c = 2,740 psi

c =

2Sn

1

1 + 3

=

2

2(1 R) 2

2,312

1,156

m =

=

psi

2(1 R)

1R

m =

1,156

sin(57 ) + (2,740)cos(57 )

1R

969

max (strength) =

+ 1,492 psi

1R

max (strength) =

m (strength)

m (stress)

, 969

+ 1,492

1R

(1.5) =

FS =

1,345

1R

969

1,492

+

(1 R)

1,345 1,345

1 R = 0.703

R = 0.297

297

1.5 =

R=

(a)

Am

ATotal

R = R=

W0

W0 + W p

W0

W0

R

52

=

52

0.297

Wp = 122 ft

Wp =

55.

dip 45 East j = 18

Find: cj for FSj = 1.5 wrt .

Solution:

From sketch and equilibrium requirements:

0

Fn = 0

0 = Nj Aj Sp Ap cos + Tp Ap sin

Ap = Aj cos

Nj = Sp cos2 Tp cos sin

0

Fs = 0

0 = Tj Aj Sp Ap sin Tp Ap cos

Tj = Sp cos sin + Tp cos2

Sp = 2,312 psi

Nj = 1,716 psi

Tj = (2,312) cos 23 sin 23 + 688 cos2 23

Tj = 1,414 psi

Wp (b)

298

surface

section

ds 22

dj 45

Sp

Tp

Ap

: pillar block

after mining

ds dj

Tj

Aj

Nj

:d ds dj

(d 23

)

(j tan j + cj )

j

cj = FSj j j tan j

FSj =

cj = 1,564 psi

(cj )

7 Three-Dimensional

Excavations

3D Caverns

1.

Surface

SALT

Sv

650 ft.

c 75 ft

a b 150 ft

Sh SH Sv

(hydrostatic, in salt)

a,b

a,b

Solution:

Text Fig. 7.6, page 353 Stress concentration (at a, b)

Kc = 1.1784(a/c) + 0.2464

Kt (n.a.)

Kc = 2.60

estimate Sv = 650 psi of 1 psi/ft

a,b = (2.60)(650) (peak compression)

a,b = 1,692 psi (no tension)

2.

a = b = 46 m c = 23 m depth = 200 m

Find: Peak stresses, locations.

Solution:

Text Fig. 7.6, page 353 regression eqs.

Kt not a factor

Kc = 1.1784(a/c) + 0.2464

Kc = 2.60

300

Surface

Sv

200 m

Salt hydrostatic

C 23 m

pk

Sh SH Sv

pk

a b 46 m

2.60 =

pk

,

Sv

Sv = rH

estimate:

Sv = (25)(200) = 5.0 Mpa

pk = (2.60)(5.0)

pk = 13.0 Mpa

(no tension)

3.

D = 150 ft, E = 5(106 ) psi, G = 2(106 ) psi, d = 1,450 ft

Sv = Sh = SH (hydrostatic), C0 = 13,200 psi, T0 = 1,230 psi

Find: FSc .

Solution:

C0

c

c = Kc 10

FSc =

10 = Sv = 1,450 psi

E

5.0

1=

1

2G

2(2.0)

v = 0.25

v=

Kc = 1.5

c = (1.5)(1, 450)

c = 2,175 psi

compression

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

13,200

2,175

FSc = 6.07

301

FSc =

4.

3

d = 442, = 22.8 kN/m , C0 = 91.0 MPa, T0 = 8.5 MPa

Find: FSc , FSt .

Solution:

FSc =

C0

c

FSt =

T0

t

hydrostatic stress = Sv = H

Sv = (22.8)(442) = 10.07 Mpa

c = Kc Sv t = Kt Sv

Text Ex. 7.1 & Table 7.1, page 347: Sphere

Kc = 1.5

c = 1.5(10.07)

c = 15.1 MPa

Kt (nil)

t (nil)

91.0

15.1

FSc = 6.02

FSc =

FSt = n.a.

5.

Find:

(a) required salt strength C0

(b) show stresses in vertical section.

Solution:

Surface

a

Sv

1,340 ft

preexcavation stress

3,480 psi

c 1,470

Sh SH Sv

C0

, c = Kc SH

c

C0 = c

= (2.60)(1,340)

C0 = 3,480 psi

FSc =

302

Kc = 1.1784(a/c) + 0.2464

Kc = 2.60

Sv = (1 psi/ft)(1,340)

Sv = 1,340

estimate

Kc 1.1

c = (1.1)(1,340)

c = 1,470 psi

C0 = 3,480 psi

6.

dip

Find: Peak stresses & location.

Solution:

Sketch

65

40 ft

6,000 ft

depth

Cross-section

35

n

long section

plane is vertical

2,000 ft

Because the mined region is more than twice as long as it is wide, it may be seen

as a tunnel like excavation.

W0 2,000

=

aspect ratio:

H0

40

= 50

y

40

x

2,000

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

303

W0

=k

H0

Kc 65 or very high when k is high 2 + 1.27 k

1

Estimate: M = = K0

3

d = 906 ft

Sx + S y

Sx S y

Sn =

+

cos 2 + Sxy sin 2

2

2

' , ( ', (

1

1

+1

1

3

3

= 906

+

cos 2.25 + 0

2

2

Sn = 605 + (195)

Sn = 410 psi

c = Kc S n

= 65(410)

c

= 26,000 psi

peak compression

t = 0.2(410)

t

= 80 psi

peak tension

region of sc

65

region of st

The peak compression is located on the long edges of the opening away from the

ends.

The peak tension is located along the intermediate edges of the opening.

7.

Find: Safe shaft distance D.

Solution:

Sketches:

Shaft

PLAN

D?

100 ft

Stopes

SECTION 1.

12

Plunge

Shaft

1,000

2,850 L

100 ft

3,850 L

SECTION 2.

Shaft

2,850 L

100 ft

100 ft

as they progress, up and down the plunge

of the fold. 100 ft is given as a typical

dimensions.

1,000 ft

100 ft

304

Stopes

3,850 L

Stope

200

(no mining)

100 ft

Shaft

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

305

Because of the importance of the shaft, separating stopes and shaft should be

more than 1-D to be certain to the beyond the zone of stope influence and stress

concentration, say 2D, i.e., Distance = 200 ft

Back fill

Given: Cut and fill stope, 15 ft wide, level & raises @ 175 ft c-c

Fill: = 100 pcf, n = 35%, 12 ft per lift

Find:

(a) Tons of solid in fill

(b) Gallons water.

15

175 ft

15

New fill

12 ft

Level

Fill new

15

raise

Ore

raise

8.

15 ft

Old fill

Level

175 ft

(a) Cross-section

(b) Long-section

no dip is given, so will use 15 ft for fill width also

fill volume Vtotal = (15)(12)(160) = 2.88 (104 ) ft3

Vv = Vn = Vw (water volume)

= (2.88)104 (0.35)

Vw = (1.01)(104 ) ft

gals = (1.01)(104 )/0.134

gals = 7.54 (104 ) gal. H2 O

WH2 O = (62.4 lb/ft3 )(1.01)104 (ft3 )

WH2 O = 6.29 (105 ) lbs

Wtotal = V = (100)(2.80)104 = 2.8(106 ) lbs

Wsolids = Wt Ww = 2.8(105 ) 6.29(105 )

(b)

306

Ws = 21.7(105 ) lbs

Ws = 1.09(103 ) tons

Given: A cut and fill stope 4.6 m wide level & raises @ 53.3 m fill 3.66 m high

= 15.8 kN/m3 , n = 35% (porosity).

Find: Tons of fill liters, of water in fill.

4.6 m

Ore (rock)

Old fill

New fill

Old fill

raise

New fill

3.66 m

4.6 m

53.3 m

Drift.

Ore

raise

9.

(a) Ws

3.66 m

4.6 m

Drift

175 ft

(a) Cross-section

(b) Long-section

L = 53.3 4.6

L = 48.7 m

4.6 m width of fill

Volume: V = (48.7)(4.6)(3.66)

V = 820 m3

Void volume: Vv = nV = 0.35 (820)

Vv = 287 m3

H2 O

Vv = 287(103 ) liters

Vs = V Vv

= 820 287

Vs = 533 m3

Ws = W W w

3

Ws = 10.17 MN

(1.02(103 ) tonnes)

(2240 lbs.)

wt

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

10.

307

Vv

Vs

Find: e(n): n = porosity

Solution:

Vv

Vs

Vv

=

V Vv

e=

Vv

V

1 VVv

n

e=

1n

Also: n =

11/12.

e(n)

e

1+e

Given: Narrow vein cut and fill stope, over hand, rock modulus Er and fill

modulus Ef with uniform closure.

Find:

(a) Safety factor for crown pillar,

(b)[convert units]

Ef = 25 ksi, Er = 1,000 ksi

Cp (rock) = C1 (0.78 + 0.22 Wp /Hp )

C1 = 28,000 psi

HP = Measured across the dip = 15 ft

Wp = pillar width, on the dip

Level = raise interval = 175 ft.

dip = vertical

Sv = 1.1 d

Sh = SH = 2Sv

Sp

Hp (@ failure, pillar width)=?

n(y)

Wp

Sn

FSP

Cp

Sp

s(x)

Wf

Solution:

Equilibrium in normal direction

(reference sketch)

Sf

Ap Sp + Af Sf = Sn A

(1)

where A = Ap + Af

Uniform closure, 1-D Hookes law =

f =

Sf

Sp

& p =

Ef

Ep

(2)

308

since f = p

Sf =

Ef

Sp

Ep

Ef

Sp

Ap Sp = Sn A + Af

Ep

Ef

RSp

(1 R)Sp = Sn +

Ep

S

n

Sp =

1 R 1 EEFp

W

%

&

C1 0.78 + 0.22 Hpp

Ef

FSp =

1R 1

Ep

Sn

where Sn =

Sh + Sv

2

+

Sh Sv

2

R=1

cos (2)

W p Lp

(Wp + Wd )(Lp + Wr )

Wn = raise width = Wd = Hp

Drift

Rock

175

Lp

VR

Fill

Wp

Drift

raise

Long Section

Wf

Wd

175

at d = 5,000 ft, Sv = 5,500 psi & Sh = 2Sv = SH = 11,000 psi

vein is vertical, Sh = Sn = SH = 11,000 psi

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s 309

Wd = Wr = 15 ft & Lp = 175 15 = 160 ft

Ef /Er = 25(103 )/103 (103 ) = 0.025

&

%

Wp

[1 R(1 0.025)]

(11,000 psi) = (28,000) 0.78 + 0.22

15

%

&

11

0.22

= 0.78 +

Wp [1 R(1 0.025)]

28

15

0.3929 = [0.7800 + 0.01467Wp ][1 0.975R]

1 R = Ap /A

Wp (175 15)

R = 1

(175)2

R = 1 Wp (0.005225)

0.975 R = 0.975 0.005094 Wp

0.3929 = [0.7800 + 0.01467 Wp ][1 0.975 + 0.005094 Wp ]

77.12 = [0.7800 + 0.01467 Wp ][4.908 + Wp ]

0 = 0.01467 Wp2 + 0.7947 Wp 73.29

0 = Wp2 + 54.17 Wp 4,997

54.17 1

[(54.17)2 + 4(4,997)]1/2

2

2

= 27.08 75.7

Wp = 48.62 ft.

Wp =

11

= 1 0.975 R

28

R = 0.6227

(without fill)

11

=1R

28

(R = 0.6071)

Fill helps some

Wp 160

(175)2

(Wp > Hp )

1 R = 0.3773 =

Wp = 72.2 ft.

with size effect

(48.62)(160)

(175)2

R = 0.746

1R=

Wp

310

13.

Data: Time (min) 0

1.9

4.22

7.22 11.4

Head (in.)

36.0 30.0

24.0

18.0

12.0

k

k

(in./hour).

Solution:

0.5 in.

(Standpipe)

h

dh

=k A

dt

L

dh

Ak

=

dt

h

La

Ak

ln h =

t + constant

aL

4.0

Sample

at t = 0, h = k0 ln h0 = constant

Ak

t

ln (h0 /h) =

aL

aL

h0

k=

ln

At

h

2

(0.5) (4)

36.0

4

k = , - 2 ln

h

(4) t

4

0.0625

36.0

h

=

ln

Tabulated above:

(in./hr)

(1/60)t

h

14.

Head (in.) 35.8 29.9 16.2 10.8 7.3 4.9

Time (sec) 0

45

90

135 180 225

k

1

2

3

4

5

Find: h (hydraulic conductivity) and whether satisfactory/fill.

Solution:

adh

kAh

(Darcys law)

=

L

dt

dh

kA

=

dt

h

aL

kA

ln h =

t + const.

aL

at h = h0 t = 0

4 in.

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

1 2

k=

k=

k1 =

k2 =

k3 =

k4 =

k5 =

aL h0

=

ln

At

h

h0

(8)(3600s/hr) ln

2

h

2

(4) t( sec )

4

450 36

ln

t

h

36

450

ln

= 1.857 in/hr (data x ?)

45

29.9

36

450

ln

= 3.99 in/hr

90

16.2

450

36

ln

= 4.013 in/hr

135 10.8

450

36

ln

= 3.99 in/hr

180 7.3

450

36

ln

= 3.99 in/hr

225 4.9

1

d

2

h0 36

4

D

All tests near 4 in./hr or 100 mm/hr, (first test low, however) fill o.k.

15.

311

Find: h (hydraulic conductivity).

Solution:

aL

h0

ln

At

h

1 2

(4)

h0

4

2

k =

60(min/hr)

ln

h

(4)2 t

4

3.75

h0

k=

ln

: (in./hr)

t

h

a 1 diam

2

k=

3.75 36

ln

1.9

30

3.75 36

k2 =

ln

4.22 24

3.75 36

k3 =

ln

7.22 18

3.75 36

k4 =

ln

11.4 12

k1 =

= 0.36 in./hr

Sample

A

L 4 4 diam.

= 0.36 in./hr

= 0.36 in./hr

= 0.36 in./hr

312

Cable Bolting

16.

Given:

Large mechanized cut and fill slope

Ultimate cable strength 56,000 lbf

Bond strength between grout and cable steel 700 psi

Shear failure in steel grout interface expected.

5/8

Find:

(a) How many inches of hole length are required to provide

anchorage capacity shear equal to the bolt tensile

strength.

(b) Develop a formula that relates the thickness h of a slab

that could be supported in the stope back to the spacing

S of the bolts assumed n bolts per hole.

(c) Plot the formula with h on the x axis and S on the y axis

for slab thickness ranging from 0 to 10 ft use n = 1, 2,

3, 4 as a parameter.

(d) If the spacing is 10 ft what slab thickness could be

supported with two bolts per hole.

T tA

W

h

Solution:

(a) = 700 psi

A = DL

FV = 0 = P T

P = DL

P

56,000

L=

=

5

D

(700)(3.14)

8

L = 40.74 in

(a)

W = F

W = S2 h

nP

F =

FSb

nP

h= 2

S (FSb )

%

(c)

S=

nP

(FSb )h

&1/2

(b)

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

313

Assume

= 144 pcf

FSb = 2

h = 0 10 ft

n = 1, 2, 3, 4

(c)

See graph

(d) @ S = 10 ft; n = 2; FSb = 2

(2)56,000

(144)(100)(2)

h = 3.9 ft

h=

H

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

n=1

S

13.94

9.86

8.05

6.97

6.24

5.69

5.27

4.93

4.65

4.41

n=2

S

19.72

13.94

11.39

9.86

8.82

8.05

7.45

6.97

6.57

6.24

n=3

S

24.15

17.08

13.94

12.08

10.80

9.86

9.13

8.54

8.05

7.64

(d)

n=4

S

27.89

19.72

16.10

13.94

12.47

11.39

10.54

9.86

9.30

8.82

30

n1

n2

25

n3

n4

Spacing (S) ft

20

15

10

0

0

10

314

17.

Given:

d

Top sill

b

Bolts

fw

hw

vein

h

Bottom sill

Solution:

0

n

F =0

d

T

0 = Wn N b

Wn = W cos ,

Nb = T cos

= +

2

= +

2

cos = sin ( + )

b

a

Tb

Free body

Wn

Nb

Ws

p d

2

W cos = Tsin ( + )

Hence: S2 h cos = nfb sin ( + ) & T = nfb

S = spacing(square pattern)

h = slab thickness

= vein dip

b

= bolting angle

18.

Given: Cable bolt drift, 50 ft wide vein, 65 deg. dip, 10 ft max spacing, 2 25-ton

bolts per hole, level interval = 150 ft

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

315

Solution:

Sketch

Cable bolt

drift

l0

d dip

bi

Li

fw

150

hw

Equilibrium in the normal direction

across the dip

Fb

d

b

Nb

u

b (

p

d)

2

Fb cos +

= W cos ()

2

within allowable bolting force

Tb

FSb

Tb = bolt strength

Fb =

Wn

,

Tb cos + 2

Thus FSb =

S2 h cos

where W = S2 h

S = Spacing on a square pattern

h = slab thickness

316

l0

d

150 = L0

L0

tan =

l0

bi

l0

Lb

=

sin ( )

sin

(sin )(l0 )

(i)

Lb =

sin( i ) fixes bolt length for given

i

L0

l0 =

tan

Lb

p (d b)

lo

d

bi

Bolting geometry

L(i)

b

S

Li

p (d b)

(2) Li cos + Lb (i) cos i = l0

Lb (i) cos i = l0 Li cos

tan i =

Li sin

l0 Li cos

S

sin

L0

2

tan i =

, l0 =

S

tan

l0 cos

2

16

sin 65

2

=

150

10

cos 65

tan 65

2

tan i = 0.0668

i = 3.82

5

69.9 ft

65

bi

h (1)

0

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s

317

156

sin 65

i = 16 bolts

Note: Li (max)

= 166 =

19.

Given: Cable bolted medium width cut and fill stope, = 65 , width = 50 ft, level

interval = 200 ft, 5/8-in., 25-ton cables, one per hole.

Find:

(a) formula

(b) specify pattern

Solution:

Ore

Nb

Fb

b

hw

Tb

fw

h

S

Stope

Fill

Fn = 0

0 = Nb W

0 = Fb sin W

Fb = allowable bolt tension =

n

Sb

S

h

bolt strength

FSb

nSb

sin = S2 h

FSb

nSb sin

FSb =

S2 h

= 25-ton = 50,000 lbf

= bolting angle from horizontal

= rock specific weight

= spacing (assumed square)

= slab thickness imagined in the back

318

Bolt length must provide for secure anchorage of block next to hanging wall. Say,

use 1 ft per inch of hole diameter La = 2 ft using 2 inch diameter bolt holes.

For maximum FSb , should be vertical. This would lead to a bolt length in ore

of L0 = W tan where W = vein width (horizontal not true)

fw

L0

hw

hW

u

L0

fw

W

L0

L0 = W tan

cotan =

u p (d b)

d

When, <

, then

2

L0

sin( )

sin

W sin

L0 =

sin( )

W=

(b) Specify bolting pattern

try on 8 8 ft square pattern if vertical, then at FSb = 1, assuming = 156 pcf

50,000 = (156)(8)2 (h)

h = 5 ft

which is a reasonable slab thickness.

If FSb = 1.3, then

65

d

1

50,000

h=

1.3

(156)(82 )

50

h = 3.85 ft

L0 = W tan

= (55.2)(tan 65)

L0 = 118 ft.

La = 2.25 ft.

Lb = 120 ft.

W

W 50 / sin 65

W 55.2 ft

Bolting angle = vertical one bolt per hole

5/8 -diameter, 2.5-ton bolts maximum length = 120 ft.

T h r e e-D i m e n s i o n a l E x c a v a t i o n s 319

20.

Given:

S2 =

Find:

Identify terms, derive

Handout:

S = spacing

N = number in a hole

U = tensile strength '

V = specific weight

ft

ton

NUV

T(SF) sin3

T = slab thickness

SF = safety factor

= bolting angle from horizontal

Bolt block

Fb

Equilibrium (vertical)

W = Fb cos

hS = Fb sin

2

Bolt strength

FS (safety factor)

FY

Fb =

FS

But also Fb =

FT

sin

FS

FY sin

S2 =

(FS)(h)

hS2 =

Translation:

S=S

T=h

SF = FS

1

V=

Nu = FT

S2 =

[given formula is incorrect]

(NV)(V) sin

(SF)(T)

W

S

Subsidence

Chimney Caving

1.

W 35 ft

L 165

H 120

f 30

c 0

Stope muck

f 30

Cross-section

c0

105 pcf

Long-section

Find:

(a) v formula per unit of strike length L

(b) v , h , at stope bottom (dry)

(c) v , h , where water filled.

Solution:

Slice equilibrium

Fv = 0

Fv W + Fs = 0

Av A dz + C dz = 0

sy 0

z0

C = circumference

v = average vertical stress

= side wall shear stress

= h friction side slip

h

k=

estimate from MohrCoulomb condition

v

dv

Ck

+

v = 0

dz

A

But A = WL & C = 2L (no end walls, muck on muck)

C

2

=

A

W

2k

C1 =

W

Fy

dz

W

Fy
Fy

FS

S u b s i d e n c e 321

after integration

v =

[1 exp(C1 z)]

C1

(a)

where = 0 at z = 0

,1-

2 tan (37 )

(b) C1 =

35

1 sin

1 + sin

1 sin 30

k=

1 + sin 30

1

k=

3

k=

C1 = 0.01435

105

=

C1

0.01435

= 7.315(103 )

C1

h = v = (13.9 psi)

= h

= tan (37)(13.9)

= 10.5 psi

Rederive with water equilibrium:

dv

+ C1 v = 0

dz

where v , h , are effective stresses

e.g. v = v pf

where pf = water pressure

i.e., pf = w z

also since saturated, = sat

then

v , h , at bottom (b)

since = h = kv

d(v + w z)

sat + C1 v = 0

dz

dv

+ C1 v = sat w

dz

sat w

& v =

[1 exp(C1 z)]

C1

where v = v = pf = 0 at z = 0

i.e. water to the top.

sat w

v =

[1 exp(C1 z)] + w z

C1

h =

=

kv +

h

w z,

h =

kv

at the top of the muck)

322

at z = 120

w = 62.4 pcf

sat = 105 pcf (same as before assuming saturation)

C1 = 0.01435

105 62.4

v =

{1 exp[(0.01435)(120)]}

0.01435

v = (2.969)(103 )(0.8213)

pf = (62.4)(120)

v = v + pf = (68.9 psi)

,

1

h = 3 (v ) = (5.64 psi)

h = h + pf = (57.6 psi)

= h

= tan(37)(5.64)

= (4.25 psi)

v

h

dry (psi)

41.7

13.9

10.5

wet (psi)

68.9

57.6

4.25

(+65.2%)

(59.5%)

W = WLH

v A = WLv

H

Fp =

C dz

0

= h

h = hv

Fp

H

=

kCv dz

H

= (kC)

0

C1

(1 eC1 z )dz

Subsidence

C1 =

323

kc

A

)H

eC1 z ))

= ( A) z +

C1 )0

eC1 H

= A H +

e0

C1

A

Fs = AH

(1 eC1 H )

C1

wt

But W = v A +

Fs

v A

W = (v + f )A + AH v A

= f A + AH

= w AH + (sat w )AH

W = sat AH checks!

2.

Find: Derive a formula for H.

Vy

Solution:

b

Bulking porosity

Vv

B=

; VT = Vv + Vs

VT

Vv = Volume of voids

Vs = Volume of solids

Vv = Initial cut volume

Vv = a2 h + 23 a2 b

Vs = a2 (H b)

,

a2 h + 32b

,

B=

a2 [ h + 32b + (H b)]

B=

h+

H+

2

3b

2

3b

+hb

solving for H

(h + (2/3)b)(1 B)

H=

+b

b

3.

a = 105 ft

h = 14 ft

h + b = 35 ft b = 21 ft

H = 1,150 ft

Find: Bulking porosity.

pa 2

b

H

b

a

324

Solution:

B=

h+

H+

2

3b

2

3b

+hb

(from Problem 2)

14 + 32 (21)

B=

1,150 + 23 (21) + 14 21

= 0.0242

B = 2.4%

h = 35 ft

B = 0.072

stope depth Hs = 4,650

strike length 105 ft and 205 ft

Find: Cave height H for 105 & 205 ft strike.

Solution:

a 38

C x

B

H

115

L

65

35

Vv

Vv

=

VT

Vv + V s

Vs = A + B

Vv = D C

B=

25

1

HW

2

a

, a = h tan(13)

h

b

tan(25) = , b = h tan(25)

h

tan(13) =

38

13

65

C

b

Vs = (H H )W +

l

65

h

4.

S u b s i d e n c e 325

x = a + b = h[tan(13) + tan(25)]

x = 35[tan(13) + tan(25)]

x = 24.4 ft

l=

h

35

=

= 38.6 ft

sin(65)

sin(65)

1

xl sin(65)

2

1

= (24.4)(38.6) sin(65)

2

2

C = 427 ft

Area C =

Vv = 4,025 427

2

Vv = 3,598 ft

W = L cos(65) = 115[cos(65)] = 49 ft

1

(104)(49)

2

= 49H 5,096 + 2,548

Vs = (H 104)49 +

Vs = 49H 2,548

3,598

3,598 + 49H 2,548

3,598

0.072 =

1,050 + 49H

3,598

49H =

1,050

0.072

B =

H =

3,598

0.072

H = 998 ft

1,050

49

5.

Depth 4,250 ft

Panel dimension 150 ft 300 ft

Initial undercut = 21 ft

Bulking porosity = 0.37

Find: Cave height possible before must be drawn.

326

Solution: B =

Vv

Vv + V s

3

Vv = (150)(300)(21) = 945,000 ft

Vs = (150)(300)(H) = 45,000 H ft

945,000

0.37 =

945,000 + 45,000 H

945,000(1 0.37)

H =

45,000(0.37)

H = 35.8 ft

6.

BULK = 105 pcf

= 23 (muck on rock)

= 33 (muck on muck)

h /v = 0.32

Find:

(a) v at bottom of cave as f (z)

(b) Plot v versus depth

(c) v , h , when cave is 300 , 600 .

Solution:

= h ;

h = kv ;

= tan

1 sin

k=

1 + sin

Equilibrium analysis:

sy

A

dv A A dz + P dz = 0

v kP

dv dz +

dz = 0

A

dz

Integrating

v =

A

kP

1e

kP

A z

sh

P Perimeter

A Area

sy dsy

v =

kP

A

1 e A (Hz)

kP

(a)

Subsidence

Ground line

Z

4,250

H0

B0 0.32

H

Z

h 21

150 300

A

= tan(23) = 0.4245

2

A = (150 300)(ft ) = 45,000 ft2

= 105 pcf

1 sin(33)

= 0.2948

1 + sin(33)

kP

(0.4245)(900)(0.2948)

=

A

45,000

kP

= 2.50285 103

A

A

= 4.1952 104

kP

k=

y Stress (psi)

100

200

300

200

H gravity

400

600

y

800

Plot of y Vs depth

400

327

328

@ z = 0 ft

@ z = 200 ft

@ z = 400 ft

@ z = 600 ft

@ z = 800 ft

v = 0 psi

z = 0 psi

v = 184 psi z = 292 psi

v = 226 psi

v = 252 psi

v =

4.1952 104

3

[1 e2.5028510 (400) ]

144

4.1952 104

3

[1 e2.5028510 (300) ]

144

v = 154 psi

v =

v @ z = 300 ft

h = kv

= (0.2948)154

h = 45 psi

h @ z = 300 ft

= h

= (0.4245)(45)

= 19.1 psi

@ z = 300 ft

@ z = 600 ft

4.1952 104

3

[1 e2.5028510 (600) ]

144

v = 226 psi

v =

h = (0.2948)(226)

h = 67 psi

v @ z = 600 ft

h @ z = 600 ft

= h

= (0.4245)(67)

= 28 psi

7.

B (initial) = 0.25

S.G. (solid) = 2.60

S.C. (caved) = 1.73

(muck on rock) = 23

(muck) = 33

Sh \Sv = 0.32

@ z = 600 ft

Subsidence

Find:

(1) Initial cave height

(2) v , h , when H = 183 m

(3) B when cave reaches surface.

329

Section

1,295 m

Solution:

(1) By definition

Vv

Vv + V s

Vv = (6.4)(46)(92)

Vs = (H)(46)(92)

B=

6.4

H + 6.4

6.4

H =

6.4

0.25

H = 19.2 m

0.25 =

B 0.25

6.4 m

Undercut

46 m

Plan

92 m

(1)

(2) z = 183 m

Notes:

(1 eC1 z )

C1

kC

C1 =

A

%

&

(3)(92 + 46)

= tan(23)(0.32) +

(92)(46)

v =

C1 = 8.859(103 )

= (S.G.)(w ): w (N/m3 ): water = 9.806(103 )N/m3

(1.73)(62.4)

=

6.366(103 )

= 1.696(104 )N/m3

1.696(104 )

3

[1 e8.859(10 )(183) ]

8.859(103 )

v = 1.9144(106 )(1 0.198)

v = 1.535(106 )N/m2

v = 1.535 MPa

h = 0.32v

= 0.32(1.535)

= 0.492 MPa

v =

= tan(23)h

= tan(23)0.492

= 0.209 MPa

(2)

330

W (in chimney bulk) = V

But also W = s Vs

W = s (V Vv )

bulk V = solid (V Vv )

Vv

b

= 1

s

V

Vv

However B =

V

b

B = 1

s

1.73

B = 1

2.60

B = 0.335

8.

(3)

initial B = 0.25

bank = 162 pcf

bulk = 108 pcf

muck = 33

muck/rock = 23

h

k=

= 0.32

v

(b)

600

Find:

(a) initial height before pull necessary

(b) v , , h @ z = 600 ft

(c) B when surface breached.

Solution:

(a) B =

21

(a)

300

Vv

V

Ah

Ah + HA

h

H =

h

B

21

=

21

6.25

H = 63 ft.

B=

(b)

(c)

Section

4,250 ft

z = 600 ft

v =

(1 eC1 z )

C1

Plan

150

(a)

S u b s i d e n c e 331

Notes:

C1 =

kC

A

(600 + 300)

(300)(150)

C1 = tan(23)(0.32)

C1 = 2.717(103 )

108

3

(1 e(2.717)10 (600) )

3

2.717(10 )

= [ ][1 0.1959]

v =

v = 3.196(104 ) psf

(222.1 psi)

(71.03 psi)

h = kv = (0.32)3.196(104 )

h = 1.0228(104 ) psf

= h

= tan(23)[1.0228(104 )]

= 4.342(103 ) psf

(30.15 psi)

v , u ,

@600 ft.

W (in chimney) = V

= (108)(300)(150)(4,250 + 21)

W = 2.076(1010 ) lbf. (not needed)

This corresponds to a solid weight of

W = s Vs = s (V Vv )

W = (162)(V Vv )

i.e. V = s Vs

(108)(V) = (162)(V Vv )

Vv

(108) = (62) 1

V

But B =

Hence: 1

9.

Vv

V

by definition

108

=B

162

1

B = 0.333 =

3

B = 0.015 D = 1,570 ft A = 20,000 ft2

Find: ore extracted before cave reaches surface.

(B)

332

Solution:

(Plan)

20,000 ft2

Surface

Vs

(Section)

Caved

(20,000)0.015(1,570) = hA

Ah = 4.71(105 ) ft

Vy

Vy Vsolids extracted

Vy hA

V (H h)A

10.

H + h = 1,570 ft

Vv

B =

V

hA

B=

(H + h)A

(h = 23.6 ft)

= 38

= 0.57

k = 0.33

a = 4 g (muck dump)

W = 3 tons (6,000 lbs)

H = 150 ft

h = 9 ft

diameter = 13 ft

Volume of solids

extracted

extraction height

13

150

Circular

Ma M 4g

9

W mg

F 4W

F (4)(3)(2,000)

F 24,000 lbf.

Solution:

Formula for equilibrium with surcharge:

v =

kC

kC

A

1 e A z + v0 e A z

kC

kC

v = v0 e A z

+ '

(

(0.57)(0.33)13

24,000

exp

9

=

2

(13)2

(13)

4

4

= (180.8) exp (0.521)

v = 107.4 lbf/ft

11.

Given: Rock and joint data, depth = 4,650 ft, panel cave 250 600 ft in plan,

14 ft high, bulking porosity B = 0.075, 12 ft3 /ton & 50,000 tons per day.

Subsidence

333

Find:

(a) Cave zone height

(b) Additional draw to reach surface

Solution:

Surface

at

4,650

Surface

H

H

14 h

A

Vv

Vs + V v

Ah

=

Ah + AH

h

B=

h+H

B=

h

h

B

14

=

14

0.075

H = 172.7 ft

H =

(a)

Vv

, Vv + Vs = (H + H + h)A = V

Vv + Vs

Vv = Vv + Vs

Vs = Vs Vs

B=

B=

Vv

,

Vv + Vs

Vv = Vs

= 0.075(4,650 + 14)(250)(600)

3

Vv = 5.247(107 ) ft , Vv Vv = Vv

H = 335.8 ft.

334

Vv = 5.247(107 ) (14)(250)(600)

3

Vv = 5.04(107 ) ft

Vv = Vs (new void volume comes from solid removed)

(107 )

12

tons = 4.20(106 )tons

tons

time =

tons/day

4.20(106 )

=

5(104 )

days = 84.0 days

Alternative:

To cave H A ft3 at (50,000)(12) ft3 /day

(4,650 173)(250)(600)

(0.075)

5(104 )12

t = 84.0 days

t =

draw rate (b)

(checks)

Combination Support

12.

FD = Ff + Fr + Fri

(48,400)(0.707) = (10)(144)(5)(1.414) + (48,000)(0.707)(0.21)

+ (0.5)(0.60)(60,000) + 126(144)Ari

Find: Explain meaning of each number, where obtained, physical meaning, are

they correct?

Solution:

FD = driving force down the joint = Wt

Ff = joint shear resistance

Fr = shear resistance of the reinforcement, bolt

Fri = shotcrete wall shear resistance

W

sin 45

2

= abutment load factor

FD = Wt =

Subsidence

W

= one-half of back arch weight

SHOT

2

= 2 & W = BHp per foot of drift CRETE

Hp = 1.0(B + Ht )

= 1.0(12 + 12);

45

Rock

joint Kj, fj

Wn

W F

D

Af

Wt

= 168 pcf

Ff

Hp = 24 ft

W = (168)(12)(24)

W = 48,384 lb/ft

W

(48,384)

=2

48,400 lb/ft

2

2

1

sin(45) =

2

Fr

A ri

Fri

Am

Drift support design

FD = (48,400)(0.707) LHS ok

Ff = Aj (j tan j + Kj )

bolt length = 5

Am

cos 45

2

Aj = (5)( 2)(ft per foot of drift)

Aj =

Kj = 10 psi; j = 12

Kj = 10(144) pcf

Aj j = Wn (per foot of drift)

= W cos(45)

Aj j = (48,400)(0.707) lbs/ft

Ff = (48,400)(0.707)(tan(12)) + Aj Kj

joint friction joint cohesion

Fr = b Ab

b = bolt shear stress.

Ab = bolt area

T0 = 60,000 psi (steel strength)

7

7 2 2

Db = in Ab =

(ln )

8

4 8

335

336

Ab = 0.601 ln

Tb = 12 T0

Fr = (0.5)(0.601)(60,000) bolt shear resistance for thin shotcrete

wall in shear

.

Fri = 2 fc Ari

fc = 4,000 psi

3

Fri = 2 4,000 Ari

Ari in ln2

Fri = (126.5)(144)Ari

13/14.

Given: Grizzly drifts 9 ft high by 12 ft wide below the undercut level, 1st

supported with bolts and wire mesh

Bolts: 3/4 diameter, bolts 55 grade

Lb = 6 ft, grouted full length

Concrete: C0 = 5,500 psi

Rock: = 180 lb/ft3 = 42 c = 3,450 psi

Joints: 3 sets of orthogonal joints.

27 < j < 38

7 < cj < 70 psi

Fracture persistence: 87% Intact rock.

13%

FS rock 1.5

FS concrete 1.4

= 185% = 1.85

Find: Liner thickness needed.

Solution:

Using the F. Kendorski article

hp = 1.0(b + ht )

= 1.0(9 + 12)

hp = 21 ft

3

= 34,020 lbf

cm = (0.87)(cj ) + (0.13)(cr )

7 + 70

= 0.87

(psi) + (0.13)(3,450)(psi)

2

cm = 481 psi

Subsidence

W

22

joint

Wn

lW 45

2

Wt

12

45

b

bolt

Shot

crete

9

Ts

Tm

Grizzly drift

tan m = (0.87) tan j + (0.13) tan r

27 + 38

+ (0.13) tan(42 )

tan m = (0.87) tan

2

m = 33.9

2cm sin m

1 sin m

2(481) sin(33.9)

=

1 sin(33.9)

= 1,213 psi

cm =

cm

Equilibrium

W

= Ts + Tm

2

'

(

2

34,020

ln

Ts =

lbf (1,213 psi) 144 2 (6 ft)

2

ft

Ts = 1,031,022 lbf/foot of drift

No support needed for back arch

FD = Ff + Fr + Fri

FD = Wt @ = 1.85

1

= (1.85)(34,020)

2

337

338

FD = 44,503 lbf/ft

Ff = Aj j tan j + Aj Cj

use low joint properties for a conservative estimate.

Ff = 31,228 lbf/ft

F r = b A b

=

1

(18,400 lbf)/ft

2

Fr = 9,200 lbf/ft

.

Fri = fc Ari

= 2(4,500)1/2 Ari

Fri = 134 Ari

44,503 = 31,228 + 9,200 + 134 Ari

2

Ari = 30.4 ln /ft

Ari

12

t = 2.5 inches

t =

Given:

Find: If conventional bolting sufficient.

Set 1

60

l0

Solution:

Rib:

lmax

= tan 30

10

lmax = (10) tan 30

lmax = 5.8 ft

(rib)

60

Block

12 7'

7'

30

30

Set 2

lmax

17

East

lmax

West

15.

10

30

60 l0

14

Back:

lmax

= tan 60

7

lmax = (7) tan 60

lmax = 12.1 ft (back)

l0 = lmax 7.0

l0 = 5.1 ft

Yes, conventional length bolts should also work in the back.

yes

Subsidence

16/17.

joint persistence = 0.88

Rock: C0 = 12,750 psi, r = 29

= 157 pcf

Ht 18

Joints:

cj = 75 psi j = 20

depth = 3,750 ft

B 13

= 2.00 (100% increase)

FS = 1.5

13

Find: Combination support with FSs = 1.5

6

339

3 diam. high

4 strength

Solution:

Equilibrium

W

= Ts + T m

2

W = Hp BS

B = 13

Hp

lw

2

Hp = 1.0(B + Ht )

Hp = 1.0(13 + 18)

Hp = 31

S = 1 (per ft of tunnel)

W = (157)(31)(13)(1)

W = 6.327(104 ) lbf

(2)(6.327)(104 )

= Ts + Tm

2

Tm = C0 A

C0 = pC0j + (1 p)C0m

2cj cos j

c0j =

1 sin j

(2)(75) cos 20

=

1 sin 20

c0j = 214 psi

C0m = 0.88(214) + (1 0.88)(12,750)

C0m = 1,718 psi

Ts = 6.327(104 ) (1,718)(144)(6)

Ts = 6.327(104 ) 1.484(106 )

Ts = 1.42(106 )

No external support needed for equilibrium (FS > 1.5 clearly)

Ts

Tm

340

Joint failure:

Equilibrium:

FD = Ft + Fr (if shotcrete not needed)

W

2

wn

ws

joint

1

7

= 4.474(107 )

sin 45 = 6.327(10 )

2

W

2

45

Ff = Nc/ tan j + Cj

1

= 6.327(104 )

tan 20 + (75)(144)(6)( 2)

2

4

Ff = 1.628(10 ) + 9.164(104 )

6'

bolt

Ff = 10.79(105 )lbf.

even without bolt, joint is safe and has FS > 1.5.

Fr =

1

1

bolt strength = (18,400) = 9,200 lbf.

2

2

18.

Given: Block caving underground data, drifts 16 16 , semicircular backs, at

3,000 5,000 ft ramped down.

Find:

(a) FSc , FSt no support

(b) combination support

FS = 1.8 rock mass,

1

Bolts @ (16 ) = 8

2

Solution:

Assume c at sharp corner and treat as rectangle with W0 /H0 = 2,

i.e. 10 = vertical gravity only, Sv assume M = 1/3 then from USBM Bulletin 587

or text Table 3.2, approximately:

Kc = 4.0

c = Kc 10

Kt = 0.1

s01

t = Kt 10

10 = (156/144)(5,000) = 5,418 psi

c = (4)(5,418)

c = 21,667 psi

FSc =

C0

c

8

t = (0.1)(5,418)

T0

t

s03

8

t = 542 psi

FSt =

8

16

Subsidence

2c cos

1 sin

(2)(332) cos 28.7

=

1 sin 28.7

C0 = 1,120 psi

C0 =

1,120

397

FSt =

21,667

542

FSc = 0.0517 FSt = 0.732

341

C = 332 psi

= 28.7

T0 = 393 psi

FSc =

FS

g 156 pcf

(b)

Hp 32

16

Joint

Bolts

8

16

Ts

Tm

C0 A

A

C0

=

FS

Fv = 0

W

>

= Tm + T s

2

FS =

: ( = 2, caving)

: (per ft of drift)

(8)(1,120)(144)(1)

+ Ts

1.8

Ts = 7.987(104 ) 7.168(105 )

(156)(16)(32)(1) =

Check: Shotcrete, bolt, joint slip

Wf + Wn + Wri

Equilibrium.

(joint) (bolt)(shortcrete)

342

Joint only?

WD = W sin 45

Wf = Wn tan + cA

Ws

A = (1)(Lj )

H

= (1)

sin 45

A = (1)(8)( 2)

Wn

Joint

W

45

Bolt

W

= tan 27 + 2,770(10)

2

W W tan 27 + (17)(144)(8)2

1 0.510 +

Shortcrete

W = (156)(32)(16)

(17)(144)(8)(2)

(156)(32)(16)

Barely in equilibrium, bolts will get FS > 1.0 will still need shotcrete to get FS

higher probably.

Note: Very low FS for natural supported rock mass from stress concentration

but using rock and load of rock mass gives no support needed. Support needed

only to avoid slip on joints. Conflicting views (arch load is small independent of

depth and thus not reliable for deep opening!)

19/20.

[Units convert for 20]

C0 = 12,750 psi

= 29

= 157 pcf

depth = 3,750 ft

cj = 75 psi

j = 20

Development drift, 13 18 ft, = 100%

rock bolts, shotcrete and wire mesh

shotcrete compressive strength 3,800 psi

required FS = 1.5

bolt size

length

steel grade

S u b s i d e n c e 343

spacing

shotcrete thickness

Solution:

Need cohesion of the intact rock

sin() =

C0 T 0

;

C0 + T 0

Assuming M C criterion

(C0 + T0 )sin(r ) = C0 T0

T0 (1 + sin(r ) = C0 (sin r )C0

1 sin(r )

T0 = C 0

1 + sin()r

1 sin(29)

= 12,750

1 + sin(29)

T0 = 4,424

3

1

1

cr =

C0 T 0 =

[12,750(4,424)]1/2

2

2

cr = 3,755 psi

c = cf + R(cr cf )

= 75 + (0.12)(3,755 75)

c = 517 psi

tan = tan f + R(tan r tan f )

= tan(20) + 0.12[tan(29) tan(20)]

tan = 0.5315

= 21

2

1 = 2c tan

+

+ 3 tan

+

4

2

4

2

21

1 = 2(517) tan

+

+ 0 = 1,504 psi

4

2

1

m =

FSm

1,504

=

3

m = 501 psi

hp = 1(b + hf )

= 13 + 18

hp = 31 ft

344

To satisfy equilibrium. 1/2 weight to each sides

hp BS

2

2(157)(31)(6)

2

s A s

s As

= m Am + s As ;

= 200%

= (501)(6)(144) + s As

= 29,202 4,32,864

= 4,03,662 lbs.

Checking shear loading during abutment loading of 100% on a through going

fault unfavorably oriented at 45 .

FD = F f + F r + F r ;

Wt

FD =

sin(45); = 200%

2

Wt = (157)(13)(31)(1)

= 63,271 lbf.

1

1

FD = (2)

(63,271)

2

2

FD = 44,739 lbf.

Ff = Aj j tan j + Aj Cj ;

Aj j = Wn

Ff = 1,07,923 lbf

Fr = b A b

TD = 60,000 psi

7

Db = in

8

7 2

Ab =

= 0.601 in2

4 8

1

b = T0 = 30,000 psi

2

Fr = (30,000)(0.601) = 18,030 lbf

Fr = 18,030 lbf

The joint cohesion is high and the factor of safety mobilized by joint friction and

cohesion alone is

Ff

1,07,923

=

= 2.41

Fb

44,739

No artificial support is required.

S u b s i d e n c e 345

Subsidence Troughs

21.

W = 820 face length, panel width

h = 1,300 deep

m = 16.5 mining height, seam thickness

L = 6,200 panel length

Find:

1. Smax

2. Smax /w = 520

3. Surface fully developed subsidence profiles.

4. Surface strain profiles, E+, E, e

5. Barrier pillar width Wp

6. Required time t @ 7,600 T/shift; 2 shifts/day; 250 days/year

7. Face advance rate f (ft/day)

8. Max subsidence and trough width after mining 4 identical panels adjacent

to the 1st panel

9. Max subsidence and trough width after mining identical panel 80 below the

1st panel

10. Utah conditions, subsidence factor = 0.65, angle of draw = 28 , estimate

Smax , trough width, for 1 panel, 5 panels (adjacent)

11. Max tensile and compressive strains 1 panel, Utah conditions.

Solution:

1. Smax

1,300

= 396 m

3.281

820

Width in meters =

= 250 m

3.281

W

820

=

H

1,300

250

=

396

W

= 0.63

H

From Figure 3 in (SEH) Subsidence Engineers hand book UK, text,

Figure 8.15 or eqn.

Smax

0.6.

m

Smax

Smax = (0.6)(16.5)

Depth in meters =

2.

S

= 520 = 158 m

W

L

158

=

= 0.399

h

396

346

s

= 0.36

S

s = (0.36)9.9

s = 3.6 , (1.1 m)

820

W

=

= 0.63 0.62

h

1,300

Assume horizontal seam, need only half profile

From Table 1 SHE or Table 8.1 text interpolating.

s/Smax

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.95

1.00

l/h

1.01

0.59

0.47

0.37

0.31

0.27

0.23

0.19

0.16

0.13

0.09

0.06

S(ft)

0.50

0.99

1.98

2.97

3.96

4.95

5.94

6.93

7.92

8.91

9.41

9.90

l(ft)

1,313

767

611

481

403

351

299

247

208

169

117

78

1313 1250

1000

750

500

250

5

10

h 1,300

Subsidence scale 1 5

Distance scale 1 250

1,300

d 35

Seam

d

410

4. Surface strain profile

From Table 5 in SEH or text Table 8.3, page 445

820

W

=

= 0.631

h

1,300

x 0.8

0.631 0.5

+E =

=

0.65 0.8

0.8 0.5

S

+E = 0.73

h

x 1.35

0.631 0.5

E =

=

0.7 1.35

0.8 0.5

Subsidence

S

h

x 3.35

0.631 0.5

G=

=

2.8 3.35

0.8 0.5

S

G = 3.11

h

From Figure 14, SEH or text figure 8.21

e

W

= 0.89 @

= 0.631

E

h

S

e = (0.89)(1.09)

h

S

= 0.97

h

S

Smax

since =

h

h

9.9

=

= 7.62 103

1,300

+E = 5.563 103 ft/ft

347

E = 1.07

+E, E, e

e = 7.391 103 ft/ft

Now using Table 4 SEH or text Table 8.2 and W/H = 0.62, interpolating

Extension (+E)

e

E

l

h

e 103

l (ft)

Compression (E)

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.00

1.01

0.63

0.52

0.45

0.41

0.34

0.30

0.23

0.21

0.18

0.15

0.12

0.05

1.13

2.25

3.38

4.51

5.64

4.51

1.66

3.32

4.98

6.64

8.30

1,313

819

676

585

533

442

390

299

273

234

195

156

65

Extension

E

1,500 1,313 1,250

1,000

750

500

250

E

Compression

h 1,300

Distance scale 1 250

Seam

410

348

d=

35

h = 1,300

Wp = h tan

Wp = 1, 300 [tan(35 )]

Wp = 910

Wp

Wp

= 83,88,600 ft3

@ 7,600 Tons/Shift; 2 shifts/day; 250 days/year; Assuming 20 ft3 /ton for

coal i.e. = 100 lbf/ft3

Volume moved in a year = (7,600)(2)(250)(20)

= 7,60,00,000 ft3 /year

to move 83.886 106 ft3 it will take 1.1 years.

3

= 304 103 ft

cubic ft/day mined

Face advance/day =

Face Area

= 304 103 /(820)(16.5) = 22.5 ft

Average face advance/day = 22.5 ft

4-adjacent panels

Now the face width = (5)(820) =

4,100

Using Figure 3 SEH P-9

4,100

Face width =

= 1,250 m

3.281

Depth = 396 m

Smax

= 0.9

m

Smax = (0.9)(16.5) = 14.9

(0.7h)

(w)

d

h

(0.7 h)

= 35

WT = 2(910) + 4,100

WT = 5,920

Subsidence

then use superposition principle

Panel 1 Smax = 9.9 , from 1.

349

Surface

1,300

h = 1,397 = 426 m

W = 820 = 250 m

Panel 1

Smax

= 0.55

m

165

80

Panel 2

Smax

= 0.65;

m

= 28

@ critical width

Single panel

Wc = 2h tan(28)

= 2(1,300) tan(28)

Wc = 1,382 ft

A single panel is only 820 i.e. sub-critical

If sub-critical width.

0.65 Smax (UK)

Smax (Utah) =

m

0.9

m

0.65(0.6)(16.5)

=

0.9

Smax (Utah) = 7.16 ft, (2.18 m)

= 2,202

WT = 671.3 m

Panel width = (5)(820) = 4,100 supercritical

Smax = (0.65)(16.5)

Smax = 10.73 = (3.3 m)

WT = 2[tan(28)](1,300) + 5(820)

WT = 5,482 (1,671 m)

350

Smax

7.16

=

= 5.508 103 ft/ft

h

1,300

+E = (0.73)(5.508 103 )

+E = 4.021 103 ft/ft

E = (1.09)(5.508) 103

E = 6.004 103 ft/ft

W

for

= 0.62

h

Max tensile strain = 6.108 103 ft/ft

Max Compressive strain = 8.997 103 ft/ft

22.

1,900 m long

250 m Face length

396 m deep

5.0 m thick

UK conditions apply

Find:

(1) Smax for a Single panel

Fig. 3. SEH or text Figure 8.15, S/m = 0.60

Smax = (5)(0.60)

Smax = 3.00 m.

(1)

Fig. 4. SHE, text Figure 8.16

l

158

=

h

396

l

= 0.399

h

s

= 0.38

S

S = (0.38)(3.00)

Smax = 1.14 m

(3) Peak strains E+, E, e, SHE Table 5, text Table 8.3

W

250

=

h

396

W

= 0.631

h

(2)

Subsidence

W/h

E+

0.5

0.80

1.35 S/h

0.631

0.735 S/h

1.066 S/h

6.8

0.65 S/h

0.7 S/h

351

(interpolation)

3.0

S

=

h

396

S

= 7.576(103 )

h

E+ = 0.735(7.576)(103 ) = 5.57(103 ) tension

E = 1.066(7.576)(103 ) = 8.076(103 ) compression

E = 0.9E = 0.9(8.076)103 = 7.268(103 )compression

(3)

(4) WB

tan 35 = 0.7

z

0.7 =

396

z = WB = 277 m

x?

35

h 396 m Vertical.

section

Panel

Surface

Smax

h 396

35

(4) (250)

w 1,000 m

35

(4)

352

w

1,000

=

h

396

w

= 2.525

h

But critical width Wc = h tan

Wc = (396)(0.7)(2)

Wc = 554 m

Smax = 0.9 m

Smax = 0.9(5.0)

(5)

Smax = 4.5 m.

(6) Two panels Smax W-trough

S1

S2

396 m

421 m

250 m

25 m

(W/h)1

(W/h)2

= 0.6 m + 0.6 m

Smax = (2)(0.6)(5.0)

Smax = 6.0 m

W = 2 h tan + 250

= (2)(421)(0.7) + 250

W = 839 m

(7) Utah conditions

0.65 = Subsidence factor

28 = angle of draw

(6)

(6)

S u b s i d e n c e 353

UT: S/M = 0.65

0.9

0.65

m=

=

S(OK)

S(UT)

0.65

S(UT) =

(3.0)

0.90

S(UT) = 2.17 m.

W = 2h tan (UT) + 250 m

= (2)(396) tan 28 + 250 m

W = 671 m

23.

(7)

(7)

Given: Long wall trough data, depth = 1,300 ft, thickness = 16.5 ft (full

height mining), length = 6,200 ft, face = 820 ft

Find:

(a) Smax

face width = (820)(0.3048) = 250 m

depth = (1,300)(0.3048) = 396 m

Fig. 3 SEH, text figure 8.15 S/m = 0.60

Smax = (0.60)(16.5) = 9.9 ft

(a)

(3.02 m)

Fig. 11 SEH, text Figure 8.16

520

l

=

= 0.40

h

1,300

s

= 0.38

S

s = (0.38)(9.9) =

3.76 ft

(1.15 m)

820

W

=

= 0.631

h

1,300

Between:

0.5

0.631

0.8

0.631

+E

0.8 S/h

E

1.35 S/h

0.65 S/h

0.735 S/h

0.7 S/h

1.066 S/h

(b)

354

x?

1,300

35

S

9.9

=

h

1,300

E+ = 5.60(103 ) tension

(c)

E = 8.12(103 ) compression

e = 7.30(103 ) compression

e

= 0.9

E

e = (0.9)(8.12)(103 )

W

= 0.631

h

e = 7.307(103 )

x

1,300

x = (0.7)(1,300)

tan 35 =

(d)

x = 910 ft

5. Smax

Smax

1,300

(4)(820) 3,280

Smax

= 0.9

m

Subsidence

355

(5a)

(4.54 m)

(5b)

6. Smax

W

Smax

1,300

820

1,380

Smax = 2Smax

= (2)(9.9)

Smax = 19.8 ft

(6a)

Trough width = ?

W = 820 + (2)(0.7)(1,380)

W = 2,752 ft

(6b)

7. UT condition

UK = Smax/m = 0.90 unlimited

UT = Smax/m= 0.65

0.65

UT(S) =

UK(S)

0.90

Note

Smax (UK)

Smax (UT)

=

0.65

0.90

0.65

UT(Smax ) =

(9.9) = 7.15 ft

0.90

m=

(7a)

through:

W = 820 + (2) tan 28 (1,300)

W(UT) = 2,204 ft

(7b)

356

24.

M = 5 m (thick, mined)

H = 400 m (depth)

Flat

300 m wide

3,000 m long

3,000 t/shift, 2 shifts/day = 16,000 t/day.

@ 5 days per week = 80,000 t/week.

Find:

S

(1) Smax :

= 0.68

m

S = (5)(0.68)

Smax

Smax = 3.40 m

(2) Critical area

Wc

Ac = Wc2

Wc = 1.4H

= (1.4)(400)

Wc = 560 m

Ac = (560)2

Ac = 3.136(105 )m2

(3)

Ac (2)

Trough

35

trough W = W + 1.4 H

= (300) + (1.4)(400)

Width = 860 m

(4) E+

W 300

=

H

400

W

= 0.75

H

(Table 5)

0.5

0.75

0.8

0.8 S/h

0.675

0.65 S/h

S u b s i d e n c e 357

x

0.25

=

0.3

0.15

x = 0.125

S

E(+) = 0.675

h

3.4

= 0.675

400

E(+) = 5.738(103 )

E(+)

(5) max E

(Table 5)

0.5

0.75

0.8

0.135 S/h

0.606

0.7 S/h

0.25

x

=

0.30

0.565

x = 0.471

3.4

E() = 0.606

400

E() = 5.1496(103 )

E()

will be severe for 25 m long structure.

(7) e at center of subside profile.

W

300

=

= 0.75

H

400

e

= 0.76

E

e = (0.76)(5.15)103

e = 3.91(103 )

s L

200

=

S H

400

L

= 0.5

H

s

= 0.5

S

s = (0.5)(3.4)

s = 1.7 m

s @ 200 m

358

rate = 16,000 t/day,

Volume = (5)(300)(3,000) = 4.5(106 )m3

Assume: = 100 pcf

wt = (4.5)(106 )(35.3)(100)/2,000 lb/s

wt = 7.95(106 )tons

days = 7.95(106 )/16(103 )

days = 497

Working days

W = 4(300)

W = 1,200

400 m

W = 400

W

=3

H

1,200 m

Supercritical

Smax = 0.9 m

= 0.9(5)

Smax (4 panels)

Smax = 4.5 m

S1 = 3.4 m from(11)

S2 = (0.65) m

S2 = 0.65(5)

S2 = 3.25 m

200

S1

420

S2

300

Superposition: S1 + S2 = S

S = 6.65 m

25.

400

Smax (2 panels)

Given: Subsidence trough information, depth = 1,500 ft, 750 ft face length,

7,500 ft panel length, mining height 15 ft, Utah conditions

Find:

(a) Smax single panel

(b) critical width

(c) Smax six panels adjacent

(d) E+ single panel

(e) E six panels adjacent.

Subsidence

359

Solution:

Utah condition assume Smax /m = 0.67 and = 28 then reduction factors from

U.K. condition will be

0.90

1

=

Sf

0.67

Sf = 0.74

(a) depth = 1,500 ft = 457 m

Width = 750 ft = 229 m

S

= 0.45 U.K

m

S

(Utah) = 0.45 Sf

m

S

= 0.45(0.74)

m

S

= 0.333

m

S = 0.333(15)

S = 5.0 ft

panel

Surface

Wc

= h tan

2

1,500 ft h

Wc = 2(1,500) tan 28

Wc = 1,595 ft.

(b)

Wc

W = 6(750)

W = 4,500 ft

L = 7,500 ft

Area is Super critical i.e., W > Wc (wide and long)

S = Smax

Smax

Smax =

m

m

= 0.67(15)

Smax = 10.0 ft

(d) E+ single panel, SEH, Table 5

750

= 0.5

W/h (width/depth ratio) =

1,500

(c)

360

+E = 0.8 S/h

= (0.8)(5 ft)/1,500 ft

(d)

(e) E Six panels

W

d

W

d

W

h

= 6(750) = 4,500 ft

= 1,500 ft

4,500

=

1500

= 3.0

E() = 0.51 S/h : supercritical

= (0.51)(10.0/1,500)

E() = 3,400 in/in.

26/27.

(e)

3,400(103 )

Surface

S

d

1,800

5

dip

90

20%

dissolved

Wc

Colorado

Wtrough

Find:

(1) Subsidence factor, angle of draw

(2) Smax

(3) Wc (critical width)

(4) trough width at Wc .

Solution:

For western U.S. Colorado, use Utah conditions, say

Smax

= 0.67,

m

= 28

(1)

S u b s i d e n c e 361

Smax = 0.67 m

m = 20% of 90 ft

m = 18 ft

Smax = 0.67(18)

Smax = 12.06 ft

Wc = 2h tan

= (2)(1,800) tan 28

Wc = 1,914 ft

Wtrough = Wc + 2h tan

= 2Wc

Wtrough = 3,828 ft.

(2)

(3)

(4)

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