Sie sind auf Seite 1von 148

,(

3$1,),&$

2%,(&7,9(850

5,7(

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FHUHDOLHUH3ULQPRGXOGHWUDWDUHDWHPHLVHvQFHDUF SXQHUHDvQYDORDUHDFXQRWLQ HORUDFXPXODWH
vQSURFHVXOGHSUHJ WLUHJHQHUDO SULQUHDFWXDOL]DUHDFXQRWLQ HORUGLQGRPHQLXOFKLPLHLRUJDQLFH
L DQRUJDQLFH 6H XUP UHWH WRWRGDW  VHQVLELOL]DUHD VWXGHQWXOXL OD IDFWRULL GH UHQWDELOLWDWH L
HILFLHQ

HFRQRPLF vQFXUVXOIOX[XOXLGHSURGXF LH

REZUMAT
$FHVW FDSLWRO SULYHWH SUHOXDUHD FHUHDOHORU GH F WUH XQLW

LOH GH PRU ULW L SDQLILFD LH vQ

UDSRUWFXLQGLFLLGHFDOLWDWHLWUHFHUHDORUvQIOX[XOWHKQRORJLFGHSURFHVDUHUHVSHFWLYGHUHDOL]DUH
D I LQLORU $FWLYLWDWHD GHSDQLILFD LHVHPDQLIHVW FDSULRULWDU vQWU R DU PDUH

SkLQH vQFRQVHFLQ

LQVLVWkQGX VHSH SURFHVHOHGH WUDQVIRUPDUHELRFKLPLF

consumatoare de
 GH-a lungul etapelor

VXFFHVLYH vQ UHDOL]DUHD SURGXVXOXL ILQLW 1X VH LQVLVW  SH VLVWHPXO GH PDLQL L XWLODMH FL GRDU SH

elementele de principiu ce conduc la realizDUHDXQHLFDOLW

LFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHDSkLQLL

CUVINTE SAU EXPRESII CHEIE: gluten, maia de drojdie.


9

*58/,)

1.1. GrulvPSUHXQ

,1$

FXVHFDUDUHSUH]LQW IRQGXOPRQGLDOGHFHUHDOHSDQLILFDELOHFDUHVH

FXOWLY SHVXSUDIH HvQWLQVH

Dintre mulWLSOHOH VSHFLL GH JUkX FDUH VH FXOWLY

 GRX  V

-au impus cu autoritate: grul

FRPXQ 7ULWLFXP DHVWLYXP VS 9XOJDUH  FDUH FXSULQGH IRUPH GH WRDPQ  L GH SULP YDU  L
RFXS  FLUFD  GLQ VXSUDID D FXOWLYDW  FX JUkX SH vQWUHJ JOREXO L JUkXO GXU 7ULWLFXP G

urum)
-

FDUH FXSULQGH vQ PDMRULWDWH IRUPH GH SULP YDUD L RFXS   GLQ VXSUDID DFXOWLYDW  XUP ULQGX

VH D VH GH]YROWD FXOWXUD DFHVWXLD vQ VFRSXO DVLJXU ULL PDWHULHL SULPH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH SURGXF LHL
GHSDVWHI LQRDVH

6WUXFWXUDDQDWRPLF

LFRPSR]L LDFKLPLF

LQkQGX VH VHDPD GHIDSWXO F  VWUXFWXUDDQDWRPLF  D EREXOXL GH JUkX DUH XQ URO GHRVHELW

vQ WHKQRORJLD SDQLILFD LHL HD D FRQVWLWXLW RELHFWXO XQRU VWXGLL DSURIXQGDWH SHQWUX D VH GHWHUPLQD
H[DFW SURSRU LLOH vQ FDUH S U LOH DQDWRPLFH VH J VHVF vQ GLYHUVH VRLXUL GH JUkX L SHQWUX D VH
FODULILFDFRPSOH[XOFRPSR]L LHLFKLPLFHDILHF UHLS U LDQDWRPLFH
7DEHOXOQUFXSULQGHGDWHUHIHULWRDUHODVWUXFWXUDDQDWRPLF DEREXOXLGHJUkX

Tabelul nr.1
3 U LOHDQDWRPLFH
QYHOLH[WHULRU SHULFDUS

Endocarp
Tegument seminal
TOTAL
Strat aleuronic
Tarata (de la macinis)
Endosperm
Embrion
Scutellum (cotiledon)
*HUPHQH HPEULRQLVFXWHOOXP 

&RQ LQXWXOvQID

GHVXEVWDQ DXVFDW

4,35
1,44
2,21
8,00
6,7-7,1
14,1-15,9
81,4-84,1
1,0-1,6
1,4-2,0
2,5-3,6

&RPSR]L LDFKLPLF

DGLYHUVHORUS

QYHOLXO

Componentele
Epicarp

Endocarp

Tegument
seminal

Strat
aleuronic
LKLDOLQ

Proteine %
6XEVWDQ H

minerale %
Zaharuri (total)
%
Materii grase,
%
Vitamine
(p.p.m.):
-tiamina
-riboflavina
-niacina
Piridoxina
-acid
pantontenic
Enzime:
-amila
mg
maltoza/h, mm3
substrat la 400C
-proteaze,
lHCl
0,05n/mgla
400C
-lipaze, idem

U LDQDWRPLFHDOHEREXOXLGHJUkX

Total

Centru

vQYHOL

3,1-4,5
1,16-1,31

9,4-9,6
10,9-13,5

12-19,5
12,6-20,2

22,5-32,3
4,2-10,8

(tarate)
10,8-14,7
5,3-9,5

-,0,69-1,03

-1,34-0,51

6,0-9,89

5,0

7,4
0,400,45
-

0-0,17

4,76

Endospermul
Zona
Zona
medie
subaleu
ronica
8,6-13,9
16,5
0,1
0,45

Tabelul nr.2

Total
endosperm
11,0
-

Plantula

Germenele
Scutellum

35,3
3,51-5,36

28,2
5,87-8,20

24,3-26,8
4,27-9,47

Total
germene

18,8

15,8

17,3

16,3

32,1

0,03

0,05

0,3

0,07

15,0

6,8
-

20,3
14,6
30,7-55
22,3
18,1

15,7
13,4
40-40,4
24,6
14,9

22-5

Urme

8,8

Urme

11,2

17,8

Urme

19,7

19,7

Urme
4,7

8,2
0-0,6
Urme

1.1.2. Componentele chimice principale

+LGUD LLGHFDUERQ

Au ponderea cea mai mare n bobul de gru.


a) Amidonul reprezint  -62% din greutatea bobului. n amidonul de gru, amilaza
constituie 17-29% restul reprezentnd amilopectina.
0 ULPLOHLIRUPHOHJUDQXOHORUGHDPLGRQVXQWSUH]HQWDWHvQWDEHOXOQU
LQ

)RUPDLGLPHQVLXQLOHJUDQXOHORUGHDPLGRQGLQJUkX UHVSHFWLYI

Diametrul,

Forma

*UHXWDWHDWRWDO
1XP UXOWRWDO

6IHULF

Sub 7,4
Peste 14,8
7,4 14,8

/HQWLFXODU
,QWHUPHGLDU

)
Tabelul nr. 3

*UHXWDWHDWRWDO

81,6
12,5
5,9

4,1
93,0
2,9

Zaharurile
QEREXOGHJUkX]DKDUXULOHRVFLOHD] vQIXQF LHGHVRLXOGHJUkX
&RQ LQXWXOGH]DKDUXULGLQEREXOGHJUkXHVWHSUH]HQWDWvQWDEHOXOQU
&RQ LQXWXOGH]DKDUXULGLQEREXOGHJUkX

Tabelul nr.4
&RQ LQXWXOvQID
0DF/HRGL

Componentele

Preece (pentru
grul
englezesc)
0,33
0,41
Urme
0,84
0,09
0,06
-

5DILQR]

Gluco-GLIUXFWR]
0DOWR]
=DKDUR]
*OXFR]
)UXFWR]
*DODFWR]

GHVXEVWDQ DXVFDW GXS 

7DXIHOLFRODE

/\QFKL

(pentru grul
german)

colab.(pentru
grul H.S.W.)

Menger
(pentru grul
Amber durum)

0,19
0,26
0,04
0,88
-

0,05
0,54
0,08
0,06
0,02

0,68
0,18
0,74
0,03
0,02

b) Materiile proteice din gru L FDOLWDWHD DFHVWRUD FRQGL LRQHD]

 vQVXLULOH WHKQRORJLFH

DOHFHUHDOHLLUHVSHFWLYDOHSURGXVHORUVDOHGHPDFLQLV
&DUDFWHULVWLFLOHSULQFLSDOHLFRPSR]L LDFKLPLF DSU

oteinelor din gru sunt prezentate n

tabelul nr.5.
&DUDFWHULVWLFLOHSULQFLSDOHLFRPSR]L LDFKLPLF

DSURWHLQHORUGLQJUkX

Tabelul nr. 5
Caracteristici

Albumine

0DVDPROHFXODU

1XP UXOIUDF LXQLORUFRPSRQHQWH

Punct izoelectric pHI


&RQ LQXWXO

PHGLX

11
4,5-6,8
50

2
3,2
85

Circa 10
6,5
94

Glutenine
2-3
milioane
Circa 17
2-2,7
75

39
Nedozat

1195
9,7

100
0,23

182
0,83

Circa 28000

vQ

SURWHLQH

Globuline
Circa 210000
ODIUDF LXQHDU

Gliadine
Circa 40000

%(Nx5,7)
&RQ LQXWvQ3WRWDO3ODJVX

Acizi nucleici,% la s.u.


1

s.u. VXEVWDQ

XVFDW 

Acizi AND, % la s.u.


Acizi ARN, % la s.u.
Lipide, % la s.u.
Fosfor lipidic, din P total, %

0,04
1,8
10

3,7
6,0
6,1
7,0

0,01
0,22
0,5
1,5

0,13
0,70
11,9
80

c) Lipidele
/LSLGHOH GLQ ERXO GH JUkX DX XQ URO LPSRUWDQW vQ S VWUDUHD SURGXVHORU GH PDFLQL
LQIOXHQ kQGWRWRGDW SURGXVHOHGHSDQLILFD LH

d) Enzimele
Q EREXO GH JUkX VH J VHWH XQ FRPSOH[ HQ]LPDWLF FDUH vQ FRQGL LL FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

descompune materiile organice principale din care este constituit fructul acestei cereale.
Principalele enzime din gru-I LQ VXQW
amilazele
proteazele
&XQRDWHUHD PRGXOXL vQ FDUH DF LRQHD]  DPLOD]HOH GLQ JUkX vQ GLYHUVH FRQGL LL GH PHGLX
HVWH JDUDQ LD FRQGXFHULL FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH D SURFHVHORU IHUPHQWDWLYH SH vQWUHJ SDUFXUVXO IDEULF ULL
SURGXVHORUGHSDQLILFD LH
(Q]LPHOH SURWHROLWLFH SULQ DF LRQDUHD ORU VFLQGHD]  OHJ WXULOH SHSWLGLFH DOH ODQ XULORU
SURWHLFHPRGLILFkQGDVWIHOSURSULHW

)

LOHFKLPLFHLIL]LFHDOHSURWHLQHORUGLQDOXDW

LQ

La fabricarea proceselor de panifica LH VH XWLOL]HD]

 vQ SULQFLSDO I LQ  GH JUkX L QXPDL

SHQWUXXQHOHVRUWLPHQWHFDDGDRVI LQ GHVHFDU 

1.2.1. )

LQD VH RE LQH SULQ P FLQDUHD ERDEHORU GH JUkX FDUH DUH FD VFRS VHSDUDUHD

PLH]XOXL FRUSXO I LQRV FX YDORDUHD DOLPHQWDU  ULGLFDW  GH vQYHOL FRDMD  FDUH QX DUH YDORDUH
DOLPHQWDU SHQWUXRUJDQLVPXOXPDQ

1.2.2. *UDGXO GH H[WUDF LH UHSUH]LQW

 FDQWLWDWHD GH I LQ  GH XQ DQXPLW VRUWLPHQW RE LQXW 

GLQNJJUkXFXJUHXWDWHDKHFWROLWULF PHGLHGHNJ

1.2.3.6RUWLPHQWHOHGHI LQ
De obiceLI LQDVHFDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQFXORDUHDSHFDUHRDUHDVWIHOF

QHDJU WLSLFRQIRUP63-95

VHPLDOE WLSLFRQIRUP63-95

DOE WLSLFRQIRUP63-95

HDSRDWHIL

GXS  FXP vQ SURFHVXO GH P FLQDUH VH RE LQH XQ UDQGDPHQW UHVSHFWLY H[WUDF LH PDL PDUH VDX PDL
PLF 
3ULQFLSDOHOHFDUDFWHULVWLFLRUJDQROHSWLFHIL]LFHLFKLPLFHDOHI LQXULORUVXQWSUH]HQWDWHGH

standardele de produs n vigoare.


1.2.4.9HULILFDUHDFDOLW
9HULILFDUHD FDOLW

LLI LQLL

LL I LQLL VH IDFH GH F WUH ODERUDWRU vQV  vQ EUXW ULLOH PLFL VH H[HFXW  XQ

FRQWURO VXPDU FX PLMORDFH VLPSOH DOH FXORULL ILQH LL PLURVXOXL JXVWXOXL LQIHVW ULL L FKLDU D
FRPSRUW ULLvQSURFHVXOWHKQRORJLF6HSURFHGHD] vQPRGXOXUP WRU

Culoarea se verifLF

 SULQ PHWRGD FRPSDUD LHL QXPLW  L PHWRGD 3HNDU  vQ FDUH VFRS VH

FRPSDU  FXORDUHD SUREHL GH YHULILFDW FX FXORDUHD HWDORQXOXL GH I LQ  FRUHVSXQ] WRU ILHF UXL
VRUWLPHQW WLS  Q DFHVW VFRS SH R ORS

LF  GLQ OHPQ GH IDJ VH vQWLQGH RFDQWLWDWH PLF  GHI LQ 

GLQSURE OkQJ FDUHVHvQWLQGHRFDQWLWDWHVLPLODU GHI LQ HWDORQ'XS vQGUHSWDUHDPDUJLQLORU


L vQGHS UWDUHD GH SH ORS

LF  D I LQLL GH SULVRV VH SUHVHD]  VWUDWXULOH FX R VXSUDID

 QHWHG 

OXFLRDV  L SHUIHFW XVFDW  GH RELFHL FX SDFOXO  DVWIHO vQFkW VWUDWXULOH V  YLQ  XQXO OkQJ  DOWXO
'XS SUHVDUHSDUWLFXOHOHGHWDUDWHLDOWHFRUSXULFRQ LQXWHvQI LQ DSDUPDLHYLGHQWODVXSUDID D
DFHVWHLD 6WUDWXULOH GH I LQ  VH FRPSDU  DWkW vQ VWDUH XVFDW  FkW L XPHG  8PH]LUHD VH IDFH
LQWURGXFkQGORS

LFDFXVWUDWXULOHGHI LQ SUHVDW XRUvQFOLQDW vQWU XQYDVFXDS UHFHXQGHVH

LQHFLUFDPLQSkQ FHQXVHPDLIRUPHD] EXOHGHDHU) LQDXPHG VHODV V VH]YkQWH

min, examinndu-VH DSRL FXORDUHD VWUDWXULORU GH I

LQ  SULQ FRPSDUD LH IL

-10
g. 1.c). Prin umezire

I LQXULOH FDSDW  FXORDUHD DOXDWXOXL L DVWIHO DSDUH PDL SUHJQDQW vQ HYLGHQ

 DVSHFWXO SUREHL

DQDOL]DWH vQ FRPSDUD LH FX FHO DO HWDORQXOXL &RPSDUD LD FXORULL VH SRDWH IDFH vQ PRG L PDL
VLPSOXDH]kQGFHOHGRX SUREHGHI LQ XQDOkQJ DOWDSHRIRDLHGHKkUWLHDOE LSUHVkQGX
FX SRGXO SDOPHL KkUWLD vQGRLW  SHVWH FHOH GRX  VWUDWXUL DVWIHO F  DSDUH vQ HYLGHQ

-le

 FXORDUHD

ILHF UHLSUREH

)LQH HD VH YHULILF  SULQ IUHFDUHD vQWUH GHJHWH SLS LUH  FRQVWDWkQGX VH DVWIHO GDF  I LQD

HVWH DVSU  OD SLS LW FD] vQ FDUH I LQD HVWH GH JUDQXOD LH SUHD PDUH VDX GDF  HVWH PRDOH FD] vQ
FDUH GLPSRWULY  HVWH ILQ  3UDFWLFD vQGHOXQJDW  SHUPLWH EUXWDUXOXL V  DSUHFLH]H GHVWXO GH FRUHFW
I LQ FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHvQSULYLQ DILQH LL

Pentru produseOHGHSDQLILFD LHVHUHFRPDQG


Mirosul VH YHULILF

XWLOL]DUHDI LQLLFXRILQH HPHGLH

OXkQGX VH vQ SDOP  RFDQWLWDWH PLF  GH I LQ FDUH VH IUHDF  VH VXIO 

DVXSUDHLSHQWUXDRvQF O]LLDSRLVHPLURDVH9HULILFDUHDPDLDP QXQ LW FRQVW vQLQWURGXFH

ntr-XQ SDKDU FX DS

 FDOG  OD DSUR[LPDWLY 

rea

&  D FLUFD  J I LQ  6H LQH  PLQ SDKDUXO

DFRSHULWGXS FDUHVHPLURDVHFRQ LQXWXOQDFHVWFD]PLURVXOI LQLLLHVHSXWHUQLFvQHYLGHQ

Gustul I LQLL VH YHULILF  SULQ PDVWLFDUHD XQHL PLFL FDQWLW L GH I LQ  FLUFD  J 
apreciindu-VH JXVWXO DFHVWHLD L VWDELOLQG HYHQWXDOD SUH]HQ  D LPSXULW LORU PLQHUDOH S PkQW
QLVLSHWF SULQVFUkQHWXOFDUDFWHULVWLFSHFDUHDFHVWHDvOSURGXF

Infestarea VH GHWHUPLQ  SULQ H[DPLQDUHD  FX OXSD FDUH P UHWH de 5 ori resturile de pe
sita din fire sintetice nr. 4 (cu ochiuri de circa 0,3 mm), rezultate n urma cernerii unei probe de
FLUFDJI LQ 
&RPSRUWDUHD I

LQLL vQ SURFHVXO WHKQRORJLF QHFHVLW  YHULILFDUHD DOXDWXOXL OD vQWLQGHUHD

FXPkQDSUHFXPLREVHUYDUHDPRGXOXLvQFDUHVHFRPSRUW ODGRVSLUHFHHDFHVHSUH]LQW vQILJ


 $FHVW SURFHGHXDSOLFDWFX SULFHSHUH G LQGLFD LL VLPLODUH FXFHOH FDUH VH RE LQ SULQPHWRGHOH

complexe de laborator.

2 SUREOHP  LPSRUWDQW  R UHSUH]LQW  YHULILFDUHD SUHDODELO  D I LQLL vQ FHHD FH SULYHWH
JUDGXO GH LQIHFWDUH FX EDFLOXO PH]HQWHULF PDL DOHV vQ OXQLOH F OGXURDVH FkQG SUH]HQ D DFHVWXL

bacil produce alterarea pinii de ntindere sau boala cartofului. Verificarea se face prin
metoda probei de coacere astfel VH SUHSDU  XQ DOXDW SHQWUX WUHL SkLQL D  NJ FX IHUPHQWD LH
UHGXV  DWkW OD PDLD FkW L OD DOXDW 3kLQLOH VH FRF vQ IRUPH LQFRPSOHW SHQWUX FD PLH]XO V  ILH
SX LQFUXGXPHGODSLS LW6HODV SkLQLOHV VHU FHDVF SkQ ODDSUR[LPDWLY
vQYHOHWH ILHFDUH VHSDUDW vQ HUYHW XPHG L VH DHD]

30400& 'XS

&GXS FDUH

se
 vQWU-un loc cald, la temperatura de

  RUH VH H[DPLQHD]  SULPD SkLQH L GDF  VH FRQVWDW  F  DFHDVWD DUH PLURV

QHFDUDFWHULVWLFUHVSLQJ WRUGHIUXFWHDOWHUDWHLODUXSHUHPLH]XOVHv

ntinde n fire argintii, care se

OLSHVF GH GHJHWH VH FRQVLGHU  F  I LQD DUH XQ JUDG GH LQIHFWDUH IRDUWH DYDQVDW JUDGXO ,  'DF 
SkLQHDQXSUH]LQW DFHVWHVHPQHDWXQFLVHH[DPLQHD] FHDGHDGRX SkLQHGXS DOWHRUHLvQ

cazul cnd la acest interval  RUH GH OD FRDFHUH  SkLQHD SUH]LQW

 FDUDFWHUHOH EROLL vQWLQGHULL VH

FRQVLGHU  F  I LQD HVWH VODE LQIHFWDW  JUDGXO ,,  'DF  L DFHDVW  SkLQH HVWH QRUPDO  VH
H[DPLQHD]  L FHD GH D WUHLD SkLQH GXS  DOWH  RUH LDU GDF  DFHDVWD SUH]LQW  VHPQHOH EROLL

se

FRQVLGHU F I LQDDUHLQIHF LHQRUPDO  JUDGXO,,, 


LL VH FRQWUROHD]  L FDQWLWDWHD I LQLL SULPLWH $FHDVWD

&RQFRPLWHQW FX YHULILFDUHD FDOLW


FRQVW vQVWDELOLUHD JUHXW

sacilRU FX I

LLORWXOXLFHHDFHVHUHDOL]HD]  YHULILFkQGSULQVRQGDMJUHXWDWHD QHW D

LQ  VDX FkQW ULQG vQWUHJ ORWXO vQ FD]XO I LQLL SULPLW  vQ YUDF 'HRDUHFH XPLGLWDWHD

I LQLL LQIOXHQ HD]  vQ PRG GLUHFW FDQWLWDWHD GH I LQ  GLQWU XQ ORW VDX WUDQVSRUW  VH SUDFWLF 

SULPLUHD I LQLL GH OD PRULOH IXUQL]RDUH SH ED]D EDUHPXOXL GH XPLGLWD

te, considerndu-se

XPLGLWDWHD GH ED]  D I LQLL  $WXQFL FkQG I LQD SULPLW  DUH XPLGLWDWH SHVWH  UH]XOW  F 
JUHXWDWHD ORWXOXL UHVSHFWLY FRUHVSXQGH XQHL FDQWLW

L PDL PLFL GH I LQ  HFKLYDOHQW  FHOHL FX 

XPLGLWDWH GLIHUHQ DILLQGDSD LLQYHUV3

entru simplificarea calcului se poate considera ca 0,1 %

XPLGLWDWH GLIHULW  ID

 GH FHD GH ED]  FRUHVSXQGH OD   I LQ  Q DFHVW PRG VH FDOFXOHD] 

HYHQWXDOHOHSOXVXULVDXPLQXVXULGHI LQ FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHXQXLWUDQVSRUW


) LQXULOH XWLOL]DWH OD IDEULFDUHD SURGXVHORU GH SDQLILFD LH DX FDOLW

L WHKQRORJLFH GLIHULWH

UHVSHFWLYVHFRPSRUW vQPRGGLIHULWODWUDQVIRUPDUHDORUvQDOXDWLSkLQHvQIXQF LHGHFRQ LQXWXO


ORU vQ JOXWHQ XPHG L GH FDOLWDWHD DFHVWXLD &RQIRUP DFHVWRU LQGLFDWRUL GH ED]  DOH F URU

valori

OLPLW VXQWSUHY ]XWHvQVWDQGDUGHI LQXULOHVHFODVLILF SHFDWHJRULLGHFDOLWDWHFRQIRUPWDEHOXOXL

nr. 6.

&ODVLILFDUHDI

LQXULORUSHFDWHJRULLGHFDOLWDWHvQIXQF LHGHFDQWLWDWHD
LFDOLWDWHDJOXWHQXOXL

Tabelul nr.6
6RUWXOGHI LQ FDQWLWDWHDL

&DWHJRULDGHFDOLWDWHDI LQLL
)RDUWHEXQ

calitatea glutenului
) LQ QHDJU 

- cantitatea de gluten, %
- calitatea glutenului
(deformarea), mm
) LQ VHPLDOE 

- cantitatea de gluten, %
- calitatea glutenului
(deformarea), mm
) LQ DOE 

- cantitatea de gluten, %
- calitatea glutenului
(deformarea), mm

%XQ  PHGLH

6DWLVI F WRDUH

Peste 28

26-28

24-26

3-9

10-13

14-15

Peste 29

27-29

25-27

3-9

10-13

14-15

Peste 30

28-30

26-28

3-9

10-12

13-15

'DWRULW  IDSWXOXL F  ORWXULOH GH I LQ  GLQ DFHODL VRUW DX FDOLW

L GLIHULWH vQ IXQF LH GH

FDOLWDWHDYDULDELO DORWXULORUGHJUkX P FLQDWLDURPRJHQL]DUHDJUkXOXLvQDLQWH GHPDFLQLV VDXD


I LQXULORU UH]XOWDWH QX vQWRWGHDXQD VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ FRQGL LL VDWLVI F WRDUH VH RELQXLHWH
XWLOL]DUHDODEUXW ULLDI LQXULORUvQDPHVWHF6HDPHVWHF GHRELFHLI LQXULOHSURYHQLWHGLQGRX 
ORWXUL XQXO DYkQG FDOLWDWH PDL EXQ  L DOWXO PDL VODE  3URSRU LD DPHVWHFXULORU VH VWDELOHWH FHO
PDL IUHFYHQW SH ED]D FRQ LQXWXOXL vQ JOXWHQ DO I LQLL HIHFWXkQGX

-se calcuOXO FRUHVSXQ]

WRU

3HQWUX X]XO SUDFWLF VH DSOLF  PHWRGD GUHSWXQJKLXOXL SRWULYLW F UHLD DPHVWHFXO IRUPDW GLQ GRX 
ORWXULGHI LQ FXFRQ LQXWGLIHULWGHJOXWHQGHH[HPSOXLFDUHV DLE XQFRQ LQXWGH
 JOXWHQ VH RE LQH GLQ  S U L I LQ  FX  JOXWHQ DGLF   

JOXWHQ DGLF 

  L  S U L I LQ  FX 

-25=4), conform schemei:


S U L

30
26

S U L

24

'LQ DFHDVW  UHOD LH VH GHWHUPLQ  FDQWLWDWHD SURFHQWXDO  FX FDUH FRQWULEXLH ILHFDUH GLQ
S U LOHVWDELOLWHPDLVXVFXQRVFkQGF WRWDOXOORUHVWH

S U LLDUDPHVWHFXOUHSUH]LQW WRWDOXO

de 100%, astfel:

100
= DSUR[LPDWLYI
6

LQ FXJOXWHQ

100
= DSUR[LPDWLYI
6

LQ FXJOXWHQ

&RQGL LD SHQWUX UHDOL]DUHD XQXL DPHVWHF GH I LQXUL GH FDOLW
ORWXULV FRQ LQ JOXWHQvQFDQWLWDWHVXSHULRDU FHOXLSHFDUHWUHEXLHV

L GLIHULWH HVW

-ODLE

e ca unul din

DPHVWHFXO

Q IXQF LH GH GRWDUHD WHKQLF  D EUXW ULLORU DPHVWHFDUHD I LQLL VH UHDOL]HD]  DVWIHO OD
EUXW ULLOH PLFL VH DOLPHQWHD] DOWHUQDWLY FHUQ WRUXO FX I LQ  GLQ VDFL SURYHQLW  GLQ GLIHULWH ORWXUL
FDGHH[HPSOXXQVDFGLQORWXO$LGRLVDFLGLQORWXO%3ULQDFHVWSURFHGHXQXVHUHDOL]HD] vQV 

un amestec omogen.
/D EUXW ULLOH PLMORFLL L PDUL VH IRORVHVF LQVWDOD LL VSHFLDOH FD GH H[HPSOX WLPRFXO

amestHF WRU VDX WLPRDFH FX H[WUDFWRDUH SURSRU LRQDOH L WUDQVSRUW SQHXPDWLF DO I
punctele de utilizare.

LQLL VSUH

3HQWUX D VH SXWHD XWLOL]D vQ DPHVWHF I LQ  VH GHSR]LWHD]  SH ORWXUL 3ULQ ORW VH vQ HOHJH
FDQWLWDWHD GH I LQ  FDUH SURYLQH GLQ DFHODL PDFLQLV OLYUDW  GH DFHHDL PRDU  L DYkQG DFHOHDL
FDUDFWHULVWLFL )LHFDUH ORW VH LGHQWLILF  SULQ ILD ORWXOXL vQ FDUH VXQW WUHFXWH SULQFLSDOHOH GDWH
UHIHULWRDUHODSURYHQLHQ DLFDOLWDWHDI LQLL

)$%5,&$5($352'86(/25'(3$1,),&$

,(

3URGXVHOH GH SDQLILFD LH VH RE LQ SULQ DSOLFDUHD XQHL WHKQRORJLL DGHFYDWH FXSULQ]kQG FD

faze principale - prepararea aluatului -SUHOXFUDUHDDOXDWXOXLLFRDFHUHD SURGXVHORU )LHFDUHID]

FRPSRUW  H[HFXWDUHD XQRU RSHUD LL FDUH VH HIHFWXHD]  SULQ SURFHGHH PHWRGH L WHKQLFL FDUH V 
FRQGXF ODRE LQHUHDSURGXVHORUGHFkWPDLEXQ FDOLWDWH

2.1. Prepararea aluatului


Prepararea aluatului se poate face fie prin:
a) PHWRGDLQGLUHFW  vQPDLPXOWHID]H PHWRGDGHED]
b) PHWRGDGLUHFW  PRQRID]LF 
D  0HWRGD LQGLUHFW

 FRQVW  vQ SUHS

ararea mai nti a unor semifabricate intermediare,


-

QXPLWHSURVS WXULLPDLDFDUHIRORVHVFDSRLODRE LQHUHDDOXDWXOXLSURSULX ]LV&kQGVHOXFUHD] 


GXS  FLFOX SURVS WXU 

maia - DOXDW PHWRGD GH SUHSDUDUH VH QXPHWH WULID]LF  LDU FkQG VH
ciclul maia-DOXDW DWXQFL PHWRGD VH QXPHWH ELID]LF  3UHSDUDUHD DOXDWXOXL SULQ
PHWRGD LQGLUHFW  VHDSOLF  vQH[FOXVLYLWDWH ODIDEULFDUHD SkLQLLFLFOXO vQ WUHL ID]H XWLOL]kQGX-se n
VSHFLDO OD SUHOXFUDUHD XQRU I LQXUL FX vQVXLUL LQIHULRDUH GH SDQLILFD LH, la fabricarea pinii de
OXFUHD]  GXS 

VHFDU SUHFXPLODvQFHSXWGHOXFUXVDXGXS vQWUHUXSHUHDV SW PkQDO 


3URVS WXUD L PDLDXD VH RE LQ GLQ I LQ  DS  L GURMGLH $FHVWH VHPLIDEULFDWH WUHEXLH V 
DLE  R FRQVLVWHQ

 PDL PDUH GHFkW D DOXDWXOXL 6H PDL DGDXJ  L R FDQWLWDWHD GH PDLD DQWHULRDU 

PDWXUL]DW  GHQXPLW  EDV 3UHSDUDUHD SURVS WXULL L PDLHOHL DUH GUHSW VFRS RE LQHUHD XQXL PHGLX
SULHOQLF DWkW SHQWUX vQPXO LUHD FHOXOHORU GH GURMGLH FDUH V  DIkQH]H SULQ IHUPHQWD LH vQ PRG
FRUHVSXQ] WRU DOXDWXO FkW L SHQWUX RE LQHUHD XQRU FRPSXL GH IHUPHQWD LH vQ SULPXO UkQG DFLG
ODFWLF  FDUH vPEXQ W

HVF vQVXLULOH DOXDWXOXL L FRQWULEXLH OD IRUPDUHD JXVWXOXL L DURPHL

produselor.
3HQWUXRE LQHUHDSURVS WXULLLPDLHOHL vPSUHXQ VHXWLOL]HD] GHUHJXO RFDQWLWDWHD
I LQ vQXUP WRDUHDSURSRU LHID

50-vQFD]XOI
45-vQFD]XOI
30-vQFD]XOI

Numai pHQWUX SURVS

de

GHFDQWLWDWHDWRWDO GHI LQ SHQWUXSUHSDUDUHDDOXDWXOXL


LQLLGHFDOLWDWHDIRDUWHEXQ 
LQLLGHFDOLWDWHPHGLH EXQ 
LQLLGHFDOLWDWHVDWLVI F WRDUH

WXU  VH IRORVHWH    GLQ FDQWLWDWHD WRWDO  GH I LQ  QHFHVDU 

SUHSDU ULL XQHL DUMH GH DOXDW FDUH WUHEXLH V  UHSUH]LQWH  GLQ YROXPXO FXYHL PDOD[RUXOXL vQ
FD]XO I LQLL QHJUH  vQ FD]XO I LQLL VHPLDOEH L  vQ FD]XO I LQLL DOEH FDQWLW

L FDUH

UHSUH]LQW JUDGXOGHvQF UFDUHDFXYHL


3URVS WXUD VH RE LQH GH FRQVLVWHQ
UHSUH]HQWkQGID

 PRDOH vQ FDUH VFRS VH IRORVHWH R FDQWLWDWH GH DS 

GHI LQDXWLOL]DW &DQWLWDWHDGHGURMGLHSHQWUXSURVS WXU HVWHGH

-30%

GLQWRWDOGLIHUHQ

a folosindu-se la maia.

3UHSDUDUHD PDLHOHL VH SRDWH IDFH vQ GRX  YDULDQWH FRQVLVWHQ

 FDUH UHSUH]LQW  PHWRGD

WUDGL LRQDO  FODVLF VDXIOXLG  QXPLW LSROLV $FHDVWDGLQXUP DOF WXLQGXQSURFHGHXFDUHV

a extins n ultima vreme. Pentru cazul maielHL FRQVLVWHQWH UDSRUWXO GLQWUH I


aproximativ 2:1, iar pentru cazul maielei fluide este de aproximativ 2:3.

LQ  L DS  HVWH

0DLDXD SRDWHIL SUHSDUDW  QX QXPDLIRORVLQG GURMGLD FRPSULPDW  SHQWUX SDQLILFD LHFL L
GURMGLD OLFKLG  DFHDVWD RE LQkQGX

-se chiaU vQ LQFLQWD EUXW

ULHL 6H FXQRDWH R PHWRG  FODVLF  GH

SUHSDUDUH D PDLHOHL FX GURMGLH OLFKLG  FX KDPHL L R PHWRG  PRGHUQ  FX GURMGLH OLFKLG  FX

bacterii acidolactice.
'URMGLD OLFKLG  UHSUH]LQW  R FXOWXU  GH GURMGLL SHQWUX SDQLILFD LH vQWU

-un mediu prielnic,

DSRV DOF WXLW vQ SULQFLSDO GLQ I LQ  FDUH vQ FD]XO GURMGLHL GH KDPHL VH DPHVWHF  FX H[WUDFW GLQ
IORDUH GH KDPHL LDU vQ FD]XO FHOHL FX EDFWHULL DFLGRODFWLFH VH vQV PkQ HD]  FX FXOWXUL SXUH GH
EDFWHULL vQ SUH]HQ D XQRU V UXUL PLQHUDOH FX D]RW FDUH vPERJ

HVF PHGLXO QXWULWLY QHFHVDU

GH]YROW ULLGURMGLLORU
$SOLFDUHD PHWRGHL GH SUHSDUDUH D PDLHOHL FX GURMGLH OLFKLG  SUH]LQW  XUP WRDUHOH

avantajeSULQFLSDOHID GHXWLOL]DUHDGURMGLHLFRPSULPDWH
GURMGLD VH SUHSDU  GLUHFW OD ORFXO GH IRORVLUH vQ ILHFDUH EUXW
JUHXW

LOH FDUH SURYLQ GLQ FDX]D WUDQVSRUWXOXL PDL DOHV SHQWUX XQLW

ULH HYLWkQGX

LOH GLQ ORFDOLW

-se astfel

L vQGHS UWDWH

LJUHXDFFHVLELOH GHOW PXQWHHWF 

DOXDWXO SUHSDUDW FX GURMGLH OLFKLG  VXSRUW  PDL XRU vQWkU]LHULOH OD IHUPHQWD LH

SkLQHDRE LQXW DUHDURPDLJXVWSO FXWHLVHPHQ LQHPXOWWLPSSURDVS W 

, ceea

FHSHUPLWHHOLPLQDUHDGHIHFWHORUGHFDOLWDWHDOHSkLQLLGDWRUDWHXQHLIHUPHQWD LLPDLSUHOXQJLWH

Dezavantajul FRQVW

 F  QHFHVLW  XWLODMH L vQF SHUL vQ SOXV SHQWUX SUHSD

rarea drojdiei

OLFKLGH SUHFXP L R PDUH DWHQ LH OD S VWUDUHD XQHL LJLHQH GHV YkULWH vQ FD] FRQWUDU GURMGLD

infectndu-se.
E  0HWRGD GLUHFW

 GH SUHSDUDUH D DOXDWXOXL FRQVW  vQ DPHVWHFDUHD L IU PkQWDUHD vQWU

-o

VLQJXU  HWDS  D WXWXURU PDWHULLORU SULPH GLQ FDUH VH RE LQH DOXDWXO L VHDSOLF  XQHRUL OD SkLQHD
DOE  L OD XQHOH SURGXVH GH IUDQ]HO ULH FX DGDRV GH ]DK U L JU VLPH SUHFXP L OD FRYULJL /D
DFHDVW  PHWRG  VH FRQVXP  R FDQWLWDWHD DSURDSH GXEO  GH GURMGLH ID

schimb

 GH PHWRGD LQGLUHFW  Q

VH UHGXFH PXOW GXUDWD FLFOXOXL GH SUHSDUDUH D DOXDWXOXL L LPSOLFLW FHD GH IDEULFDUH D

SURGXVHORU SULQ HOLPLQDUHD ID]HL GH SUHSDUDUHDPDLHOHLFHHDFH VROLFLW  L IRORVLUHD XQXL QXP U
PDLUHGXVGHXWLODMHSHQWUXSUHSDUDUHDDOXDWXOXL PDOD[RDUHLFXYH 3URGXVHOHRE LQXWHvQV QX
VXQW GH FHD PDL EXQ  FDOLWDWH GDWRULW  vQ SULQFLSDO JXVWXOXL QHFRUHVSXQ] WRU L VWUXFWXULL

miezului.
3HQWUXDVHUHDOL]DREXQ IHUPHQWD LHDVHPLIDEULFDWHORUSURVS WXUDLPDLDXDVHSUHSDU 
DVWIHOvQFkWV DLE WHPSHUDWXUD

de aproximativ 26290C iar aluatul de 29320 C.

'HRDUHFH vQ SUDFWLF  VH vQWkOQHVF VLWXD LL vQ FDUH OD SUHSDUDUHD DOXDWXOXL SHQWUX XQHOH
VRUWLPHQWHQXVHGLVSXQHGHWRDWHPDWHULLOHSULPHVSHFLILFDWHvQUH HWDGHIDEULFD LHVHUHFXUJHOD

nlocuirea cu altHOH DYkQG vQVXLUL DSURSLDWH $VWIHO SDVWD GH FDUWRIL VH vQORFXLHWH FX I

LQ  VDX

IXOJLGHFDUWRILXQWXOFXPDUJDULQ PLHUHDFXJOXFR] HWF


7RWXL SHQWUX UHVSHFWDUHD FDOLW

LL SURGXVXOXL RULJLQDO XWLOL]DUHD XQRUD GLQWUH vQORFXLWRUL

WUHEXLH DSOLFDW  FX PDUH DWHQ LH QXPDL vQ FD]XUL GH VWULFW  QHFHVLWDWH DYkQG vQ YHGHUH L
FRPSRUWDUHDWHKQRORJLF DvQORFXLWRULORUFRQFRPLWHQWFXLQIOXHQ DORUDVXSUDFDOLW

LLSURGXVHORU

2.2. Prelucrarea aluatului


3UHOXFUDUHD DOXDWXOXL VH UHIHU  OD GLYL]DUHD SURSRU LRQDUHD  OXL L PRGHODUHD vQ GLYHUVH
IRUPH D EXF

LORU L VH UHDOL]HD]  DSOLFkQG GLIHULWH PHWRGH SURFHGHH L WHKQLFL GH OXFUX 'XS 

JUDGXOGHvQ]HVWUDUHDFXXWLODMHDOEUXW ULLORUSUHOXFUDUHDVHUHDOL]HD] SHFDOH

PDQXDO 

VHPLPHFDQL]DW vQXQLW

LOHPLFLLPLMORFLL

PHFDQL]DW vQIDEULFLOHPDUL

'LYL]DUHD PDQXDO  D DOXDWXOXL FRQVW  vQ W LHUHD DFHVWXLD FX JULSFD vQ EXF

L DSUR[LPDWLY

GHJUHXWDWHDQHFHVDU LDMXVWDUHDORUSHFkQWDUXO WHUH]LHVDXSHEDODQ DGHEUXW ULH

'LYL]DUHD PHFDQLF  VH H[HFXW  FX PDLQL FDUH vPSDUW DOXDWXO vQ EXF

L GH R DQXPLW 

JUHXWDWH GLQDLQWH VWDELOLW  FDUH DSRL HVWH FRQWURODW  SULQ VRQGDM SH SDUFXUVXO IXQF LRQ ULL
PDLQLL SHQWUX D VH UHVSHFWD JUHXWDWHD QRPLQDO  D SURGXVHORU IDEULFDWH 3UHFL]LD GH OXFUX D
PDLQLORUGHGLYL]DUHHVWHDGPLV vQWUHOLPLWHOHGH ID

/D VWDELOLUHD JUHXW

LL SH FDUH WUHEXLH V R DLE  EXF

GHPDVDEXF

LLGHDOXDW

LOH GH DOXDW GLYL]DW VH LQH VHDPD GH

JUHXWDWHD QRPLQDO  D SURGXVXOXL ILQLW OD FDUH VH DGDXJ  VF ] PLQWHOH SLHUGH
FRDFHUHLU FLUHDSOLFkQGX

rile) care au loc la

-se formula:
Ma =

Mp
S
S

1 c 1 r
100 100

(Kg)

n care:Ma
-PDVDQRPLQDO DEXF LLGHDOXDWGLYL]DWvQ.J
Mp
-PDVDQRPLQDO DSURGXVXOXLvQ.J
Sc L6r -VF ] PLQWHSULQFRDFHUHLU FLUHvQ
127

ValRULOHRELQXLWHDOHVF ] PLQWHORUSULQFRDFHUHVXQWGXS
15-SHQWUXSURGXVHOHSkQ ODNJEXFDWD
10-12% pentru produsele de 0,5-1 kg bucata;
6-8% pentru produsele de 1-2 kg bucata;
5% pentru produsele peste 2 kg bucata.

FXPXUPHD] 

6F ] PLQWHOH SULQ U FLUH YDULD]  GH RELFHL vQWUH  L  HOH ILLQG LQIOXHQ DWH vQ FHD
PDL PDUH SDUWH GH P ULPHD L IRUPD SURGXVXOXL IHOXO FRDFHULL GLUHFW SH YDWU  VDX vQ IRUPH  L
FRQGL LLOHvQFDUHVHIDFHGHSR]LWDUHD
QWDEHOXOQUVHDHD] JUHXWDWHDSHFDUHWUHEXLHV RDLE EXFDWDGHDOXDWSHQWUXGLIHULWH
SURGXVH FDOFXODW  SULQ DSOLFDUHD IRUPXOHL LQGLFDWH DQWHULRU L

LQkQG VHDPD GH VF ] PLQWHOH

WHKQRORJLFHDSUHFLDWHFRQIRUPGDWHORUPHQ LRQDWH

*UHXWDWHDQRPLQDO

DEXF

LORUGHDOXDWSHQWUXGLIHULWHSURGX

se
Tabelul nr.7

6F ] PLQWHOHWHKQRORJLFH

Produsul ce
XUPHD] DVHIDEULFD

Pine de 2 kg
Pine de 1 kg
Pine de 0,5 kg
Produse de 0,100 kg
Produse de 0,050 kg
0RGHODUHD EXF

Prin coacere
8
10
12
15
20

3ULQU FLUH

2,5
2,5
3
3,5
3,5

*UHXWDWHDQRPLQDO D
EXF

LORUGHDOXDWNJ

2,230
1,139
0,586
0,122
0,065

LORU GH DOXDW RSHUD LH FDUH SHUPLWH RE LQHUHD IRUPHL HVWHWLFH D

SURGXVXOXL FkW L R VWUXFWXU  XQLIRUP  D PLH]XOXL SULQ HOLPLQDUHD JROXULORU PDUL IRUPDWH vQ
WLPSXOIHUPHQWD LHLVHH[HFXW 

manual -vQEUXW ULLPLFLLPLMORFLL


mecanizat vQEUXW ULLOHPDULFDUHSUDFWLF RWHKQLF PRGHUQ 
Mecanizat OHJDW  GH IRUPHOH YDULDWH DOH SURGXVHORU FH VH IDEULF  Q FD]XO SkLQLL
PRGHODUHDFRQVW vQURWXQMLUHDEXF LORUGHDOXDWDOXQJLUHDVDXUXODUHa lor, iar pentru produsele de

IUDQ]HO ULH PRGHODUHD FRQVW  GH UHJXO  vQ vPSOHWLUHD VXE GLIHULWH IRUPH D EXF

LORU GH DOXDW

WUDQVIRUPDWHvQILWLOXULVDXPRGHODUHDvQIRUP GHFRUQFKLIOHEDWRDQHHWFvQIXQF LHGHVRUWLPHQW


0RGHODUHD PDQXDO

se exHFXW

 GH F WUH PXQFLWRUXO PRGHODWRU WDEODJLX  FDUH SULQWU

WHKQLF  VSHFLDO  IRORVLQG PDVD GH PRGHODUH G  EXF

-o

LORU GH DOXDW IRUPD LPSXV  GH VRUWLPHQWXO

FHVHIDEULF 0RGHODUHDVHH[HFXW DVWIHOvQFkWV VHRE LQ VXSUDID DQHWHG DEXF

LORUGHDOXDW

L vQFKHLHWXUD FRUHFW  LDU vQ FD]XO vPSOHWLWXULORU FRUQXULORU FRYULJLLORU L D DOWRU SURGXVH

speciale, aspectul artistic necesar.


0RGHODUHD vQ IRUPH VSHFLDOH SULQ vPSOHWLUHD DUWLVWLF  D XQRU ILWLOXUL GH DOXDW QHFHVLW  R
DQXPLW  P LHVWULH GLQ SDUWHD EUXWDUXOXL )LWLOXULOH VH RE LQ GLUHFW GLQ EXF

LOH PLFL GH DOXDW

GLYL]DWH VDX GLQ DOXDWXO PRGHODW vQ IRUP  GH FRUQXUL FDUH DSRL VH DOXQJHVF SULQ SUHVDUH L
URVWRJROLUHD VXE SDOPH SH PDVD GH PRGHODUH UH]XOWkQG ILWLOXULOH 1XP UXO ILWLOXULORU YDULD]  GH
RELFHLvQWUHGRX LFLQFLGHSLQ]kQGGHIRUPDSURGXVXOXLFHXUPHD] DVHUHDOL]D
7HKQLFDvPSOHWLULLDUWLVWLFHVHSUH]LQW vQILJXUD
Q FD]XO vQ FDUH VH IDEULF  SURGXVH GH IUDQ]HO ULH SUHV UDWH FX PDF FKLPHQ VXVDQ
RSHUD LDGHSUHV UDUHVHH[HFXW GXS PRGHODUHDEXF

LORUGHDOXDW

0RGHODUHD PHFDQLF  VH UHDOL]HD]  FX DMXWRUXO XQRU PDLQL FDUH PDL DOHV vQ FD]XO
SURGXVHORUGHIUDQ]HO ULH FKLIOH H[HFXW FRQFRPLWHQWRSHUD LDGHGLYL]DUHDDOXDWXOXLLFUHWHUH

a chiflelor. Nu s-DXUHDOL]DWvQF

PDLQLSHQWUXvPSOHWLUH

0RGHODUHD FRYULJLORU VH H[HFXW  PDQXDO VDX FX PDLQL GH FRQVWUXF LH VSHFLDO  /D
PRGHODUHDPDQXDO VHSURFHGHD] vQGRX IHOXULQSULPXOFD]GLQPDLQDGHDOXDWVHWDLHEXF

de 1- NJ GLQ FDUH SULQ vQWLQGHUH L U

L

VXFLUH FX SDOPHOH SH PDVD GH PRGHODUH VH IRUPHD]  XQ

VXOJURV'LQDFHVWDvQFHSkQGGHODXQXOGLQFDSHWHVHPRGHOHD] XQVXOPDLVXE LUH ILWLO FDUH


WUHEXLH V  DLE  JURVLPHD XQLIRUP  VWDELOLW  vQ IXQF LH GH IRUPD L JUHXWDWHD FRYULJXOXL 'LQ ILWLO
VHIRUPHD] FRYULJLLSULQvQI XUDUHDDFHVWXLDSHXQGHJHWVDXPDLPXOWHvQIXQF LHGHP ULPHD
FRYULJXOXL GXS  FDUH ILWLOXO VH UXSH FDSHWHOH OXL VH SHWUHF XQXO SHVWH DOWXO L VH UXOHD] 
vQFKHLHWXUD SkQ  VH RE LQH R VXGDUH EXQ  L GH JURVLPH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH XQLIRUP  FX D UHVWXOXL
FRYULJXOXLQDOGRLOHDFD]VHUXSGLQVXOXOJURVGHDOXDWEXF

LFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHJUHXW

LLSHFDUH

WUHEXLH V  R DLE  FRYULJXO VH PRGHOHD]  vQ ILWLOXUL GLQ FDUH VH RE LQ FRYULJLL vQ IRUP  GH LQHO
VLPSOXVDXvPSOHWLWvQIRUP GHRSW

FD]DWHKQRORJLF

GHSUHOXFUDUHDDOXDWXOXLVHSUHOXQJHWHFXRSHUD LDGHGRVSLUHILQDO FDUHvQ

EUXW ULLOHPLFLLPLMORFLLVHUHDOL]HD] IRORVLQGGRVSLWRUXOPRELOQXPLWLJDUGHURE%XF

LOHGHDOXDW

VHDHD]  SHSDQFRDGH GLQOHPQDFRSHULWHFXSkQ]  FXUDW FDUHVHLQWURGXF vQGRVSLWRU vQFHSkQGFX


SDQDFRGXOGHMRVRUGLQHvQFDUHVHLVFRWGXS GRVSLUHSHQWUXDILLQWURGXVHvQFXSWRU

$OXDWXOGH FRQVLVWHQ

PDLUHGXV GHUHJXO SHQWUXSkLQHDPDUHVHSXQHvQFRXOH HGLQ

vPSOHWLWXU  GH U FKLW  VDX vQ YDVH GH WDEO  OLJKHQH  /D XQHOH EUXW ULL vQ ORFXO JDUGHUREXOXL VH
IRORVHVF QLWH MJKHDEXUL GLQ OHPQ FDVWUH  FDUH SULQ VXSUDSXQHUH FUHHD]  VSD LL vQFKLVH SULHOQLFH

pentru dospire.
2 DH]DUH DSDUWH SH SDQDFRDGH R QHFHVLW  EXF

LOH GH DOXDW SHQWUX SkLQHD GH VHFDU  VDX FX

DGDRVGHVHFDU 6SUHDQXVHGHIRUPDLOLSLvQWUHHOHEXF

LOHVHDHD] FXSkQ] WUDV  ILJXUD 

'HDVHPHQHD SHQWUXXQHOH SURGXVHDOXDWXOVHDHD] SHW YL VDXvQIRUPHGLQ WDEO FDUH


VHUYHVFLODFRDFHUH7 YLOHLIRUPHOHVHXQJvQSUHDODELOFXJU VLPH XOHLXQWVDXPDUJDULQ vQ
SURSRU LHGH ID

GHJUHXWDWHDSURGXVXOXL

QIDEULFLOHPRGHUQHGHPDUHFDSDFLWDWHGRVSLUHDVHUHDOL]HD] vQIOX[FRQWLQXXIRORVLQG

dospitoare mecaniceHFKLSDWHFXLQVWDOD LLGHFRQGL LRQDUHDDHUXOXLGLQVSD LXOGHGRVSLUHPentru


GRVSLUH EXF

LOH GH DOXDW VH DHD]  FX vQFKHLHWXUD vQ VXV LDU SURGXVHOH vPSOHWLWH vQ SR]L LD SH

FDUH R DX OD PRGHODUH GLVWDQ DWH vQWUH HOH FX 

-5 cm, pentru a nu se lipi dDWRULW

 FUHWHULL vQ

volum.
'RVSLUHD VH PDL SRDWH UHDOL]D L vQ GRVSLWRDUH WLS GXODS FDUH DX LQVWDOD LH FH DVLJXU 
WHPSHUDWXUD L XPLGLWDWHD OD QLYHOXO FHUXW GH WHKQRORJLH Q DFHVWH GRVSLWRDUH VH LQWURGXF
F UXFLRDUHOHPRELOHFDUHSHYHUWLFDO VXQWSUHY ]
FDUHVHDHD] EXF

ute cu mai multe plase, alveolate sau drepte, pe

LOHGHDOXDW

0HGLXO vQFDUH VH IDFH GRVSLUH WUHEXLH V DLE  WHPSHUDWXUD GH 

&&RYULJLL VH ODV 

la dospire direct pe masa de modelare, la temperatura de 30..35 C.

2.3. Coacerea produselor


&RDFHUHD SURGXVHORU GH SDQLILFD LH DUH ORF vQ FXSWRDUH GH EUXW ULH FX IXQF LRQDUH
SHULRGLF  vQFD]XOEUXW ULLORUPLFL VLPLMORFLL  LvQFXSWRDUHFXIXQF LRQDUHFRQWLQX  FXSWRDUH

PHFDQLFH FX EDQG 

 vQ IDEULFLOH PDUL FDUH DSOLF

 R WHKQLF  DYDQVDW  Q FDPHUD GH FRDFHUH D

FXSWRUXOXL VH FUHHD]  FRQGL LLOH GH WHPSHUDWXU  L XPLGLWDWH QHFHVDUH WUDQVIRUP ULL DOXDWXOXL vQ

produsul finit. Ansamblul proceselor care au loc la coacere sunt prezentate n tabelul nr.8.
Ansamblul de procese care aXORFODFRDFHUHDSURGXVHORUGHSDQLILFD

LH

Tabelul nr.8
Temperatura
aluatului
30400 C

3ULQFLSDOHOHSURFHVHFDUHDXORFLFDUHGXFvQILQDOODWUDQVIRUPDUHDDOXDWXOXL

n produse
- umflarea amidonului
- DFFHOHUDUHD DFWLYLW LL HQ]LPHORU DPLOROLWLFH L D complexului zimazic din
GURMGLH SURYRFkQGIHUPHQWD LDDOFRROLF HQHUJLF

4060 C

60900 C
901000 C
100...1800 C

-FUHWHUHDYROXPXOXLDOXDWXOXL
-IRUPDUHDSRMJKL HLGHFRDM ODVXSUDID DDOXDWXOXL
-LQWHQVLILFDUHDDFWLYLW LLHQ]LPHORU
-vQFHSHUHDJHOLILHULLDPLGRQXOXLLFRDJXO ULi proteinelor
-vQFHWDUHDDFWLYLW LLGURMGLHLLDFHOHLODOWHPLFURIORUHIHUPHQWDWLYH
- gelifierea amidonului atinge maximum, iar coagularea proteinelor se ncheie
-vQFHWDUHDDFWLYLW LLHQ]LPDWLFH
- ncepe formarea miezului produselor
-DFFHOHUDUHDHYDSRU ULLDSHLGLQDOXDWIRUPkQGX-se la exterior coaja
-IRUPDUHDFRPSOHW DPLH]XOXLSURGXVHORU
-vQFHWDUHDFUHWHULLYROXPXOXLSURGXVHORU
- EUXQLILFDUHD FRMLL SURGXVHORU SULQ IRUPDUHD PHODQRLGLQHORU FHHD FH G
LQGLFD LLF SURGXVHOHVXQWFRDSWH

3URGXVHOH VH FRF DH]DWH GLUHFW SH YDWUD FXSWRUXOXL SD W YL VDX vQ IRUPH OD IHO FXP DX
IRVWDH]DWHSHQWUXGRVSLUH
QDLQWH GH LQWURGXFHUHD EXF

LORU GH DOXDW vQ FXSWRU VH H[HFXW  FkWHYD RSHUD LL

SUHPHUJ WRDUHFDUHFRQVWDXGXS FD]vQ

XPH]LUHD VSRLUHD FXDS 

XQJHUHDFXRX DVXSUDIH HLEXF

crestarea;

WDQ DUHDDFHVWRUD

LORUGHDOXDW

Umezirea vQ FD]XO IRORVLULL FXSWRDUHORU FX IXQF LRQDUH SHULRGLF  VH H[HFXW  PDQXDO FX R
r-XQ DPHVWHF VXE LUH GH I LQ  FX DS  LDU vQ FD]XO

SHULH GH S U PRDOH vQPXLDW  vQ DS  VDX vQW

XQRU SURGXVH VSHFLDOH GH IUDQ]HO ULHFXP DU ILFR]RQDFLL vQ VROX LH GH RX  2SHUD LD WUHEXLH
I FXW  FX PXOW  JULM  vQ PRG XQLIRUP SH vQWUHDJD VXSUDID

 D DOXDWXOXL DVWIHO FRDMD

SURGXVXOXLGHYLQHPDW LI LQRDV /DIRORVLUHDFXSWRDUHORU WXQHOFXIXQF LRQDUHFRQWLQX QX

VH PDL IDFH VSRLUHD FX DS  D EXF

LORU GH DOXDW DFHDVWD UHDOL]kQGX

FXSWRUXOXLSULQFRQGHQVDUHDODVXSUDID DDOXDWXOXLDXQHLFDQWLW

Crestarea

-se n zona de aburire a

LVXILFLHQWHGHDEXU

VH DSOLF  GH UHJXO  vQ FD]XO SURGXVHORU GH IRUPDW OXQJ IUDQ]HOHORU  L VH

HIHFWXHD] PDLDOHVPDQXDOSULQPLF ULUDSLGHIRORVLQGXQFX LWELQHDVFX LWXRUXPH]LWvQ


DS  &UHVW WXULOH VH IDF vQ QXP U GLIHULW FX ODPD FX LWXOXL XRU vQFOLQDW 

n plan vertical,

DGkQFLPHD DFHVWRUD GHSLQ]kQG GH VWDGLXO GRVSLULL DOXDWXOXL FkQG GRVSLUHD HVWH LQVXILFLHQW 
FUHVW WXULOHVHIDFPDLvQSURIXQ]LPHSHQWUXDSHUPLWHPDLXRULHLUHDJD]HORUGHIHUPHQWD LH
FDUH VH IRUPHD]  vQ FDQWLWDWH PDUH LDU OD GRVSLUHD SUHOXQJLW  FUHVW WXULOH VH IDF PDL OD
VXSUDID D GHRDUHFH vQ FD] FRQWUDU DOXDWXO VH O

HWH &UHVWDUHD PHFDQLF  HIHFWXDW  vQ FD]XO

linii mecanizate de dospire-FRDFHUH IRORVLQG PHFDQLVPH JHQ ILHU VWU X FLUFXODU QX G 
rezultate optime, mai ales datorLW  GLILFXOW LL GH D UHJOD DGkQFLPHD FUHVW WXULORU L
SR]L LRQDUHDORUFRUHFW 

WDQ DUHD

aluatului nainte de introducerea n cuptor are rolul de a marca pe fiecare produs


orientarea

XQ VLPERO GLVWLQFWLY DO HFKLSHL FDUH D IDEULFDW SURGXVXO HD SHUPL kQG WRWRGDW 

DVXSUD RUHL GH IDEULFD LH 2 WDQ DUH DSDUWH VH DSOLF  XQRU SURGXVH GLHWHWLFH 0DUFDUHD SULQ
WDQ DUHVHDSOLF QXPDLvQFD]XOVRUWLPHQWHORUFXPDVDGHFHOSX LQNJWDQ DVHDSOLF SH
ID D VXSHULRDU  D SURGXVXOXL VDX SH FHD LQIHULRDU  DW

unci cnd pe coaja se fac mai multe

FUHVW WXUL 
QFD]XOFRYULJLORUVHIDFHvQWkLRS ULUHDORULDUXQHOHVRUWLPHQWHVHSUHVDU FXPDFVXVDQ
VDX VDUH RUL VH VWURSHVF FX VROX LH GH VDUH GXS  FXP SUHYHGH UH HWD vQDLQWH GH D IL LQWURGXL vQ

cuptor pentru coacere.


'HSR]LWDUHDLS

VWUDUHDSURGXVHORU

'XS  FRDFHUH SURGXVHOH VH VFRW GLQ FXSWRU DQXPLWH VRUWLPHQWH VH VSRLHVF LPHGLDW FX
DS  DFHDVWD SHQWUX IRUPDUHD OXFLXOXL L SHQWUX UHGXFHUHD VF ] PLQWHORU GDWRUDWH HYDSRU ULL GLQ
WLPSXO U FLULL  GXS  FDUH VH DHD]  SH UDVWHOH UDIWXUL VDX vQ O GL H QDYHWH  vQWU

-un singur rnd

QHVXSUDSXVH  L VH WUDQVSRUW  vQ GHSR]LW SHQWUX U FLUHD L S VWUDUHD vQ FRQGL LL FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH
SkQ  vQ PRPHQWXO YkQ] ULL 1X VH UHFRPDQG  FRQVXPDUHD SURGXVHORU vQ VWDUH FDOG  GHRDUHFH
PLH]XOORUHVWHJUHXGLJHVWLELOLSURYRDF DIHF LXQLDOHVWRPDFXOXL
'HSR]LWDUHD VHIDFH vQvQF SHUL OXPLQRDVH L DHULVLWHFXUDWH L I U  UR] WRDUH VDXLQVHFWH
L]RODWHGHVXUVHGHvQF O]LUHODRWHPSHUDWXU XQLIRUP GHDSUR[LPDWLY
GLPHQVLRQHD]  VRFRWLQGX VH vQF UFDUHD GH 

-700kg/m

GHSR]LW ULL SHUDVWHOHUDIWXULVDXvQO GL H /DVXSUDID

C.6SD LXOUHVSHFWLYVH

 vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXV L GH IHOXO

UH]XOWDW GLQFDOFXOVHDGDXJ VXSUDID D

QHFHVDU SHQWUXPDQLSXODUHDUDVWHOHORUVDXDO GL HORU


'HRDUHFHvQPRGSUDFWLFSURGXVHOHVHFRQVLGHU U FLWHLGHFLVHSRWFRQVXPDDWXQFLFkQG

coaja lor are temperatura de 30350 &VHDSUHFLD] F 


SURGXVHOHSkQ ODJVHU FHVFGXS RU GHODVFRDWHUHDGLQFXSWRU
ntre 100-JGXS 2 ore;
250 g -NJGXS RUH
FHOH SHVWH DFHDVW  JUHXWDWH GXS  - RUH Q IXQF LH GH JUHXWDWHD QRPLQDO

 D

SURGXVHORULWLPSXOORUGHU FLUHYDULD] VF ] PLQWHOHvQJUHXWDWHSULQU FLUHFDUHVHVLWXHD] GH


RELFHL DD FXP V

-a specificat anterior, ntre 2,5- HOH ILLQG LQIOXHQ DWH WRWRGDW

 GH IRUPD

SURGXVXOXLIHOXOFRDFHULL GLUHFWSHYDWU VDXIRUPH LFRQGL LLOHvQFDUHVHIDFHGHSR]LWDUHD

2.5. Procedee tehnologice speciale


3HOkQJ SURFHGHHOHFDUHVHIRORVHVFvQPRGFXUHQWvQEUXW ULWVHDSOLF LXQHOHSURFHGHH
VSHFLDOH FH VH DEDW GH OD WHKQRORJLD RELQXLW  GLQWUH FDUH PDL LPSRUWDQWH VXQW FHOH SHQWUX
IDEULFDUHDSkLQLLGLQI LQ SURYHQLW GLQJUkXQRXQHPDWXUL]DWLSHQWUXSkLQHDGLQI LQDGHJUkX
FXGHIHFWH vQFRO LWRULDIHFWDWGHSORQL DJUkXOXL 
Q FD]XO IRORVLULL I LQLL GLQ JUkX QRX QHPDWXUL]DW VLWXD LH SRVLELO  vQ LQWHUYDOXO LXOLH

RFWRPEULH OD DSDUL LD UHFROWHL GH JUkX  SURFHVXO WHKQRORJLF VH ED]HD]  SH XUP WRDUHOH FULWHULL

speciale;
DFWLYLW

P ULUHD DFLGLW

LL PDLHOHL FX 

-2 graGH SHVWH QRUPDO FHHD FH GXFH OD VF

GHUHD

LLHQ]LPHL DPLOD] SHFDUHRDVWIHOGHI LQ RFRQ LQHvQFDQWLWDWHPDUHQDFHVWVFRS

VH UHFRPDQG  P ULUHD FDQWLW

LL GH PDLD LFRQGXFHUHDIHUPHQWD LHL OD WHPSHUDWXUD PDL ULGLFDW 

FUHWHUHDFRQVLVWHQ HLPDLHOHLLDDOXDWXOXL SHQWUXDFXPXODUHD XQHLFDQWLW

LPDLPDUL GHDFL]L 

SUHSDUDUHDSURVS WXULLODILHFDUHFXY GHDOXDWSUHSDUDUHDDOXDWXOXLFXGURMGLHOLFKLG 

PEXQ

FUHWHUHD SURFHQWXOXL GH VDUH FX FLUFD   SHVWH FHO IRORVLW QRUPDO VSUH D VH

UHGXFHUHD WLPSXOXL GH GRVSLUH ILQDO  DSURDSH OD MXP WDWH SHQWUX D QX VH GHJUDGD

FRDFHUHDSkLQLLGHIRUPDWPLF SkQ ODPD[LPXPNJEXFDWD QXPDLSHYDWU 

LFDOLWDWHDJOXWHQXOXLLGHFLHODVWLFLWDWHDDOXDWXOXL

SUHDDFFHQWXDWFRPSRQHQWHOHI LQLLLDQXVHDSODWL]DSURGXVHOH

QFD]XOIRORVLULLI LQLLGLQJUkXFXSURFHQWULGLFDWGHERDEHvQFRO LWHDF UHLDFWLYLWDWH


DPLOD]LF  HVWH H[DJHUDW  P ULPHD DFLGLW

coacerea pinii de greutate

LL DOXDWXOXL SULQ PHWRGHOH LQGLFDWH DQWHULRU SUHFXP L

PLF  UHSUH]LQW  PLMORDFHOH SHQWUX RE LQHUHD SURGXVHORU GH FDOLWDWH

FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH
3HQWUX FD]XOGHJUDG ULLSURYRFDWH GHSORQL DJUkXOXLFkQGJOXWHQXOI LQLLHVWHDOWHUDWG 
UH]XOWDWHLIRORVLUHDXQRUDPHOLRUDWRULFKLPLFLvQSULPXOUkQGDDFLGXOXLDVFRUELFLODFWLF
Q PRG QRUPDO JUkQHOH FX XQ FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW GH ERDEH vQFRO LWH VDX GHJUDGDWH GH
SORQL

 QX VH PDFLQ  SHQWUX IRORVLUHD vQ SDQLILFD LH /D QHYRLH VH VXSXQ vQ SUHDODELO XQXL

riguros tratament termic, aplicat n special pentru distrugeUHD DFWLYLW


glutenului.

LL  DPLOD]HL L vQW ULULL

Anexa 1
(FKLYDOHQWXOFDQWLWDWLYvQI
GXS

Umiditatea

Echivalentul n kg la:

I LQLLOLYUDWH

%
12,5
12,6
12,7
12,8
12,9
13,0
13,1
13,2
13,3
13,4
13,5
13,6
13,7
13,8
13,9

WI LQ

982,0
983,2
984,4
985,6
986,8
988,0
989,2
990,4
991,6
992,8
994,0
995,2
996,4
997,6
998,8

LQ

FXXPLGLWDWHDGHED]

UHOD LDXPLGLWDWH

VDFI LQ 

(neto)
78,560
78,656
78,752
78,848
78,944
79,040
79,136
79,232
79,328
79,424
79,520
79,616
79,712
79,808
79,904

I

8PLGLWDWHDI LQLL

livrate,
%
14,0
14,1
14,2
14,3
14,4
14,5
14,6
14,7
14,8
14,9
15,0
15,1
15,2
15,3
15,4
15,5

LQ



Echivalentul n kg la:
WI LQ

1000,0
1001,2
1002,4
1003,6
1004,8
1006,0
1007,2
1008,4
1009,6
1010,8
1012,0
1013,2
1014,4
1015,6
1016,8
1018,0

VDFI LQ  QHWR

80,000
80,096
80,192
80,288
80,384
80,480
80,576
80,672
80,763
80,864
80,960
81,056
81,152
81,248
81,344
81,440

Anexa 2
&DX]HOHFDUHSURYRDF

Cauzele principalelor
defecte

SULQFLSDOHOHGHIHFWHDOHSkLQLLLP

/DDUMHOHDIODWHvQFXUVGH

Pinea are volum mic, este


     $%! &'(  
   #  )  *   +"
     $(,  zul este de
  !- #  )  *,(/.

provenite din gru cu


       !"
#      
-
   
   

lipicios, desprinzndu-se de
  &

nematurizate sau
provenite din gru nou

Coaja pinii este de culoare


 (( )  =     >?.
     $(,  9  

+1   

- folosirea drojdiei de
       

Pinea are volum mic, este


     *,  9  ; "

%!("(  ( < (.  

E +  "(  A":    $
  &       .  /
  .  
 $(,  "(    (    9.

-prepararea aluatului de
 (   
 !1
(aluat prea legat)

-prepararea aluatului de
 (   
 !1 
(aluat prea moale)

-nerespectarea timpului

 ,+ 
aluatului

-
 ,   !,  " 
aluatului ntr-un timp
mai scurt sau la o
      (!,  *
insuficient fermentat
=  9 + D>
-
 ,   !,  " 
a aluatului ntr-un timp
prea lung sau la o
      (!,*

0 VXULOHFHWUHEXLHOXDWHSHQWUXHYLWDUHDGHIHFWHORU

Principalele defecte

Folosirea materiilor
prime necorespun 
-
   
   
        

procesului tehnologic:
-
   A"     
prea mici de maia la
prepararea aluatului
-
   A"     
prea mari de maia la
prepararea aluatului

VXULOHGHHYLWDUHDDFHVWRUD

neelastic
E +  "(       *   &
   (  ( ) 
=     >*,  9
    A"
 
.  < " 

acru
Pinea are volum mic, este
3" *   &'   (
 (( )  *,  "(  

+1    A.   


     *  ( 
( :   ".""
 ,
E + "(       $1 
  !,(6.       *   +"
prezenta straturi
compacte de
  !- #  )  =   
  " >$        
 " <    *   <  -D
.  "
(D,
K   ,+ (  '  D

miezul pinii are porozitatea


"
 
. )  L.
 D,
  "
 ,+  $ 
#

 1+ ( 9   < 


 + "(       *, 
  ,. "
(D1 *
uneori cu goluri (aspect
buretos)
Pinea are volum mic, este
3" $   &  (   .  
 ;.    9 !, $
1  "         *,(6.
lipicios, putnd prezenta
D  D"  " " * 

 1    .      turi,
< "    .,   & 
E + "(       .  
    " +9    
 a ct
.   $ 1  9   
  !- #  )  .   

/DDUMHOHFHXUPHD]

IDEULFD LH

 (        # 1 "


 3
 2* 465
 
  $  
      ,    87 -2 grade peste
0

Formarea amestecurilor de

  $    ( 9  "


 1&  '  )   $

normal; reducerea timpului de


    
   "  

aplicarea procesului
tehnologic special pentru
 
    :"  ;  
< +       "  9
" #      

-idem

-idem

@   < (A"     "      


2 * B65C& ' 
 ,+ (
aluatului
@   < (A"     "      
2 * B5C& ' 
 -+ (
aluatului; prelungirea timpului de

D1   ; "  ".



 ,+      
G    ( " D1   

aluatului

E    <  (A     "  ,   

."    
 " 
 ' 9  " $
 (  !    
   9 # "  

de introducerea n cuptor

se fabrica

Activizarea drojdiilor
  < +" -se la suspensia

D, ."6 , 


     ! ) 
F (            
 (    # /      
formarea mai  ".
aluatului
-Idem

H  (  " .  

 (
 I  
           
      :;
 "     
#      

E   <  (A     "   ,   

a aluat "(  : 9.



 ,+      $    <  (

timpului de coacere, folosindu-se


        J        : 
F   1+  9  " *   +9

 1+ (  ;  .  ." " 


 J,  (     icitate se

mparte introducndu-se la

( -(  M. &; "

Prelungirea timpului de dospire

 " *  + !,    (


 (   $  . (A   (
nainte de introducerea n cuptor;
   (' 'N     -1 

-idem

Respectarea timpului# de

 ,+ (  (   


    (    
           :;
 " 
     # 
    

Respectarea regimului de

 ,   ;=    p,


     *       >
# 9    # J  ; 

     

(n cuptor moale)

Scurtarea timpului de dospire

 " $:  (        


  "$    (! N    
,     =     L  >$ #   

-idem

  "+ -se aluat


suprafermentat (aluat
vechi)

-
   A"     
 (!19 
  
1 (!   (
aluat

goluri alungite orizontal, iar


gustul este acru

E +  "(      " A.

           & $


1  "  
 +,    .  
    

Pinea are volum mic, este


3" $   &   
#  )  *     *   +"

 " .  " .      *


1  "  !1(6.       *
prezentnd uneori
dungi de
  !- #  ) 

- coacerea pinii la
      (!, 
(n cuptor moale)

P  "(       *   &


     < ( . *    
.            
 *
ndreptate n mai multe
    "    &'':  (  

- coacerea pinii ntr-un


mediu cu prea mult abur

moale; miezul
pinii este de
   #  ) 
E + "(       ."
volum mic; coaja este prea
D  (*:"+9/     
   $
miezul este umed

- coacerea pinii ntr-un


1(     (    
abur

E +  "(        *  


   *
    "*   +9
         
  

lateral

E +  "(  A     *  (D, *

  &       * 1 *


D  :  $1  "(        
. #   D P=  1   
  " >

- transportarea pinii #
    1.( 
rnduri apropiate sau
suprapuse

-idem

cn 6      (    (!1.


( D   <   "  ;   " *
!:" #    - "*(      :
aluatul, la formarea altor
semifabricate
G   (  6,   A 

  

nainte de introducerea n cuptor

Reglarea temperaturii cuptorului


  3.  < (!    A:   
   
 ,( *   3  (  (
D "  ;   :"  "( *
   6,  "! 
   
 ( )   $   (
 " 
 "    + !1    ea
 (   $ #     (     
:      (D "9=
 # " '   
pinile)
Reglarea temperaturii cuptorului
prin ntreruperea coacerii un timp
scurt (revenirea; scurtarea timpului
    
 9 $(  (
     9L   ,'
   ;.".(A   M
 + "!,"      !:" 
H ( )  (' A    .D" 
pentru evacuarea excesului de
abur; aluatului nu se va mai spoi;
   ( !:"
    6". ( ) 
O    (  " A    .
manipular(     

dispozitivelor respective; n cazul


n care acestea
sunt defecte se
     #      PJ:"  3 
:+"6   
 !,*    
:"  (!    '   $ "  " 
va spoi intens la introducerea n
cuptor
-

Prepararea aluatului de
 ("  D  " - $ !:
           (
 
 (     D6,   $
respectarea predospirii
aluatului, timp n care se
va zvnta aluatul n
    . 1 !,
  (. 
%!(  (. < (
temperaturii cuptorului
 ' !1  " # 
 1     (   ;!  

    

-idem

0 "   (     

dispozitivelor de formare a
  "."   (A 
evacuare a lui din camera
de
0 coacere
"   (     
dispozitivelor
de formare a
   $ #   

      '  L 
         :  + . 
cele de evacuare

@ .(! < 1  


 +    # J   *  !   

sau rafturi

Transportarea
pinii
, # J     
rafturi demontabile; se va
: <  &    + "'
 
- #  +    

87,/$-(,,167$/$

,,

%UXW ULLOH LQGLIHUHQW GH FDSDFLWDWH WUHEXLH GRWDWH FX HFKLSDPHQWXO QHFHVDU RE LQHULL
SURGXVHORUSHQWUXFDUHDXIRVWGHVWLQDWH(FKLSDPHQWXOFRQVW vQXWLODMHLQVWDOD LLLXVWHQVLOHFDUH

permit aplicarea tehnologiei pe fiecarHID]

vQSDUWHODSDUDPHWULLVWDELOL LvQUH HWDVRUWLPHQWHORU

SURJUDPDWHDVHRE LQH

8WLODMHLLQVWDOD LLSHQWUXPDWHULLOHSULPH
3HQWUX PDQLSXODUHDI LQLL vQ YHGHUHD GHSR]LW ULLLWUDQVSRUW ULLODSXQFWHOHGHIRORVLUHVH
XWLOL]HD]  vQ FD]XO I LQLL DPEDODWH vQ VDFL F UXFLRUXO OL]D L HOHYDWRUXO VH VDFL

- atunci cnd

WUHEXLHGHSR]LWD LODXQSDOLHU HWDM VXSHULRU&XHOHYDWRUXOVHSRWWUDQVSRUWD VDFLSHRU 

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I LQLL 0DQLSXODUHD SDOHWHORU FX DMXWRUXO VWLYXLWRDUHORU PHFDQLFH UHSUH]LQW  R VROX LH FX PDUL
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du-VH SXULWDWHD I

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GHVI XUDUHDIHUPHQWD LHLDOXDWXOXL
&HUQ

WRUXO YLEUDWRU

este utilajul cel mai simplu folosit n acest scop, care este echipat
productivitate mare (3000 kg/m2K 1HFHVLW vQV DILLQVWDODWODHWDMXOVXSHULRUV OLLGHSUHSDUDUH

FXVLW GLQvPSOHWLWXU GHVkUP DYkQGRFKLXULFXODWXUDGHPP UHVSHFWLYL DQU  LDUHR

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&HUQ

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t TCF-3ULPXOWLSWUHFHI

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apoi printr-R VLW

-o

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ilor

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FRQVWUXLWvQGRX P ULPLFXSURGXFWLYLWDWHDGHLUHVSHFWLYNJKLDUFHOGHDOGRLOHDWLS

cu productivitatea de 3000 kg/h.


La fabricile mari VH IRORVHWHFHUQ
4.000 kg/m2.h.

WRUXOFHQWULIXJDO RUL]RQWDO FX SURGXFWLYLWDWHD GHFLUFD

Q PRG GHRVHELW OD FHUQ WRDUH VH YHULILF  IUHFYHQW VWDUHD VLWHORU vQORFXLQGX

-se imediat

cele rupte.
6DFLL JROL L GH I LQ  VH VFXWXU  PDQXDO VDX PHFDQLF vQ XOWLPX

l caz folosindu-se

VFXWXU WRUXOFXE W WRDUHVDXVFXWXU WRUXOSQHXPDWLF3ULPXODUHSURGXFWLYLWDWHDGHVDFLKL


SUH]LQW GH]DYDQWDMHOHF HOLPLQ  vQvQF SHUHDGHOXFUXPXOWSUDI GHI LQ L X]HD] VDFLLLDUFHO

de al doilea are productivitatea de 30 VDFLK  HVWH GH FRQVWUXF LH VLPSO

 L QX HOLPLQ  SUDI GH

I LQ  3ULQ VFXWXUDUH VH UHFXSHUHD]  GHHXULOH GH I LQ  FDUH UHSUH]LQW  FLUFD  ID D GH
JUHXWDWHD I LQLL GLQ VDF  HYLWkQGX VH DVWIHO LQIHVWDUHD VDFLORU FX G XQ WRUL SH SDUFXUVXO

GHSR]LW ULLSkQ ODRQRX XPSOHUH


3HQWUX SUHJ WLUHD GURMGLHL FRPSULPDWH L D V ULL VH IRORVHVF YDVH VDX XWLODMH VLPSOH vQ
FD]XO EUXW ULLORU PLFL L LQVWDOD LL VSHFLDOH vQ IDEULFLOH PDUL FX DMXWRUXO F URUD VH UHDOL]HD] 
HPXOVLDGHGURMGLHLUHVSHFWLYVROX LDGHV

are. Dintre utilajele simple fac parte agitatorul mecanic

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DS FDOG  DOD  &  LDU SHQWUX GL]ROYDUH DS  GH OD URELQHW ,QVWDOD LLOH VSHFLDOH VXQW GRWDWH
FX YDV GH HPXOVLRQDUH L UHVSHFWLY GL]ROYDUH YDV GH S VWUDUH D HPXOVLHL UHVSHFWLY VROX LHL GH
VDUH SUHFXP L FX SRPSH L FRQGXFWH SHQWUX WUDQVSRUWXO OLFKLGHORU UHVSHFWLYH OD SXQFWHOH GH
XWLOL]DUH$FHVWHLQVWDOD LLQHFHVLW RDWHQW vQWUH LQHUHPHFDQLF LDVW ULLGHFXU

HQLH

$SDWHKQRORJLF VHvQF O]HWHSkQ ODRWHPSHUDWXU FDUHYDULD] GHRELFHLvQWUHL

C,

vQ IXQF LH GH WHPSHUDWXUD QHFHVDU  SHQWUX VHPLIDEULFDWXO FH VH SUHSDU  PDLD DOXDW  FRQIRUP
SUHVFULS LLORU UH HWHL GH IDEULFD LH WHPSHUDWXUD I LQLL XWLOL]DWH L DQRWLPSXO GH OXFUX FDUH
GHWHUPLQ  SLHUGHULOH GH F OGXU  vQ PHGLX vQFRQMXU WRU  Q SUDFWLF  SHQWUX FDOFXOXO UDSLG DO

temperaturii apei (n 0& VHDSOLF

XU WRDUHOHIRUPXOHHPSLULFH

Ta= 47-0,7 x Tf (pentru perioada calG DDQXOXL 


Ta = 49-0,7 x Tf (pentru perioada rece a anului),
n care Ta L7fUHSUH]LQW

WHPSHUDWXUDQHFHVDU DDSHLLUHVSHFWLYDI LQLLvQ

C.

(VWHLPSRUWDQWFDvQSURFHVXOWHKQRORJLFV QXVHXWLOL]H]HDSDDYkQGWHPSHUDWXU FXPXOW

peste 350C, deoarece pe de o parte -JOXWHQXOGLQI

LQ vQFHSHV FRDJXOH]HGHJUDGkQGX

-se, iar pe

GH DOW  FHOXOHOH GH GURMGLH vL UHGXF DFWLYLWDWHD Q DFHVW VFRS VH XUP UHWH FD I LQD V  QX DLE 

temperatura sub 15 0C, folosindu-VHSHOkQJ

GHSR]LWXOPDUHFRUHVSXQ] WRUQHFHVDUXOXLGHI LQ 

SHPLQLPXP]LOHGHSURGXF LHLDXQXLGHSR]LWPDLPLF GH]L DPSODVDWvQDSURSULHUHDV OLL


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3UHJ WLUHD DSHL OD WHPSHUDWXUD QHFHVDU  VH UHDOL]HD]  FX DMXWRUXO XQRU UH]HUYRDUH VDX FX

aPHVWHF

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8WLODMHLLQVWDOD LLSHQWUXSURFHVXOGHIDEULFD LH

Dozarea materiilor prime vQSURSRU LLOHQHFHVDUHSUHSDU

ULLDOXDWXOXLFRQIRUPUH HWHLGH

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3HQWUXI LQ VHIRORVHVFvQEUXW ULLOHPLFLYDVHOHFRWDWHvQEUXW ULLOHPLMORFLLEDVFXODFX

cadran, n fabricile mari cntarul semiautomat, iar fabricile moderne, dotate cu malaxoare pentru
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DQXPLWORFvQ VDOD GH SUHSDUDUH DDOXDWXOXL L FRQVWLWXLH VWD LD GH GR]DUHDI LQLL ) LQD VH VFXUJH
vQ FXYD PDOD[RUXOXL DH]DW  SH SODWIRUPD EDVFXOHL

dintr-un timoc (rezervor), montat deasupra

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WUHEXLHV H[LVWHXQWLPRFDSDUWH&kQWDUXOVHPLDXWRPDWSHUPLWHGR]DUHDFXSUHFL]LHDSRU LORUGH
I LQ  GLQDLQWH V

tabilite pe cadranul cntarului (care este fixat deasupra malaxorului), pentru

ILHFDUH DUM  GH PDLD VDX DOXDW FRQIRUP UH HWHL 'R]DWRUXO FRQWLQXX IDFH SDUWH GLQ LQVWDOD LD GH
SUHSDUDUHDDOXDWXOXLED]DW SHIU PkQWDUHDUDSLG LLQWHQVLY 

Dozarea lichidelor DSDVXVSHQVLDGHGURMGLHVROX LDGHVDUHJU

VLPLOHD VHIDFHSULQ

P VXUDUHD FX DMXWRUXO XQRU YDVH JUDGDWH FRWDWH  D XQRU LQVWDOD LL VHPLPHFDQL]DWH VDX DXWRPDWH
GRWDWH FRUHVSXQ] WRU SHQWUX FLWLUHD YROXPXOXL GH OLFKLG P VXUDW L HYHQWXDO D W

emperaturii
acestuia (n cazul apei).
Prepararea aluatuluiQHFHVLW XWLOL]DUHDPDOD[RUXOXLDWkWSHQWUXIU PkQWDUHDPDLHOHLFkW
L D DOXDWXOXL SURSULX-]LV 6H IRORVHVF GH RELFHL PDOD[RDUHOH FX IXQF LRQDUH SHULRGLF  XQHOH
HIHFWXkQG R IU PkQWDUH OHQW  FODVLF  LDU DOWHOH R IU PkQWDUH vQ GRX  WUHSWH FX YLWH]  OHQW  vQ
SULPD WUHDSW  LFX XQD PDL UDSLG  vQ FHD GHD GRXD 'LQWUH PDOD[RDUHOH FHO PDL FXUHQW IRORVLWH
PHQ LRQ P XUP WRDUHOH WLSXUL FX EUD XO UDPLILFDW GHQXPLW ,QGHSHQGHQ D  FX FROLYLH GHQXP

it

7HKQRJULJ  FX EUD  SODQHWDU GHQXPLW 'LRVQD  /D SUHSDUDUHD PDLHOHL IOXLGH SHQWUX EXQD
RPRJHQL]DUHDDPHVWHFXOXLEUD XOPDOD[RUXOXLIRORVLWvQDFHVWVFRSVHFRPSOHWHD] FXQLWHEDUH
PHWDOLFH VDX FX JU WDU VSHFLDO FRQVWUXLW 3HQWUX DOXDWXO GH FRYULJL L VWLFNVXUL VH IRORVHVF
PDOD[RDUH SXWHUQLFH SHQWUX DOXDW WDUH  FX EUD H RUL]RQWDOH L FXYD IL[  %UD HOH GH IU PkQWDUH
SRWDYHDGLIHULWHIRUPHLWXUD LL

Z cu 37 rot/min;
ac cu palete 31 rot/min.

Principalele caracteristici tehnologice ale malaxoarelor pentru pine


Tipul
malaxorului

Tabelul nr.9
Productivitatea
medie,kg
aluat/h
600
400
600
300
200
500

7XUD LDURWPLQ

Volumul
cuvei, l

%UD XOXLGH

Cuvei

IU PkQWDUH
&XEUD UDPLILFDW
,QGHSHQGHQ D 

Cu colivie
(Tehnofrig)
&XEUD SODQHWDU

500
300
470
200
100
450

6
6
33
33
33
3-viteza nti
5-viteza a doua

(Diosna)

14
16
24-viteza nti
34-viteza a doua

6H SRW IRORVL L PDOD[RDUH FX WXUD LH PDUH vQ MXU GH  URWPLQ L FKLDU PDL PXOW 
SHQWUX IU PkQWDUHD UDSLG  L LQWHQVLY  D DOXDWXOXL 8QHOH WLSXUL DX IXQF LRQDUH FRQWLQX  ILLQG

integrate n linii specializate pentru fabricarea produselor n flux nentrerupt.


)HUPHQWD LD PDLHOHL L DOXDWXOXL se face direct n cuvele de malaxor n care s-D I FXW
IU PkQWDUHD&XYHOHVHDHD] vQWU-un loc c OGXURV vQDSURSLHUHDFXSWRUXOXL L OLSVLWGHFXUHQ L
RUL vQ FDPHUH GH IHUPHQWD LH GRWDWH FX LQVWDOD LL SHQWUX DHU FRQGL LRQDW FX WHPSHUDWXUD GH

28340& L XPLGLWDWHD UHODWLY

 D DHUXOXL GH    &XYHOH VH RUGRQHD] DVWIHO vQFkW V  SRDW 

ILXUP ULWFLFOXOGHIHUPHQWD LH

Prelucrarea aluatului

UHVSHFWLY GLYL]DUHD L PRGHODUHD VH UHDOL]HD]  PDQXDO vQ

EUXW ULLOH PLFL L PHFDQL]DW vQ EUXW ULLOH PDUL FX GRWDUH WHKQLF  DYDQVDW  Q SULPXO FD] VH
XWLOL]HD]  JULSFD FkQWDUXO

-WHUH]LH

L PDVD GH PRGHODUH WDEOD  LDU vQ DO GRLOHD PDLQL

VSHFLDOL]DWH3HQWUXGLYL]DUHFHOPDLIUHFYHQWVHIRORVHWHPDLQDFXFDPHU LSLVWRQPDLQDFX
FDPHU GHGLYL]DUHLSUHVDGHGLYL]DUH vQFD]XOGLYL] ULLDOXDWXOXLvQEXF

LPLFLSHQWUXFKLIOHL

cornuri), iar penWUX PRGHODUH PDLQD GH URWXQMLW FX MJKHDE HOLFRLGDO WLS FLXSHUF

 PDLQD FX

MJKHDEXUL RUL]RQWDOH PDLQD FX EHQ]L L PDLQD GH UXODW IUDQ]HOH L FRUQXUL 0DLQLOH DX
SURGXFWLYLWDWHUHJODELO vQIXQF LHGHJUHXWDWHDQRPLQDO DEXF

LORUGHDOXDWFDUHVHGRUHWHDVH

RE LQH vQFD]XOPDLQLORUGHGLYL]DW LULWPXOvQFDUHGHVI RDU IDEULFD LDvQFD]XOPDLQLORUGH

PRGHODWYDULLQGGHUHJXO vQWUHLEXFK
/D GLYL]DUHD PHFDQLF  DOLPHQWDUHD PDLQLORU VH IDFH SULQ U VWXUQDUHD FXYHORU FX DOXDW

folosindu-VH vQDFHVWVFRS U

VWXUQ WRUXOVLPSOX DWXQFLFkQGSUHSDUDUHDDOXDWXOXLVHIDFH OD HWDMXO

VXSHULRU V OLL GH SUHOXFUDUH VDX U VWXUQ WRUXOXL ULGLF WRU DWXQFL FkQG RSHUD LLOH VH H[HFXW  SH

DFHODLSDOLHU
'RVSLUHDILQDO

DEXF

LORUGH DOXDWVHIDFHvQEUXW ULLOH PLFLSUHFXPL vQFHOH FXQLYHO

PDLVF ]XWGHGRWDUHWHKQLF IRORVLQGGRVSLWRDUHOHPRELOH JDUGHURDEH LDUvQXQLW

LOHPRGHUQH

GH PDUH FDSDFLWDWH IRORVLQG GRVSLWRDUHOH PHFDQLFH FX EHQ]L VDX OHDJ QH  *DUGHURDEHOH VXQW

dotate cu 1 SDQDFRDGH PRQWDWH FkWH GRX

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GRVSLUH SH ILHFDUH SDQDFRG vQWUH  L  EXF

sau 12-

EXF

L GH DOXDW SHQWUX SkLQHD GH 

-2 kg format rotund,

L SHQWUX IUDQ]HO  'RVSLWRDUHOH PHFDQLFH DX SURGXFWLYLW

L FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

FXSWRDUHORUSHFDUHOHGHVHUYHVFDGLF LFKLDUWK
'RVSLWRDUHOH WUHEXLH V  DVLJXUH FRQGL LLOH GH PHGLX QHFHVDUH FRQWLQX ULL IHUPHQWD LHL vQ
EXF

LOH GH DOXDW DGLF  WHPSHUDWXUD GH  & L XPLGLWDWHD UHODWLY  D DHUXOXL GH 

-80%

XPLGLWDWHD PDL PDUH SURYRDF  FRQGHQV L DOXDWXO VH OLSHWH GH VXSRUWXO SH FDUH HVWH DH]DW 
$FHVWHFRQGL LLHYLW WRWRGDW XVFDUHDVXSUDIH HLEXF

LORUGHDOXDWLIRUPDUHDFUXVWHL FDUHGXFH

ODFU SDUHDFRMLLSURGXVHORUvQWLPSXOFRDFHULL 

Coacerea produselor VH UHDOL]HD]

 FX DMXWRUXO FXSWRDUHORU GH GLIHULWH WLSXUL XQHOH PDL

YHFKL FODVLFH VDX WUDGL LRQDOH  LDU DOWHOH PDL QRL PRGHUQH  Q FDPHUD GH FRDFHUH D FXSWRUXOXL
WUHEXLH V  VH DVLJXUH DWkW WHPSHUDWXUD QHFHVDU  FRDFHULL FkW L DWPRVIHU  XPHG  FX XPLGLWDWH
UHODWLY  GH    vQ SULPD ID]  D FRDFHULL SHQWUX IDYRUL]DUHD IRUP ULL XQRU SRMJKL H HODVWLFH

OD VXSUDID D DOXDWXOXL FDUH V  SHUPLW  FUHWHUHD vQ YROXP VXE SUHVLXQHD JD]HORU UH]XOWDWH GLQ

IHUPHQWD LDHQHUJLF SHP VXU FHDOXDWXOV vQF O]HWHSkQ ODFLUFD

C.

&XSWRDUHOH WUDGL LRQDOH VXQW FX IXQF LRQDUH GLVFRQWLQX  SHULRGLF  OD FDUH vQF UFDUHD FX
DOXDWDYHWUHLDOWHUQHD] FXVFRDWHUHDSURGXVHORUFRDSWH7LSXOFHOPDLYHFKLvOUHSUH]LQW FXSWRUXO
GH F U PLG  VDX GH S PkQW  FD

re s-D IRORVLW IUHFYHQW vQ WUHFXW DSURDSH OD WRDWH EUXW

ULLOH

vQGHRVHEL vQ FHOH V WHWL 8OWHULRU DFHVWD D IRVW vQORFXLW GH FXSWRUXO WLS GDPI  FX HYL GH DEXU 
&XSWRUXO GH F U PLG  DUH GH RELFHL R VLQJXU  YDWU  PDL UDU FX GRX  YHWUH VXSUDSXVH  FX

sXSUDID D GH -12 m2 SHUPL kQG RE LQHUHD FDQWLW LL GH - W K SkLQH GH  NJ EXF QF O]LUHD
cuptorului, care se face prin arderea combustibilului lichid sau gazos (ori chiar a lemnelor))
GLUHFWvQFDPHUDGHFRDFHUHGXUHD] -PLQGXS FDUHVHvQWUerupe arderea, se pun tufecurile
FDSDFHOH FDQDOHORU GH IXP  VSUH D QX VH SLHUGH F OGXU  VH WHUJH YDWUD FX S P WXIXO XPHG VH
XPH]HWH FDPHUD GH FRDFHUH SULQ DUXQFDUHD XQHL FDQWLW

L GH   O DS  SH EROWD PHQ LQkQGX

-se

DSRL FkWYD WLPS XD vQFKLV  SHQWUX XQLIRUPL]DUHD WHPSHUDWXULL 'XS  DFHDVW  SUHJ WLUH IRORVLQG
ORSDWD GH FRSW VH vQFDUF  YDWUD FX EXF

L GH DOXDW DOF WXLQGX

-se rnduri longitudinale ncepnd


.

GLQIXQGXOFXSWRUXOXLDSRLVHIRUPHD] GLQQRXDEXULVHvQFKLGHXDSHQWUXFRDFHUHDDOXDWXOXL

'XS FRDFHUHSURGXVHOHVHVFRWGLQFXSWRUDSRLFLFOXVHUHSHW &XSWRDUHOHGHDFHVWWLSSUH]LQW 


DYDQWDMXO F  UHDOL]HD]  XQ DVWIHO GH UHJLP GH FRDFHUH WHPSHUDWXUD L XPLGLWDWH  vQFkW SURGXVHOH
DX XQ JXVW SO FXW L DURP  VXSHULRDU  vQ VSHFLDO vQ FD]XO

pinii de greutate mare (peste 2 kg).

&XSWRUXO GDPI VH FRQVWUXLHWH vQ PRG IUHFYHQW FX FkWH GRX  YHWUH PDL UDU FX WUHL DYkQG
GLPHQVLXQLOH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH SHQWUX UHDOL]DUHD XQRU SURGXFWLYLW

pine de 1 kg buc sau 2,5 t n cazuO FXSWRDUHORU PLFL vQ FDUFDV

L GH  L UHVSHFWLY WK


 PHWDOLF  'HVHUYLUHD DFHVWXL

FXSWRU HVWH VLPLODU  FX D FHOXL GH F U PLG  FX GHRVHELUHD F  vQF O]LUHD OXL VH IDFH vQ PRG
FRQWLQXXLDUXPH]LUHDFDPHUHLGHFRDFHUHVHRE LQHSULQGHVFKLGHUHDURELQHWHORUGHDEXULUHFDUH

asiguU

S WUXQGHUHDDSHLODSO FLOHGHYDSRUL]DUHDH]DWHODFDS WXOGLQIXQGDOYHWUHORU


&XSWRDUHOHPDLQRLPRGHUQHSHUPLWvQF UFDUHDFXDOXDWLGHVF UFDUHDSURGXVHORUFRDSWH

I U  vQWUHUXSHUH DVWIHO F  WUHFHUHD SULQ FXSWRU VH IDFH vQ PRG FRQWLQXX 7LSXO

timp, care s-a extins n toate fabricile noi, este cuptorul-WXQHOFXEDQG

folosit n ultimul

$FHVWDVHFRQVWUXLHWHvQ

GLIHULWHP ULPLFXSURGXFWLYLWDWHGHLWKLDUvQXOWLPDYUHPHGHGHLFKLDUGH
WKFHOHPLFLILLQGvQF O]LWHLSULQUH]LVWHQ HHOHFWULFH
3ULQFLSDOHOHFDUDFWHULVWLFLWHKQRORJLFHDOHFXSWRDUHORUGDPILWXQHOFXEDQG VXQWvQVFULVH

n tabelul nr.10, iar pentru orientarea privind productivitatea cuptoarelor de tipurile indicate
anterior, n tabelul nr. 11 se pre]LQW  LQGLFLL GH XWLOL]DUH LQWHQVLY  DL DFHVWRUD UHIHULWRUL OD XQHOH
produse.
Principalele caracteristici tehnologice ale unor cuptoare de pine
Tabelul nr.10
Caracteristici

Tipul de cuptor

Productivitatea t/24h

7XQHOFXEDQG

Damf
2,5
7,0
2
2

5,0
1

10,0
1

20,0
1

30,0

1
1,7
3,4
6,8
240

4
2,6
10,4
20,8
240

10
1,1
11
11
250

13
2
26
26
250

16
2,5
40
40
250

20
3
60
60
250

5,5
6,0

12
13

13
15

18
21

35
42

45
52

1XP UXOYHWUHORUEXF

Dimensiunea vetrelor, m:
- lungime
-O LPH
2

6XSUDID DXQHLYHWUHP

Q O LPHDFDPHUHLGHF

oacere, mm
Consumul de combustibil:
-lichid, l/h
-gazos, m3 H/h

,QGLFLLGHXWLOL]DUHLQWHQVLY

DFXSWRDUHORUGHSkLQH YDORULRULHQWDWLYH

0 ULPHDLQGLFHOXLNJP

3URGXVXOGHSDQLILFD LH

Cuptor de
F U PLG

3kLQHQHDJU GH

-4 kg

8
10
9
7
8
9
9
9
4

3kLQHQHDJU GHNJ
3kLQHQHDJU GHNJ
3kLQHVHPLDOE GH

-4kg

3kLQHVHPLDOE GHNJ
3kLQHVHPLDOE GHNJ

PiQHDOE

Cuptor damf

 IUDQ]HO GHJ

3kLQHDOE  IUDQ]HO GHJ


3URGXVHGHIUDQ]HO ULH JOREDO

Tabelul nr.11
h pentru
Cuptor tunel cu
EDQG

9
13
14
10
13
14
13
12
6

20
21
19
20
19
19
12

GHRVHELW vQH[SORDWDUHDFXSWRDUHORUGHF U PLG LGDPIDUHPRGXOvQFDUH

2LPSRUWDQ

VH IDFH vQF O]LUHD FXSWRUXOXL OD SXQHUHD vQ IXQF LXQH SULPD GDW  FkQG HVWH QRX VDX GXS 
UHSDUD LH$VWIHOvQF O]LUHDFXSWRUXOXLQRXVHIDFHQXPDLGXS  ]LOHGHODWHUPLQDUHDOXFU ULORU

GH ]LG ULH L GXS    ]LOH GH OD WHUPLQDUHD IRFDUXOXL SHQWUX FD FLPHQWXO V  IDF  SUL]  Q

primele 2-3 zile se prRFHGHD]  OD vQF O]LUHD VODE  D FDPHUHL GH FRDFHUH VDX D IRFDUXOXL DSRL vQ
XUP WRDUHOH - ]LOH VH IDFH vQF O]LUHD PRGHUDW  GXS  FDUH -3 zile se aduce cuptorul la
WHPSHUDWXUD GH OXFUX Q FD]XO FXSWRUXOXL FDUH VH SXQH vQ IXQF LXQH GXS  UHSDUD LH vQF O]Lrea
SkQ ODWHPSHUDWXUDGHOXFUXVHIDFHvQ-2 zile.

6FRDWHUHD GLQ IXQF LXQH D XQRU DVWIHO GH FXSWRDUH QHFHVLW  GH DVHPHQHD R DQXPLW 
WHKQLF SURFHGkQGX

DWXQFL

-se astfel:
FkQG

IXQF LRQDUHD

FXSWRUXOXL

WUHEXLH

vQWUHUXSW 

FX

RFD]LD

UHSDXVXOXL

V SW PkQDO VDX GLQ OLSV  GH SURGXF LH GXUDWD QHIXQF LRQ ULL ILLQG UHODWLY VFXUW  

-16h), se iau

P VXULGHPHQ LQHUHDFXSWRUXOXLvQVWDUHFDOG SHQWUXDILUHSXVvQIXQF LXQHGXS XQWLPSVFXUW


GHvQF O]LUHQDFHVWVFRSFXSWRUXOVH LQHFXXLOHFDPHUHORUGHFRDFHUHLVXEHUHOHFDQDOHORUGH
DHULVLUH vQFKLVH 'LQ FkQG vQ FkQG VH IDFH IRF VODE SHQWUX D PHQ LQH R WHPSHUDWXU  DSURSLDW  GH

cea de regim;
DWXQFLFkQGIXQF LRQDUHDFXSWRUXOXLWUHEXLHvQWUHUXSW

SHQWUXHIHFWXDUHDOXFU ULORUGH

vQWUH LQHUH L UHSDUD LL FDUH QHFHVLW  LQWHUYHQ LL OD GLIHULWH VXEDQVDPEOXUL U FLUHD FXSWRUXOXL
WUHEXLH I FXW  vQWU XQ WLPS FkW PDL VFXUW 3HQWUX DFFHOHUDUHD U FLULL VH GHVFKLG XLOH L VXEHUHOH

FHHD FH DMXW  OD IRUPDUHD GH FXUHQW FDUH VSDO  FDPHUD GH FRDFHUH  Q SOXV VH SRDWH W

rece la

FRDFHUHDXQRUSURGXVHFDUHQHFHVLW  WHPSHUDWXU PDLUHGXV  FDGHH[HPSOXSkLQHIXUDMHU VDX


OD LQWURGXFHUHD SH YDWU  D XQRU YDVH FX DS  VDX W YL FX QLVLS XPHG 7RW vQ DFHVW VFRS VH SRDWH

sufla aer prin camera de coacere, cu ajutorul unor ventilatoare. De cele mai multe ori metodele
LQGLFDWH VH IRORVHVF vPSUHXQ  RE LQkQGX-VH R U FLUH DFFHOHUDW  D FXSWRUXOXL 7RWXL QX WUHEXLH
SURYRFDW RU FLUHUDSLG GHRDUHFHDFHDVWDGHWHUPLQ ILVXUDUHDSHUH LORU

Folosirea cuptoarelor-WXQHO UHFODP

 R WHKQLF  PDL GHRVHELW  LPSXV  GH FRPSOH[LWDWHD

ORU GDWRULW  QXPHURDVHORU RUJDQH vQ PLFDUH L HFKLSDPHQWXOXL GH DXWRPDWL]DUH D vQF O]LULL L
UHDOL] ULL FLFOXOXL GH FRDFHUH Q DFHVW VFRS vQDLQWH GH SXQHUHD vQ IXQF LXQH VH YHULILF  VWDUHD
VLVWHPXOXLGHvQF O]LUHDDXWRPDWHORUSHQWUXFRQWUROXOWHPSHUDWXULLLGXUDWHLGHFRDFHUHDYHWUHL

-

EDQG  PHFDQLVPHORU GH DQWUHQDUH VWDUHD LQMHFWRDUHORU L D FXSWRUXOXL vQ DQVDPEOX /D

vQFHSHUHD OXFUXOXL GXS  DSULQGHUHD LQMHFWRDUHORU VH IDFH vQF O]LUHD WUHSWDW  D FXSWRUXOX

i, pe

GXUDWD F UHLD EDQGD YDWU  FLUFXO  SULQ FDPHUD GH FRDFH vQ WLPSXO QHFHVDU 2SULUHD FXSWRUXOXL OD

VIkULWXO V SW PkQLL VDX SHQWUX UHSDUD LL QHFHVLW  PDL vQWkL RSULUHD LQMHFWRDUHORU YDWUD WUHEXLG V 
FRQWLQXHPLFDUHDSkQ FkQGWHPSHUDWXUDLQWHULRDU DFDPHUHLGHFRDFHUHFRERDU ODDSUR[LPDWLY

1200C.
&XSWRDUHOH GHVWLQDWH IDEULF ULL FRYULJLORU VXQW GH RELFHL GLQ F U PLG  GH R FRQVWUXF LH
VSHFLDO  QXPLWH DD FXP V

-a mai spus, cuptoare cu iluminare. Acestea au gura de deservire

ODUJ LI U X GHvQFKLGHUHVSUHDSHUPLWHPDQLSXO ULOHFHVHIDFFXFRYULJLLvQWLPSXOFRDFHULL


LDU SULQ SDUWHD ODWHUDO  vQ LQWHULRUXO FDPHUHL GH FRDFHUH VH DIO  PRQWDW XQ DU] WRU FDUH SURGXFH
IODF UDSHWRDW OXQJLPHDYHWUHL3HQWUXFRYULJLSRWILXWLOL]DWHLFXSWRDUH

le de pine, dar covrigii

FRS L vQ DFHVW PRG QX VH ULGLF  OD QLYHOXO GH FDOLWDWH DO FHORU FRS L vQ FXSWRDUHOH FX LOXPLQDUH

Cuptoarele pentru sticksuri (produse oarecum similare cu covrigii) sunt mecanice  FX EDQG
specializate pentru coacerea acestor sortimente.



'HSR]LWDUHDLS VWUDUHDSURGXVHORUVHIDFHILHSHUDVWHOHLUDIWXULFDUHV FRQVWUXLHVFGLQ


OHPQJHOXLW ULQGHODW QHYRSVLWILHvQO GL H QDYHWH FRQIHF LRQDWHGLQPDWHULDOSODVWLF/ GL HOH
VH VWLYXLHVF vQ GHSR]LW DH]kQGX

-se pe cte 6- UkQGXUL vQ vQ

O LPH 7UDQVSRUWXO O GL HORU vQ

LQWHULRUXOGHSR]LWXOXLVHIDFHFXDMXWRUXOXQRUSODWIRUPH SDOHWHFDUHVHGHSODVHD] FXF UXFLRDUH

-ULGLF

WRDUHFXF UXFLRDUH

- lize ori cu benzi de transport.)

$QVDPEOXO GH XWLODMH IRORVLWH SHQWUX RE LQHUHD SURGXVHORU FRQVWLWXLH DD

-zisa linie

WHKQRORJLF  GH IDEULFD LH LDU VXFFHVLXQHD ID]HORU L RSHUD LLORU DOF WXLHWH IOX[XO WHKQRORJLF

acesta putndu-VHGHVI XUDSHRUL]RQWDO VDXSHYHUWLFDO GXS IHOXOvQFDUHVXQWGLVSXVHXWLODMH


ceea ce este conGL LRQDW GH FRQVWUXF LD EUXW ULHL SUHFXP L vQ PRG SDU LDO PHFDQL]DW FX
PHFDQL]DUH DYDQVDW  VDX FX PHFDQL]DUH FRPSOH[  IXQF LH GH GRWDUHD WHKQLF  Q FD]XO OLQLLORU
WHKQRORJLFH FX PHFDQL]DUH SDU LDO  WRDWH VDX DSURDSH WRDWH RSHUD LLOH WHKQRORJLFH IU

mntare,

GLYL]DUHPRGHODUHHWF VHH[HFXW PHFDQLFvQV WUHFHUHDVHPLIDEULFDWHORUGHODRRSHUD LHODDOWD


VH IDFH PDQXDO vQ FD]XO OLQLLORU FX PHFDQL]DUH DYDQVDW  SHQWUX R DQXPLW  SDUWH D SURFHVXOXL
WHKQRORJLF VH IRORVHVF LQVWDOD LL FRPSOHW PHFDQL]DWH GH H[HPSOX SHQWUX SUHJ WLUHD I LQLL
SUHOXFUDUHDDOXDWXOXLHWF vQWLPSFHvQUHVWXOIDEULFD LHLVHDSOLF PHFDQL]DUHDSDU LDO vQFD]XO
PHFDQL] ULL FRPSOH[H WRDWH RSHUD LLOH VH H[HFXW  PHFDQL]DW vQ IOX[ FRQWLQXX FX DMXWRUXO XQRU
XWLODMH L LQVWDOD LL DXWRPDWL]DWH DGLF  GRWDWH FX GLVSR]LWLYH FDUH ILLQG UHJODWH SHQWUX DQXPL L
SDUDPHWULL WHKQRORJLFL WHPSHUDWXUD XPLGLWDWH GXUDW  HWF  PHQ LQHUHD FRQVWDQW  D DFHVWRUD VH
UHDOL]HD] vQPRGDXWRPDW

4. CONTROLUL TEHNIC - METODE PRACTICE

4.1. ContrROXOIDEULFD

LHL

&RQWUROXO SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF SH ID]H L RSHUD LL JDUDQWHD]  GHVI XUDUHD OXL FRUHFW 
FRQIRUPFHULQ HORU SHQWUX RE LQHUHD ILHF UXL SURGXV GHFHD PDL EXQ  FDOLWDWH $QXPL L SDUDPHWUL
WHKQRORJLFLVHFRQWUROHD] GLUHFWGHF WUHPXQFLWRUXOEUXWDULDUDOLD LLFXDMXWRUXOODERUDWRUXOXL

)U

PkQWDUHD DOXDWXOXL VH FRQWUROHD]  GXS  DVSHFWXO PDVHL GH DOXDW FXP L SULQ

XUP ULUHDGXUDWHLIU PkQW ULLLDWHPSHUDWXULL6HPDLFRQVLGHU FRUHVSXQ] WRUIU PkQWDWDOXDWXO

care este omogen, bine formaW OHJDW  XVFDW OD SLS LUH HODVWLF GHVSULQ]kQGX-VH XRU GH EUD XO
PDOD[RUXOXLLSHUHWHOHFXYHLvQFDUHV-DIU PkQWDW$OXDWXOLQVXILFLHQWIU PkQWDWHVWHQHRPRJHQ
OLSLFLRV L YkVFRV 7HPSHUDWXUD VH YHULILF  FX DMXWRUXO WHUPRPHWUXOXL OD VIkULWXO IU PkQW ULL
GXS FHFXYDFXDOXDWV DVFRVGHODPDOD[RU(VWHQHFHVDUFDWHUPRPHWUXOV ILHvQSHUIHFW VWDUH

GHFXU

HQLHLVHVXSUDYHJKHD] FRQWLQXXDWkWWLPSFkWVHDIODvQPDVDGHDOXDW

)HUPHQWD LD VHPLIDEULFDWHORU SURVS WXUD PDLD DOXDW  VH FRQWUROHD]  SH FDOH

VHQ]RULDO LSULQGHWHUPLQDUHDDFLGLW

LLLDWHPSHUDWXULL3URVS WXUDVDXPDLDXDELQHIHUPHQWDWH

DX YROXP PDUH VXQW FUHVFXWH  LDU VXSUDID D ORU FDUH OD vQFHSXW HVWH ERPEDW  WLQGH V  VH ODVH
GHYHQLQGSODW FRQVLVWHQ

VHUHGXFH DXPLURVSXWHUQLFGHDOFRROL VWUXFWXUD vQUXSWXU IRDUWH

SRURDV  VSRQJLRDV  FX DVSHFW GH XVFDW 0DLDXD IOXLG  IRUPHD]  E LFL OD VXSUDID

 $OXDWXO

ELQH IHUPHQWDW HVWH QHWHG VH vQWLQGH vQ ILEUH SDUDOHOH HVWH HODVWLF QHOLSLFLRV L DUH PLURV SO FXW

de alcRRO 6WUXFWXUD OXL vQ UXSWXU

 HVWH SRURDV  XQLIRUP  L FX DVSHFW GH XVFDW $FLGLWDWH VH

GHWHUPLQ  DVXSUD XQHL PLFL SUREH GH VHPLIDEULFDW OXDW  GLQ PDL PXOWH ORFXUL GLQ FHQWUXO L

PDUJLQH FXYHL L GH OD DGkQFLPL GLIHULWH 7HPSHUDWXUD VH FRQWUROHD]  FX WH

rmometrul de

laborator.

0RGHODUHD EXF

LORU GH DOXDW VH FRQWUROHD]  GXS  IRUPD FRUHFW  GDW  EXF

LORU

FRQIRUP VRUWLPHQWXOXL IRUPD FDUH WUHEXLH V  ILH VLPHWULF  LDU vQ FD]XO FHORU vPSOHWLWH ELQH
H[HFXWDW  6XSUDID D EXF

LL GH DOXDW WUHEXLH V  ILH QHWHG  ELQH vQWLQV  L vQFKLV  FRQWLQX  LDU

vQFKHLHWXUDELQHOLSLW  VWUkQV 

'RVSLUHD ILQDO

, respectiv momentul n care aluatul a ajuns la optimul de

IHUPHQWD LH VH VWDELOHWH DWkW SULQ YHULILF UL RUJDQROHSWLFH GH F WUH FRF WRUL VDX PDLVWUXO GH
IDEULFD LH FkW L vQ ODERUDWRU SULQ GHWHUPLQDUHD DFLGLW
SURSULHW

LL 2UJDQROHSWLF VH YHULILF  YROXPXO L

LOH IL]LFH DOH DOXDWXOXL RSWLPXO ILLQG FRQVLGHUDW DWXQFL FkQG EXFDWD HVWH GH]YROWDW  L

PRDOHODSLS LUHHODVWLF LDUSULQDS VDUHXRDU FXGHJHWHOHSHVXSUDID

XUPHOHIRUPDWHGLVSDU

WUHSWDW GLVSDUL LD LPHGLDW  GHQRW  IHUPHQWD LH LQVXILFLHQW  LDU SHUVLVWDUHD

-

 IHUPHQWD LH

GHS LW  $FLGLWDWHD VH GHWHUPLQ  FD L vQ FD]XO DOXDWXOXL QHGLYL]DW OXkQGX VH R SURE  GLQ

FHQWUXO EXF

LL Q FD]XO FRYULJLORU VH YHULILF  L RS ULUHD vQDLQWH GH FRDFHUH FDUH VH FRQVLGHU 

WHUPLQDW  DWXQFL FkQG FRYULJLL vQFHS V  SOXWHDVF  OD VXSUDID D VROX LHL GH RS ULUH LDU OD DS VDUHD
FXGHJHWXOQXVHGHIRUPHD] ILLQGHODVWLFL FDUWLODJLQRL 

Coacerea produselor, respectiv momentul n care produsul este bine copt se

YHULILF  vQ H[FOXVLYLWDWH SH FDOH RUJDQROHSWLF  GHFL vQ PRG VXELHFWLY FHUkQG SHQWUX R EXQ 
UHXLW  PXOW  P LHVWULH GLQ SDUWHD FRF WRUXOXL EUXWDU Q DFHVW VFRS VH YHULILF  vQVXLULOH SH FDUH
WUHEXLH V  OH vQGHSOLQHDVF  SURGXVXO FXP DU IL FXORDUHD FRMLL JUHXWDWHD UHODWLY  SHQWUX FDUH
SURGXVXO VH EDODQVHD]  vQ PkQ  HO WUHEXLQG V  SDU  XRU vQ UDSRUW FX YROXPXO SH FDUH

-l are),

VXQHWXO FH VH SURGXVH SULQ FLRF QLUHD FRMLL GH YDWU  FDUH WUHEXLH V  ILH VHF  DS VDUHD FRMLL
VXSHULRDUH FDUHWUHEXLHV UHYLQ LPHGLDWODVWDUHDLQL LDO 2ULHQWDUHDQXPDLGXS FXORDUHDFRMLL
GXFH vQ XQHOH FD]XUL OD JUHHOL RE LQkQGX

-se produse insuficient coapte, ntruct rumenirea cojii


SRDWH UH]XOWD L DWXQFL FkQG FXSWRUXO D DYXt temperatura prea mare (cuptor iute), sau n cazul
XWLOL] ULLXQHLI LQLERJDWHvQ]DKDUXULGHLSURGXVXOQXHVWHVXILFLHQWFRSW'HDVHPHQHDFXORDUHD
FRMLL SRDWH IL FHYD PDL SDOLG  GHFkW vQ PRG QRUPDO ILH GDWRULW  FRDFHULL vQWU

-un cuptor cu

WHPSHUDWXU SUHDPLF  FXSWRUPRDOH ILHGLQFDX]DF I LQDDUHSXWHUHUHGXV GHIHUPHQWD LH FX


FRQ LQXWVF ]XWGH]DKDUXUL

WDUHODIRF FXWRDWHF

SURGXVXOHVWHVXILFLHQWGHFRSW8QSURFHGHX

PDLH[DFWSHQWUXDYHULILFDGDF  SURGXVXOHVWH FRSW vOUHSUH]LQW  vQFHUFDUHDHODVWLFLW

LLPLH]XOXL

SULQ DS VDUHD XRDU  L UDSLG  FX GHJHWXO 3HQWUX DFHDVWD vQV  HVWH QHFHVDU V  VH DWHSWH U FLUHD
SURGXVXOXL FHHD FH QX UHSUH]LQW  VXILFLHQW  RSHUDWLYLWDWH 7RW vQ DFHVW VFRS VH XUP UHWH GXUDWD

coacerii care, mai ales n cazXOFXSWRDUHORUWXQHOFXEDQG

VHYHULILF GHVWXOGHH[DFWFXDMXWRUXO

XQXL WDKRPHWUX FX FDUH HVWH HFKLSDW FXSWRUXO YLWH]D EHQ]LL ILLQG UHJODW  FX SUHFL]LH SHQWUX

respectare duratei prescrise.

4.2. Controlul produselor


3URGXVHOH GH SDQLILFD LH VH IDEULF  SH ED]D XQRU GRFXPHQWD LL WHKQLFH FH SUHFL]HD] 
LQGLFDWRULLPLQLPLGHFDOLWDWHSHFDUHWUHEXLHV
SXQH DFFHQWXO DWkW SH SURSULHW

-LvQGHSOLQHDVF

VSUHDFRUHVSXQGHFRQVXPXOXL6H

LOH VHQ]RULDOH DVSHFW DURP  JXVW HWF  FDUH SURGXF VHQ]D LD

SO FXW  DVXSUD FRQVXPDWRUXOXL FkW L SH vQVXLULOH IL]LFR FKLPLFH FH JDUDQWHD]  XQ DQXPLW

FRQ LQXWGHVXEVWDQ HXWLOHvQDOLPHQWD LH

&DUDFWHULVWLFLOHRUJDQROHSWLFHGHED]

DOHSULQFLSDOHORUSURGXVHGHSDQLILFD LH

Tabelul nr. 12
&RQGL LLGHDGP

Caracteristici

isibilitate pentru:
3URGXVHGHIUDQ]HO
Produse de
IUDQ]HO ULHVLPSOH
materiale

Pine
%LQHFUHVFXWSkLQHQHDSODWL]DW

Aspectul

)RUPH

ELQH

FRQWXUDWH

QHWXUWLWH

ULHFX

I U 

UXSWXUL

QHGHIRUPDWHI U XUPHGHIXQLQJLQHVDXGHFHQX
6XSUDID D

) U ]EkUFLWXULVDXFU S WXULPDL

/XFLRDV  VDX PDW  OD VRWXULOH SUHV UDWH FX I LQ 

cojii

ODWHGHFPLPDLOXQJGHFP

QHWHG  vQ DIDU  GH SRU LXQHD SUHV UDW  FX VXVDQ

ODSkLQHDVHPLDOE LDOE

Culoarea
cojii

PDFHWF I U OLSLWXULVDXS U LPXUGDUH


5XPHQ XQLIRUP 

5XPHQ  XQLIRUP  J

SkQ  OD EUXQ URFDW OD SkLQHD

galben DXULHI

DXULH

QHDJU 

FRORUD LHSUHD

Rumen

XQLIRUP EUXQGHQXFL

DXULH

SkQ 

OD

EUXQ

U 

SkQ 

OD

alben-

EUXQ

I U 

FRORUD LH SUHD GHVFKLV  VDX

GHVFKLV OD SkLQHD VHPLDOE  L

GHVFKLV VDXEUXQ

galbenDXULHODSkLQHDDOE

vQFKLV GDWRULW 

%LQH FUHVFXW FX SRUL ILQL L

%LQH FUHVFXW SRURV PDV  XQLIRUP  I U  JROX

brun-vQFKLV

GDWRULW DUGHULL

arderii
Miezul

XQLIRUPL
DS VDUH

HODVWLF

OD

XRDU 

FX GHJHWXO V  UHYLQ 

ri,

HODVWLF OD DS VDUHD XRDU  V  UHYLQ  LPHGLDW OD


VWDUHDLQL LDO QHXPHGODSLS LWLQHVI U PLFLRV

LPHGLDWODIRUPDLQL LDO
3O FXW 

Aroma

PLURV

FDUDFWHULVWLF 
VWU LQ

GH

I U 

PXFHJDL

3O FXW 

FDUDFWHULVWLF 

DGDRVXULORU

L

DURPHORU

vQWUHEXLQ DWH

UkQFHGVW WXWHWF

Gustul

3O FXW FDUDFWHULVWLF SURGXVXOXL

3O FXW

ELQH FRSW SRWULYLW GH V UDW I U 

produsului bine copt, ristic

JXVWDFUXVDXDPDUI U VFUkQHW
GDWRUDW

LPSXULW

LORU

PLQHUDOH

QLVLSS PkQWHWF

FDUDFWHULVWLF

SRWULYLW GH V UDW I U 

3O FXW GXOFHDJ FDUDFWH

produsului

bine

FRSWSRWULYLWGHV UDWI U 

gust acru, amar sau alt gust acru, amar sau alt
gust nepO FXW
JXVWQHSO FXW

Verificarea caracteristicilor organoleptice VH IDFH SULQ H[DPLQDUHD YL]XDO


vQWUHJL vQFHSULYHWHDVSHFWXO H[WHULRU  SULQW LHUHDEXF

 D EXF

LORU

LORUvQWUHJLLH[DPLQDUHD PLH]XOXL vQ

FH SULYHWH VWDUHD L DVSHFWXO PLH]XOXL JXVWXO L DURPD SURGXVHORU  $VSHFWXO H[WHULRU VH
FRQWUROHD]  SULQ H[DPLQDUHD IRUPHL SURGXVHORU VW ULL VXSUDIH HL DVSHFWXOXL L FXORULL FRMLL LDU

starea L DVSHFWXO PLH]XOXL SULQ YHULILFDUH HODVWLFLW

LLvQ FDUH VFRS GXS  U FLUH SURGXVXO VH WDLH

vQ GRX  L DSRL VH DSDV XRU FX GHJHWXO DVXSUD PLH]XOXL DVWIHO vQFkW V QX VH GLVWUXJ  VWUXFWXUD
SRULORU FRQFRPLWHQW VH FRQWUROHD]  GDF  PLH]XO HVWH XVFDW OD SLS LUH QX VH VI UkP  LDU
SRUR]LWDWHDHVWHXQLIRUP $URPDLJXVWXOVHYHULILF PLURVLQGPLH]XOLJXVWkQGDWkWGLQPLH]XO
FkW L GLQ FRDMD SURGXVXOXL ([DPLQDUHD RUJDQROHSWLF  VH vQWUHJHWH FX YHULILFDUHD JUHXW
QRPLQDOH D SURGXVHORU DFHVWHD I Fk

ndu-VH SULQ FkQW

ULUHD XQXL QXP U GH  EXF

SURE  *UHXWDWHD PHGLH WUHEXLH V  FRUHVSXQG  FHO SX LQ JUHXW


XQHLEXF

franzHO

LL

L OXDWH GLQ

LL QRPLQDOH UHVSHFWLYH JUHXWDWHD

LSXWkQGDYHDRDEDWHUHOLPLW GH

-3% n cazul pinii, sau +-5% n cazul produselor de

ULH 1RUPDWLYHOH SUHY G F  JUHXWDWHD QRPLQDO  VH UHIHU  OD SURGXVHOH FkQW ULWH OD

XUP WRDUHOHLQWHUYDOHGHWLPSGHODVFRDWHUHDGLQFXSWRU

RUHSHQWUXSkLQHDSkQ ODNJ

RUHSHQWUXSkLQHDSHVWHNJSkQ ODNJ

4 ore pentru pinea pesWHNJSkQ


6 ore pentru pinea peste 3 kg;

RU SHQWUXSURGXVHOHGHIUDQ]HO ULHSkQ ODJ

RUHSHQWUXSURGXVHOHGHIUDQ]HO ULHSHVWHJSkQ ODJ

RUHSHQWUXSURGXVHOHGHIUDQ]HO ULHSHVWHJSkQ ODJ

6F GHUHDXPLGLW

ODNJ

LLSURGXVHORUvQWLPSXOGHSR]LW ULLSHVWHDFHVWLQWHUYDODWUDJHGXS VLQH

PLFRUDUHDPDVHLQRPLQDOHSURSRU LRQDOFXSLHUGHUHDGHDS 

9HULILFDUHD FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU IL]LFH L FKLPLFH

se face prin metode de laborator, asupra


produselor n stare rece, dar nu la mai mult de 20 de ore de la scoaterea din cuptor, folosindu-se
n acest scop produsele recoltate din proba medie.
$SUHFLHUHD FDOLW
JUDGDW DFDOLW

LL SH ED]D GH SXQFWDM UHSUH]LQW  XQ FULWHULX FDUH SHUPLWH FODVLILFDUHD

LLSURGXVHORUvQVFRSXOGHDVWLPXODRE LQHUHDXQRUUH]XOWDWHVXSHULRDUHDWkWSULQ

DSOLFDUHD GH WHKQRORJLL vPEXQ W

LWH FkW L SULQ UH HWH QRL GH IDEULFD LH GHRDUHFH QRUPHOH GH

FDOLWDWH SUHY G FRQGL LLOH PLQLPH SH FDUH WUHEXLH V  OH vQGHSOLQHDVF  SURGXVHOH VSUH D IL GDWH vQ

consuP $SUHFLHUHD SULQ SXQFWDM QHFHVLW

 IRORVLUHD XQHL WHKQLFL VSHFLDOH ED]DW  SH R VFKHP 

SRWULYLW F UHLD VH DFRUG  ILHF UHL FDUDFWHULVWLFL XQ DQXPLW QXP U GH SXQFWH 3URGXVHOH GH FDOLWDWH
IRDUWH EXQ  YRU vQWUXQL XQ QXP U PD[LP GH SXQFWH FD VXPD D SXQFWHORU DWULEXLWH ILHF UHL
FDUDFWHULVWLFLvQWLPSFHSULQVF GHUHDFDOLW

0

LLVHPLFRUHD] LSXQFWDMXO

VXULSHQWUXHYLWDUHDGHIHFWHORUGHIDEULFD LH

8QHRUL VH RE LQ SURGXVH GH SDQLILFD LH FDUH SRW V  SUH]LQWH DEDWHUL GH OD FRQGL LLOH

normale, abateri FDUH FRQVWLWXLH GHIHFWH GH IDEULFD LH $FHVWHD DIHFWHD]  XQD VDX PDL PXOWH
vQVXLUL DOH SURGXVXOXL GLPLQXkQGX-L YDORDUHD GHFRQVXP 3ULFHSHUHD WHKQLFLDQXOXL VH PDQLIHVW 
DWkW vQ GHSLVWDUHD OD WLPS D FDX]HORU FDUH DU GXFH OD RE LQHUHD SURGXVHORU FX GHIHFWH FkW L vQ
OXDUHD P VXULORUSHQWUXHYLWDUHDORU$VWIHOVHSRDWHDMXQJH F GHODXQGHIHFWSX LQVHVL]DELOOD
vQFHSXWV VHRE LQ ODVIkULWXOSURFHVXOXLWHKQRORJLFSURGXVHQHFRQVXPDELOH

Principalele surse ale defectelor sunt:


folosirea materiilor SULPHFRUHVSXQ]

WRDUHGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHFDOLWDWLY

FRQGXFHUHD JUHLW  D SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF GH IDEULFD LH vQ VSHFLDO OD SUHSDUDUHD
DOXDWXOXLLFRDFHULL

GHSR]LWDUHDLPDQLSXODUHDLQFRUHFW DSURGXVHORUGXS FRDFHUH

0 VXULOH SHQWUX HYLWDUHD GHIHFWHORU VH ED]HD]  SH HOLPLQDUHD FDX]HORU FDUH OH SURYRDF 
'LILFXOWDWHD FRQVW  vQV  vQ IDSWXO F  GH FHOH PDL PXOWH RUL R VLQJXU  FDX]  SURGXFH QXPHURDVH
GHIHFWH GXS  FXP DFHODL GHIHFW SRDWH SURYHQL GLQ PDL PXOWHFDX]H 6SUHD RJOLQGL FkW PDL FODU
LvQPRGVLVWHPDWLFFDX]HOHFDUHSURYRDF SULQFLSDOHOHGHIHFWHLP VXULOHFHWUHEXLHOXDWHSHQWUX

evitarea lor s-a ntocmit un tabel sintetic ale acestora, pentru cazul pinii, care este prezentat n
anexa 2.
999

175(%

5,3(1758$872(9$/8$5(

1.

8QGHVHUHJ VHVFHOHPHQWHOHWURILFHID

GHVWUXFWXUDEREXOXLGHJUkX"

2.

Q FDUH GLQ HWDSHOH GH IDEULFDUH D DOXDWXOXL VH UHJ VHVF FX LQWHQVLWDWH DFWLYLW

microbiologice?
3.

&HWUDQVIRUP ULvQVWUXFWXUDHQ]LPHORUDXORFRGDW FXFRDFHUHDSkLQLL"

L

/$37(/(,352'86(/(/$&7$7(

2%,(&7,9(850

5,7(

3UH]HQWDUHDDFHVWXLFOLPDWFRPSOH[XRULWRWDODERUGDELOFXPXOWLSOHSULQFLSLLQXWULWLYH
SUHFXPLYDULDWHWHKQRORJLLGHWUDQVIRUPDUHvQSURGXVH ODFWDWHSUHVXSXQH RDERUGDUHRELHFWLY 
LvQDFHODL WLPSVLQWHWLF  ,PSRUWDQWHVWHGHDWUH]L LQWHUHVXOvQDFHDVW  GLUHF LHSHDFHVWGHOLFDW
VHJPHQW DO DOLPHQWD LHL FH VH DGUHVHD]  SULRULWDU FRSLLORU GHVSULQ]kQGX VH WRWRGDW  EXQD

YDORULILFDUHDPDWHULHLSULPHFHQXYDSXWHDILvQORFXLW QLFLRGDW 

REZUMAT
Laptele  DOLPHQW GH ED]  - este tratat n acest capitol pornindu-VH GH OD UHFHS LD OXL
FDOLWDWLY  L FDQWLWDWLY  L XUP ULQG HYROX LD FRPSRQHQWHORU VDOH DO WXUL GH VWLPXODUHD VDX
LQKLEDUHD GLIHULWHORU PLFURRUJDQLVPH 3UH]HQWDUHD JDPHL GH SURGXVH ODFWDWH SH OkQJ  ODSWHOH GH

consum, s-a I

FXWLQVLVWkQGX VHDVXSUDSULQFLSLLORUELRORJLFHLDIOX[XULORUWHKQRORJLFHFHFRQGXF

OD UHDOL]DUHD GLIHULWHORU FDWHJRULL GH SURGXV ILQLW 8Q ORF DSDUWH vO UHSUH]LQW  VPkQWkQD L XQWXO
SURGXVH SUHOXFUDWH FX R PDUH YDORDUH QXWULWLY  L OD D F URU UHDOL]D

re etapele succesive se

suprapun pe un anumit traseu.


%UkQ]HWXULOH DXIRVWWUDWDWHFDSURGXVHFXYDORDUHSUHSRQGHUHQWSURWHLF PHQ LRQkQGX

-se

VXFFLQWHWDSHOHGHIDEULFD LHDGLIHULWHORUWLSXULGHSURGXVHODFWDWHIHUPHQWDWH

CUVINTE SAU EXPRESII CHEIE: EDFWHULL ODFWLFH RPRJHQL]DUHD L QRUPDOL]DUHD ODSWHOXL


efect bactericid.
9

1. LAPTELE - MATERIA PRIM

1.1.

3URSULHW

LFRPSR]L LHVWUXFWXU

/DSWHOHHVWHXQOLFKLGGHFXORDUHDOE RSDFXRUGXOFHDJFXPLURVVODEVSHFLILFVHFUHWDW
GHJODQGDPDPDU D

mamiferelor.

(VWH XQ DOLPHQW FRPSOHW IXQF LD OXL QDWXUDO  ILLQG DFHD GH DOLPHQW H[FOXVLY D WLQHUHORU
PDPLIHUHvQSHULRDGDFULWLF DH[LVWHQ HLORU

&RQYHQ LRQDO GHQXPLUHD GH ODSWH I U  SUHFL]DUHD VSHFLHL DQLPDOH GH SURYHQLHQ

 HVWH

UH]HUYDW  ODSWHOXL GH YDF  3HQWUX WRDWH FHOHODOWH VSHFLL HVWH VSHFLILFDW  SURYHQLHQ D ODSWH GH
RDLHODSWHGHELYROL

ODSWHGHFDSU 

3ULQFLSDOHOHFDUDFWHULVWLFLIL]LFHLFKLPLFHSHQWUXXQODSWHQRUPDOVXQWXUP WRDUHOH

densitate la 200C.1.029-1,033

F OGXUDVSHFLILF FDOJJUG

punct de congelare...0,550C
pH.6,6-6,8

DFLGLWDWHDH[SULPDW vQJUDGH7KRUQHUPD[LP

LQGLFHGHUHIUDF LHOD

C....1,35

6FKHPDWLF VH SRDWH FRQVLGHUD F  ODSWHOH HVWH R HPXOVLH GH JU VLPL

ntr-R VROX LH DSRDV

FXSULQ]kQGQXPHURDVHHOHPHQWHVXEIRUPDGL]ROYDW DOWHOHvQVWDUHFRORLGDO 
&RPSR]L LDFKLPLF PHGLHDODSWHOXLGHYDF H[SULPDW vQJO HVWHXUP WRDUHD

&RQVWLWXHQ LSODVWLFLLHQHUJHWLFL

DS 

6XEVWDQ

XVFDW WRWDO JU VLPL

-910g
-45g

125-130g
-95g

QHJUDV 

6XEVWDQ HD]RWRDVH
6 UXULPLQHUDOH

Biocatalizatori (nedozabili sau urme)

*U

-36g
-9,5 g

SLJPHQ L

enzime
vitamine
Gaze dizolvate:
bioxid de carbon
oxigen 4-5% din volumul laptelui
azot

VLPH
*U VLPHD ODSWHOXLHVWH XQXO GLQ FHL PDL LPSRUWDQ L FRPSRQHQ L DWkW VXE DVSHFWHFRQRPLF

L QXWULWLY FkW L SHQWUX LQIOXHQ D GHWHUPLQDQW  DVXSUD SURSULHW

LORU VHQ]RULDOH DOH ODSWHOXL L

produselor fabricate din lapte.


Lipidele cuprind trigliceride cca 98%-IRVIROLSLGH L VXEVWDQ H QHVDSRQLILFDELOHDVRFLDWH
FXJU VLPHD
*OLFHULGHOHVXQWHVWHULDLDFL]LORUJUDLFXJOLFHULQD
$X IRVW LGHQWLILFD L SHVWH  DFL]L JUDL VDWXUD L L QHVDWXUD L &DUDFWHULVWLF JU VLPLL
ODSWHOXLHVWHSURSRU LDUHODWLYULGLFDW    GHDFL]LJUDLYRODWLOL

)RVIROLSLGHOHODSWHOXLVXQWUHSUH]HQWDWHvQSULQFLSDOGHOHFLWLQ LFHIDOLQ ([LVW RVWUkQV 


OHJ WXU  vQWUH FRQ LQXWXO GH IRVIROLSLGH SURSULHW

LOH VHQ]RULDOH L FDSDFLWDWHD GH FRQVHUYDUH D

laptelui.
3URSULHW

LOH LQWHQV KLGURILOH DOHIRVIROLSLGHORU DVLJXU  VWDELOLWDWHDHPXOVLHL GH JU VLPH vQ

ID]DDSRDV DODSWHOXL
6XEVWDQ HOHQHVDSRQLILFDELOHFXSULQGVWHUROL FROHVWHURO WRFRIHUROLLFDURWHQRLGH$FHDVWD
GLQXUP FRORUHD] vQJDOEHQJU VLPHDODSWHO
3URSULHW

ui.

LOH IL]LFH L FKLPLFH DOH JU VLPLL ODSWHOXL GHSLQG GH FRQ LQXWXO vQ GLIHUL L DFL]L

JUDL
*U VLPHD vQ ODSWH VH J VHWH VXE IRUP  GH HPXOVLH JOREXOHOH GH JU VLPHD DYkQG

dimensiunea de 3-10 . Deoarece greutatea specific

 D JU VLPLL HVWH PDL PLF  GHFkW D UHVWXOXL

FRPSRQHQWHORUDFHDVWDDUHWHQGLQ DGHDVHULGLFDODVXSUDID

IHQRPHQFXQRVFXWVXEQXPHOHGH

VHSDUH QDWXUDO  VSRQWDQ  6WDELOLWDWHD HPXOVLHL HVWH DVLJXUDW  GH PHPEUDQD OLSR SURWHLF  FH

vQYHOHWH JOREXOHOH GH JU VLPH 'LVWUXJHUHD

DFHVWHL PHPEUDQH IDYRUL]HD] 

DJORPHUDUHD

JOREXOHORUGHJU VLPHSURSULHWDWHIRORVLW vQWHKQRORJLDGHIDEULFDUHDXQWXOXL

Glucidele
/DFWR]DHVWHFRPSRQHQWXOFDUHDVLJXU JXVWXOGXOFHDJDOODSWHOXL

Din punct de vedere chimic, lactoza este un hidrat de carbon - dizaharid- care prin
KLGUROL] HOLEHUHD] RPROHFXO GHJOXFR] LRPROHFXO GHJDODFWR] 

6XEVWDQ HD]RWRDVH
6XEVWDQ HOH

D]RWRDVH

SURWLGHOH 

considerente:
a. Din punct de vHGHUH

SUH]LQW 

R

LPSRUWDQ

GHRVHELW 

GLQ

PDL

PXOWH

FDQWLWDWLY DX R SRQGHUH GHRVHELW  Q ODSWHOH DQLPDOHORU

UXPHJ WRDUHFRQ LQXWXOGHVXEVWDQ HD]RWRDVHHVWHDSURSLDWGHFRQ LQXWXOvQJU VLPH


L IL]LFR-chimice n special cele legate de stabilitate sunt
E &HOHPDLLPSRUWDQWHSURSULHW
determinate dHSUH]HQ DSURWLGHORU
c. Din punct de vedere nutritiv, protidele constituie componentul cel mai important al
laptelui.
d. Unele proteine-HQ]LPH LQKLELWRUL DQWLFRUSL VXQW GHRVHELW GH LPSRUWDQWH GDWRULW 
SURSULHW
LORULPXQRORJLFHFDUDFWHULVWLFHVSHFLHi respective.
'LQ FDQWLWDWHD GH  D]RW FkW FRQ LQH ODSWHOH FFD  HVWH FXSULQV  vQ SURWHLQH L FFD
vQVXEVWDQ HD]RWRDVHQHSURWHLFH
&RQVLGHUkQGVXEVWDQ HOHD]RWRDVHvQPHGLHVHGHRVHEHVF

Proteine...95%
din care:

cazina.78,5%

lactalbumina...9,2%

lactoglobulinna..3,3%

proteoze SHSWRQHLJOLRSURWHLQH

VXEVWDQ HD]RWRDVHQHSURWHLFH

Cazeina- HVWH VXEVWDQ D VSHFLILF

 VHFUH LHL ODFWDWH UHSUH]HQWkQG FFD  GLQ WRWDOXO

VXEVWDQ HORUD]RWRDVHGLQODSWH&RQ LQWXOGHFD]HLQ vQODSWHOHGHYDF HVWHGH

-2,9%.

0ROHFXOD GH FD]HLQ  DUH R VWUXFWXU  FRPSOH[  $X IRVW SXL vQ HYLGHQ

  DPLQRDFL]L

GLIHUL LSULQFDUHRVHULHGHDFL]LLQGLVSHQVDELOLEXQHLIXQF LQ ULDRUJDQLVPXOXLLFDUH


VLQWHWL]D L GH DFHDVWD  DPLQRDFL]L HVHQ DOL

fenilalanina, histidina, triptofanul, valina,

nu pot fi
- leucine, izoleucine, lizina, arginina, metionina,

&D]HLQD DUH SURSULHWDWHD GH D FRDJXOD vQ SUH]HQ D XQRU HQ]LPH

acid pH 4,6- sauvQSUH]HQ DV


$FHVWHSURSULHW

- chimozina, n mediul

UXULORUGHFDOFLX

LVXQWIRORVLWHvQLQGXVWULDEUkQ]HWXULORULDSUHSDUDWHORUDFLGH

UXULPLQHUDOH
6 UXULOHPLQHUDOHPDLLPSRUWDQWHVXQWXUP WRDUHOH

cloruri cca. 2g/l


IRVID L cca. 3,3 g/l
FLWUD L- cca. 3,2 g/l
bicarbonat de sodiu cca. 0,2 g/l
sulfatul de sodiu - cca. 0,1 g/l
calciu legat de cazeina - 0,01 g/l

PHWDOHJUHOHILHUFXSUX]LQFPDQJDQvQFDQWLW

'LQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH WHKQRORJLF SUH]LQW  LPSRUWDQ

LIRDUWHPLFL
 FRQ LQXWXO vQ FDOFLX GDWRULW  UROX

lui

SH FDUH vO DUH vQ FRDJXODUHD ODSWHOXL GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH QXWUL LRQDO FHOH PDL LPSRUWDQWH VXQW
V UXULOH GH FDOFLX L IRVIRU 5DSRUWXO vQWUH DFHVWH GRX  HOHPHQWH HVWH FXSULQV vQWUH  L 

DVLJXUkQGRDVLPLODUHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHvQVSHFLDOGHF WUHRUJDQLVPHOHvQFUHWHUH

Gaze dizolvate

&RQ LQXWXOODSWHOXLvQJD]HGL]ROYDWHHVWHYDULDELODMXQJkQGSkQ ODGLQYROXP


,PHGLDW GXS  PXOJHUH SUHGRPLQ  ELR[LGXO GH FDUERQ vQ WLPS VFDGH FRQ LQXWXO vQ ELR[LG
GHFDUERQvQIDYRDUHDR[LJHQXOXLLD]RWXOXL

Biocatalizatorii

$FHWLSURGXLVHJ VHVFvQFDQWLW

LPLFL VXQWUHSUH]HQWD LGHYLWDPLQHLHQ]LPH

Vitamine

/DSWHOHFRQ LQHWRDWHYLWDPLQHOHQHFHVDUHGH]YROW ULLQRXOXLQ VFXW


&RQ LQXWXOvQYLWDPLQHDOODSWHOXLHVWHYDULDELOILLQGLQIOXHQ DWGHGLIHUL LIDFWRULFHOPDL

important fiind considerat regimul alimentar al animalului.


9LWDPLQHOH OLSRVROXELOH VH UHJ VHVF LQWHJUDO vQ JU VLPHD ODSWHOXL  VPkQWkQ  XQW L VXQW

UHSUH]HQWDWH vQ SULQFLSDO GH YLWDPLQHOH $ ' L ( YLWDPLQHOH KLGURVROXELOH U P

n n laptele

GHJUHVDWLVXQWUHSUH]HQWDWHGHYLWDPLQHOH%L&

Vitamina C- acidul ascorbic-FRQ LQXWXOODSWHOXLvQYLWDPLQD&HVWHUHGXVHOQXFRQVWLWXLH


RVXUV GHYLWDPLQHSHQWUXRPHVWHIRDUWHVHQVLELO ODFUHWHUHDWHPSHUDWXULL

Distrugerea acesWHLDHVWHDFFHOHUDW

GHSUH]HQ DR[LJHQXOXLVDXDPHWDOHORUJUHOH

Enzime

(Q]LPHOH VXQW FDWDOL]DWRUL VROXELOL FRORLGDOL RUJDQLFL SURGXL GH XQ RUJDQLVP YLX
$FWLYLWDWHDORUSRDWHFRQWLQXDLvQDIDUDFHOXOHORUFDUHOHDXHODERUDW

Lipaza - hidrolizeD]

 JOLFHULGHOH SXQkQG vQ OLEHUWDWH DFL]LL JUDL L JOLFHULQ  (VWH SX LQ

UH]LVWHQW ODWHPSHUDWXU vQF ]LUHDOD &WLPSGHFkWHYDVHFXQGHRLQDFWLYHD] 

3URWHD]D KLGUROL]HD]  SURWHLQHOH SkQ  OD SHSWRQH (VWH LQDFWLYDW  SULQ vQF O]LUH OD 

timp de 2 minute.
Amilaza - vQ ODSWH HVWH SUH]HQW  DPLOD]D $UH DFWLYLWDWH PDL LQWHQV

 vQ FRODVWUX L vQ

ODSWHOH DQLPDOHORU EROQDYH GH PDVWLWD (VWH LQDFWLYDW  SULQ vQF O]LUHD ODSWHOXL OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH

600C timp de 30 minute.


Peroxidaza - HVWH R HQ]LP
oxigenate.
0

 R[LGR

- UHGXF

WRDUH FDUH FDWDOL]HD]  GHVFRPSXQHUHD DSHL

(VWH XQD GLQ FHOH PDL UH]LVWHQWH OD WHPSHUDWXU  ILLQG GLVWUXV  QXPDL GXS  R vQF O]LUH OD

75 C timp de 30 minute sau n 30 secunde la 800C.

(VWHIRORVLW GUHSWWHVWSHQWUXODSWHOHvQF O]LWODWHPSHUDWXULULGLFDWHVDXSHQWUXGHSLVWDUHD


DGDRVXOXLGHDS R[LJHQDW 

1.2. Microorganismele din lapte


*HQHUDOLW

'DWRULW FRPSR]L LHLVDOHFKLPLFHLDUHDF LHLDSURDSHQHXWUHODSWHOHFRQVWLWXLHXQPHGLX


GHFXOWXU GHRVHELWGHEXQ

pentru microorganismele heterofile.

/DSWHOH QRUPDO FKLDU PXOV vQ FRQGL LL DVHSWLFH FRQ LQH GLIHUL L JHUPHQL SULPD VXUV  GH

contaminare constituind-RPDPHODQWLPSXOPXVXOXLODSWHOH VHLQIHFWHD]

 FXJHUPHQL SURYHQL L

GH SH SDUWHD H[WHUQ  D XJHUXOXL YDVHOH VDX LQVWDOD LLOH GH PXOV PkLQLOH PXOJ WRUXOXL HWF &D
XUPDUHJUDGXOGHFRQWDPLQDUHGHSLQGHGHVWDUHDGHV Q WDWHDQLPDOXOXLLvQVSHFLDOGHFRQGL LLOH
GHLJLHQ FDUHVHDVLJXU vQWLPSXOPXVXOXLLPDQLSXO ULLODSWHOXL

Dezvoltarea microorganismeloU vQ ODSWH HVWH LQKLEDW

 VDX VWLPXODW  GH R VHULH GH IDFWRUL

SXWHUHD EDFWHULFLG  VDX EDFWHULRVWDWLF  QDWXUDO  D ODSWHOXL WHPSHUDWXU  SUH]HQ D XQRU IDFWRUL GH
FUHWHUH YLWDPLQHOHJUXSXOXL% 
3XWHUHD EDFWHULRVWDWLF  HVWH PDQLIHVW  vQ SULPHOH GRX  RUH GXS  PXOJHUH FkQG VH REVHUY 

RVWDJQDUHVDXXQHRULFKLDURVF GHUHDQXP UXOXLGHPLFURRUJDQLVPH


7HPSHUDWXUD

VF ]XW 

SUHOXQJHWH

GXUDWD

ID]HL

EDFWHULFLGH

L

WRWRGDW 

vQFHWLQHWH

dezvoltarea bacteriilor n laptele crud.


6XE DF LXQHD PLFURIORUHL ODSWHOH GXS  UHFROWDUH HVWH VXSXV XQRU WUDQVIRUP UL VXFFHVLYH
FDUHFRUHVSXQGXUP WRDUHORUSHULRDGH

SHULRDGD EDFWHULFLG  - FDUH SRDWH IL SUHOXQJLW  SULQ FRERUkUHD WHPSHUDWXULL ODSWHOXL
ct mai aproape de 00C;
perioada de acidifiere - este perioada n care microorganLVPHOH LQWU  vQ ID]D GH
PXOWLSOLFDUH ORJDULWPLF  L FD XUPDUH DFLGLWDWHD ODSWHOXL FUHWH &DUDFWHULVWLFLOH ODSWHOXL VH
PRGLILF JXVWXOLPLURVXOGHYHQLQGDFLGHFD]HLQDSUHFLSLW 
(FFHVXO GH DFLGLWDWH LQKLE  GH]YROWDUHD EDFWHULLORU ODFWLFH vQ VFKLPE PHGL

ul devine

IDYRUDELOGH]YROW ULLGURMGLLORULPXFHJDLXULORU

perioada de neutralizare -GURMGLLOHPXFHJDLXULOHFRQVXP

vQWUHDJDFDQWLWDWHGHDFLG

QHXWUDOL]HD] PHGLXOLFUHHD] FRQGL LLSHQWUXGH]YROWDUHDIORUHLPLFURELHQHGHSXWUHIDF LH

perioada de puWUHIDF LH  vQ FDUH EDFWHULLOH SURWHROLWLFH GH SXWUHIDF LH GHJUDGHD]
substratul proteic.

0RGLILF ULOH SURYRFDWH GH PLFURRUJDQLVPH vQ ODSWH L SURGXVH ODFWDWH DSDU FD XUPDUH D
GHJUDG ULLFHORUWUHLFRPSRQHQWHSULQFLSDOHODFWR]DSURWHLQHLJU VLPL

Microflora laptelui
/DSWHOH ILLQG XQ H[FHOHQW PHGLX GH FXOWXU  DVLJXU  GH]YROWDUHD D QXPHURDVH WLSXUL GH

JHUPHQLFXSULQ]kQGDWkWEDFWHULLFkWLGURMGLLLPXFHJDLXUL
'LQSXQFWXOGHYHGHUHDODF LXQLLORUPLFURRUJDQLVPHOHGLQODSWHVHvPSDUWvQ

microorganisme saprofie

IRORVLWRUH

FDUH

DVLJXU 

RE LQHUHD

GH

FDUDFWHULVWLFL

specifice n produsele lactate (bacterii


propionice, unele drojdii, mucegaiuri)

G XQ WRDUH FDUH
FRQVLVWHQ

SURYRDF  GHIHFWH

GH

lactice,

JXVW DURP 

 EDFWHULL FROLIRUPH EXWLULFH GH SXWUHIDF LH

drojdii (genul Candida) mucegaiuri (Rhizopus) etc.

microorganisme patogene G

XQ WRDUHV Q W

LLRPXOXLLDQLPDOHORU

75$7$0(178/35,0$5,&2/(&7$5($
3URGXF LD GH ODSWH PDWHULH SULP  SXQH SUREOHPH GHRVHELWH DGHVHD LQVXILFLHQW FXQRVFXWH
GHLHOHGHWHUPLQ DWkWWUDWDPHQWXOXOWHULRUDOODSWHOXLFkWLVDOXEULWDWHDSURGXVHORUILQLWH7UHEXLH
UH LQXW IDSWXO F  QLFL XQ WUDWDPHQW WHKQRORJLF QX VH SRDWH DGDSWD XQXL ODSWH PDWHULH SULP  GH
SURDVW  FDOLWDWH I U  LQFRQYHQLHQWH 'H DFHHD S VWUDUHD FDOLW
PXOJHULL L SkQ  OD SUHOXFUDUH DUH R LPSRUWDQ

LL LQL LDOH D ODSWHOXL GLQ PRPHQWXO

 HFRQRPLF  GHRVHELW  L

LQkQG VHDPD GH

PRGLILF ULOH SH FDUH OH SRW VXIHUL SULQFLSDOHOH FRPSRQHQWH DOH ODSWHOXL PDL DOHV VXE LQIOXHQ D

microorganismelor. La aceasta se PDL DGDXJ

 L LQIOXHQ D XQRU IDFWRUL IL]LFL FXP VXQW OXPLQD L

F OGXUD
/DSWHOH FRQ LQH R PLFURIORU  LQL LDO  LQGLIHUHQW GH P VXULOH OXDWH vQ WLPSXO UHFROW ULL

(mulgerii).
&RQWDPLQDUHD LQL LDO  LQHYLWDELO  HVWH DJUDYDW  GH FRQWDPLQ UL XOWHULRDUH FDX]DWH

VSHFLDO GH LQVXILFLHQWD LJLHQL]DUH D PDWHULDOHORU FX FDUH YLQH vQ FRQWDFW )D]D EDFWHULFLG  D
ODSWHOXL FDUH VH PDQLIHVW  vQ SULPHOH  RUH GH OD PXOJHUH QX DVLJXU  GLVWUXJHUHD JHUPHQLORU PDL
DOHVvQFD]XOXQRUFRQWDPLQ ULPDVLYH

Laptele prin natura sa

FRQVWLWXLH XQ PHGLX IDYRUDELO GH]YROW UL PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU

SUROLIHUDUHDDFHVWRUDILLQGIDYRUL]DW GHWHPSHUDWXUDGHUHFROWDUHIRDUWHDSURSLDW GHWHPSHUDWXUD


RSWLP GHGH]YROWDUHDJHUPHQLORUSDWRJHQL

/LPLWDUHD PRGLILF ULORU SH FDUH OH SRW SURYRFD PLFU

oorganismele prin activitatea lor

HQ]LPDWLF  vQ FRPSR]L LD ODSWHOXL DFLGLILHUH GHJUDGDUHD VXEVWDQ HORU SURWHLFH  DUH R LPSRUWDQW 
GHRVHELW  GHRDUHFH ODSWHOH SH OkQJ  IDSWXO F  SRDWH GHYHQL LPSURSULX LQGXVWULDOL] ULL SRDWH
FRQVWLWXLLXQPLMORFIRDUWHS
QFRQVHFLQ

ericulos de proliferare a unor boli ca tuberculoza, bruceloza etc.

vQFD]XOPDWHULHLSULPHDWHQ LDVHvQGUHDSW vQGRX GLUHF LLSULQFLSDOH

/LPLWDUHDFRQWDPLQ ULLSULQ

a)

6S ODUHDLGH]LQIHFWDUHD HILFLHQW D DSDUDWXULLLUHFLSLHQWHORUF

are vin n contact

cu laptele
b) Filtrarea laptelui vQVFRSXOHOLPLQ
1.

ULLLPSXULW

LORUYL]LELOH

/LPLWDUHD SUROLIHU ULL PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU SULQ U FLUHD ODSWHOXL LPHGLDW GXS  PXOJHUH OD

temperatura de 2-50C.

5H]XOWDWHOH EXQH RE LQXWH SULQ U FLUH LPHGLDW GXS  PXOJHUH H[SOLF  WHQGLQ D DFWXDO  GH D
VH UHQXQ D WUHSWDW OD FHQWUHOH GH U FLUH OD FDUH VH WUDQVSRUW  L VH U FHWH ODSWHOH GH OD PDL PXO L
SURGXF WRUL FX U FLUHD ODSWHOXL OD JUDMG $FHVW VLVWHP SHUPLWH UD LRQDOL]DUHD WUDQVSRUWXOXL

ridicarea laptelui de lDSURGXF

WRUSXWkQGX

-se efectua la intervale mai mari de timp.


-50C. timp mai ndelungat

1X VH UHFRPDQG  S VWUDUHD ODSWHOXL FUXG OD WHPSHUDWXUL GH 

SHVWH  RUH  GHRDUHFHSRW DS UHD PRGLILF UL GHJXVW PLURV L FKLDUFXORDUH GDWRULW  GH]YROW ULL

unor micURRUJDQLVPHFDUHVHFUHW

HQ]LPHSURWHROLWLFHLROLSD] WHUPRUH]LVWHQW 

5 FLUHD SURIXQG  D ODSWHOXL FUXG DUH SHUVSHFWLYD GH DSOLFDUH L vQ IDEULFL DVLJXUkQG
VWRFDUHD ODSWHOXL vQ ]LOHOH GH UHSDXV OHJDO $FHDVW  VROX LH VH UHIOHFW  IDYRUDELO DVXSUD

producWLYLW

LLPXQFLL

&ROHFWDUHD ODSWHOXL VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ VLVWHP LQHODU WHULWRULDO GH DSURYL]LRQDUH FX PDWHULH
SULP  D vQWUHSULQGHULL UHSUH]HQWkQG ]RQD GH FROHFWDUH $FHVW VLVWHP LQHODU GH FROHFWDUH SHUPLWH
RUJDQL]DUHDWUDQVSRUWXOXLLFRQWUROXOPDWHULHL

prime.

/DSWHOH PDWHULH SULP  SURYLQH ILH GLQ JRVSRG ULL


ODSWHOH HVWH FROHFWDW vQ SXQFWH VDX FHQWUH GH UHFHS LH

U QHWL ILH GLQ IHUPH Q SULPXO FD]

- U

FLUH XQGH VH FRQGL LRQHD]  SkQ  OD

WUDQVSRUWXOODIDEULF vQFHOGHDOGRLOHDFD]VHUHFRPDQG U FLUHDODSWHOXLODIHUPDLGHSR]LWDUHD


OXLSkQ ODULGLFDUHDGHF WUHvQWUHSULQGHUH
3XQFWXO GH UHFHS LH

 U

FLUH UHSUH]LQW  FHD PDL PLF  XQLWDWH GH FROHFWDUH UD]D OXL GH

DFWLYLWDWH GHS LQG  NP (VWH VLWXDW GH RELFHL vQ FRPXQH PDL PDUL FX GUXPXUL GH DF

ces

FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHWUDQVSRUWXOXLFXPLMORDFHDXWR
/D SXQFWHOH L FHQWUHOH GH UHFHS LH

- U

FLUH VH HIHFWXHD]  UHFHS LD FDOLWDWLY  D ODSWHOXL

DQDOL]DRUJDQROHSWLF FRQ LQXWXOvQ JU VLPHDFLGLWDWHDGHQVLWDWHD UHFHS LDFDQWLWDWLY ILOWUDUHD

pentru ndHS UWDUHDLPSXULW LORU PHFDQLFH U


acestuia la unitatea de prelucrare.

FLUHD ODSWHOXL L GHSR]LWDUHDOXL SkQ  ODWUDQVSRUWXO

&RQGL LLOH GH FDOLWDWH SHQWUX ODSWH PDWHULH SULP  VXQW FXSULQVH vQ 67$6 -61 Lapte
crud integral. Conform acestui act normativ, indicii organoleptici, fizico-FKLPLFLLEDFWHULRORJLL
SHQWUXODSWHFUXGLQWHJUDOSURYHQLWGHODGLIHULWHVSHFLLGHDQLPDOHVHSUH]LQW GXS FXPXUPHD] 

Indicii senzoriali al laptelui crud integral


Caracteristici
Aspect

Lapte deFDSU

/DSWHGHYDF

/DSWHGHELYROL

Tabelul nr. 13
Lapte de oaie

/LFKLG RPRJHQ RSDOHVFHQW I U  FRUSXUL VWU LQH YL]LELOH vQ VXVSHQVLH L I U 

sediment
&RQVLVWHQ

)OXLG QXVHDGPLWHFRQVLVWHQ DYkVFRDV ILODQW VDXPXFLODJLQRDV

Culoare

$OE  FX QXDQ


J OEXLH

$OE 

FX

J OEXLH

QXDQ

$OE

DELD

SHUFHSWLELO
3O FXWVSHFLILFODSWHOXLFUXGI U PLURVVWU LQ

Miros
Gust

3O FXWGXOFHDJFDUDFWHULVWLFODSWHOXLSURDVS W

2EVHYD LH /DODSWHOHGHRDLHVHDGPLWHXQVODEVHGLPHQWGHFXORDUHFHQXLH

$OE

Indicii fizico-chimici ai laptelui crud integral


Tabelul nr.14
Caracteristici

Lapte

Lapte de

grade

'HQVLWDWH UHODWLY  G4

0HWRGHGHDQDOL]

15-19

Max 19

Max21

Lapte de
oaie
Max24

1029

1029

1031

1033

STAS6347-73

32
8,5

33
8,5

65
10,0

65
11,0

STAS6352/1-88
STAS6344-88

3,2
I
14

3,2
I
15

4,5
I
14

5,0
II
15

STAS6355-89
STAS6346-89
-

FDSU

GHYDF

Aciditate,
Thorner

20

Lapte de
ELYROL

STAS6353-85

min.

*U VLPHPLQLP
6XEVWDQ

 XVFDW  I U 

JU VLPL PLQ

Titru proteic, % minim


Grad de impurificare
Temperatura, 0C maxim

3. TRANSPORTUL LAPTELUI
7UDQVSRUWXOODSWHOXLGHODSURGXF WRUODIDEULF VHHIHFWXHD] vQFHOPDLVFXUWWLPSSRVLELO
vQ FRQGL LL FDUH V  DVLJXUH S VWUDUHD FDOLW

LL PDWHULHL SULPH 0RGXO vQ FDUH HVWH RUJDQL]DW

WUDQVSRUWXO LQIOXHQ HD]  GHVI XUDUHD SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF L FDOLWDWHD SURGXVHORU ILQLWH
5LGLFDUHD ODSWHOXL GH OD IHUP  L FHQWUHOH GH FROHFWDUH VH HIHFWXHD]  RGDW  VDX GH GRX  RUL SH ]L
FRUHVSXQ] WRU ILHF UHL PXOVRUL  LDU VRVLUHD ODSWHOXL vQ IDEULF  WUHEXLH V  ILH ULWPLF  FRUHODW  FX

capacitateaGHUHFHS LHSDVWHXUL]DUHLGHSR]LWDUH
7UDQVSRUWXOODSWHOXLODXQLWDWHDGHSUHOXFUDUHVHHIHFWXHD] vQELGRDQHVDXvQDXWRFLVWHUQH
7UDQVSRUWXO vQ ELGRDQH VH IDFH QXPDL vQ FD]XO vQ FDUH IDEULFD VH DSURYL]LRQHD]  GH OD XQ QXP U
PDUH GH SURGXF WRUL FDUH OLYUHD]  FDQWLW

L PLFL GH ODSWH %LGRDQHOH IRORVLWH OD QRL vQ DU  VXQW

FRQIHF LRQDWHGLQDOXPLQLXLDXRFDSDFLWDWHGHO
7UDQVSRUWXO

ODSWHOXL

FX

DXWRFLVWHUQH

L]RWHUPD

temperaturii laptelui n timpul transportului, DVLJXU


SHUPLWHRIRORVLUHUD LRQDO DFDSDFLW

DUH

DYDQWDMXO

F 

SUHYLQH

ULGLFDUHD

 R LPSRUWDQW  HFRQRPLH GH PDQRSHU  L

LLGHWUDQVSRUW

7UDQVSRUWXOFXDXWRFLVWHUQDHVWHDYDQWDMRVvQFRQGL LLOHDSURYL]LRQ ULLGHODIXUQL]RULFDUH


OLYUHD]  FDQWLW

L PDUL GH ODSWH 6H UHFRPDQG  FRPSDUWLPHQW

DPHVWHFXOODSWHOXLGHGLYHUVHFDOLW

area cisternei pentru a se evita

L

Q FRQWLQXDUH VH SUH]LQW  RULHQWDWLY SLHUGHULOH FH VH SRW vQUHJLVWUD OD WUDQVSRUWXO ODSWHOXL

sau smntnii.
Tabelul nr.15
&RQGL LLGHDSOLFDUH

Mijloace de transport
Auto
Auto
Hipo

Pierderi %
Modul de ambalare
Lapte
Cisterne
12
Bidoane
28
Bidoane
15

6PkQWkQ 

0,08
-

Lapte smntnit
12
-

4. IGIENIZAREA LAPTELUI
'DWRULW  FRPSR]L LHL VDOH ODSWHOH HVWH FRQVLGHUDW XQ DOLPHQW FRPSOHW LQ

dispensabil

FUHWHULL L GH]YROW ULLDUPRQLRDVH L HFKLOLEUDWH D RUJDQLVPXOXL (O FRQVWLWXLH XQ H[FHOHQW PHGLX

de cultura pentru cele mai multe microorganisme.

0XOWLSOHOH PDQLSXO UL SH FDUH OH VXIHU  ODSWHOH GH OD UHFROWDUH SkQ  OD FRQVXPDWRU

contribuie lDLPSXULILFDUHDLLQIHFWDUHDODSWHOXLFXXQQXP

UPDUHLYDULDWGHPLFURRUJDQLVPH

3H OkQJ  DFHVWHD vQ ODSWH PDL SRW DSDUH R VHULH GH PLFURRUJDQLVPH SURYHQLWH GLQ JODQGD
PDPDU DDQLPDOHORUEROQDYHGHXQHOHEROLFDWXEHUFXOR]DEUXFHOR]DIHEUDDIWRDV IHEUD4HWF
LQkQG VHDPD GH ORFXO SH FDUH vO RFXS  ODSWHOH L SURGXVHOH ODFWDWH vQ UD LD DOLPHQWDU 
]LOQLF DRDPHQLORUHVWHHYLGHQW QHFHVLWDWHDDVLJXU ULLXQHLFDOLW

LFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHDFHVWRUDDWkW

LLSURGXVXOXL

sub aspect fizico-FKLPLFFkWLGLQSXQFWXOGHYHGHUHDOVDOXEULW

$VLJXUDUHDDFHVWRUFHULQ HLPSXQHIRORVLUHDXQRUSURFHGHHGHLJLHQL]DUHFDUHV RSUHDVF 


SUROLIHUDUHDPLFURRUJDQLVPHORULFKLDUV OHGLVWUXJ 
$FHVWH SURFHGHH VH ED]HD]  SH VWXGLXO HIHFWHORU GLIHUL LORU IDFWRUL H[WHUQL D

supra

SURFHVHORU YLWDOH DOH FHOXOHORU PLFURELHQH L SRW IL FODVLILFDWH vQ WUHL JUXSH SULQFLSDOH SURFHGHH
IL]LFHSURFHGHHFKLPLFHLSURFHGHHELRORJLFH
3URFHGHHOHIL]LFH VXQW FHOD PDL U VSkQGLWH 'LQWUH DFHVWHD vQ LQGXVWULD SRQGHUHD FHD PDL
LPSRUWDQW 

revine procedeelor termice.

4.1. Procedee chimice


Procedeele chimicevQSULQFLSLXVHED]HD]

SHSURSULHW

LOHEDFWHULRVWDWLFHLEDFWHULFLGH

DOHXQRUFRPSXLFKLPLFL DQWLVHSWLFH 'DWRULW FDUDFWHUXOXLWR[LFDOPDMRULW


SUDFWLF VHDSOLF QXPDLWUDWDUHDODSWHOXLFXSHUKLGURO

LLDQWLVHSWLFHORUvQ

- procedeul Peroxicatalazic (P.O.K.).

3ULQFLSLXO PHWRGHL VH ED]HD]  SH DF LXQHD EDFWHULFLG  L EDFWHULRVWDWLF  D SHUKLGUROXOXL


DVXSUD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU DQDHUREH VSRUXODWH L QHVSRUXODWH  FDUH QX VHFUHW  FDWDOD]  $VXSUD
FHORUODOWH PLFURRUJDQLVPH DSD R[LJHQDW  H[HUFLW  vQ JHQHUDO R DF LXQH EDFWHULRVWDWLF  vQ DQXPLWH
FRQGL LL SHUKLGUROXO H[HUFLW  L R DF LXQH GH LQDFWLYDUH D XQRU HQ]LPH 0\FUREDWHULXP
WXEHUFXORVLV %UXFHOOD DEVLWXV L XQHOH VSHFLL GH 6WDILORFRF

cus aureus nu sunt distruse sub

DF LXQHD SHUKLGUROXOXL 3URFHGHXO HVWH IRORVLW vQ VSHFLDO vQ


SUHOXQJLULLFRQVXPDELOLW

ULOH FX FOLP  FDOG  vQ VFRSXO

LLODSWHOXLPDWHULHSULP 

4.2. Procedee biologice


Procedeele biologice VH UHIHU  OD FXOWLYDUHD XQRU PLFURRUJDQLVPH FDUH HODERUHD]
- HVWH FD]XO EDFWHULLORU ODFWLFH FDUH SULQ IHUPHQWD LH ODFWLF  vPSLHGLF

VXEVWDQ H DQWLVHSWLFH




GH]YROWDUHDJHUPHQLORUSURWHROLWLFL$FHVWSURFHGHXVW ODED]DSUHSDU ULLSURGXVHORUODFWDWHDFLGH

-LDXUWODSWHE

WXWHWF

- asociat cu tratament termic.

4.3. Procedee termice de igienizare a laptelui


QSUDFWLFDLQGXVWULDO WUDWDPHQWXOWHUPLFHVWHFHOPDLU VSkQGLWFDPHWRGDGHFRQVHUYDUH
D ODSWHOXL6SHUGHRVHELUH GHDOWHSURFHGHHDFHVWDGLQXUP  SHUPLWH LRRDUHFDUHvPEXQ W
FDOLW

LUHD

LLODSWHOXLSULQLJLHQL]DUHDOXL
7UDWDPHQWHOH WHUPLFH VH ED]HD]  SH SURSULHWDWHD F OGXULL GH D GLVWUXJH FHOXOHOH

microbiene.
Q FD]XO vQF O]LULL OD WHPSHUDWXUL LQIHULRDUH OLPLWHL GH 

C sunt distruse celulele

PLFURELHQHvQIRUP YHJHWDWLY 
7UDWDPHQWXO WHUPLF SRDUW  QXPHOH GH SDVWHXUL]DUH L DVLJXU  R SHULRDG  OLPLWDW  GH

conservare.

Q FD]XO vQF O]LULL OD WHPSHUDWXUL GH SHVWH  & VH GLVWUXJ L IRUPHOH VSRUXODWH
7UDWDPHQWXOWHUPLFSRDUW QXPHOHGHVWHULOL]DUHLDVLJXU RSHULRDG OXQJ GHFRQVHUYDUH

Indiferent de regimul termic aplicat, se are n vedere n mod obligatoriu distrugerea


germenilor patogeni.
5HJLPXO WHUPLF DSOLFDW QX DF LRQHD]  QXPDL DVXSUD IORUHL PLFURELHQH FL DUH LQIOXHQ
DVXSUDFRQVWLWXHQ LORUODSWHOXL

 L

4.3.1.$F LXQHDF

OGXULLDVXSUDFRQVWLWXHQ LORULPLFURIORUHLODSWHOXL

(IHFWXOWUDWDPHQWXOXLWHUPLFHVWHGHWHUPLQDWGHWHPSHUDWXUDLGXUDWDvQF O]LULL

$F LXQHDDVXSUDJU

VLPLLODSWHOXL

'LQSXQFWGHYHGHUHFKLPLFJOLFHULGHOHVXQWIRDUWHSX LQPRGLILFDWHVXEDF LXQHDF OGXULL


VXQW QHFHVDUH WHPSHUDWXUL vQDOWH L WUDWDPHQWH GH OXQJ  GXUDW  SHQWUX PRGLILF UL VHQVLELOH D
FRPSR]L LHLDFHVWRUD
7HPSHUDWXUDDF LRQHD] vQV DVXSUDVWUXFWXULLIL]LFR FKLPLFHDJOREXOHLGHJU VLPH

Astfel la temperaturi mai mari de 65 -& FRQVWLWXHQ LL SURWHLFL DL PHPEUDQHL DJOXWLQLQH 
VXQWGHQDWXUD LLVHSLHUGHSURSULHWDWHDGHVHSDUDUHVSRQWDQ DJU VLPLLvQODSWH
9LWH]D GH VHSDUDUH VSRQWDQ  D JOREXOHORU GH JU VLPH HVWH GHWHUPLQDW  GH LQWHQVLWDWHD

tratamentului termic.
AstfHO OD ODSWHOHvQF

O]LWWLPS GH  PLQXWH OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH 

-& QX VH REVHUY

 QLFL R

PRGLILFDUHvQFRPSRUWDPHQWXOJOREXOHORUGHJU VLPHQFD]XOvQFDUHODSWHOHHVWHvQF O]LWOD

timp de 10 minute sau la 70 C timp de 2 minute, viteza de separare natuUDO


VLP LWRU&DXUPDUHODSWHOHSUH]LQW ODVXSUDID

 D JOREXOHORU VFDGH

XQVWUDWVXE LUHGHJU VLPHFHHDFHGHWHUPLQ SH

FRQVXPDWRULLQHDYL]D LV FUHDG F ODSWHOHHVWHSDU LDOVPkQWkQLW

$F LXQHDDVXSUDSURWHLQHORUODSWHOXL
6XEVWDQ HOHSURWHLFHVXQWFRPSRQHQWHOHFHOHPDLVHQVLELOHODFUHWHUHDWHPSHUDWXULL

Proteinele solubile sunt cele mai sensibile; ele sunt denaturate ireversibil (insolubilizate)
0
C timp de 30 minute sunt denaturate
imunoglobuOLQHOHvQSURSRU LHGH ODFWRJOREXOLQDL lactoglobulina 6%.

FX FUHWHUHD WHPSHUDWXULL Q ODSWHOH vQF O]LW OD 

&D]HLQDMRDF XQUROSURWHFWRUSHQWUXSURWHLQHOHGHQDWXUDWHFDUHSUHFLSLW RGDW FXFD]LQD


OD SXQFWXO L]RHOHFWULF DO DFHVWHLD VDX vPSUHXQ  FX SDUDFD]HLQ  vQ XUPD DF LXQLL FRDJXODQWH D

cheagului.
$FHDVW SURSULHWDWHDSURWHLQHORUVROXELOHGLQODSWHDUHDSOLFD LLSUDFWLFHvQFD]XOIDEULF ULL
EUkQ]HWXULORUFXvQJOREDUHGHDOEXPLQ 

n cazul unui regim de pasteurizare la 72 0& FX WLPS GH PHQ LQere relativ scurt (15 sec.)
VHSURGXFHRGHQDWXUDUHvQSURSRU LHGHQXPDL-10% a proteinelor solubile.
La temperaturi sub 1000& FD]HLQD QX HVWH GHQDWXUDW  (D VXIHU  PRGLILF UL QXPDL GDF 
0
HVWHPHQ LQXW PDLPXOWHRUHODWHPSHUDWXULSHVWH C.
ComplexXOXLIRVIRFD]HLQDWGHFDOFLXHVWHPDLPXOWVDXPDLSX LQPRGLILFDWODWHPSHUDWXUL
de peste 750&(VWHDIHFWDWHFKLOLEUXOH[LVWHQWvQWUHPLFHOHOHGHIRVIRFD]HLQDWLV UXULOHPLQHUDOH
VROXELOHRSDUWHGLQV UXULOHVROXELOHGHFDOFLXWUHFvQIRVIDWWULFDOFLFLQVROXELO$FHVWHPRGLILF UL
SURGXF GLILFXOW

L OD FRDJXODUHD ODSWHOXL FX FKHDJ QHDMXQV FDUH VH vQO WXU  SULQ DGDRV GH FORUXU 

de calciu.
QWLPSXOvQF O]LULLvQSUH]HQ DR[LJHQXOXLVHHOLEHUHD] JUXS UL

SH provenite din cistina

L FLVWHLQD FHHD FH FRQIHU  ODSWHOXL JXVW GH ILHUW 'HIHFWXO HVWH vQO WXUDW SULQ WUDWDUHD WHUPLF  D
ODSWHOXLvQDSDUDWHvQFKLVHvQDEVHQ DDHUXOXL

$F LXQHDDVXSUDODFWR]HL

La temperaturi de peste 700& ODFWR]D HVWH SDU LDO GHVFRPSXV  FX HOLEHUDUH GH DFL]L
DOFRROL L DOGHKLde. Unele din produsele de degradare acidul formic - SUH]LQW  SURSULHW L
stimulente pentru lactobacili.
QF O]LUHD OD WHPSHUDWXUD vQDOW  IDYRUL]HD]  IRUPDUHD XQXL FRPSOH[ vQWUH SURWHLQH L
ODFWR] SURGXFkQGEUXQLILFDUHDODSWHOXL

AceDVW
format.

UHDF LD0DLOODUG

 UHDF LH VFDGH YDORDUHD QXWULWLY  D ODSWHOXL SULQ EORFDUHD OL]LQHL vQ FRPSOH[XO

$F LXQHDDVXSUDV

UXULORUPLQHUDOHLDJD]HORUGLQODSWH

&UHWHUHD WHPSHUDWXULL LQIOXHQ HD]  HFKLOLEUX VDOLQ DO ODSWHOXL vQ VHQVXO FD OD WHPSHUDWXUL

de peste 650-C acidul fosforic format scoate o parte din calciul legat de cazeina din sistem sub
IRUP GHIRVIDWWULFDOFLFLQVROXELO

6ROXELOLWDWHD JD]HORU GL]ROYDWH vQ ODSWH VFDGH FX FUHWHUHD WHPSHUDWXULL 3UH]HQ D vQ

special a oxigenului nu este de dorit din cauzD SURFHVHORU R[LGDWLYH SH FDUH OH GHFODQHD] 
afectnd n special vitamina C.
Pentru eliminarea gazelor dizolvate n lapte se recurge la degazare prin trecerea laptelui
vQF O]LWSULQWU-un recipient vacuumat.

$F LXQHDDVXSUDHQ]LPHORU

Tratamentele termLFHLQDFWLYHD]

HQ]LPHOH

$VWIHO SULQ vQF O]LUHD ODSWHOXL OD & HVWH LQDFWLYDW  UHGXFWD]D L SHUR[LGD]D L OD 

900C sunt inactivate lipazele microbiene.

,QGXVWULDOFRQWUROXOWUDWDPHQWXOXLWHUPLF FRQWUROXOSDVWHXUL] ULL VHIDFHSULQWHVWHSULYLQG

pUH]HQ DHQ]LPHORUvQODSWH

$F LXQHDDVXSUDYLWDPLQHORU
9LWDPLQHOH GLQ ODSWH SUH]LQW  R UH]LVWHQ

 GLIHULW  OD DF LXQHD F OGXULL YLWDPLQHOH

hidrosolubile sunt n general mai termolabile dect cele liposolubile. Acest fenomen este pus pe
VHDPDDF LXQLLSURWHFWRDUHDJU VLPLL

Q FD]XO vQF O]LULL ODSWHOXL OD WHPSHUDWXUL VXE  & vQ DEVHQ D DHUXOXL YLWDPLQHOH VXQW
FRQVHUYDWH DSURDSH vQ WRWDOLWDWH 'LPSRWULY  vQF O]LUHD OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH 

C n aer liber,

SURYRDF GLVWUXJHUHDYLWDPLQHORU$%1

, B2 , C.

$F LXQHDF

OGXULLDVXSUDPLFURRUJDQLVPHORU

7HPSHUDWXULOH ULGLFDWH SURYRDF  PRGLILF UL DOH SURFHVHORU YLWDOH SULQ GH]RUJDQL]DUHD

echilibrului fizico-FKLPLF

LQWUDFHOXODU L FXOPLQHD]  FX PRDUWHD FHOXOHL PLFURELHQH SULQ

FRDJXODUHDVXEVWDQ HORUSURWHLFH

'LVWUXJHUHD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU VXE DF LXQHD WHPSHUDWXULL VH GHVI RDU  GXS  R FXUE 
ORJDULWPLF ILLQGvQUHOD LHGLUHFW FXLQWHQVLWDWHDLGXUDWDWUDWDPHQWXOXLWHUPLF
(ILFDFLWDWHD WUDWDPHQWXOXL WHUPLF HVWH vQ IXQF LH GH WHUPRUH]LVWHQ D PLFURRUJDQLVPHO

or

FDUHODUkQGXOHLHVWHLQIOXHQ DW GH

VSHFLDPLFURRUJDQLVPHORULVWDGLXOORUGHGH]YROWDUH

QXP UXOLQL LDOGHPLFURRUJDQLVPH

FRPSR]L LDFKLPLF DPHGLXOXLvQFDUHWU LP

6SHFLDPLFURRUJDQLVPHORULVWDGLXOGHGH]YROWDUH
Q RUGLQH GHVFUHVFkQG  D WHUPRUH]LVWHQ HL PLFURRUJDQLVPHOH VH SUH]LQW  DVWIHO EDFWHULL

mucegaiuri, drojdii.
0DMRULWDWHD IRUPHORU YHJHWDWLYH DOH PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU VXQW GLVWUXVH SULQ vQF O]LUH OD

temperaturi de 60-800&SkQ

ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

C.

/DSWHOH FRQ LQH R PLFURIORU  UHODWLY WHUPRUH]LVWHQW  JHQXO /DFWREDFLOOXV DYkQG L


UHSUH]HQWDQ LWHUPRILOL

4.3.2. Pasteurizarea laptelui


'LQ FHOH SUH]HQWDWH VH SRDWHFRQFOX]LRQD F  SDVWHXUL]DUHD HVWH WUDWDUHD WHUPLF  D ODSWHOXL
XUP ULQG

distrugerea n totalitate a microflorei patogene;

GLVWUXJHUHDFHOHLPDLPDULS U LDPLFURIORUHLEDQDOH

PRGLILF UL PLQLPH DOH FRQVWLWXHQ LORU ODSWHOXL D VWUXFWXULL IL]LFH L D HFKLOLEUXOXL

chimic.
5HJLPXO GH SDVWHXUL]DUH D IRVW VWDELOLW LQkQG VHDPD GH UHOD LD WLPS

Mycobacterium tuberculosis acordndu-VHXQHOHPDUMHGHVLJXUDQ

-temperatura pentru

QSUDFWLF VHvQWkOQHVFXUP WRDUHOHWLSXULGHPHWRGHGHSDVWHXUL]DUH

SDVWHXUL]DUHMRDV FDUHFRQVW vQvQF O]LUHOD

SDVWHXUL]DUH vQDOW  FRQVWkQG vQ vQF O]LUHD ODSWHOXL OD 

C timp de 30 minute;
0
C cu PHQ LQHUH WLPS GH 

secunde.
Acest procedeu este denumit procedeul HTST (high temperature short time).
0LFURIORUDUHPDQHQW GLQODSWHOHSDVWHXUL]DW EDFWHULLODFWLFHWHUPRILOH VHGH]YROW RSWLP

la temperaturi cuprinse ntre 300& L 0C. Ca urmare penWUX D VH HYLWD R DFLGLILHUH UDSLG
0 0
ODSWHOXLSDVWHXUL]DWVHUHFXUJHODRU FLUHUDSLG ODWHPSHUDWXULGH -4 C.

 D

,QVWDOD LLOHGHSDVWHXUL]DUHIRORVLWHLQGXVWULDOVXQWVFKLPE WRDUHGHF OGXU YDQHFXPDQWD


SHQWUX SDVWHXUL]DUH MRDV  VDX VFKLPE WRDUH GH F OGXU  FX SO FL SHQWUX SDVWHXUL]DUHD vQDOW 
$FHVWHD GLQ XUP  VXQW HFKLSDWH vQ PRG REOLJDWRULX FX R VHF LXQH GH vQF O]LUH R VHF LXQH GH
PHQ LQHUHLXQDGHU FLUH

23(5$

,,7(+12/2*,&(*(1(5$/(

7HKQRORJLDGHIDEULFDUHDODSWHOXLGHFRQVXPLDSURGXVHORUODFWDWHFXSULQGHXUP WRDUHOH

RSHUD LLFRPXQH

1. 5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY
2. 5HFHS LDFDQWLWDWLY
3. Filtrare
4. 5 FLUH
5. Depozitare
6. &XU LUHFHQWULIXJDO
7. Normalizare
8. Omogenizare
9. Pasteurizare
10. 5 FLUH
11. Depozitare
5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY
LQkQG FRQW GH UROXO KRW UkWRU DO FDOLW

LL PDWHULHL SULPH vQ GHVI XUDUHD SURFHVXOXL

WHKQRORJLF L vQ UHDOL]DUHD GH SURGXVH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH FDOLWDWLY VH DFRUG  R DWHQ LH GHRVHELW 
GHWHUPLQ ULLFDOLW

LLDFHVWHLD

1XP UXO GH DQDOL]H GH HIHFWXDW HVWH UHODWLY UHGXV LQGLFLL IL]LFR
GHWHUPLQD L SHUPL kQG V  VH WUDJ  FRQFOX]LL DVXSUD FDOLW

-chiPLFL L EDFWHULRORJLFL
LL PDWHULHL SULPH vQWU-un timp relativ

VFXUW )UHFYHQW VH GHWHUPLQ  DFLGLWDWHD WLWUDELO  VDX DFWLY  FRQ LQXWXO GH JU VLPH VXEVWDQ D
XVFDW  LQGLUHFW SULQ GHWHUPLQDUHD GHQVLW

LL  JUDGXO GH LPSXULILFDUH L LQGLFLL EDFWHULRORJLFL

proba reductazei.

$FLGLWDWHDHVWHXQXOGLQLQGLFLLFDOLWDWLYLLPSRUWDQ LFDUHRULHQWHD] DVXSUDJUDGXOXLGH


SURVSH LPHDODSWHOXL

8Q PRG RELQXLW VH GHWHUPLQ  SULQ WLWUDUHD D  PO ODSWH FX VROX LH GH 1D 2+  Q Q

DUD QRDVWU  DFLGLWDWHD VH H[SULP  vQ JUDGH 7KRUQHU 7  L UHSUH]LQW  QXP UXO GH PLOLOLWUL GH

VROX LH1D2+QIRORVL LSHQWUXQHXWUDOL]DUHDDFLGLW


QXQHOH

LLDPOODSWH

ULVHIRORVHVFVROX LLGHKLGUR[LGGHVRGLXGHDOWHFRQFHQWUD LLQFD]XOVROX LHL

Henkel (06+  LDU vQ FD]XO XQHL VROX LL GH


1D2+QDFLGLWDWHDVHH[SULP vQJUDGH'RUQLF D).
Formulele de transformare a diverselor grade de aciditate sunt redate mai jos:
1D2+ Q DFLGLWDWHD VH H[SULP  vQ JUDGH  6R[KOHW

T=

T =

90
D
10

10 0
SH
4

D=

D=

10 0
T
9

SH =

40
T
10

SH =

40
D
9

90
SH
4

$FLGLWDWHD OLPLW  DGPLV  SHQWUX ODSWHOH GHVWLQDW SUHOXFU ULL HVWH GH 

riGLFDW

T; o aciditate mai

DWUDJHGXS VLQHFRDJXODUHDSURWHLQHORUvQWLPSXOWUDWDPHQWXOXLWHUPLF
QVRFLHW

LOHPRGHUQHvQFD]XOSUHOXFU ULLXQRUFDQWLW

UDSLGH VH UHFXUJH OD GHWHUPLQDUHD DFLGLW


GHWHUPLQDUHDLQVWDQWDQHHDDFLGLW

LPDULGHODSWHSHQWUXGHWHUPLQ UL

LL DFWLYH S+  FX DMXWRUXO S+

-metrului. Acesta permite

LL

'HWHUPLQDUHD FRQ LQXWXOXL GH JU

VLPH

se face n mod curent prin metoda

DFLGREXWLURPHWULF *HUEHUFDUHHVWHUDSLG LDUHRSUHFL]LHVDWLVI F WRDUH


Q PRG QRUPDO ODSWHOH FX XQ FRQ LQXW GH JU VLPH LQI

erior limitei 3,2% se poate refuza

fiind suspectat de falsificare.

6XEVWDQ D XVFDW

 D ODSWHOXL PDWHULH SULP  VH GHWHUPLQ  GHQVLPHWULF FXQRVFkQG

FRUHOD LDVWUkQV H[LVWHQW vQWUHFRQ LQXWXOvQVXEVWDQ DXVFDW LGHQVLWDWH


'HQVLWDWHD PLQLP  DGPLV  HVWH GH  2 GHQVLWDWH LQIHULRDU  OLPLWHL DGPLVH SRDWH
LQGLFDIDOVLILFDUHDODSWHOXLSULQDGDRVGHDS 

Gradul de impurificareFRQVWLWXLHXQLQGLFLXSUH LRVSULYLQGVDOXEULWDWHDODSWHOXL6H


GHWHUPLQ  SULQ SURED ODFWROLWUXOXL WUHFHUHD D  O ODSWH SHVWH R URndea de material
filtrant).
'H PHQ LRQDW F  JUDGXO GH LPSXULILFDUH QX HVWH vQWRWGHDXQD FRQFOXGHQW vQ FHHD FH
SULYHWH QXP UXO GH JHUPHQL GLQ ODSWH $FHVWD VH DSUHFLD]  GXS  WLPSXO GH GHFRORUDUH D XQHL
VROX LL GH DOEDVWUX GH PHWLOHQ WLPSXO GH GHFRORUDUH ILLQG LQYHUV SURSRU LRQDO FX QXP UXO GH
PLFURRUJDQLVPH/DSWHOHGHIRDUWHEXQ FDOLWDWHSUH]LQW XQWLPSGHGHFRORUDUHODRUH
&DQWLWDWHDGHPLFURRUJDQLVPHGLQODSWHOHPDWHULHSULP SUH]LQW LQWHUHVvQP VXUDvQFDUH
V  VH WUDJ  FRQFOX]LL DVXSUD PLFURIORUHL UH]LGXDOH FDUH VXSUDYLH XLHWH SURFHGHXOXL GH LJLHQL]DUH

(pasteurizare) aplicat.
5HFHS LDFDQWLWDWLY
5HFHS LD FDQWLWDWLY  FRQVW  vQ P VXUDUHD FDQWLW

societatea care-OYD SUHOXFUD QIXQF LHGHSURFHGHXOGHP

LL VDX YROXPXOXL GH ODSWH VRVLW OD


VXUDUHUHFHS LDSRDWHILJUDYLPHWULF 

VDXYROXPHWULF 
0 VXUDUHD FDQWLW

LORU GH ODSWH SULQ SURFHGHH JUDYLPHWULFH DUH DYDQWDMXO F  JUHXWDWHD

ODSWHOXL QX HVWH LQIOXHQ DW  GH IDFWRUXO WHPSHUDWXUD GDU SUH]LQW  GH]DYDQWDMXO FRVWXOXL ULGLFDW DO

aparatuULL L FDUDFWHUXOXL GLVFRQWLQXX DO RSHUD LHL Q SULQFLSLX UHFHS LD JUDYLPHWULF

 FRQVW  vQ

FkQW ULUHD SH FkQWDUH DXWRPDWH SUHY ]XWH FX ED]LQH L FX R HYHQWXDO  vQUHJLVWUDUH JUDILF  D
YDORULORUP VXUDWH
3UHOXFUDUHDGHFDQWLW

LPDULGHODSWHDLPSXVIRORVLUHDXQRUPHWRGHFRQWLQXXGHP VXUDUH

a laptelui nlocuindu-se procedeele gravimetrice cu procedee volumetrice.

3URFHGHHOH YROXPHWULFH SUH]LQW  DYDQWDMXO F  QHFHVLW  DSDUDWXU  GH YROXP L FRVW UHGXV
JDODFWRPHWUH  FDUH SUDFWLF SRDWH IL PRQWDW  vQ RULFH SXQFW DO WUDVHXOXL WHKQRORJLF SHUPL kQG XQ
FRQWUROSHUPDQHQWLFRQWLQXXI U V DIHFWH]HFRQWLQXLWDWHDSURFHVXOXLWHKQRORJLF
Q VFRSXO HYLW ULL HURULORU GH P VXUDUH HVWH QHFHVDU V  VH SUHYLQ  S WUXQGHUHD DHUXOXL vQ

conductele de transport al laptelui iaU WHPSHUDWXUD IOXLGXOXL V

 QX GHS HDVF  

JDODFWRPHWUHOH DIODWH vQ X] DVLJXU  OD XQ GHELW GH  OK R HURDUH PD[LP

C. Debimetrele
 GH -0,5% ceea

FHGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHSUDFWLFHVWHVDWLVI F WRU
Q IXQF LH GH VLVWHPXO GH UHFHS LH JUDYLPHWULF VDX YROXPHWULF  L FHO GH HYLGHQ
SURGXF LHL vQ O VDX NJ VH SUDFWLF  WUDQVIRUPDUHD XQLW

densitate, considerndu-VHGHQVLWDWHDHJDO
D7UDQVIRUPDUHDFDQWLW

 D

LORU GH P VXU  SULQ LQWHUPHGLXO IDFWRUXOXL

FXJUHXWDWHDVSHFLILF 

LLGHODSWHGLQOLWULvQNLOR

grame:

CL(kg) = CL(l) x d
CL(kg)= cantitatea de lapte n kg
CL(l) = volumul de lapte n l
D = densitatea
([6HUHFHS LRQHD] OODSWHFXGHQVLWDWHD
&DQWLWDWHDGHODSWHH[SULPDW vQNJYDIL

CL(kg)= 2000 x 1.030 = 2060 kg


b. TransformarHDFDQWLW

LLGHODSWHGLQNLORJUDPHvQOLWUL

CL(1) =

CL( kg )
d

([6HUHFHS LRQHD] NJODSWHFXGHQVLWDWHD


&DQWLWDWHDGHODSWHH[SULPDW vQOYDIL

CL (1) =

1080
= 1049,561
1,029

5.3. Filtrarea
Q SULPD ID]  D SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF VH XUP UHWH vQGHS UWDUHD LPSXULW

LORU PHFDQLFH

S WUXQVH vQ ODSWH SH GLIHULWH F L QLVLS FRUSXUL WDUL HWF  SHQWUX D SUHYHQL X]XUD SUHPDWXU  D

utilajelor (pompe, rotoarele galactometrelor).


5H LQHUHD DFHVWRU LPSXULW

L VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ ILOWUDUH FX DMXWR

rul unor site montate la

HYDFXDUHDODSWHOXLGLQED]LQHOHGHUHFHS LH

5

FLUHD

5 FLUHDODSWHOXLLPHGLDWGXS UHFHS LHHVWHRRSHUD LHIDFXOWDWLY FDUHVHSUDFWLF vQFD]XO

n care laptele nu este prelucrat imediat.


3HQWUX U FLUH VH XWLOL]HD]  VFKLPE WRDUHOH GH F OGXU  FX SO FL U FLWH FX DS  JKHD

F URUFDSDFLWDWHHVWHFRUHODW FXFDSDFLWDWHDGHUHFHS LH7HPSHUDWXUDGHU FLUHHVWHGH

-40C.

 D

5.5. Depozitarea
'HSR]LWDUHDODSWHOXLFUXGU FLWVHIDFHvQWDQFXULL]RWHUPHGHPDUHFDSDFLWDWH
vQF SHUL VSHFLDOH vQ VHF LD GH UHFHS LH D VRFLHW

construite.

instalate n

LL VDX vQ DHU OLEHU SH SODWIRUPH VSHFLDOH

&XU

LUHDFHQWULIXJDO

(VWHSURFHGHXOFHOPDLHILFDFHGHHOLPLQDUHDLPSXULW
(IHFWXOGHFXU

LUHVHDVLJXU SULQVHSDUDUHDLPSXULW

LORUGLQODSWH
LORUFXJUHXWDWHVSHFLILF GLIHULW GH

FHDDODSWHOXLVXEDF LXQHDIRU HLFHQWULIXJH


&XU

LWRUXOFHQWULIXJDOHVWHDVHP Q WRUVHSDUDWRUXOXLFHQWULIXJDOGHRVHELQGX

GLQ XUP  SULQ QXP UXO PDL UHGXV GH WDOHUH L OLSVD RULI

-se de acesta
iciilor practicate n acestea, talerele fiind

PDLGLVWDQ DWHvQWUHHOHGHFkWvQFD]XOVHSDUDWRDUHORUGHVPkQWkQ 
Q WLPSXO SURFHVXOXL GH FXU

LUH LPSXULW

LOH GLQ ODSWH VH DGXQ  vQ VSD LXO GLQWUH SDFKHWXO

GHWDOHUHLSHUH LLWREHLVXEIRUPDDDQXPLWXOX

i mal de separator.

LWRUXO FHQWULIXJDO WUHEXLH RSULW GXS    RUH GH IXQF LRQDUH SHQWUX

Q PRG RELQXLW FXU

evacuarea malului acumulat prin demontarea tobei.


3HQWUX DVLJXUDUHD FRQWLQXLW

punevQIXQF LXQHXQFXU

LL GHVI XU ULL SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF vQ DFHDVW  VLWXD LH VH

LWRUVXSOLPHQWDUGHUH]HUY 

$FHVW QHDMXQV SRDWH IL HOLPLQDW SULQ IRORVLUHD GH FXU

LWRDUH DXWRPDWH FDUH DVLJXU 

HYDFXDUHDPDOXOXLGLQWLPSvQWLPSSHP VXUDDFXPXO ULLDFHVWXLDvQWRE &XU

LWRDUHOHPRGHUQH

SRW IXQF LRQD VXQWHILFLHQWH  DWkW FX ODSWH UHFHFkW L FX ODSWH SUHvQF O]LW Q DFHVW GLQ XUP  FD]
DSDUDWXOHVWHUDFRUGDWODVHFWRUXOGHUHFXSHUDUHDOLQVWDOD LHLGHSDVWHXUL]DUH

5.7. Normalizarea
1RUPDOL]DUHD HVWH RSHUD LD SULQ FDUH VH DGXFH FRQ LQXWXO GH JU VLPH DO ODSW

elui la o

DQXPLW YDORDUHvQYHGHUHDDVLJXU ULLXQHLFDOLW

LFRQVWDQWHSURGXVXOXLILQLW

$FHDVWDSUHVXSXQHvQPDMRULWDWHDFD]XULORURUHGXFHUHDFRQ LQXWXOXLLQL LDOGHJU VLPHFX

ajutorul separatoarelor centrifugale.


Q VLWXD LD vQ FDUH VH SUHOXFUHD]  FDQWLW

L PDUL GH ODSWH QRUPDOL]DUHD VH RE LQH SULQ

UHJODUHD VHSDUDWRUXOXL vQ IXQF LH GH FRQ LQXWXO GH JU VLPH DO ODSWHOXL PDWHULH SULP  L FRQ LQXWXO
GLQJU VLPHDOVPkQWkQLLFHLHVHGLQVHSDUDWRU
'HRDUHFH SUDFWLF FRQ LQXWXO vQ JU VLPH DO ODSWHOXL LQWHJUDO UHFHS LRQDW YDULD]  vQ OLPLWH
GHVWXO GH ODUJL QRUPDOL]DUHD VH IDFH SULQ DPHVWHFDUHD ODSWHOXL LQWHJUDO FX R DQXPLW  FDQWLWDWH GH

lapte smntnit, n tancuri.


&DOFXOXO FDQWLW

LL GH ODSWH VPkQWkQLW QHFHVDU  QRUPDOL] ULL VH IDFH SULQWU XQ ELODQ  GH

matHULDOHVDXSULQPHWRGDS

WUDWXOXLOXL3HDUVRQ

5.8. Omogenizarea
Q WLSXO GHSR]LW ULL SURGXVHORU ODFWDWH JU VLPHD DUH WHQGLQ D GH D VH VHSDUD OD VXSUDID D

produsului.
)HQRPHQXO HVWH FX DWkW PDL SHUFHSWLELO FX FkW FRQ LQXWXO vQ JU VLPH HVWH PDL ULGLFDW L
GHSR]LWDUHDPDLvQGHOXQJDW 
9LWH]D GH VHSDUDUH D JOREXOHORU GH JU VLPH vQ ODSWH GHSLQGH GH P ULPHD DFHVWRUD
UHGXFHUHDGLPHQVLXQLLJOREXOHORUPLFRUkQGYLWH]DGHVHSDUDUH
2PRJHQL]DUHD HVWH SURFHVXO SULQ FDUH VH UHDOL]HD]  P ULUHD JUDGXOXL GH GLVSH
JU VLPLL SULQ UHGXFHUHD GLPHQVLXQLL JOREXOHORU GH JU VLPH GH OD  X OD 

rsare a
1 u . Ca urmare,

JU VLPHDGLQODSWHOHRPRJHQL]DWQXVHPDLVHSDU VSRQWDQODVXSUDID DOLFKLGXOXLFKLDUvQFRQGL LD


XQHLGHSR]LW ULvQGHOXQJDWH
(ILFLHQ D

RPRJHQL] ULL

VH

DSUHFLD] 

SULQ

H[DPHQ

PLFURVFRSLF

vQDLQWH

RPRJHQL]DUHQXP UkQGX VHJOREXOHOHGHJU VLPHFXGLDPHWUXOPDLPDUHGHX

*UDGXOGHRPRJHQL]DUHVHFDOFXOHD] GXS UHOD LD

Gradul de omogenizare =

ab
100
a

n care:a -HVWHFRQ LQXWXOGHJU VLPHDOVWUDWXOXLVXSHULRUGHODSWHGLQUHFLSLHQWHvQ


b -FRQ LQXWXOGHJU VLPHDOODSWHOXLvQUHFLSLHQWvQ

L

GXS 

Q LQGXVWULD ODSWHOXL VH RPRJHQL]HD]  ODSWHOH GH FRQVXP VWHULOL]DW ODSWHOH FRQFHQWUDW
ODSWHOHSUDIDPHVWHFXULOHSHQWUXvQJKH DW VPkQWkQ LDOWHOH
3ULQRPRJHQL]DUHVHDPHOLRUHD] DVSHFWXOLJXVWXOSURGXVXOXL/DSWHOHRPRJHQL]DWDUHR
FXORDUH PDL DOE  YLVFR]LWDWH PDL PDUH JXVW SOLQ DUPRQLRV 3URGXVHOH ODFWDWH RPRJHQL]DWH GDX
LPSUHVLD F  DX XQ FRQ LQXW PDL ULGLFDW GH JU VLPH GDWRULW  IDSWXOXL F  JOREXOHOH PLFL VXQW ELQH

percepute de papilele gustative.


3URFHVXO GH RPRJHQL]DUH DIHFWHD]  vQWU R RDUHFDUH P VXU  L VXEVWDQ HOH SURWHLFH

VF ]kQGX

-le stabilitatea.

/DSWHOHRPRJHQL]DWFRDJXOHD] PDLUHSHGHGkQGXQFRDJXOPDLPRDOHLILQvQVXLULFDUH
DO WXULGHRGLJHVWLELOLWDWHXRDU DJU VLPLLLSURWHLQHORUvOUHFRPDQG vQSHGLDWULH
Q SUDFWLF  RPRJHQL]DUHD VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ RPRJHQL]DWRDUH FRPSXVH GLQWU R SRPS  FX

-o fant IRDUWHvQJXVW 
Presiunea de omogenizare depinde de produs: pentru laptele de consum este de 100200kgf/cm3; pentru iaurt 160 kgf/cm3.
SLVWRQFDUHUHIXOHD] ODSWHOHODRSUHVLXQHULGLFDW SULQWU

Q FD]XO SURGXVHORU FX FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW GH JU VLPH VH SUDFWLF  RPRJHQL]DUHD vQ GRX 

trepte. Astfel amestecul pentru QJKH DW  VH RPRJHQL]HD]


2
WUHDSW LGH-50 kgf/cm vQWUHDSWDDGRX 

OD SUHVLXQHD GH  NJIFP

n prima

/DSWHOH RPRJHQL]DW HVWH IRDUWH VXVFHSWLELO OD DSDUL LD JXVWXOXL GH R[LGDW GDWRULW 
GLVWUXJHULLPHPEUDQHLOLSRSURWHLFHLVHQVLELOL]DUHDODDF LXQHDOLSD]HL6HUHFRPDQG LQDFWLYDUHD

lipazei prin pasteurizare.


3H GH DOW  SDUWH SURFHVXO GH RPRJHQL]DUH HVWH IDYRUL]DW GH WHPSHUDWXUD SUDJXO RSWLP

fiind cca. 600C.

'LQFRQVLGHUHQWHOHDU WDWHRPRJHQL]DWRUXOVHPRQWHD] OHJDWGLUHFWGHSDVWHXUL]DWRUIL

ind

DOLPHQWDWFXODSWHSUHvQF O]LWvQUHFXSHUDWRUXOLQVWDOD LHLGHSDVWHXUL]DUH

5.9. Pasteurizarea
3DVWHXUL]DUHDDDFXPV DDU WDWvQFDSLWROXO,9DUHFDVFRSSULQFLSDOLJLHQL]DUHDPDWHULHL

prime.
3URFHGHHOH GH SDVWHXUL]DUH VXQW DOHVH vQ IXQF LH GH SURGXVHOH FH XUPHD] DILIDEULFDWH L

au fost descrise la larg anterior.


QPRGRELQXLWvQLQGXVWULDODSWHOXLVXQWSUDFWLFDWHXUP WRDUHOHSURFHGHH

3DVWHXUL]DUHD MRDV  vQ YDQ  FRQVWkQG vQ vQF O]LUHD L PHQ LQHUHD ODSWHOXL OD R
WHPSHUDWXU GHPLQLP

CWLPSGHFHOSX LQPLQXWH

3DVWHXUL]DUHDvQDOW vQLQVWDOD LLGHSDVWHXUL]DUHFXSO FLFRQVWkQGvQvQF O]LUHDODSWHOXL

la temperatura de minim 720C timp de minim 15 secunde (procedeul HTST).

5

FLUHD

5 FLUHD ODSWHOXL XUPHD]  vQWRWGHDXQD RSHUD LHL GH SDVWHXUL]DUH WHPSHUDWXUD GH U FLUH
ILLQGFRQGL LRQDW GHLQVWDOD LDGHSDVWHXUL]DUHLGHGHVWLQD LDODSWHOXLSDVWHXUL]DW
$VWIHO vQ FD]XO SDVWHXUL] ULL vQ YDQ  VH SUDFWLF  R U FLUH SkQ  OD WHPSHUDWXUD
FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHID]HLXUP WRDUHGHSUHOXFUD

re a laptelui.

QFD]XOSURFHGHXOXL+676LQVWDOD LLOHGHSDVWHXUL]DUHFXSO FLVHDVLJXU RU FLUHUDSLG 

LSURIXQG SkQ ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

-40C.

5.11. Depozitarea
/DSWHOH SDVWHXUL]DW HYDFXDW GLQ LQVWDOD LD GH SDVWHXUL]DUH GH OD WHPSHUDWXUD 

-40C este

GHSR]LWDW vQ WDQFXUL L]RWHUPH DD QXPLWH WDQFXUL WDPSRQ  SkQ  OD XUP WRDUHD RSHUD LH GH
SUHOXFUDUHVSHFLILF SURGXVXOXLFHXUPHD] DILIDEULFDW

/$37('(&21680,352'86(/$&7$7($&,'(

6.1. Laptele de consum


0DWHULD SULP  R FRQVWLWXLH ODSWHOH FUXG LQWHJUDO FRUHVSXQ] WRU 67$6 

-61. Procesul

WHKQRORJLFFXSULQGHXUP WRDUHOHID]HSULQFLSDOH

5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY LFDQWLWDWLY DPDWHULHLSULPH

Filtrare.

5 FLUHLGHSR]LWDUH IDFXOWDWLY 

&XU

LUH

Normalizarea laptelui se face la coQ LQXWXO


fabricat.

3DVWHXUL]DUHDvQDSDUDWHFXSO FL

5 FLUHDODSWHOXLSDVWHXUL]DWODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

GH JU VLPH FRUHVSXQ] WRU VRUWLPHQWXOXL

-40C.

Depozitarea laptelui pasteurizat n tancuri.

$PEDODUHDODSWHOXLGHFRQVXPVHUHDOL]HD] vQ

bidoane de 25 l capacitate pentru consumuri colective;

EXWHOLLGHVWLFO vQFKLVHFXFDSVXOHGHDOXPLQLX

ambalaje nerecuperabile -SXQJLGHSROLHWLOHQ

VDXFXWLLGHFDUWRQFRPSOH[

Q FD]XO IRORVLULL DPEDODMHORU GH VWLFO  VH DFRUG  DWHQ LH VSHFLDO  RSHUD LXQLL GH VS O

are

DWkWDEXWHOLLORUGHVWLFO FkWLDQDYHWHORU 
$FHVWD VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ LQVWDOD LL GH VS ODUH SUHY ]XWH FX FRPSDUWLPHQWH  GH VS ODUH FX
GHWHUJHQ L ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

35

-650& LGHFO

WLUH FO WLUHD,OD

C 420&FO

WLUHD

a II-a la 30-

&LFO WLUHDFXDS UHFH 


6ROX LDGHVS ODUHVHSUHSDU IRORVLQGVXEVWDQ HFKLPLFHXWLOL]DWHFXUHQWSHQWUXVS ODUHvQ

LQGXVWULDODSWHOXLFXXUP WRDUHOHSURSULHW

LL

SXWHUHPDUHGHXGDUHLS WUXQGHUH

SXWHUHGHVROXELOL]DUHLHPXOVLRQDUH

putere de saponificDUHDJU

SXWHUHGHGHIORFXUDUHDVXEVWDQ HORUSURWHLFH

putere de dedurizare;

SXWHUHGHVF GHUHDWHQVLXQLLVXSHUILFLDOH

VLPLORU

PEXWHOLHUHD ODSWHOXL L FDSVXODUHD EXWHOLLORU VH VWLFO  VH UHDOL]HD]  PHFDQLF PDLQLOH

respective fiind montate n flux cXLQVWDOD LDGHVS

ODUH

$PEDODUHD vQ DPEDODMH GH WLS SLHUGXW QHUHFXSHUDELOH  VH IDFH vQ SXQJL GH SROLHWLOHQ 
FRQIHF LRQDWH VLPXOWDQ FX RSHUD LXQHD GH DPEDODUH 0DLQLOH IRORVLWH VXQW UHODWLY VLPSOH L VXQW
DOLPHQWDWHFXIROLHGHSROLHWLOHQ VXEIRUP GHURO 
'LVSR]LWLYXO GH GR]DUH D ODSWHOXL HVWH DPSODVDW OD SDUWHD VXSHULRDU  D PDLQLL )ROLD GH
SROLHWLOHQ  HVWH OLSDQW  VXE IRUP  GH WXE VXGDW  ORQJLWXGLQDO L WUDQVYHUVDO OD XQXO GLQ FDSHWH
SXQJLL XUPHD]  RSHUD LXQHD GH GR]DUH D ODSWHOXL D GRX  VXGXU  WUDQVYHUVDO  SHQWUX vQFKLGHUHD
DPEDODMXOXLVLPXOWDQFXW LHUHDLvQGHS UWDUHDSXQJLL

6.2. Iaurtul
(VWH XQ SURGXV SURDVS W IDEULFDW GLQ ODSWH GH YDF  QRUPDOL]DW OD XQ FRQ LQXW GH 
JU VLPHFXDGDRVGHODSWHSUDIGHJUHVDWL]DK U

Procesul tehnolRJLFFXSULQGHXUP

WRDUHOHID]HSULQFLSDOH

5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY LFDQWLWDWLY DODSWHOXL

Filtrare.

5 FLUHLGHSR]LWDUH IDFXOWDWLY 

&XU

1RUPDOL]DUHODXQFRQ LQXWGHJU VLPHGH

,QWURGXFHUHD ODSWHOXL vQ YDQ  FX SHUH L GXEOL L DJLWDWRUL

LUH

unde se face dizolvarea laptelui

SUDIGHJUHVDWvQSURSRU LHGHL]DK UvQSURSRU LHGH

Pasteurizarea amestecului la temperatura de 950C timp de 20 minute.

- 450 C.

5 FLUHDDPHVWHFXOXLSkQ ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

$G XJDUHDGHFRORUDQ LLDURPHVXEIRUP GHVROX LHDSRDV VDXDOFRROLF GXS FD]

QV PkQ DUHDFXPDLDSHQWUXLDXUWvQSURSRU LHGH

$PEDODUHDSURGXVXOXLvQUHFLSLHQ L ERUFDQHVDXSDKDUHQHUHFXSHUDELOH 

-1,5 %.

Termostatarea produsului la 42- 450C timp de 2-3 ore.


Termostatarea se FRQVLGHU WHUPLQDW FkQGDFLGLWDWHDSURGXVXOXLDDWLQV- 950T.

5 FLUHDSURGXVXOXLvQGRX HWDSH

5 FLUHDSkQ ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

5 FLUHDSURIXQG OD

- 220C timp de 3-4 ore

- 4 C.

'HSR]LWDUHDSURGXVXOXLSkQ ODOLYUDUHODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

/DSWHOHE

-80C n camere frigorifice.

WXW

Este un produs lactat acidIDEULFDWGLQODSWHGHYDF

SULQIHUPHQWD LHODFWLF 

3URFHVXOWHKQRORJLFGHIDEULFD LHFXSULQGXUP WRDUHOHID]HSULQFLSDOH

5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY LFDQWLWDWLY DODSWHOXL

Filtrare.

5 FLUHLGHSR]LWDUH IDFXOWDWLY 

&XU

LUH

1RUPDOL]DUHD ODSWHOXL VH IDFH OD FRQ LQXWXO GH JU VLPH FRUHVSXQ] WRU VRUWLPHQWXOXL
IDEULFDWGXS FXPXUPHD] 

extra -JU VLPH


sana -JU VLPH
ODSWHE WXWWLS,,JU VLPH
ODSWHE WXWGLHWHWLF se prepar GLQODSWHVPkQWkQLWFXJU

VLPH

3DVWHXUL]DUHDODSWHOXLVHUHDOL]HD] vQLQVWDOD LLGHSDVWHXUL]DUH


3HQWUX vPEXQ W

LUHD FRQVLVWHQ HL VH UHFRPDQG  vQF O]LUHD OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH 

- 950& L

PHQ LQHUHDODDFHDVW WHPSHUDWXUDPLQXWHQFD]XOODSWHOXLE WXWGLHWHWLFDVLJXUDUHDVXEVWDQ HL


XVFDWHVHIDFHSULQDG XJDUHGHODSWHSUDIGHJUHVDW

5 FLUHDODSWHOXLODWHPSHUDWXUDGHvQV PkQ DUHUHVSHFWLY

QV PkQ DUHD ODSWHOXL OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH 

- 280C.

- 280& SULQ LQWURGXFHUHD vQ MHW VXE LUH D XQHL

canWLW LGH-PDLDGHSURGXF LH


0DLDXDGHSURGXF LHSHQWUXODSWHOHE

WXWHVWHIRUPDW GLQVWUHSWRFRFLDFLGLILDQ LL

DURPDWL]DQ L VWUHSWRFRFFXVODFWLVVWUHSWRFRFFXVFUHPRULV 

)HUPHQWDUHD ODSWHOXL VH IDFH vQ YDQHOH GH vQV PkQ DUH VDX vQ UHFLSLHQWH G

camere termostat, la temperatura de 280C 300C timp de 10-14 ore.

e livrare n

$PEDODUHD ODSWHOXL E WXW VH SRDWH IDFH vQ EXWHOLL GH VWLFO  ELGRDQH VDX DPEDODMH

nerecuperabile.
3ULQFRQYHQ LDvQWUHS U LVHPDLSRWIRORVLLDOWIHOGHDPEDODMH

FermentaUHD VH FRQVLGHU

 WHUPLQDW  FkQG DFLGLWDWHD ODSWHOXL D DWLQV 

- 900T iar

FRDJXOXORE LQXWDUHFRQVLVWHQ DFUHPRDV GHQV I U HOLPLQDUHGH]HU

5 FLUHDFRDJXOXOXLVHIDFHODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

- 80C.

'HSR]LWDUHDODSWHOXLE WXWvQFDPHUHIULJRULILFHODWHP

peratura de 2- 80C.

7. SMNTNA
Principii generale
6PkQWkQDDUHFRPSR]L LDDVHP Q WRDUHFXDODSWHOXLVLQJXUDGLIHUHQ DFRQVWkQGvQIDSWXO
F DUHXQFRQ LQXWPDLULGLFDWvQJU VLPHLGHFLPDLPXOW VXEVWDQ

XVFDW WRWDO ILLQGRE LQXW 

din lapte integral prin procesul de smntnire sau normalizare.


3URSULHWDWHD FHD PDL LPSRUWDQW  D VPkQWkQLL HVWH FRQVLVWHQ D FRQVXPDWRUXO FRQVLGHUkQG
VPkQWkQD IOXLG  FD DYkQG XQ FRQ LQXW UHGXV GH JU VLPH L DSUHFLLQG VPkQWkQD FRQVLVWHQW  FD
JUDV 
&RQVLVWHQ DVPkQWkQLLHVWHGHWHUPLQDW LGHFRQ LQXWXOGHJU VLPHGDULGHDO LIDFWRUL

P ULPHDJOREXOHORUGHJU VLPHFDUH GHWHUPLQ IRUPDUHDGHDJORPHU ULGH JOREXOHFX


DWkW PDL GHQVH FX FkW JOREXOHOH VXQW PDL PLFL SURSULHWDWH FDUH UHFRPDQG 

omogenizarea smntnii pHQWUXP

ULUHDFRQVLVWHQ HL

DFLGLWDWHDVPkQWkQLLFRQWULEXLHGHDVHPHQHDODULGLFDUHDYLVFR]LW

LL

WHPSHUDWXUD LQIOXHQ HD]  GLUHFW FRQVLVWHQ D VPkQWkQLL VH UHFRPDQG  PHQ LQHUHD HL OD
WHPSHUDWXU VF ]XW 

6PkQWkQD GH FRQVXP VH SRDWH SUH]HQWD VXE IRUP  GH VPkQWkQ  GXOFH IULF  VDX
VPkQWkQ  IHUPHQWDW  6PkQWkQD GXOFH OD UkQGXO HL VH SRDWH SUH]HQWD VXE IRUP  IOXLG  VDX VXE
IRUP GHVSXP  IULF E WXW LDUHXQFRQ LQXWGHJU VLPHGHSHVWHVPkQWkQ IHUPHQWDW 
GHFRQVXP VHSRDWHIDEULFDLFXXQFRQ LQXWPDLUHGXVGHJU VLPH

- minimum 20%.

'H PHQ LRQDW F  VPkQWkQD GXOFH VXE IRUP  IOXLG  SRDWH IL IDEULFDW  FX FRQ LQXW GH 
JU VLPHFXQRVFXW VXEGHQXPLUHDGHVPkQWkQ SHQWUXFDIHD

3DVWHXUL]DUHDVPkQWkQLLGHVWLQDW FRQVXPXOXLVHIDFHvQLQVWDOD LLGHSDVWHXUL]DUHFXSO FL

la temperaturi de 90- 950&FXPHQ LQHUHODDFHDVW

WHPSHUDWXU WLPSGHGHVHFXQGH

7HPSHUDWXUD ULGLFDW  GH WUDWDPHQW WHUPLF HVWH GHWHUPLQDW  GH VODED FRQGXFWLELOLWDWH
WHUPLF DJU VLPLLFDUHDVLJXU RRDUHFDUHSURWHF LHDPLFURRUJDQLVPHORUGHDF LXQHDWHPSHUDWXULL

ridicate.
Regimul de pasteurizare de 90- 950&

DVLJXU  R GLVWUXJHUH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH DWkW D

PLFURRUJDQLVPHORUFkWLDHQ]LPHORUPHQ LQkQGFDOLW

LOHLQL LDOHDOHVPkQWkQLL

Pasteurizarea smntnii dulci se face la temperaturi mai joase: la 850&XUPDW GHRU FLUH
0
SURIXQG OD C.
,QVWUXF LXQL WHKQRORJLFH 6PkQWkQD SHQWUX DOLPHQWD LH  IHUPHQWDW  HVWH XQ SURGXV

SURDVS WIDEULFDWGLQVPkQWkQ GXOFHSDVWHXUL]DW IHUPHQWDW FXPDLHOHGHIHUPHQ LVHOHF LRQD L

73URFHVXOWHKQRORJLFFXSULQGHXUP

WRDUHOHID]HSULQFLSDOH

prime.

5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY LFDQWLWDWLY DPDWHULHL

0DWHULD SULP  SHQWUX VPkQWkQD GH FRQVXP HVWH VPkQWkQD GXOFH RE LQXW  GLQ
QRUPDOL]DUH VDX VPkQWkQLUH FDUH WUHEXLH V  vQWUXQHDVF  XUP WRDUHOH

caracteristici

minimale

FRQ LQXWGHJU VLPHPLQLPXP UHVSHFWLYPLQLP 

DFLGLWDWHPD[LP 

T.

1RUPDOL]DUHDODFRQ LQXWXOGHJU VLPHFRUHVSXQ] WRUVRUWLPHQWXOXL

Pasteurizarea smntnii la temperatura de 90- 950&vQDSDUDWHFXSO

5 FLUHD VPkQWkQLL OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH vQV PkQ DUH 

FL

- 260& L WUHFHUHD vQ YDQD GH

fermentare.

5 FLUHD VPkQWkQLL VH IDFH vQ SULPD ID]  OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH  & GDF  vQ OLQLD
WHKQRORJLF H[LVW RPRJHQL]DWRU

Omogenizarea smntnii se face la temperatura de 700& L SUHVLXQHa de 160


kgf/cm2.
0
5 FLUHD OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH vQV PkQ DUH - 26 & L WUHFHUHD vQ YDQD GH
fermentare.

QV PkQ DUHD VPkQWkQLL FX PDLD GH IHUPHQ L VHOHF LRQD L VSHFLILFL VUHSWRFRFFXV
FUHPRULV VWUHSWRFRFFXVFLWURYRUXVLVWUHSWRFRFFXVSDUDFLWURYRUXVFDUH SURG

uc aroma

VSHFLILF 

GLDFHWLO vQSURSRU LHGH-5%.


Amestecarea timp de 10-15 minute pentru distribuirea maielei n masa de

VPkQWkQ 

Fermentarea la temperatura de 25- 260&SkQ


corespunde fazei de maturare biochiPLF 

5 FLUHDVPkQWkQLLOD

ODDWLQJHUHDDFLGLW

LLGH

- 600T care

- 60C.

Ambalarea.
Depozitarea la temperatura de 2- 40C, 18-RUHWLPSvQFDUHDUHORFPDWXUDUHDIL]LF

7LPSXO GH GHSR]LWDUH OD UHFH HVWH GHWHUPLQDW GH FUHWHUHD YLVFR]LW
DFLGLW

LLSURGXVXOXLFDUHODOLYUDUHWUHEXLHV DWLQJ PD[LP

LL L

T.

3LHUGHULOH GH IDEULFD LH RULHQWDWLYH vQUHJLVWUDWH OD IDEULFDUHD VPkQWkQLL GH FRQVXP VXQW
SUH]HQWDWHvQWDEHOHOHXUP WRDUH

2SHUD LD
D  1RUPDOL]DUHD SDVWHXUL]DUHD L U FLUHD VPkQWkQLL vQ  LQVWDOD LL I U 

dezodorizare
E QF O]LUHD VPkQWkQLL OD 

- 920& PHQ LQHUHD VPkQWkQLL vQF

Tabelul nr.16
Pierderi %
0,15

O]LWH vQ YDQH

U FLUH OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH vQV PkQ DUH LQFOXVLY RSHUD LD GH XPSOHUH

1,50

golire

YDQ 

c) Omogenizarea smntnii

0,20
0,10

G 5 FLUHDLPDWXUDUHDVPkQWkQLLSHQWUXVPkQ

tna de consum

H $PEDODUHDVPkQWkQLLIHUPHQWDW SHQWUXDOLPHQWD LHvQ

- bidoane 25 l
- bidoane 5-10 l
-DPEDODMHGHVWLFO

0,05
0,10
0,15
0,15
0,15
0,20



-1,0 l manual
mecanic
-DPEDODMHGHVWLFO GH-0,41 l manual
mecanic
- ambalaje de carton sau material plastic de 0,2-0,25 kg
manual
mecanic
- ambalaje de carton sau material plastic de 0,10 kg
manual
mecanic
&RQGL LLOH

GH

FDOLWDWH

SHQWUX

SURGXVXO

0,15
0,20
0,20
0,30

VPkQWkQ 

SHQWUX

DOLPHQWD LH

VPkQWkQ 

IHUPHQWDW VXQWFXSULQVHvQ67$6 LVHSUH]LQW DVWIHO

3URSULHW

LRUJDQROHSWLFH

Tabelul nr.17
6PkQWkQ GXOFH

Caracteristici

6PkQWkQ IHUPHQWDW

$VSHFWL

2PRJHQ  IOXLG  I U  DJORPHU UL GH

2PRJHQ 

FRQVLVWHQ

JU VLPHVDXVXEVWDQ HSURWHLFH

DJORPHU UL GH JU VLPH VDX GH

Culoare

$OE SkQ ODDOE J OEXLHXQLIRUP

*XVWLPLURV

'XOFHDJ

YkVFRDV 

I U 

VXEVWDQ HSURWHLFH

FX

DURP 

VSHFLILF 

GH

3O FXW

DURPDW

VODE

DFULRU

VPkQWkQ  SURDVS W  QX VH DGPLWH JXVW

VSHFLILF GH IHUPHQWD LH ODFWLF 

LPLURVVWU LQ

QXVHDGPLWHJXVWLPLURVVWU LQ

)ULFD VPkQWkQDGXOFH
(VWHXQSURGXVSURDVS WIDEULFDWGLQVPkQWkQ GXOFHSDVWHXUL]DW 

Procesul tehnologicFXSULQGHXUP

WRDUHOHID]HSULQFLSDOH

5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY LFDQWLWDWLY DPDWHULHLSULPH

0DWHULDSULP SHQWUXIULF HVWHVPkQWkQDGXOFHRE LQXW SULQQRUPDOL]DUHVDX


VPkQWkQLUHFXXQFRQ LQXWGHJU VLPHLDFLGLWDWHPD[LP 

Pasteurizarea la temperatura de 850&vQDSDUDWHFXSO

5 FLUHODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

Ambalare.

C.

FL

T.

Depozitarea produsului la temperatura de 2- 80C.


3LHUGHULOHGHIDEULFD LHRULHQWDWLYHvQUHJLVWUDWH ODIDEULFDUHDSURGXVXOXL)ULF  VXQWFHOH
SUHY ]XWH LQ WDEHOXO QU VPkQWkQ  IHUPHQWDW  SFW D L E G L G GXS  FD] OD FDUH VH DGDXJ 

pierderile de ambalare:
2SHUD LD

Ambalare n bidoane 25 l
Ambalare n bidoane 5-10 l

Pierderi %
5
10

8. Untul
8.1. Principii generale
Potrivit normei FAO/OMS, untul este definit ca un produs gras derivat exclusiv din
ODSWH FDUH WUHEXLH V  FRQ LQ  PLQLP  vQ JUHXWDWH PDWHULH JUDV  L FHO PXOW  vQ JUHXWDWH
VXEVWDQ

XVFDW QHJUDV SURYHQLQGGLQODSWH

QFRQIRUPLWDWHFXDFHHDLQRUP VXQWDXWRUL]D LFDDGLWLYLSHQWUXXQW

clorura de sodiu;
culturile de microorganisme lactice;
FRORUDQ LYHJHWDOL

0DWHULD SULP  SHQWUX IDEULFDUHD XQWXOXL HVWH VPkQWkQD FDUH VH SUH]LQW  VXE IRUPD XQHL
HPXOVLLGHJU VLPHvQSODVP 
'XS RULJLQHVPkQWkQDSRDWHILLQGXVWULDO  GHIDEULF VDXGH FROHFWDUH GHIHUP LVH
RE LQHSULQVPkQWkQLUHDVDXQRUPDOL]DUHDODSWHOXL
Q FD]XO vQ FDUH ODSWHOH VH VPkQWkQHWH OD IHUP  VH UHFRPDQG  U FLUHD OXL VXE 

LPHGLDW GXS  LHLUHD GLQ VHSDUDWRU SHQWUX D HYLWD GH]YROWDUHD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU L FUHWHUHD
DFLGLW

LL
3HQWUX XQ XQW GH EXQ  FDOLWDWH VH UHFRPDQG  VPkQWkQLUHD ODSWHOXL vQ IDEULF DVLJXUkQGX

VHRPDWHULHSULP FXLQGLFLIL]LFR FKLPLFLFRUHVSXQ] WRUL

8.2.Principalele faze tehnologiceGHIDEULFDUHDXQWXOXLVXQWXUP

WRDUHOH

Pasteurizarea smntnii

Tratamentul termic al smntnii are ca scop:

GLVWUXJHUHDPLFURIORUHLSDWRJHQH SURGXF WRDUHGHWXEHUFXOR] IHEU DIWRDV HWF GHRDUHFHV

DGRYHGLWF XQWXOSRDWHFRQVWLWXLRVXUV GHWUDQVPLWHUHDEROLORULQIHF LRDVH

distrugerea germenilor nedorL L drojdii, mucegaiuri;


inactivarea enzimelor;
vQGHS UWDUHDVXEVWDQ HORUYRODWLOHFDUHLQIOXHQ HD] QHJDWLYPLURVXOVPkQWkQLL

La stabilirea temperaturii de pasteurizare s-DXDYXWvQYHGHUHXUP

WRDUHOH

FRQGXFWLELOLWDWHD WHUPLF  UHGXV  D VPkQWkQLL FRPSDUDWLY FX FHD D ODSWHOXL FDUH DVLJXU  R
RDUHFDUHSURWHF LHPLFURRUJDQLVPHORU

unele lipaze microbiene au temperaturi de inactivare n jur de 850C.


([SHULHQ DSUDFWLF DGHPRQVWUDWF WHPSHUDWXUDGHSDVWHXUL]DUHDVPkQWkQLLWUHEXLHV ILH

de 92- 950C cu mHQ LQHUHVHFXQGH

Q PRG FXUHQW SHQWUX SDVWHXUL]DUHD VPkQWkQLL VH IRORVHVF LQVWDOD LL GH SDVWHXUL]DUH FX
SO FLFDUHvQFLUFXLWVXQWSUHY ]XWHFXGH]RGRUL]DWRU

Smntna din sectorul de pasteurizare trece n recipientul de dezodorizare unde sub un


vidSRWHQ LDOVHHOLPLQ

PLURVXULOHVWU LQH

'XS GH]RGRUL]DUHVPkQWkQDUHYLQHvQFLUFXLWXOQRUPDODOSDVWHXUL]DWRUXOXL

FLUHDVPkQWkQLL

,PHGLDW GXS  SDVWHXUL]DUH VPkQWkQD WUHEXLH U FLW  SHQWUX D VH SUHvQWkPSLQD DSDUL LD

gustului de fiert sau seos-uleLV 2SHUD LXQHD VH UHDOL]HD]


pasteurizare.

 vQ VHFWRUXO GH U FLUH DO LQVWDOD LHL GH

Maturarea smntnii
0DWXUDUHD FRQVWLWXLH SURFHVXO IL]LF L ELRFKLPLF OD FDUH HVWH VXSXV  VPkQWkQD SHQWUX D
FUHDFRQGL LLRSWLPHGHGHVI XUDUHDSURFHVXOXLGHEDWHUHDX

ntului.

3URFHVXOGHPDWXUDUHFXSULQGHGRX ID]H
0DWXUDUHD IL]LF

 FDUDFWHUL]DW  SULQ U FLUHD VPkQWkQLL L PHQ LQHUHD HL OD WHPSHUDWXU 

VF ]XW FXVFRSXOVROLGLILF ULLXQHLS U LGLQJU VLPHUHVSHFWLYFULVWDOL]DUHDDFHVWHLD


)D]D GH PDWXUDUH IL]LF  DUH ORF ILH LPHGLDW GXS  SDVWHXUL]DUH ILH GXS  ID]D GH PDWXUDUH
ELRFKLPLF 2UGLQHDGHSLQGHGHSURFHGHXOGHPDWXUDUHIRORVLW
/DWLSXOGHXQWGLQVPkQWkQ GXOFHVHDSOLF QXPDLPDWXUDUHDIL]LF 

0DWXUDUHDELRFKLPLF

are ca scop:
area aromei untului;

DFLGLILHUHDVPkQWkQLLLIRUP

LQKLEDUHDGH]YROW ULLPLFURIORUHLG XQ WRDUH


VFXUWDUHD SHULRDGHL GH EDWHUH L vPEXQ W

LUHD UDQGDPHQWXOXL vQ XQW UHGXFHUHD SLHUGHULORU GH

JU VLPHvQ]DUD 
Q ID]D GH PDWXUDUH ELRFKLPLF  VPkQWkQD HVWH DGXV  OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH GH]YRO
PLFURIORUHL

VSHFLILFH

L

VH

vQV PkQ HD] 

FX

PDLHOH

GH

IHUPHQ L

VHOHF LRQD L

tare a

VSHFLILFL

VWUHSWRFRFFXV ODFWLV L VWUHSWRFRFFXV FUHPRULV  SURGXF WRUL GH DFLGLWDWH L VWUHSWRFRFFXV


GLDFHWLOODFWLV SURGXF WRU GH DFLGLWDWH L DURP  VWUHSWRFRFFXV FLWURYRUXV L SDUDFLWURYRUXV
SURGXF WRULGHDURP 
3URSRU LD GH PDLD DG XJDW  YDULD]  vQ OLPLWH ODUJL    vQ IXQF LH GH SURFHGHXO GH

- 250C n

PDWXUDUHDSOLFDWWHPSHUDWXUDGHPDWXUDUHRVFLOkQGLHDvQIXQF LHGHSURFHGHXvQWUH

JHQHUDO GXUDWD PDWXU ULL QX WUHEXLH V  GHS HDVF    RUH L HVWH vQWUHUXSW  FkQG VPkQWkQD D
DWLQVRDQXPLW OLPLW GHDFLGLWDWH 

- 4507 ILLQGXUPDW

GHU FLUH

Q FD]XO PDWXU ULL GH VFXUW  GXUDW  DFLGLWDWHD VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ DG XJDUHD XQHL FDQWLW

importante de maia.
CantitDWHDGHPDLDQHFHVDU

L

VHFDOFXOHD] GXS IRUPXOD

S(As1 As)
,
Am As1
n care: Cm
FDQWLWDWHDGHPDLDQHFHVDU  kg;
S
FDQWLWDWHDGHVPkQWkQ VXSXV PDWXU ULLkg;
As1 = aciditatea smntnii maturate 0T;
0
As
DFLGLWDWHDLQL LDO DVPkQWkQii T;
0
Am = aciditatea maielei T.
Cm =

5 FLUHD VPkQWkQLL DUH UROXO GH D HYLWD VXSUDIHUPHQWDUHD IDYRUL]kQG WRWRGDW  DFWLYLWDWHD
EDFWHULLORU SURGXF WRDUH GH DURP  FDUH DX WHPSHUDWXUL RSWLPH GH GH]YROWDUH PDL VF ]XWH /D
DFHDVW WHPSHUDWXU VPkQWkQDU PkQHSkQ ODEDWHUH
0DWXUDUHDVPkQWkQLLDUHORFvQYDQHYHUWLFDOHFXSHUH LGXEOLLDJLWDWRULSUHY ]XWHFXS+metre, care permit dirijarea procesului de maturare. Capacitatea vanelor este n general de la
5000 la 20000 l.

)DEULFDUHDSURSULX]LV

ntului

DX

Baterea smntnii
(VWH ID]D vQ FDUH VXE DJLWDUH PHFDQLF  JOREXOHOH GH JU VLPH GLQ VPkQWkQ  VXQW SDU LDO

sparte apoi aglomerate producndu-VH

WRWRGDW  vQGHS UWDUHD SHOLFXOHL SURWHFWRDUH DOHJHUHD

XQWXOXLVXEIRUP GHEREL HOHFLWLQ LFHOHODOWHVXEVWDQ HWUHFkQGvQ]DUD

n timpul baterii se produce o inversare de faze transformnd smntna care este o


HPXOVLH GH JU VLPH vQ SODVP  vQ XQW FDUH HVWH R HPXOVLH GH SODVP  vQ JU VLPH GHFL JU VLPHD
IRUPHD] ID]DFRQWLQX vQFDUHVHDIO GLVSHUVDWHDSDLVXEVWDQ DXVFDW QHJUDV 

6S ODUHDXQWXOXL

'XS  EDWHUH ]DUD HVWH HYDFXDW  EREXO GH XQW HVWH VS ODW SHQWUX vQGHS UWDUHD FkW PDL
FRPSOHW D]DUHLvQYHGHUHDRE LQHULLXQXLXQWGHFDOLWDWHFXFRQVHUYDELOLWDWHULGLFDW 3UDFWLFSULQ
SURFHVXOGHVS ODUHVHXUP UHWHvQORFXLUHD]DUHLGLQPDVDXQWXOXLFXDS 
7HPSHUDWXUDDSHLGHVS ODUHLQIOXHQ HD] vQPRGKRW UkWRUDVXSUDFRQVLVWHQ HLXQWXOXL6H

- 80&vQWLPSXOYHULLLOD-13 0C iarna.

UHFRPDQG IRORVLUHDGHDS GHVS ODUHU FLW OD

Malaxarea untului
3ULQ DFHDVW ID]  VH XUP UHWH OHJDUHD EREXOXL GH XQW vQWU R PDV  FRPSDFW  UHSDUWL]DUHD

FkWPDLXQLIRUP DDSHLvQPDVDGHJU VLPHLHOLPLQDUHDH[FHVXOXLGHDS 


6HFXQRVFGRX SURFHGHHGHIDEULFDUHDXQWXOXL

procedeul discontinuu, n care utilajul principal este putineiul malaxor. Aici are loc baterea,
VS ODUHDEROXOXLLPDOD[DUHD
&DSDFLWDWHD SXWLQHLHORU YDULD]  vQ JHQHUDO vQWUH   O L VXQW FRQVWUXLWH GLQ R HO

inoxidabil.

SURFHGHXO FRQWLQXX IRORVHWH LQVWDOD LL GH IDEULFDUH FRQWLQX  D XQWXOXL Q SULQFLSLX vQWU

-o
acestea n amestec cu zara trece n primul compartiment de malaxare unde are loc separarea
]DUHL L SULPD VS ODUH DSRL vQ DO GRilea compartiment de malaxare unde are loc o a doua

DVHPHQHDLQVWDOD LHVPkQWkQDLQWU vQWU XQFLOLQGUXGHEDWHUHXQGHVHIRUPHD] EREXOGHXQW

VS ODUHFXDS U FLW VXESUHVLXQH

Malaxarea propriu-]LV

 VH UHDOL]HD]  vQWU XQ DO WUHLOHD FRPSDUWLPHQW VXE YLG ,QVWDOD LD

HVWHGRWDW FXGLVSR]LWLYGHGR]DUHLUHJODUHDXPLGLW

LLXQWXOXL8QWXOHVWHHYDFXDWGLQLQVWDOD LH

VXEIRUP GHEDQG FRQWLQX FRPSDFW FDUHSDWHILGLULMDW VSUHEXQF UXOPDLQLLGHDPEDODW

8.4. Ambalarea untului


0RGXO vQ FDUH VH IDFH DPEDODUHD XQWXOXL L PDWHULDOXO GH DPEDODM GHWHUPLQ  vQ PDUH
P VXU FDOLWDWHDLFRQVHUY

abilitatea acestuia.
Ambalarea se face n vrac  VXE IRUP  GH EORF vQ O ]L GH OHPQ VDX FXWLL GH FDUWRQ VDX
preambalat n pachete de dimensiuni mici 15-250 g ambalat n cutii de carton.
0DWHULDOXO GH DPEDODM IRORVLW WUHEXLH V  ILH LPSHUPHDELO OD JU VLPL L XPLGLWDWH V  QX
WUDQVPLW XQWXOXLFRPSRQHQWHOHVDOHLV QXLQIOXHQ H]HLQGLFLLVHQ]RULDOLDLSURGXVXOXL
&RQGL LLOHGHFDOLWDWH SHQWUX SURGXVXO8QWGHYDF VXQWFRPSXVH vQ67$6 LVH

SUH]LQW DVWIHO

3URSULHW

LRUJDQROHSWLFH

Tabelul nr.18
Caracteristici

Unt extra

8QWGHPDV

Unt superior
Tipul A

De la alb-J

Culoare

PDVDFXOXFLXFDUDFWHULVWLFODVXSUDID

Aspect
VHF LXne

LvQVHF LXQH

$OE  VDX JDOEHQ  FX OXFLX


VODEVDXPDW
&X SLF WXUL LFL L UDUH GH

6XSUDID D FRQWLQX  I U  SLF WXUL

&XUDUH SLF WXULGHDS 

YL]LELOHGHDS JROXULGHDHUVDX

limpede, goluri de aer

DS 

PLFL DFFLGHQWDOH I U 

VDWLVI F WRU FX JROXUL GH

LPSXULW

LPSXULW
&RQVLVWHQ D

Tipul B

OEXLHSkQ ODJDOEHQGHVFKLVXQLIRUP vQWRDW 

WXOEXUH

UHSDUWL]DWH

DHUPLFLL

rare

0DV RQFWXRDV FRPSDFW RPRJHQ QHVI UkPLFLRDV

0DVD

PDL

RQFWXRDV 

la
temperatura
de 10120C

SX LQ

VXILFLHQW

GH

FRPSDFW  vQ VHF LXQH PDL


SX LQ

RPRJHQ 

XQVXURDV 

SX LQ

QHVI UkPLFL

RDV

Miros

3O FXWFXDURP ELQHH[SULPDW 

&X

I U QXDQ HVWU LQHGHDURP

WRDUH

DURP 

VDWLVI F

I U 

QXDQ H

VWU LQHGHDURP

Gust

&X DURP  VSHFLILF  PDL


SX LQ

SURQXQ DW 

I U 

QXDQ HVWU LQHGHDURP

3O FXW DURPDW VSHFLILF GH XQW

6DWLVI F WRU

SURDVS WI U JXVWVWU LQ

de unt, suficient de

VSHFLILF

Slab aromat, specific de


XQWI U QXDQ HVWU LQH

DURPDWI U JXVWVWU LQ

9. BRNZETURI
9.1. Principii generale
%UkQ]HWXULOH UHSUH]LQW  R IRUP  GH FRQVHUYDUH D ODSWHOXL SULQ FRDJXODUHD DFHVWXLD
VFXUJHUHD]HUXOXLLvQJHQHUDOPDWXUDUHDDFHVWXLD
&RQVHUYDUHD SURGXVXOXL HVWH DVLJXUDW  QX QXPDLGH PLFRUDUHD FDQWLW

LLGHDS  GDU L GH

DFLGLILHUHD UH]XOWDW  GLQ IHUPHQWD LD ODFWLF  DFLGLILHUH FDUH vPSLHGLF  GH]YROWDUHD EDFWHULLORU GH
SXWUHIDF LH%UkQ]HWXULOHQXWUHEXLHV ILHFRQVLGHUDWHQXPDLR IRUP  GHFRQVHUYDUHDODSWHOXL FL
HOH VXQW SURGXVH DOLPHQWDUH FX R YDORDUH QXWULWLY  ULGLFDW  L FDUDFWHULVWLFL RUJDQROHSWLFH ELQH

definite pentru fiecare sortiment n parte.


+RW UkWRDUH vQ FDOLWDWHD SURGXVXOXL ILQLW HVWH PDWHULD SULP  FDUH WUHEXLH V  FRUHVSXQG 
DWkWRUJDQROHSWLFLIL]LFR FKLPLFFkWLGLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHPLFURELRORJLF

Q FHHD FH SULYHWH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH IL]LFR  FKLPLFH SUHSRQGHUHQW HVWH FRQ LQXWXO ODSWHOXL

vQ FD]HLQD FDUH GHWHUPLQ  vQ PRG GLUHFW UDQGDPHQWXO GH IDEULFD LH *U VLPHD GHS HWH vQ
JHQHUDO YDORULOH QHFHVDUH L FD XUPDUH ODSWHOH HVWH VXSXV XQXL SURFHV GH QRUPDOL]DUH /DFWR]D
VXIHU  IHUPHQWD LH ODFWLF  FX IRUPDUH GH DFLG ODFWLF FDUH DUH XQ URO GHRVHELW vQ SURFHVXO GH

maturare al brnzeturilor.
De asemenea, laptele folosit

SHQWUX IDEULFDUHD EUkQ]HWXULORU WUHEXLH V  SURYLQ  GH OD

DQLPDOH V Q WRDVH ODSWHOH FX DQWLELRWLFH FRPSURPLWH FDOLWDWHD SURGXVXOXL ILQLW  1X VH
UHFRPDQG XWLOL]DUHDODSWHOXLSURYHQLWGHODDQLPDOHKU QLWHFXIXUDMHvQVLOR]DWHGHRDUHFHGHFHOH

mai multe orL HVWH LQIHFWDW


balonarea brnzeturilor.

FX EDFWHULL EXWLULFH &ORVWULGLXP W\UREXLULFXP  FDUH SURYRDF 

0LFURIORUD ODSWHOXL HVWH IRDUWH LPSRUWDQW  SHQWUX R SURGXF LH UHXLW  GH EUkQ]HWXUL
FXQRVFkQGF SURFHVXO GHPDWXUDUHHVWHLQIOXHQ DWGLUHFWGHPLFURRUJDQLVPHOHGLQPDWHULDSULP 
FkWLGHFHOHSURYHQLWHGLQPDLHOHGHSURGXF LHDG XJDWH


XUP WRDUHOH

3ULQFLSDOHOH

ID]H

WHKQRORJLFH

GH

IDEULFD LH

a brnzeturilor sunt

Normalizarea laptelui

OD XQ FRQ LQXW GH JU VLPH FDUDFWHULVWLFL SURGXVXOXL ILQLW

XUP ULW 6FRSXO QRUPDOL] ULL HVWH DVLJXUDUHD XQHL FRPSR]L LL FRQVWDQWH D SURGXVXOXL

finit.
Omogenizarea laptelui HVWH SUDFWLFDW

 vQ LQGXVWULD EUkQ]HWXULORU FX VFRSXO UHGXFHULL

SLHUGHULORU GH JU VLPH vQ ]HU GHFL FUHWHUHD UDQGDPHQWXOXL L vPSLHGLFDUHD H[XG ULL

gU VLPLLvQWLPSXOGHSR]LW ULLODWHPSHUDWXULPDLULGLFDWH
Pasteurizarea lapteluiVHLPSXQHGLQFRQVLGHUHQWHLJLHQLFHLWHKQLFH
Regimul de pasteurizare practicat n fabricile de brnzeturi este pasteurizarea
0
0
0
MRDV  - 65 C timp de 20- PLQ  vQ YDQ  VDu pasteurizarea la 71 ..74 & vQ LQVWDOD LL GH
pasteurizare.
Q FD]XO IDEULF ULL EUkQ]HWXULORU FX vQJOREDUHD GH DOEXPLQ  VH UHFRPDQG  SULQ H[FHS LH

pasteurizarea laptelui a 850C timp de 10-PLQXWHFXVFRSXOSUHFLSLW

3UHJ

ULLDOEXPLQHLLJOREXOLQHL

rea laptelui pentru nchegare.

WL

$FHDVW  SUHJ WLUH FRQVW  vQ DG XJDUHD PDLHORU GH FXOWXUL SXUH D V UXULORU GH FDOFLX L
HYHQWXDODD]RWD LORU
0DLHOH GH FXOWXUL SXUH vQORFXLHVF PLFURIORUD LQL LDO  D ODSWHOXL GLVWUXV  SULQ vQF O]LUH
GHWHUPLQkQG WUDQVIRUP UL FRQVWDQWH L GRULWH vQ ODSWH FRDJXO L EUkQ]D $GDRVXO GH PDLDOH HVWH
SUDFWLFDW vQ FRQGL LL VSHFLILFH GH WHPSHUDWXU  L GHWHUPLQ  vQ WLPS PDWXUDUHD ODSWHOXL /DSWHOH VH
FRQVLGHU PDWXUDWODRDQXPLW YDORDUHDDFLGLW

LLFDUHHVWHFDUDFWHULVWLF VRUWL

mentului fabricat.

$GDRVXO GH FORUXU  GH FDOFLX vQ ODSWHOH SDVWHXUL]DW HVWH QHFHVDU SHQWUX vPEXQ W

LUHD

SURFHVXOXL GH FRDJXODUH L D FRQVXPXOXL VSHFLILFFD UH]XOWDWDO RE LQHULL XQXL FRDJXO PDL IHUP L
HYLWDUHDSU IXLULLDFHVWXLDvQWLPSXOSUHOXFU ULL&ORUXUDGHFDOFLXVHDG XJ VXEIRUP GHVROX LH
vQSURSRU LHGH JFORUXU GHFDOFLXFULVWDOLQ ODOODSWH

$]RWDWXOGHSRWDVLXDG XJDWODSWHOXLSDVWHXUL]DWSUHYLQHEDORQDUHDEUkQ]HWXULORUSURYRFDW 
GHEDFWHULLOHGLQJUXS FROLDHURJHQH

Nu HVWHQHFHVDU

IRORVLUHDD]RWDWXOXLGHSRWDVLXGDF VHDVLJXU 

SDVWHXUL]DUHD FRUHFW  vQ LQVWDOD LL GH SDVWHXUL]DUH SUHY ]XWH FX FDS GH UHFLUFXODUH FX
IXQF LRQDUHDXWRPDW 

IRORVLUHDGHFXOWXULVHOHF LRQDWHDFWLYH

Coagularea laptelui

/DSWHOH DVWIHO SUHJ WLW HVWH DGXV OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH vQFKHJDUH VSHFLILF  VRUWLPHQWXOXL
IDEULFDW &X FkW WHPSHUDWXUD GH vQFKHJDUHHVWH PDL MRDV  FX DWkW EUkQ]D RE LQXW  YD DYHD R SDVW 

mai moale.
&RDJXODUHD VH UHDOL]HD]  FX FKHDJ FKLPR]LQ  D F UXL DFWLYLWDWH RSWLP  HVWH OD

temperatura de 410& Q SUDFWLF

 UDUHRUL VH OXFUHD]  OD DFHDVW  WHPSHUDWXU  GHRDUHFH vQ DFHVWH

FRQGL LLFRDJXODUHD HVWHSUHDUDSLG L GHVKLGUDWDUHDFRDJXOXOXLSUHD SXWHUQLF /LPLWHOHFXUHQWH

de coagulare a laptelui sunt cuprinse ntre 250L0C.


CantiWDWHDGHFKHDJQHFHVDU FRDJXO ULLVHGHWHUPLQ

vQIXQF LHGHSXWHUHDGHvQFKHJDUHD

DFHVWXLD DFLGLWDWHD ODSWHOXL L GXUDWD FRDJXO ULL vQ UDSRUW FX VRUWLPHQWXO GH EUkQ]  /D
EUkQ]HWXULOHFXSDVW PRDOHFRDJXODUHDHVWHGHOXQJ GXUDW 

-70 minute, iar ceOHFXSDVW

coagularea are loc n timp de 10-30 minute.


&DOFXOXOSHQWUXVWDELOLUHDQHFHVDUXOXLGHVROX LHGHFKHDJVHIDFHIRORVLQGIRUPXOD

C=

LxS
,
Tx 600

n care: C FDQWLWDWHDGHVROX LHGHFKHDJQHFHVDU  litri;


L = cantitatea de ODSWHSUHJ WLWSHQWUXvQFKHJDUH litri;
S = timpul n care a avut loc coagularea probei (secunde minute);
T WLPSXOvQFDUHWUHEXLHV VHUHDOL]H]HvQFKHJDUHD

WDUH

3URED FRDJXO ULL VH IDFH DVWIHO VH LQWURGXF vQWU XQ SDKDU GH ODERUDWRU  S U L ODSWH

SUHJ WLW SHQWUX FRDJXODUH L R SDUWH VROX LH GH FKHDJ DPHVWHFkQG UHSHGH 

-3 secunde. Se
-

GHWHUPLQ H[DFWGXUDWDGHFRDJXODUHDODSWHOXLWLPSvQFDUHVHPHQ LQHSDKDUXOvQWU XQYDVFXDS 

la temperatura laptelui din cazan.


6ROX LDGHFKHDJVHSUHSDU FRQIRUPLQVWUXF LXQLORUGHXWLOL]DUHDOHILUPHLSURGXF WRDUH
&KHDJXO VH DGDXJ  VXE IRUP  GH VROX LH SUHSDUDW  FX  PLQXWH vQDLQWHD IRORVLULL  vQ MHW
VXE LUH SHVWH WRDW  VXSUDID D ODSWHOXL DPHVWHFkQG FRQWLQXX 'XS  DGDRVXO VROX LHL GH FKHDJ VH
RSUHWHDJLWDUHDO

aptelui pentru coagulare.

6WDELOLUHD PRPHQWXOXLILQDO DO FRDJXO ULL VH DSUHFLD] FX DMXWRUXO XQHL EDJKHWH GH SODVWLF
VDX R HO LQR[LGDELO VH XUP UHWH GHVSULQGHUHD FRDJXOXOXL vQ OLQLH GUHDSW  vQ ID D EDJKHWHL L

eliminarea de zer limpede de culoare galben verzuie.


Prelucrarea coagulului
6FRSXO SUHOXFU ULL FRDJXOXOXL HVWH HOLPLQDUHD ]HUXOXL vQ FDQWLWDWH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH
VRUWLPHQWXOXL IDEULFDW 3URFHVXO GH HOLPLQDUH D ]HUXOXL GHSLQGH vQ FHD PDL PDUH P VXU  GH
WHPSHUDWXUDGHSUHOXFUDUHLP ULPHDEREXOXLGH

coagul.

3UH]HQ DDOEXPLQHLGHWHUPLQ IRUPDUHDXQXLFRDJXOPRDOH


7HPSHUDWXUD GH SUHOXFUDUH D FRDJXOXL HVWH VSHFLILF  ILHF UXL VRUWLPHQW Q JHQHUDO SHQWUX
EUkQ]HWXULOHPRLFRDJXOXOVHSUHOXFUHD] ODWHPSHUDWXULPDLMRDVHLDUSHQWUXEUkQ]HWXULOHVHPLWDULL

-a (38-550C).

WDULFRDJXOXOVHSUHOXFUHD] ODWHPSHUDWXULPDLULGLFDWHLVHSUDFWLF LvQF O]LUHDD,,

Q SULPD ID]  D SUHOXFU ULL VH vQWRDUFH FX DMXWRUXO F XXOXL VWUDWXO GH OD VXSUDID

 SHQWUX

XQLIRUPL]DUHD WHPSHUDWXULL Q ID]D XUP WRDUH DUH ORF P UXQ LUHD SURSULX ]LV  vQ SDUWLFXOH GH

GLPHQVLXQLYDULDELOHvQIXQF LHGHVRUWLPHQW$FHVWHSDUWLFXOHGHFRDJXOSRDUW QXPHOHGHERE


3HQWUX%UkQ]HWXULOHFXFRQ LQXWULGLFDWGHDS GLPHQVLXQHDEREXOXLHVWHPDUH XQHRULP UXQ LUHD
OLSVHWH  LDU SHQWUX EUkQ]HWXULOH WDUL P UXQ LUHD HVWH PDL DYDQVDW  SHQWUX D IDYRUL]D H[SXO]DUHD

zerului.
3HQWUX D VH P UL YLWH]D GH HOLPLQDUH D ]HUXOXL VH SUDFWLF  vQF O]LUHD PDVHL GH ERE FDUH
VHIDFHVXEDPHVWHFDUHFRQWLQX SULQvQF O]LUHDPDQWDOHLYDQHLSUHOXFUDUHVDXDGDRVGH]HUFXDS 
vQF O]LW  GXS  FD]

- VXQW EUkQ]HWXUL OD FDUH VH SUDFWLF

 VS ODUHD EREXOXL GH FD OD vQFHSXWXO

vQF O]LULLD,, DvQVFRSXOSUHYHQLULLVXSUDDFLGXO ULL

Un procedeu modern de separare a zerului, aplicat la fabricarea unor sortimente de

EUkQ] SURDVS W GHYDF HVWHVHSDUDUHDPHFDQLF IRORVLQGVHSDUDWRUXOGHFRDJXO6HUHDOL]HD] R


VHSDUDUH FRQWLQX  D ]HUXOXL GLQWU XQ FRDJXO PRDOH RE LQXW SULQ FRDJXODUH OHQW  

WRED VHSDUDWRUXOXL EUkQ]D ILLQGHOLPLQDW  SULQ SDWUX DMXWDMH L FROHFWDW

-20 ore), n
 vQWU-un bazin inelar apoi

HYDFXDW  GLQ VHSDUDWRU 3URFHVXO GH VHSDUDUH HVWH FRQWLQXX LDU SURGXVXO RE LQXW DUH R XPLGLWDWH
PDLULGLFDW GHFkWEUkQ]DSURDVS W WUDGL LRQDO 

Formarea brnzeturilor

)RUPDUHDEUkQ]HWXULORUVHSRDWHIDFHGXS PDLPXOWHSURFHGHHIXQF LHGHVRUWLPHQW


QSULQFLSDOVHGHRVHEHVFGRX SURFHGHH

prin turnare -FRDJXOXOP UXQ LWVHLQWURGXFHvQIRUPHvPSUHXQ FX]HUXO


formarea din masa de bob -FRQVW vQGHSXQHUHDDFHVWXLDSHIXQGXOYDQHLSUHVDUHVXE

]HU W LHUHD vQ EXF

L FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH P ULPLL IRUPHORU IRORVLWH L LQWURGXFHUHD EXF

LORU GH FD

n forme.
)RUPHOHVXQWF SWXLWHFXVHGLOHSHQWUXDVHIDYRUL]DHOLPLQDUHD]HUXOXL

Presarea brnzeturilor
3UHVDUHD DUH UROXO GH D IDYRUL]D HOLPLQDUHD VXUSOXVXOXL GH ]HU L D DVLJXUD FRQGL LLOH
QHFHVDUH PDWXU ULL 3UHVDUHD EUkQ]HWXULORU VH SRDWH UHDOL]D VXE JUHXWDWHD SURSULH D PDVHL GH FD
DXWRSUHVDUHVDXXWLOL]kQGRIRU

GHSUHVDUHDF UHLYDORDUHDYDULD] IXQF LHGHVRUWLPHQW 

(ILFLHQ DSURFHVXOXLHVWHLQIOXHQ DW GHWHPSHUDWXUDLDFLGLWDWHDPDVHLGHFD

UDUHDEUkQ]HWXULORU

6 UDUHD UHJOHD]  DFWLYLWDWHD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU FRPSOHWHD]  SURFHVXO GH GHVKLGUDWDUH


IDYRUL]kQGIRUPDUHDFRMLLLvPEXQ W

HWHJXVWXOEUkQ]HWXULORU

3 WUXQGHUHDV ULLvQSDVWDDUHORFSULQWU

-un proces de difuziune, simultan eliminndu-se n

H[WHULRURSDUWHGLQDS 3URFHVXOGHV UDUHHVWHLQIOXHQ DWGHFRQFHQWUD LDVDUDPXULLWHPSHUDWXUD


P ULPHDEXF

LLGXUDWD

6XQWFXQRVFXWHPDLPXOWHSURFHGHHGHV UDUH

V UDUHDXVFDW

V UDUHDvQVDUDPXU

V UDUHDvQSDVW

&ULVWDOHOH GH VDUH WUHEXLH V  DLE  R DQXPLW  JUDQXOD LH vQ FD]XO V U ULL XVFDWH 

-2 mm)

SHQWUXDVHHYLWDIRUPDUHDGHFUXVW SHVXSUDID DEUkQ]HWXULORU

Maturarea brnzeturilor
Maturarea brnzeturilor este ansamblul de fenomene chimice, microELRORJLFH
HQ]LPDWLFH

FDUH

DVLJXU 

SURGXVXOXL

WRWDOLWDWHD

FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU

RUJDQROHSWLFH

L

VSHFLILFH

sortimentului.
3URFHVXOGHPDWXUDUHDUHORFvQDQXPLWHFRQGL LLGHPLFURFOLPDWXQWLPSPDLPXOWVDXPDL
SX LQ vQGHOXQJDW vQ UDSRUW FX VRUWLPHQWXO IDEULFDW WLPS vQ FDUH SULQFLSDOLL FRPSRQHQ L ODFWR]D
VXEVWDQ HOHSURWHLFHLJU VLPLOHVXIHU RVHULHGHWUDQVIRUP UL
/DFWR]D HVWH IHUPHQWDW  vQ DFLG ODFWLF vQ WRWDOLWDWH vQ SULPHOH  ]LOH GH PDWXUDUH Q
FRQWLQXDUH DFLGXO ODFWLF VXE LQIOXHQ D XQRU PLFURRUJD

nisme este transformat n acid propionic,

DFLGDFHWLFLELR[LGGHFDUERQFRQWULEXLQGODIRUPDUHDDURPHLLGHVHQXOXLSDVWHL
*U VLPHD VXIHU  PRGLILF UL PDL LPSRUWDQWH vQ VSHFLDO vQ FD]XO EUkQ]HWXULORU FX PXFHJDL
FX IRUPDUH vQ SULPD HWDS  GH DFL]L JUDL L JOLFHULQ  L vQ ID]D XUP WRDUH GH DOGHKLGH L FHWRQH
FDUHDVLJXU XQJXVWSDUWLFXODUDFHVWRUEUkQ]HWXUL
6XEVWDQ HOH SURWHLFH vQ WLPSXO PDWXU ULL VXIHU  R KLGUROL]  HQ]LPDWLF  FX IRUPDUHD GH
FRPSXL PDL VLPSOL L XRUL GLJHVWLELOL *UDGXO GH WUDQVIRUPDUH D VXEVWDQ HORU SURWHLFH HVWH vQ
UHOD LHGLUHFW FXGXUDWDPDWXU ULL
Q WLPSXO PDWXU ULL EUkQ]HWXULOH VXQW VXSXVH XQRU WUDWDPHQWH L vQJULMLULL VSHFLDOH
vQWRDUFHUHVS O ULFXVROX LLFX

-3% sare.

Depozitarea brnzeturilor
Brnzeturile sunt produsH vQ FDUH

SURFHVHOH ELRFKLPLFH DX ORF I U  vQWUHUXSHUH GLQ

PRPHQWXOPDWXU ULLODSWHOXLFHXUPHD] DILSUHOXFUDWSkQ FkQGEUkQ]DHVWHFRQVXPDW QDFHVWH


FRQGL LL GHSR]LWHOH GH EUkQ]HWXUL VXQW VSD LL vQ FDUH VH FRQWLQX  SURFHVHOH ELRFKLPLFH FDUH

trebuiesc reduse la minimum.


$FHVWH FRQGL LL VH VLJXU  SULQ PLFURFOLPDW  WHPSHUDWXUL L XPLGLWDWH YDULDELOH IXQF LH GH

VRUWLPHQWXO GHSR]LWDW Q JHQHUDO EUkQ]HWXULOH FX SDVWD PRDOH L IRUPDW PLF QHFHVLW  WHPSHUDWXUL
GH GHSR]LWDUH PDL UHGXVH L XPLGLWDWH PDL PDUH SH FkQG EUkQ]HWXULOH FX SDVW  WDUH SRW IL
GHSR]LWDWHODWHPSHUDWXULFHYDPDLULGLFDWHLXPLGLWDWHUHODWLY PDLVF ]XW 

%UkQ]HWXULFXSDVW

RS

ULW

%UkQ]HWXULOH FX SDVW  RS ULW  GHQXPLWH FDFDYDOXUL DX R WHKQRORJLH VSHFLILF  FH VH

caracterizea]

SULQGRX ID]HGLVWLQFWH

IDEULFDUHDFDXOXL

IDEULFDUHDFDFDYDOXOXL

0DWHULD SULP  IRORVLW  OD IDEULFDUHD FDXOXL SHQWUX FDFDYDO R FRQVWLWXLH ODSWHOH GH RDLH
ODSWHOHGHYDF VDXDPHVWHFXODFHVWRUD
3UHOXFUDUHD FDXOXL XUPHD]  ID]HOH SULQFLSDOH DOH

tehnologiei generale a brnzeturilor

SkQ ODID]DGHIRUPDUHDFDXOXLvQFRQWLQXDUHVHSURFHGHD] ODSUHJ WLUHDFDXOXLSHQWUXRS ULUH

FDUHFRQVW vQPDWXUDUHD DFLGLILHUHD DFHVWXLDLW LHUHDvQIHOLL


&DUDFWHULVWLFD SHQWUX IDEULFDUHD FDFDYDOXOXL HVWH ID]D GH RS ULUH )HOLLOH GH FD VH

introduc ntr-XQFR PHWDOLFVDXGHQXLHOH FDUHVHLPHUVHD]

vQDS vQF O]LW OD

- 750C cu sau

I U VDUH)HOLLOHGHFDVHDPHVWHF vQFRSkQ VHRE LQHRSDVW RPRJHQ $FHDVWDVHWUHFHSHR


PDV XQGHXUPHD] ID]D GHSUHOXFUDUHDSDVWHL IU PkQWDUH SHQWUXXQLIRUPL]DUHDFRQVLVWHQ HLL
vQGHS UWDUHD DHUXOXL 8UPHD]  IRUPDUHD PDQXDO  L LQWURGXFHUHD SDVWHL vQ IRUPH F SWXLWH FX
SkQ] 
'XS  U FLUH FDUH GXUHD]     RUH FDFDYDOXO HVWH WUHFXW OD PDWXUDUH &RQGL LLOH L

GXUDWDPDWXU ULLVXQWVSHFLILFHVRUWLPHQWXOXLIDEULFDW

&DFDYDOXO'REURJHD
(VWHXQVRUWLPHQWGHEUkQ] FXSDVW RS ULW IDEULFDWGLQODSWHGHRDLH
3URFHVXOWHKQRORJLFGHIDEULFD LHFXSULQGHGRX ID]HGLVWLQFWH

IDEULFDUHDFDXOXL

fabrLFDUHDFDFDYDOXOXL

)DEULFDUHDFDXOXLSHQWUXFDFDYDO

5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY LFDQWLWDWLY DPDWHULHLSULPH


&XU

LUHDODSWHOXL

3UHJ WLUHDODSWHOXLSHQWUXvQFKHJDUH
QF O]LUHDODSWHOXLODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

- 350C.
WLPSGH

nchegarea laptelui cu cheag la temperaWXUDLQGLFDW


Prelucrarea coagulului.

-50 minute.

QWRDUFHUHDVWUDWXOXLVXSHUILFLDODOFRDJXOXOXLFXF XXO
7 LHUHDFRDJXOXOXLFXKDUIDvQFRORDQHFXODWXUDGHFFDPP
/ VDUHDFRDJXOXOXLvQUHSDXVWLPSGHFFDPLQXWH
7 LHUHD FRDJXOXOXL FX KDUID SkQ  OD GLPHQVLXQHD EREXOXL GH PD] UH
RSHUD LXQHDGXUHD] 

- 15 minute.
- 420C.
Ridicarea temperaturii se face n timp de cca. 40 minute.
Amestecarea masei de coagul cca. 20 minute pentru uscarea bobului.
QF O]LUHDD,, DSkQ ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

(YDFXDUHDSDU LDO D]HUXOXL

)RUPDUHDFDXOXL
7 LHUHDFDXOXL vQFD]DQ FXDMXWRUXOF XXOXLvQEXF
7UHFHUHDEXF

LGH

-10 kg.

LORUGHFDSHVHGLO  SHFULQWD SHQWUXVFXUJHUHD]HUXOXL

3HRSkQ] GHVHGLO VHWUHFHFDXOUH]XOWDWGLQ

- 270 litri de lapte.

3UHVDUHD FDXOXL WLPS GH  PLQXWH FX R IRU

 HJDO FX GH GRX  RUL JUHXWDWHD

FDXOXL
7 LHUHD FDXOXL vQ  EXF

L vQ FUXFH  SH FULQWD vQ VFRSXO HOLPLQ ULL FkW PDL

FRPSOHWHD]HUXOXLOHJDUHDVHGLOHLLFRQWLQXDUHDSUHV ULL

0DWXUDUHD FDXOXL SkQ  OD DFLGLWDWHD GH 

FDXOXLFXSULQVvQWUH

- 20007 vQ PDV

 FX S+

-ul de prelucrare a

-5, iar umiditatea 42-44%.

)DEULFDUHDFDFDYDOXOXL

7 LHUHDFDXOXLvQIHOLLGH

-4 mm grosime.

2S ULUHDFDXOXL
3UHJ WLUHDDSHLSHQWUXRS ULUHDFDXOXL

Apa SHQWUX RS ULUH WUHEXLH V


temperatura de 73- 740C.

 DLE  XQ FRQ LQXW GH  VDUH GH EXF W ULH L

2S ULUHD VH IDFH vQ FRXUL GH QXLHOH D XQHL FDQWLW


FDFDYDO FFDNJ 

L HFKLYDOHQWH FX R URDW  GH

2S ULUHDGXUHD]  VHFXQGHLGXS ILHFDUHRS ULUHVHDGDXJ vQDS VDUH

GHEXF W ULHDVWIHOvQFkWFRQFHQWUD LDV VHPHQ LQ FRQVWDQW 


6FXUJHUHDDSHLGHRS ULUHLSUHVDUHDXRDU DFDXOXLVHIDFHvQFR

)RUPDUHDUR LL
3UHOXFUDUHDSDVWHLSHPDV 
,QWURGXFHUHDSDVWHLvQIRUPHF SWXLWHFXSkQ] XPH]LW vQSUHDODELOLDH]DWH
SHRPDV DFRSHULW FXSkQ] 

Zvntarea timp de cca. 18 ore.


QSULPDRU VHH[HFXW -4 ntoarceri.

6FRDWHUHDUR LORUGLQIRUP LPDUFDUHD


0DWXUDUHDFDFDYDOXOXL

Maturarea timp de 11-12 zile, la temperatura de 18- 200C.


n prLPHOH WUHL ]LOH vQWRDUFHUHD UR LORU VH IDFH GH GRX  RUL SH ]L UR LOH ILLQG

DH]DWHFkWHXQD
Q XUP WRDUHOH  ]LOH VH IRUPHD]  FRORDQH GH GRX  UR L 5R LOH VH vQWRUF OD
GRX ]LOH

Maturarea la temperatura de 16- 180C, timp de 60 zile.


6H IRUPHD]  FRORDQH GLQ FkWH  UR L L VH SURFHGHD]  OD WHUJHUHD L

LQWURGXFHUHDUR LORUODLQWHUYDOGH

-4 zile.

3UHJ WLUHDUR LORUSHQWUXOLYUDUH


6S ODUHD UR LORU GHFDFDYDO FX VROX LH   FDUERQDW GH VRGLX XUPDW  GH

FO WLUHFXDS UHFHLRVS ODUHFXVDUDPXU UHFH FRQFHQWUD LH FORUXU 

de sodiu).
=YkQWDUHD UR LORU WLPS GH   RUH 5R LOH VXSXVH ]YkQW ULL VXQW DH]DWH vQ

FUXFH LDU WHPSHUDWXUD vQ VDOD GH ]YkQWDUH YD DVLJXUD U FLUHD UR LORU OD

temperatura de maturare.
3DUDILQDUHDUR LORUODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

40- 1500&FXDPHVWHFGHSDUDILQ

L

20% cerezina.
Depozitarea la temperatura de 4- 80C.
QWLPSXOGHSR]LW ULLUR LOHGHFDFDYDOVXQWDH]DWHvQFRORDQHGH EXF

L

&RQVXPXOVSHFLILFRULHQWDWLYSHQWUXFDFDYDOXO'REURJHDHVWHGHOOODSWHGH

oaie cu

JU VLPH
3URSULHW

WLRUJDQROHSWLFH

Tabelul nr.19
Caracteristici
organoleptice
Aspect exterior

Metode de
verificare

&RQGL LLGHDGPLVLELOLWDWH
&RDMD VDX VXSUDID D QHWHG  FXUDW  I U  FXWH VDX JROXUL I U 
SHWH VDX FU S WXUL GH FXORDUH DOE  SkQ  OD FHQXLX  J OEXLH

pentru brnzeturile din lapte de oaie, alb-J

OEXLH SkQ  OD

JDOEHQ  SHQWUX EUkQ]HWXULOH GLQ ODSWH GH YDF  DOE J OEXLH

SkQ  OD FHQXLH GHVFKLV SHQWUX EUkQ]HWXULOH GLQ ODSWH vQ


DPHVWHF L GH FXORDUH JDOEHQ EUXQ  SkQ  OD EUXQ  XQHRUL F

GLIHULWH vQFUXVWD LL SHQWUX EUkQ]HWXULOH DIXPDWH 5R LOH VDX


EXF

LOH SRW IL DFRSHULWH  FX R SHOLFXO  SURWHFWRDUH XQLIRUP 

DYL]DW  FRQIRUP GLVSR]L LLORU VDQLWDUH vQ YLJRDUH 6H DGPLW


UR L VDX EXF

L FX XQVRDUH GHQLYHO UL FX XRDUH XUPH GH

U ]XLUH L FU S WXUL OD VXSUDID

 FX XUPH LVDX SHWH PLFL GH

PXFHJDLGHFXORDUHYHUGHODXQQXP UGHPD[LPGLQORW

Culoare

'H OD DOE  OD JDOEHQ  GHVFKLV XQLIRUP  vQ WRDW  PDVD 6H
DGPLWH LQWHQVLILFDUH FXORULL JDOEHQH F WUH PDUJLQLOH UR LORU L
EXF

LORU

vQ

special pentru brnzeturile afumate; cele

FRQGLPHQWDWH SUH]LQW  SLJPHQWD LH VSHFLILF  SURGXVXOXL GH

condimentare folosit.

$VSHFWvQVHF LXQH

3DVWD FXUDW  FRPSDFW  RPRJHQ  I U  XUPH GH PXFHJDL FX

SR
i 6345-1995

UDUH L PLFL RFKLXUL GH IHUPHQWDUH 6H DGPLW UDUH JROXU

DOXQJLWHGHIRUPDUHLSUHVDUHLQFOX]LXQLGHJU VLPHLJUXQML

de tirozina.
&RQVLVWHQ

3DVWD ILQ  RQFWXRDV  XRU HODVWLF  OD UXSHUH VH GHVIDFH vQ
IkLL
3O FXW FDUDFWHULVWLF EUkQ]HWXULORU FX SDVW  RS ULW  SURYHQLWH

Miros

din lapte

GH RDLH ODSWH GH YDF  VDX ODSWH vQ DPHVWHF I U 

PLURV VWU LQ %UkQ]HWXULOH DIXPDWH SUH]LQW  PLURV VSHFLILF GH

fum.
3O FXW FX DURP  VSHFLILF  EUkQ]HWXULORU FX SDVW  RS ULW 

Gust

SURYHQLWH GLQ ODSWH GH RDLH ODSWH GH YDF  VDX ODSWH vQ

amestec, potrivit

GH V UDW I U  JXVW VWU LQ %UkQ]HWXULOH

DIXPDWH SUH]LQW  JXVW XRU GH IXP 6H DGPLWH JXVW XRU

picant.
%UkQ]HWXULvQVDUDPXU
%UkQ]HWXULOHvQVDUDPXU VXQWvQJHQHUDOVRUWLPHQWHGHEUkQ]HWXULFXSDVW PRDOHDOF URU
SURFHVGHIDEULFD LHVHGHRVHEHWHGHDOFHORUODOWHEUkQ]HWXULvQID]DGHSUHOXFUDUHDFRDJXOXOXLL
vQID]DGHPDWXUDUHLGHSR]LWDUHDEUkQ]HL

%UkQ]

WHOHPHD

(VWHXQVRUWLPHQWGHEUkQ] vQVDUDPXU IDEULFDWGLQODSWHGHYDF ODSWHGHRDLHODSWHGH


ELYROL

VDXDPHVWHFGHODSWHGHYDF LODSWHGHRDLH
%UkQ]DWHOHPHDVHIDEULF GXS GRX SURFHGHHRELQXLWLFXvQJOREDUHGHDOEXPLQ 
3URFHVXOWHKQRORJLFGHIDEULFD LHFXSULQGHXUP WRDUHOHID]HSULQFLSDOH

5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY

&XU

LUH

LFDQWLWDWLY

a materiei prime.

a laptelui .

Normalizarea laptelui
fabricat.

OD XQ FRQ LQXW GH JU VLPH FRUHVSXQ] WRU VRUWLPHQWXOXL

Pasteurizarea laptelui

- 680C timp de 20-30 minute sau n aparate


FLOD- 74 & FRQIRUPSUHVFULS LLORr furnizorului utilajului) Este de preferat pasteurizarea
/DSWHOHVHSDVWHXUL]HD] ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

FXSO

MRDV  L GH GXUDW  GHRDUHFH LQWHUYLQ FHOH PDL VODEH PRGLILF UL vQ FRPSR]L LD L SURSULHW

LOH

laptelui.
/DSWHOH WUDWDW FKLPLF OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH PDL VXV VH U FHWH OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH vQFKHJDUH

caUHvQUDSRUWFXWHPSHUDWXUDvQF

SHULL GHFFD

C), poate fi de 32- 360C.

/DSWHOH GH YDF  GHVWLQDW SUHOXFU ULL vQ EUkQ]  WHOHPHD FX vQJOREDUH GH DOEXPLQ  VH

vQF O]HWH OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH  & VH PHQ LQH WLPS GH   PLQXWH L VHU FHWH ODWHPSHUDWXUD

de nchegare de 40- 440C.

3UHJ

WLUHDODSWHOXLSHQWUXvQFKHJDUH

QDLQWHGHvQFKHJDUHSHQWUXILHFDUHOLWULODSWHVHDGDXJ 

60-80 ml dintr-R VROX LH GH FORUXU

 GH FDOFLX GH  & SUHSDUDW  DVWIHO vQWU

-un vas de 2 litri

VHLQWURGXFHFRQ LQXWXOXQXLERUFDQGHFORUXU GHFDOFLXFULVWDOL]DW ODFDUHV DDG XJDWFDQWLWDWHD

GH DS ILDUW LU FLW SkQ ODYROXPXOGH OLWULVDX ERUFDQHFXFORUXU GHFDOFLXFULVWDOL]DW OD

un bidon de 10 litri.

ate de 100- 1150T.

&DQWLWDWHD GH FKHDJ QHFHVDU  SHQWUX D FRDJXOD ODSWHOH vQ WLPS GH -70 minute n cazul
SURFHGHXOXLRELQXLWLDUODSURGXVXOFXvQJOREDUHGHDOEXPLQ vQ-50 minute.

0,1-OLWULPDLDSHQWUXEUkQ]

WHOHPHDVDXLDXUWFXDFLGLW

QFD]XOEUkQ]HLWHOHPHDGHYDF  FXvQJOREDUH GHDOEXPLQ  VHLQWURGXFLDFLGFORUKLGULF


SDOkQJ FDQWLW

LOHGHFORUXU GHFDOFLXLPDLD

 OLWUL VROX LH GH DFLG FORUKLGULF OD  7 SUHSDUDW SULQ GLOXDUHD FX DS  ILDUW  L U FLW  vQ

raport de cca 1 parte acid clorhidric la 100- S


YHGHUHDULGLF ULLDFLGLW

U L GH DS  RE LQkQG DVWIHO VROX LD

LLODSWHOXLSDVWHXUL]DWFXXQJUDG7RUQHU

/DSWHOHSDVWHXUL]DWvQDLQWHGHvQFKHJDUHWUHEXLHV DLE RDFLGLWDWHGH

de 1%) n

- 250T.

Scoaterea coagulului
'XS  vQFKHJDUHD ODSWHOXL VH vQWRDUFH VWUDWXO VSHFLDO GH FRDJXO FFD 

cm) cu scala, n

YHGHUHD XQLIRUPL] ULL WHPSHUDWXULL L D JU VLPLL 6FRDWHUHD FRDJXOXOXL GLQ FD]DQ VH SRDWH IDFH
GXS GRX PHWRGH
 'XS RSUHDODELO W LHUHFXKDUIDvQFD]DQSHGRX GLUHF LLSHUSHQGLFXODUHVHFRQWLQX 
W LHUHDRUL]RQWDO SHQWUXRE LQHU

ea unei prisme cu latura de 2-3 cm.


-

 &XVFDODVXEIRUP GHIHOLLFXvQ O LPHDGH FPFDUHVHDHD] VXEIRUP GHVRO]L


SHSkQ]DGHVHGLO SkQ ODXPSOHUHDFKHQDUXOXL
&RDJXOXODVWIHOW LDWVHODV vQUHSDXVFFDPLQXWHSHQWUXVHSDUDUHD]HUXOXL

limpede de

FXORDUHJDOEHQYHU]XLHDSRLHVWHVFRVSDU LDOGLQFD]DQSULQVLIRQDUHVDXFXDMXWRUXOVFDIHLGXS 
FDUHPDVDGHFRDJXOHVWHVFRDV SHFULQWDFXVFDID
7 LHUHDFRDJXOXOXLFX KDUID vQFD]DQ LFXFX LWXOPXOWLODPHODU SH SkQ] VHIDFHvQFHW
SHQWUXDHYLWDSLHUGHULOHGHVXEVWDQ

XVFDW vQ]HU

Prelucrarea coagulului pe crinta


&RDJXOXO DH]DW SH VHGLO  GXS  SULPD PHWRG  YD IL SUHOXFUDW SULQWU R VLQJXU  W LHUH FX

GRX  UXSHULvQYHGHUHDHOLPLQ ULL]HUXOXLLIRUPDUHDFDXOXLLDUFHODH]DWGXS DGRXDPHWRG 

va fi prelucrat prin 2-W

LHUL UXSHUL LSUHV ULVXFFHVLYHODLQWHUYDOHGHFFDPLQXWH

Q FD]XO IRORVLULL VHPLQ HORU GH QHJULOLFD

Negellia sativa DFHVWHD VH SRW SUHV

UD GXS 

XOWLPDW LHUHDFRDJXOXOXL
3HQWUX D RE LQH GLQWU

-o

SkQ]   FDOXSXUL XQLIRUPH GH EUkQ]  WHOHPHD FRDJXOXO DH]DW

WUHEXLH V  SURYLQ  GLQ FFD  OLWUL ODSWH GH YDF  SHQWUX EUkQ]D WHOHPHD RELQXLW  GLQ FFD 
OLWULODSWHGHYDF SHQWUXEUkQ]DWHOHPHDVXSHULRDU VDXFXvQJOREDUHGHDOEXPLQ LGLQFFD
OLWULODSWHGHRDLHVDXELYROL
/D

IRUPDUHD

SHQWUXEUkQ]DWHOHPHDGHRDLHVDXGHELYROL

FDXOXL

VH

YD

IRORVL

FKHQDUXO

PHWDOLF

FDUH


DVLJXU 

XQLIRUPLWDWHD

GLPHQVLXQLORUODFDOXSXULOHGHEUkQ] 

3UHVDUHDFDXOXLLIRUPDUHDFDOXSXULORUGHEUkQ]
DuS  FHOH - SUHOXFU UL DOH FRDJXOXOXL SH VHGLOD PDVD IRUPDW  VH DHD]  vQ FKHQDUXO
metalic, evitndu-VH IRUPDUHD FXWHORU 6H XQLIRUPL]HD]  FRDJXOXOXL VH SUHVHD]  PDQXDO FHOH
SDWUX FRO XUL SHQWUX D DVLJXUD FDOXSXUL GH EUkQ]  GH IRUPDW XQLIRUP DSRL VH DHD]  SkQ]D GH
VHGLO SHID DVXSHULRDU D FDOXSXOXL GHFD6HDHD] FDSDFXOPHWDOLFVHSXQH RJUHXWDWH GH
NJ GXS  FFD  PLQXWHR DOW  JUHXWDWH GH  NJ L GXS  FFD  PLQXWHDOWH GRX  JUHXW
 NJ FDUH VH PHQ LQ FFD 

LDFkWH

-80 minute. Din blocXO GHFD SUHVDW VH RE LQ  FDOXSXULFX ODWXUD

de 11 cm.
&DOXSXULOHRE LQXWHVHDHD] DSURSLDWHXQDGHDOWDSHFULQWDVHVWURSHVFFXDS SRWDELO 
VHPHQ LQWLPSFFDPLQXWHLVHWUHFODVDUDPXUDUH
3UHOXFUDUHDFRDJXOXOXLSHFULQWDUHVSHFWLYQXP UXOGHW LHULSUHFXPLSUHVDUHDQHFHVDU 
YD ILDVWIHOGLULMDW vQFkWV VLJXUHHOLPLQDUHD XQHL FDQWLW
XPLGLW

LFkW PDLPDULGH]HUL UHDOL]DUHDXQHL

LFXFFDPDLPDUHGHFkWFRQ LQXWXOGHXPLGLWDWHSUHY ]XWSHQWUXSURGXVXOILQLW

UDUHDXPHG

D

brnzei telemea
-

&DOXSXULOH GH EUkQ]  VH LQWURGXF vQWU XQ ED]LQFXVDUDPXU  HYHQWXDO OD QDYHWH GLQ PHWDO
VDX PDWHULDO SODVWLF 'XUDWD GH V UDUH D EXF LORU GH EUkQ]  HVWH GH - RUH FRQFHQWUD LD
saramurii 18-20%, temperatura 15- 180C, aciditate 20- 300T. La interval de 6-7 ore calupurile de
EUkQ]  VH vQWRUF OD vQFHSXW DWkW OD LQWURGXFHUH FkW L OD vQWRDUFHUH SH ID D VXSHULRDU  VH SUHVDU 

10-ERDEHGHVDUHFXJUDQXOD LDGH-5 mm.

UDUHDXVFDW DEUkQ]HLWHOHPHD

6 UDUHDXVFDW VHIDFHSHFULQWD

jgheab, navete din metal sau din material plastic, timp de


-6 ore. Att
SHVXSUDID DFkWLVXEFDOXSXULOHGHEUkQ] VHSUHVDU SHQWUXILHFDUHEXFDW FkWH-15 granule de

cca. 10-RUHFDOXSXULOHGHEUkQ]

ILLQGDH]DWHVWUkQVXQDGHDOWDVHvQWRUFGXS 

VDUHJUXQMRDV 
QFD]XOvQFDUHGRULPV RE LQHPREUkQ] FXXPLGLWDWHPDLVF ]XW ID]DGHV UDUHXVFDW 
VHSUHOXQJHWHFXvQF 

-12 ore.

6 UDUHD XVFDW  VH FRQWLQX  vQ DPEDODMH GLQ PDWHULDO SODVWLF VDX EXWRDLH FFD  RUH

(primele 12 ore, n stratXULGHEUkQ]

vQDPEDODMGHSODVWLFLGXS RUHFXvQF VWUDWXUL LFX

VWUDWXULODEXWRDLH6XELSHVWHILHFDUHVWUDWGHEUkQ] VHSUHVHD] VDUHJUXQMRDV FFD

-30 g

VDUHSHQWUXDPEDODMHGLQPDWHULDOSODVWLFLFFD

-60 g pentru butoaie.

SarDPXU

 vQ FXWLL GLQ PDWHULDO SODVWLF VDX vQ EXWRDLH HVWH FXQRVFXW  VXE GHQXPLUHD GH

VDUDPXU PDPDDFHDVWDVHS VWUHD] vQFRQWLQXDUHSHQWUXPDWXUDUHDLS VWUDUHDODIULJDEUkQ]HL


WHOHPHD ILLQG FRQVHUYDQWXO SURGXVXOXL Q FD]XO FkQG VDUDPXUD PDP  HVWH LQVXILFLHQW  VH
FRPSOHWHD] FXVDUDPXU SUHSDUDW GLQ]HUvQV PkQ DWFXPDLDGH]HUSDVWHXUL]DWFXDFLGLWDWHDL
FRQFHQWUD LDV ULLDSURSLDW GHDFHHDVDUDPXULLRULJLQDOH VDUDPXUDPDPD GLQDPEDODMH

nainte de a se introduce brnza telemea n ambalaje, VH FRQWUROHD]

 GDF  DFHVWHD VXQW

FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH FXUDWH ELQH VS ODWH L GH]LQIHFWDWH LDU OD EXWRDLH VH PDL FRQWUROHD]  GDF 

dogele sunt bine strnse.


%XWRDLHOH VH F SWXHVF FX VDFL GLQ SROLHWLOHQ  FRQWURODWH vQ SUHDODELO  LDU PDUJLQHD
VXSHULRDU  D VDFXOXL VH U VIUkQJH SHVWH EXWRL Q FD]XO FkQG VSD LXO GH PDWXUDUH HVWH UHGXV
PDUJLQHDVXSHULRDU DVDFXOXLVHU VIUkQJHvQEXWRL
'XS  V UDUHD XVFDW  vQ DPEDODMH WLPS GH  GH RUH EUkQ]D WHOHPHD HVWH FRQVLGHUDW 
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marcndu-VHFX]LXDFDOHQGDULVWLF

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SHQWUX D GHWHUPLQD SURFHQWXO GH XPLGLWDWH FRQ LQXWXO GH JU VLPH GH VDUH L DFLGLWDWH 'DWHOH

respeFWLYHVHvQVFULXvQUHJLVWUXOGHODERUDWRULDUFDQWLWDWHDFXFRQ LQXWXOGHXPLGLWDWHvQUDSRUWXO
]LOQLFGHIDEULFD LH

Maturarea brnzei telemea


%UkQ]D WHOHPHD DPEDODW  vQ FXWLL GLQ SROLHWLOHQ  VDX vQ EXWRDLH VH S VWUHD]  vQ VDUDPXU 

din zer pentru fazDGHPDWXUDUHFDUHGXUHD] FFD]LOHODRWHPSHUDWXU GH- 160C. Faza de


maturare la temperatura de 14- 160& SHQWUX EUkQ]D WHOHPHD GHVWLQDW H[SRUWXOXL SRDWHIL UHGXV 
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8. Depozitarea n camere frigorifice curate dezinfectate, deratizate la temperatura de 48 &LXPLGLWDWHUHODWLY -85%.


0

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mai multe tipuri:


tip 75 FUHP H[WUD
tip 60 FUHP GXEO
tip 50 - creme

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tip 45 foarte grase


tip 40 grase
tip 30 trei sferturi grase
tip 20 semigrase

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Se deosebesc trei tipuri de tehnologii de fabricare a brnzeturilor topite:


I U DGDRVXUi;
cu adaosuri;
afumate.

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standardele n vigoare pentru produsele respective.

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amestecului.
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topire, a c

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4- 80C timp de maximum 10 ore.


Evacuarea amestecului din oala de topire.

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t fi:

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la Wolf.
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pulverizare cu injector;

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- 1700C.
Particulele de lapte praf cad la baza turnului de uscare de unde laptele praf este evacuat
spre ambalare.
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are.

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din totalul proteinelor;

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tabelul nr.20.
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Tabelul nr. 20
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vQJU DUH

Proteice, %

75,0
66,5
60,0
78,0
72,3
73,0

20,8
20,0
18,6
20,0
19,5
20,5

%RYLQ

6ODE

Medie
*UDV
9L HO

6ODE

Porc

6ODE

GraV

6 UXUL

grase, %

Glucide
%

minerale, %

3,0
12,4
20,4
1,0
7,5
5,0

1,2
1,0
1,0
1,0
0,7
1,1

Calorii la
100 g produs
comestibil
110,50
193,60
260,00
91,10
148,20
133,19

Medie

65,0
50,6
73,0
65,5
55,3
72,5
70,0
63,7
67,0
55,5
55,7
40,2

*UDV
6ODE

Oaie

Medie
*UDV
* LQ

6ODE

Medie
*UDV
&XUF

Medie
*UDV

*kVF

Medie
*UDV

18,0
15,0
20,2
18,0
16,0
22,0
19,0
18,0
23,5
21,0
17,0
16,3

16,2
33,7
3,7
15,6
28,0
4,4
10,0
17,3
8,5
22,5
26,3
42,8

0,8
0,7
1,1
0,9
0,7
1,1
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
0,7

221,22
368,17
116,49
215,76
321,40
130,04
168,90
231,53
173,70
290,85
308,13
456,31

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SULPXOUkQGGHDOEXPLQD GLJHVWLELO LGHFDOLWDWHDDPLQRDFL]LORU(VWHIRDUWHFXQRVFXWIDSWXOF 
QX WR L DPLQR DFL]LL SRW IL VLQWHWL]D L GH RUJDQLVPXO RPHQHVF DFHL FH QX VXQW VLQWHWL]D L GH

RUJDQLVPVXQWGHQXPL LDPLQR DFL]LHVHQ LDOLLWUHEXLHLQWURGXLvQRUJDQLVPSULQDOLPHQWD LH

&RQ LQXWXOvQV

)HOXOF UQLL

Ca
12
9

&DUQHGHYDF

Carne de porc

Mg
24
19

UXULPLQHUDOHvQPJJFDUQH

Fe
3
2,5

K
338
279

&RQ LQXWXOGHYLWDPLQHDOF

Na
82
142

P
216
178

Tabelul nr. 21
Cl
S
76
230
38
115

UQLLLRUJDQHORUvQPJJ

Tabelul nr. 22
)HOXOF UQLLLDO

organelor
0XFKLGHERYLQH
0XFKL

de porcine
Ficat de bovine
Ficat de porcine
Rinichi de bovine
Rinichi de porcine

B1

B2

B6

PP

0,23
1-2,0
0,38
0,52
0,27
0,52

0,26
0,24
3,0
2,7
2,05
1,96

0,4
0,61
0,73
0,33
0,44
0,55

7,5
8,0
17,5
19,0
10,0
10,0

Acid
pantotenic
0,60
1,25
6,30
5,00
3,70
3,10

%LRWLQ

3,0
1,5
50
63
100

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de 96-98%.
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nii.

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Ajungnd la periost, microflora de puWUHIDF LH

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infectaUHPLFURELDQ

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OkQJ RV PLURVGHRV 


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Spre deosebire de produsele vegetale, carnea prin alterare poate aduce nu numai pagube
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germenilor toxigeni VDXDvQPXO LULLXQRUJHUPHQLFRQGL LRQDWSDWRJHQLFDUH SURGXFWXOEXU


organism.

ULvQ

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DF UQLL0HWRGHOHGHFRQVHUYDUHDSOLFDWHvQLQGXVWULDF UQLLWUHEXLHV vPSLHGLFHvQSULPXOUkQG

dezvoltarea microorganismelor.
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HVWHDU WDW vQWDEHOXOQU

&ODVLILFDUHDPLFURRUJDQLVPHORUGXS

temperatura de dezvoltare
Tabelul nr.23
0

Microorganisme

Temperatura, C
0LQLP

Psihrofile
Mezofile
Termofile

2SWLP

0
20
50

20
37
55

0D[LP

30
43
75

3. METODE DE CONSERVARE A CRNII


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b. Metode fizico-chimice. n cadrul metodelor fizico-chimice de conservare sunt folosite


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Multe mucegaiuri pot rezista la temperaturi cuprinse ntre 120&L 180C timp de 10-12
0
0
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doilea rnd de criterii economice.


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6F ] PkQWXO HVWH FX DWkW PDL PDUH FX FkW HVWH PDL PDUH GLIHUHQ D vQWUH HQWDOSLL L FX FkW
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6F ] PkQWXO HVWH IDYRUL]DW L GH YLWH]D GH FLUFXOD LH D DHUXOXL L GH DFHHD WUHEXLH J VLW 
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LL

DHUXOXL $FHVW OXFUX FUHHD]  vQV  FRQGL LL IDYRUDELOH GH]YROW ULL PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU PDL DOHV vQ
FD]XOUHIULJHU ULLvQFD]XOFRQJHO ULLDFHVWOXFUXHVWHvPSLHGLFDWGHWHPSHUDWXUDVF ]XW 
'HSR]LWDUHD SURGXVXOXL vQ DHU SUHD XPHG DYkQG R WHPSHUDWXU  PDL ULGLFDW  GHFkW D
SURGXVXOXLG ORFODFRQGHQV ULGHYDSRULGHDS  EUXP 
*D]HOH DX XQ FRHILFLHQW GH WUDQVPLWHUH D F OGXULL PXOW PDL PDUH GHFkW DHUXO 0HGLXO GH
U FLUHVXEIRUP GHYDSRULVHIRUPHD] SULQHYDSRUDUHDDJHQWXOXLIULJRULILFvQvQF SHUHDXQGHDUH
ORF U FLUHD 8Q DVWIHO GH PHGLX vO FRQVWLWXLH ELR[LGXO GH FDUERQ vQ VWDUH VROLG  IRORVLW VXE
GHQXPLUHD GH JKHD

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Temperatura de evaporare este de 78,90& Q DFHOHDL FRQGL LL GH WHPSHUDWXU  GXUDWD U FLULL FX
vapori de bioxid de carbon HVWH PDL PLF  GHFkW vQ FD]XO XQHL U FLUL RELQXLWH DYkQG FD DJHQW GH
U FLUHDHUXO
$SDvQIRUP QDWXUDO QXSRDWHILIRORVLW GHFkWODWHPSHUDWXULFHGHS HVF

C.

6ROX LLOH DSRDVH GH V UXUL DX R SXWHUH GH U FLUH PDL PDUH GHFkW DSD GDU DX GH]DYDQWDMXO
F  YHQLQG vQ FRQWDFW FX SURGXVXO SURGXF XQHOH PRGLILF UL GH DVSHFW L GH JXVW vQ VWUDWXO
VXSHUILFLDODODFHVWXLD6ROX LLOHGHV UXULPDLDXGH]DYDQWDMXOF YHQLQGvQFRQWDFWFXVXSUDIH HOH
PHWDOLFHDOHLQVWDOD LHLLFRQGXFWHORUGHU FLUHSURYRDF FRURG

area acestora.

0HGLLOHGHU FLUHVROLGHSRWILPHWDOLFHVDXJHOXULVROLGH0HWDOHOHVHUYHVFGUHSWPHGLXGH
U FLUHvQFD]XOFkQGU FLUHDVHIDFHFXDMXWRUXOXQRUSO FLPHWDOLFHVDXWXEXULU FLWHODLQWHULRUL

care vin n contact cu produsul. n acest scop VXQW IRORVLWH PHWDOH FX R EXQ
FDORULF FXJUHXWDWHVSHFLILF PLF FXREXQ UH]LVWHQ
SURGXVXOXL5 VSkQGLUHDFHDPDLPDUHSHQWUXFDOLW

n toate cazurile U

 FRQGXFWLELOLWDWH

ODFRUR]LXQHLFDUHV QXG XQH]HGHORF

LOHVDOHDOXDW RR HOXOLQGR[LGDELO

FLUHD VH SRDWH IDFH ILH SULQ FRQWDFW GLUHFW FX PHGLXO GH U FLUH DHU

OLFKLG VROLG  ILH I U  FRQWDFW GLUHFW SURGXVXO UHVSHFWLY ILLQG SUHDPEDODW 5 FLUHD SULQ FRQWDFW
GLUHFW HVWH U FLUHD FHD PDL VLPSO  WUDQVPLVLD F OGXULL I FkQGX

-se direct la mediul GH U

FLUH

GH]DYDQWDMHOH DFHVWHL PHWRGH VXQW VF ] PLQWHOH PDUL FDUH VH UHDOL]HD]  L XQHOH PRGLILF UL

organoleptice.
5 FLUHD SURGXVXOXL SUHDPEDODW vPEXQ W

HWH VLP LWRU VWDUHD LJLHQLFR VDQLWDU  D DFHVWXLD

L UHGXFH VF ] PLQWHOH GH]DYDQWDMXO PHWRGHL HVWH vQV  P ULUHD GXUDWHL GH U FLUH D SURGXVHORU
GHWHUPLQDW GHFRQGXFWLYLWDWHDVF ]XW DDPEDODMXOXLSODVWLF
E &LUFXOD LD PHGLXOXL GH U

FLUH 3HQWUX XQLIRUPL]DUHD UHJLPXOXL GH WHPSHUDWXU  L

XPLGLWDWHGLQvQF SHUHDvQFDUHU FLUHDVHIDFHFXDHUHVWHQHFHVDUFDDFHVWDV ILHSXVvQPLFDUH


0LFDUHD DHUXOXL DUH GH DVHPHQHD UROXO GH D P UL WUDQVPLVLD GH F OGXU  D SURGXVXOXL L GH D

mpiedica dezvoltarea mucegaiului.


Distribuirea aerului se poate face prin canale de aer sau prin injectoare. Canalele de aer
SRW IL DH]DWH vQ vQF SHUH XQLIRUP VXE WDYDQ DHUXO vQF O]LW ILLQG HOLPLQDW SULQ FDQDOH GH
DEVRUE LH

La sistemul de distribuire prin injectoare se folosesc ventilatoare cu orificii speciale. Ele


Ventilatoarele sunt mai economice

SRW IL DH]DWH ILH VXE WDYDQ ILH vQ DOW  SDUWH D FDPHUHL

vQWUXFkWVHDVLJXU RLQWHQVLWDWHPDLPDUHLRGLVWULEXLUHPDLXQLIRUP DDHUXOXL


,QWHQVLWDWHDFLUFXOD LHLDHUXOXLVHP VRDU SULQGHWHUPLQDUHDYLWH]HLGHPLFDUHFXDMXWRUXO

DQHPRPHWUXOXLLVHH[SULP vQPVVDXvQYROXPHGHDHUSHXQLWDWHGHWLPS RU 
F 3ULPHQLUHD L SXULILFDUHD DHUXOXL QWUXFkW SURGXVHOH VXSXVH U FLULL VDX S VWU ULL OD
UHFHHOLPLQ YDSRULLJD]HFDUHILHF SURGXF XQPLURVGHVW WXW ILHF IDYRUL]HD] GH]YROWDUHD

microflorei, este necesar ca aeUXO V

ILH SULPHQLW VDX SXULILFDW SHULRGLF $FHDVWD VH UHDOL]HD] FX

DMXWRUXOYHQWLOD LHLLDOILOWUHORUGHSXULILFDUH vQXQHOHFD]XULLSULQR]RQLILFDUH 


1XP UXO L GHELWXO YHQWLODWRDUHORU VH FDOFXOHD]  GXS  QXP UXO VFKLPEXULORU GH DHU

necesare pe zi. 9HQWLOD LD FHUH FKHOWXLHOL VXSOLPHQWDUH GH U

FLUH D DHUXOXL SURDVS W L P UHWH

VF ] PLQWHOH GH DFHHD HD WUHEXLH FDOFXODW  GXS  SDUWLFXODULW

LOH SURGXVXOXL L D SURFHVXOXL

tehnologic.
3.1.1. Refrigerarea crnii

,PSRUWDQ DUHIULJHU

ULLF

UQLL

RefrigerDUHD HVWH SURFHVXO GH U

FLUH DO XQXL SURGXV SkQ  vQ DSURSLHUHD SXQFWXOXL GH

vQJKH DUH DO DFHVWXLD Q FD]XO F UQLL DFHDVWD VH FRQVLGHU  UHIULJHUDW  DWXQFL FkQG vQ FHQWUXO
FDUFDVHL VDX DO EXF

LL FHOHL PDL JURDVH VH RE LQH R WHPSHUDWXU  FXSULQV  vQWUH 

i 00C. Prin

DFHDVW U FLUHVHUHGXFHSURFHVXOGHGH]YROWDUHDPLFURIORUHLEDQDOHFDUHvQFRQGL LLIDYRUDELOHDU


GXFH OD GHVFRPSXQHUHD SXWULILF  D F UQLL 3URFHVXO VWDELOL]DWRU DO IULJXOXL HVWH IDYRUL]DW L GH
SHOLFXODGHDFRSHULUHFDUHVHIRUPHD] SHVXSUDID DF UQLLvQWLPSXOUHIULJHU ULL
QWLPSXOUHIULJHU ULLF UQLLDFWLYLWDWHDHQ]LPHORUGLQFDUQHFRQWLQX SURFHVHOHDXWROLWLFH

urmndu-LFXUVXOORU'XS
V  FDSHWH SURSULHW

 RUHSURFHVXOGHULJLGLWDWHPXVFXODU vQFHWHD] LDUFDUQHDvQFHSH

LOH RUJDQROHSWLFH VSHFLILFH vQFHSXWXOXL PDWXU ULL 0DWHULD SULP  VXSXV 

UHIULJHU ULLWUHEXLHV ILHIRDUWHSURDVS W LSUHOXFUDW vQDEDWRUvQFRQGL LLSHUIHFWHGHLJLHQ L

tehnologie.

9LWH]DGHUHIULJHUDUHDF

UQLL

9LWH]D GH UHIULJHUDUH D F UQLL HVWH SURSRU LRQDO  FX GLIHUHQ D GH WHPSHUDWXU  GLQWUH FDUQH
L PHGLXO vQFRQMXU WRU 5HDF LLOH H[RWHUPH SURGXVH GH SURFHVHOH GH DXWROL]  FXP L DEVRUELUHD
XQHLS U LGLQF OGXU GHF WUHDSDFDUHVHHYDSRU LQIOXHQ HD] vQWU RSUHDPLF P VXU UHJLPXO

UHIULJHU ULL
9LWH]D GH U FLUH HVWH vQ IXQF LH GH IRUPD L GLPHQVLXQLOH SURGXVXOXL GH FDSDFLWDWHD OXL
WHUPLF LGHYLWH]DDHUXOXL
&DXUPDUHDHYDSRU ULLXPLGLW

LLSHVXSUDID DF UQLLVHIRUPHD] SHOLFXODGHXVFDUHFDUH

GXS FXPV DPDLDU WDWFRQWULEXLHODLQKLEDUHDDFWLYLW

7HKQLFDUHIULJHU

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LLPLFURRUJDQLVPHORU

UQLL

5HIULJHUDUHD F UQLL GH ERYLQH SRUFLQH L RYLQH VH IDFH vQ WXQHOH VDX vQ FDPHUH GH
UHIULJHUDUH SUHY ]XWH FX OLQLL DHULHQH PRQWDWH OD R GLVWDQ

 FRQYHQDELO  L DQXPH  P GH OD

SHUHWH L  P vQWUH OLQLL vQ FDPHUHOH GH UHIULJHUDUH D F UQLL GH ERYLQH  P vQWUH OLQLL vQ
FDPHUHOH GH UHIULJHUDUH D F UQLL GH SRUFLQH L RYLQH /LQLLOH WUHEXLH V  ILH DVWIHO FDOFXODWH FD V 
VXSRUWH JUHXWDWHD vQF UF ULL SH PHWUXO OLQLDU SOXV JUHXWDWHD FkUOLJHORU L F UXFLRDUHORU SOXV
JUHXWDWHD SURSULH Q PRG RELQXLW SH XQ PHWUX OLQLDU GH OLQLH VH SRW vQF UFD   MXP W

L GH
carcase de bovine sau 3- MXP W L GH FDUFDVH GH SRUFLQH UHSUH]HQWkQG OD ERYLQH R JUHXWDWH GH
circa 280 kg, la porcine de 200 kg, iar lDRYLQHGHNJ7UDQVSRUWXOF UQLLGLQVDODGHW LHUHOD
IULJRULIHU VH IDFH FX FkUOLJH FX UROH Q O LPHD OD FDUH VH PRQWHD]  OLQLD HVWH GH  P OD
UHIULJHUDUHDF UQLL GH ERYLQH vQ MXP W

sau DF

UQLLGHSRUFLQHvQMXP W

L L GH  P NJ UHIULJHUDUHDF UQLL GH ERYLQH vQ VIHUWXUL

L

3HQWUX UHIULJHUDUHD VXESURGXVHORU LD S V ULORU VH IRORVHVFF UXFLRDUHFX VWHODMH FXFXLHU

sau cu stelaje aeriene.


3HQWUX SURGXVHOH QHDPEDODWH FHOH PDL LQGLFDWH DSDUDWH GH U FLUH VXQW U FLWRDUHOH FX DHU

umed, iar pentru produsele ambalate elementele de perete.

QDLQWH GH vQFHSHUHD OXFUXOXL VH YHULILF  VWDUHD GH FXU

HQLH D vQF SHULL L D XWLODMHORU

3HQWUXDSUHYHQLU VSkQGLUHDPXFHJDLXULORUvQF SHULOHVHGH]LQIHFWHD] SHULRGLF


'HDVHPHQHDVHYHULILF GDF FkUOLJHOHVXQWFRVLWRULWH QPRPHQWXOLQWURGXFHULLF UQLLOD
UHIULJHUDW VH QRWHD]  WHPSHUDWXUD FDPHUHL 3H XQHOH FDUFDVH VH SXQ HWLFKHWH FX RUD FkQG DX IRVW
LQWURGXVH OD UHIULJHUDW L VH DHD]  vQ DD IHO vQFkW GH SH FXORDUXO GH WUHFHUH V  VH SRDW  FRQWUROD
GXUDWDU FLUL

i.

QWUH FDUFDVH WUHEXLH V  H[LVWH R GLVWDQ

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DHU vQ ORFXULOH vQ FDUH FDUFDVHOH VH DWLQJ XQD GH DOWD FDUQHD SLHUGH FXORDUHD QRUPDO  DS UkQG
SHWH URLL  7RDWH FDUFDVHOH WUHEXLH UHIULJHUDWH XQLIRUP ,QWHULR

rul carcasei trebuie orientat spre

curentul de aer.

'HSR]LWDUHDF

UQLLUHIULJHUDWH

&DUQHD UHIULJHUDW  VH S VWUHD]  vQ FDPHUH IULJRULIHUH SUHY ]XWH FX OLQLL DHULHQH vQDOWH 
 P FX GLVWDQ D vQWUH OLQLL GH   P L FX DFHODL JUDG GH vQF

UFDUH FD vn tunelele de

UHIULJHUDUH 6LVWHPHOH GH U FLUH GLQ FDPHUHOH GH S VWUDUH D F UQLL VXQW SUHY ]XWH FX U FLWRDUH GH
DHU FX YLWH]H PLFL VDX FX HOHPHQWH GH SHUHWH vQWUXFkW VH XUP UHWH UHDOL]DUHD XQHL FLUFXOD LL
PLQLPH D DHUXOXL DWkW FkW V  vPSLHGLFH VWDJQDUHD
PXFHJDLXULORU 7HPSHUDWXUD VH PHQ LQH vQ MXUXO D 

aerului, care ar favoriza dezvoltarea


& XPLGLWDWHD DGDSWDW  HVWH GH -85%, iar

FLUFXOD LDDHUXOXLGH YROXPHSHRU 'XUDWDS VWU ULHVWHOHJDW GHSURSULHW

LOHF UQLLLVWDUHD

VXSUDIH HL HL &DUFDVHOH GH FDUQH I U  OH]LXQL DFRSHULWHFX JU VLPH DYkQG SHOLFXO  GH XVFDUH VH
SRWS VWUDSkQ OD]LOHFDUQHDFXOH]LXQHSHVXSUDID

QXVHSRDWHS VWUDPDLPXOWGH]LOH

$YkQG vQ YHGHUH F  DFWLYLWDWHD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH UHIULJHUDUH

nu este

RSULW  FL QXPDL vQFHWLQLW  HVWH UHFRPDQGDELO FD SURGXVHOH UHIULJHUDWH V  ILH S VWUDWH QXPDL
WLPSXO QHFHVDU XQHL EXQH PDWXU UL 2 S VWUDUH PDL vQGHOXQJDW HVWH LQGLFDW  V  VH IDF  QXPDL vQ
vPSUHMXU UL GH IRU

 PDMRU  FkQG GHVIDFHUHD VDX SUHOXFUD

rea nu s-D I

FXW OD WLPS VDX FkQG HVWH

QHFHVDU V  VH FUHH]H UH]HUYH GH FDUQH SHQWUX DVLJXUDUHD ULWPLF  FX FDUQH UHIULJHUDW  D UH HOHL
FRPHUFLDOH3HQWUXHYLWDUHDSLHUGHULORUSULQVF ] PkQWHVWHPDLFRQYHQDELO S VWUDUHDSURGXVHORU
ODWHPSHUDWXULVF ]XWHLXPLGLWDWHPDUHI U vQV DVHGHS LDQXPLWHOLPLWH
'XS  GDWHOH GLQ OLWHUDWXUD GH VSHFLDOLWDWH VH FRQVLGHU  F  SULPHOH VHPQH GH DOWHUDUH OD
FDUQHD UHIULJHUDW  PXFR]LW

de temperatXU

L SH VXSUDID D F UQLL  DSDU OD DFHODL LQWHUYDO GH WLPS OD SDUDPHWUL

LXPLGLWDWHLQGLFD LvQWDEHOXOQU

$SDUL LDVHPQHORUGHDOWHUDUHODFDUQHDUHIULJHUDW
GXS

Temperatura, 0C

DFHODLWLPSGHS

4
75

8PLGLWDWHDUHODWLY 

vQIXQF LHGHWHPSHUDWXU

3
78

LXPLGLWDWH

VWUDUH

2
81

1
85

Tabelul nr.24
0
88-90

3.1.2. Congelarea crnii

3ULQFLSLLOHFRQJHO

ULLF

UQLL

&RQJHODUHD HVWH PHWRGD LQGXVWULDO  FHD PDL U VSkQGLW  SHQWUX FRQVHUYDUHD F UQLL SH R
GXUDW  PDL PDUH GH WLPS $FHDVW  PHWRG  GH FRQVHUYDUH VH DSOLF  vQ VSHFLDO vQ FD]XO QHFHVLW

LL

DVLJXU ULLXQRUVWRFXULGHUH]HUY VDXDSURYL]LRQ ULLULWPLFHDSLH HL/DDEDWRDUHOHGLQFHQWUHOHGH


FUHWHUH D DQLPDOHORU FRQJHODUHD VH IDFH WRW WLPSXO DQXOXL DWkW SHQWUX DFRSHULUHD GHILFLWHORU GLQ
FHOHODOWHUDLRDQHFkWLSHQWUXH[SRUW
%D]DWLLQ LILF DDFHVWXLSURFHVRFRQVWLWXLH vPSLHGLFDUHDGH]YROW ULLPLFURRUJDQLVPHORU
SULQGHUDQMDUHDPHWDEROLVPXOXLORUFDRFRQVHFLQ
&RQJHODUHD vQWUHJLL FDQWLW
vQWUXFkW GXS  FHUFHW ULOH OXL +H

DEORF ULLDSHLGLQSURGXV

L GH DS  GLQ SURGXV DU GXFH vQV  OD LQXWLOL]DUHD SURGXVXOXL

iss, la temperatura de 620-650&

VH UHDOL]HD]  SXQFWXO

criohidratic al sucului muscular, care corespunde cu congelarea apei la 100%. Prin congelarea
vQWUHJLLFDQWLW

LGHDS GLQ HVXWXULVHSURGXFHGHFLRGHQDWXUDUHDVXEVWDQ HORUSURWHLFHFDUHvL

pierGUHYHUVLELOLWDWHD3ULQXUPDUHSHQWUXFDSURGXVXOV

ILHUHYHUVLELOHOWUHEXLHV PDLFRQ LQ R

DQXPLW FDQWLWDWHGHXPLGLWDWH
'XS 3ODQNVFKHPDFRQJHO ULLSODVPHLPXVFXODUHHVWHSUH]HQWDW vQILJXUD

Cantitatea de
congelat

-10C

0%

biochimic
Limita reversabilitii
coloidale

Temperatura

nceputul
congelrii

biochimic
Ap liber

Ap legat
Limita reversabilitii
biologice

Ap liber

coloidal
-2,50C

60%
)LJ6FKHPDFRQJHO

Ap legat coloidal
-250C

-600C

92%

100%

sculare

ULLSODVPHLPX

+HLVVL3ODQNFRQVLGHU F vQSURGXVHVWHQHFHVDUV PDLU PkQ RFDQWLWDWHGHPLQLPXP


  XPLGLWDWH vQWUXFkW FRQJHODUHD DFHVWXL PLQLP GH DS  DU GLVWUXJH VWDUHD GH GLVSHUVLH GLQ
HVXWXULLFDXUPDUH HVXWXULOHL DUSLHUGHSURSULHW

LOHGHUHY

ersibilitate.

$VW ]L PDMRULWDWHD DXWRULORU VXQW GH DFRUG F  FHD PDL EXQ  FRQJHODUH VH UHDOL]HD]  OD

temperatura de 25-300& R WHPSHUDWXU

 PDL VF ]XW  QHILLQG DYDQWDMRDV  GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH

HFRQRPLFQDFHVWHFRQGL LLFULVWDOHOHGHJKHD

VXQWPLFLLQ

u produc ruptura celulelor. n cazul

FRQJHO ULLODWHPSHUDWXULLPDLULGLFDWHSURFHVXOGHFRQJHODUHGHFXUJHOHQWvQFkWvQVSD LXOGLQWUH


FHOXOH VH IRUPHD]  FULVWDOH PDUL FDUH SRW UXSH HVXWXULOH LDU OD GHFRQJHODUH VH SRDWH SLHUGH R

cantitate mai mare de suc.


2 DOW  SUREOHP  IRDUWH LPSRUWDQW  HVWH DFHHD D VWDELOLULL PRPHQWXOXL RSWLP vQ FDUH V  VH
IDF  FRQJHODUHD DVWIHO FD SURGXVXO FRQJHODW V  QX SLDUG  SUHD PXOW VXF L V

-L

S VWUH]H

FDSDFLWDWHDGHKLGUDWDUHvQSURFHVHOHGHSUHOXFUDUHLQGXVWULDO 
&HUFHW ULOH I FXWH DX DU WDW F  SULQ FRQJHODUHD F UQLL vQ SULPHOH  RUH GH OD W LHUH
SLHUGHUHDGHVXFHVWHPLQLP SULQFRQJHODUHDFXUHIULJHUDUHSUHDODELO GHRUHSLHUGHUHDGHVXF
HVWH PD[LP  SULQ FRQJHODUHD FX UHIULJHUDUH SUHDODELO  PDL DYDQVDW  SLHUGHUH

a de suc se reduce

GLQ QRX 8UP ULQGX VH FDSDFLWDWHD GH KLGUDWDUH D F UQLL GHFRQJHODWH vQ IXQF LH GH WLPSXO VFXUV

vQWUHW LHUHLFRQJHODUHV DFRQVWDWDWF DFHDVW SURSULHWDWHHVWHvQFRUHOD LHFXSLHUGHUHDGHVXF

DGLF  PXFKLL FRQJHOD LGXS   RUH GH OD W LHUHDEVRUE PDLPXOW DS  GHFkWFHL FRQJHOD L GXS  R
UHIULJHUDUHGHRUHFHLFRQJHOD LPDLWkU]LXGHRUHvLUHFDS W SXWHUHDGHDEVRUE LH

Metode de congelare

0HWRGHOH GH FRQJHODUH VH SRW FODVLILFD GXS  PHGLXO vQ FDUH VH IDFH FRQJHODUHD L GXS 

viteza de congelare.
D 'XS

 PHGLXO GH U

FLUH FRQJHODUHD VH FODVLILF  vQ FRQJHODUH vQ DHU FRQJHODUH SULQ

FRQWDFWGLUHFWFXUHIULJHUHQWXOLFRQJHODUHSULQFRQWDFWLQGLUHFWFXUHIULJHUHQWXO

Congelarea n aer HVWH SURFHGHXO FHO PDL IUHFYHQW vQWUHEXLQ DW OD FRQJHODUHD F
GDWRULW VLPSOLW

UQLL

LLOXLFXPLGDWRULW IDSWXOXLF QXLQIOXHQ HD] GHIDYRUDELO HVXWXULOH

&RQJHODUHD vQ DHU VH SRDWH IDFH vQ FDPHUH L vQ WXQHOH &RQJHODUHD vQ FDPHUH VH IDFH
QXPDLvQDEDWRDUHOHFXLQVWDOD LLYHFKLvQDEDWRDUHO

e moderne congelarea se face n tunele.


-4 ori mai mare dect

7XQHOHOH VXQW vQF SHUL vQJXVWH L OXQJL D F URU OXQJLPH HVWH GH 
O

LPHDLvQFDUHFLUFXO XQFXUHQWIRU DWGHDHUUHFH

Congelarea prin contact direct cu refrigerentul se face prin imersia produsului de


congelat ntr-XQ OLFKLG FX WHPSHUDWXUD MRDV  ILH GLUHFW ILH DS UDW GH R vQYHOLWRDUH $FHVW IHO GH
FRQJHODUH HVWH DSOLFDW PDL SX LQ vQ LQGXVWULD F UQLL GLQ FDX]  F  V UXULOH GLQ PHGLXO UHIULJHUHQW
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voie de oxigen liber (aer)

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VDUH Q WLPSXO SURFHVXOXL GH V UDUH HVWH QHFHVDU V  VH IDF  XQD VDX GRX  UHVWLYXLUL UkQGXULOH GH
VXVDH]kQGX VHMRVLLQYHUV

6 UDUHDvQED]LQHGHV UDUHHVWHFXPXOWPDLDYDQWDMRDV ID

GHV UDUHDvQVWLYHGHRDUHFH

IHUHWHSURGXVHOHGHDF LXQHDOXPLQLLLDDHUXOXL
/D V UDUHD XVFDW  GLQ FDX]D IHQRPHQHORU GH RVPR]  L GLIX]LH SURGXVXO FHGHD]  V ULL R
SDUWH GLQ XPLGLWDWH FDUH vPSUHXQ  FX VXEVWDQ HOH VROXELOH DOH F UQLL VXEVWDQ H SURWHLFH
H[WUDFWLYHLPLQHUDOHIRUPHD] VDUDPXUD
$FHDVW PHWRG HVWHLQGLFDW SHQWUXV UDUHDVO QLQLLGDUQXHVWHLQGLFDW SHQWUXFDUQHPDL
DOHV SHQWUX RUJDQHOH YDVFXODUL]DWH GLQ FDX]  F  VH SURGXF VF GHUL PDUL vQ JUHXWDWH FDUH SRW
DMXQJH OD XQHOH RUJDQH SkQ  OD  $FHVWH VF GHUL vQ JUHXWDWH DX FD XUPDUH R GHSUHFL
SURSULHW

ere a

LORU RUJDQROHSWLFH SURGXVXO GHYHQLQG PDL DVSUX L R VF GHUH vQVHPQDW  D YDORULL

QXWULWLYH8QDOWQHDMXQVHVWHQHXQLIRUPLWDWHDV U ULL

UDUHDXPHG

$FHDVW PHWRG VHUHDOL]HD] SULQ LQWURGXFHUHDSURGXVXOXLGHV UDW vQWU R VROX LHGHV

are,

FX R DQXPLW  FRQFHQWUD LH vQ FDUH VH PHQ LQH XQ WLPS YDULDELO vQ IXQF LH GH WLSXO SURGXVXOXL L

durabilitate lui.
3UHSDUDUHDVDUDPXULLVHIDFHSULQGL]ROYDUHDV ULLGHEXF W ULHvQWU XQYDVVSHFLDOSkQ OD

VDWXUD LHDGLF SkQ ODFRQFHQWUD LD GH %H 7DEHOXO QU 'XS GL]ROYDUHDV ULLVROX LDVH

VWHULOL]HD]  OD  & WLPS GH  PLQXWH L DSRL VH U FHWH L VH GHFDQWHD]  6LOLWUD QLWULWXO L
HYHQWXDO]DK UXOVHGL]ROY vQVROX LHGHVDUHVDWXUDW vQYDVHVHSDUDWHGXS FDUHVHLQWURGXFHvQ

bD]LQHOH VDX F

]LOH FX VDUDPXU  &DQWLWDWHD GH VDUH QHFHVDU  SHQWUX RE LQHUHD VDUDPXULORU GH

GLIHULWHFRQFHQWUD LLVXQWDU WDWHvQWDEHOXOQU


$PHVWHFXULOHGH V UDUH GLQFDUHVHIDFVDUDPXULOHWUHEXLHDVWIHOFDOFXODWHvQFkWV DVLJXUH
REXQ vQURLUHD

produselor.

&DQWLWDWHDGHVDUHQHFHVDU

SHQWUXRE LQHUHDVDUDPXULORUGHGLIHULWHFRQFHQWUD LL

Tabelul nr.25
Grade
Baume

Greutate

Sare de

VSHFLILF 

EXF W ULH

gf/cm3

Cantitatea de
sare, kg/100 l

Grade
Baume

Greutate

Sare de

VSHFLILF 

EXF W ULH

16,64
16,90
17,16
17,42
17,68
17,94
18,20
18,46
18,72
18,98
19,24
19,50
20,02
20,54
21,06
21,58
22,10
22,62
23,14
23,66
24,18
24,96
25,48
26,00

1,123
1,125
1,127
1,129
1,131
1,133
1,136
1,138
1,140
1,142
1,144
1,147
1,151
1,156
1,160
1,165
1,170
1,175
1,179
1,184
1,189
1,196
1,201
1,205

16,960
17,225
17,490
17,755
18,020
18,285
18,550
18,815
19,080
19,19,345
19,610
19,875
20,405
20,935
21,465
21,995
22,525
23,055
23,585
24,1145
24,645
25,440
25,970
26,500

VDUDPXU

gf/cm3

Cantitate
a de sare,
kg/100 l
VDUDPXU

10,40
10,66
10,92
11,18
11,44
11,70
11,96
12,22
12,48
12,74
13,00
13,26
13,52
13,78
14,04
14,30
14,56
14,82
15,08
15,34
15,60
15,86
16,12
16,38

1,073
1,075
1,077
1,079
1,081
1,083
1,085
1,087
1,089
1,091
1,093
1,095
1,097
1,100
1,102
1,104
1,106
1,108
1,110
1,112
1,114
1,116
1,118
1,121

10,600
10,865
11,130
11,395
11,660
11,925
12,190
12,455
12,720
12,985
13,250
13,515
13,780
14,045
14,310
14,575
14,840
15,105
15,370
15,635
15,900
16,165
16,430
146,695

11,37
11,72
12,06
12,30
12,60
12,29
13,23
13,59
13,85
14,17
14,48
14,80
15,12
15,41
15,77
16,09
16,41
16,72
17,06
17,38
17,71
18,04
18,36
18,71

19,04
19,38
19,71
20,04
20,38
20,67
21,07
21,41
21,75
22,10
22,43
22,80
23,49
24,20
24,90
25,42
26,35
27,08
27,81
28,55
29,30
30,43
31,19
31,93

Pentru

UDUHDSULQLQMHFWDUH

!" #$% " &'(

 SURFHVXOXL GH V UDUH R SDUWH GLQ VDUDPXU  VH LQWURGXFH vQ FDUQH SULQ

LQMHFWDUHGXS FDUHFDUQHDVHSXQHvQED]LQVDXF ]LvQFDUHVHWRDUQ VDUDPXU 

Injectarea saramurii se poate face intramuscular sau intraarterial. Pentru injectarea


LQWUDDUWHULDO HVWHQHFHVDUFDODWUDQDUHV VHS VWUH]HLQWHJULWDWHDYDVHORU
D,QMHFWDUHDvQPXFKL

se face cu ace lungi de 20 cm, cu diametrul interior de 2-3 mm,

SUHY ]XWHFXPDLPXOWHJ XULODWHUDOHSHQWUXFDVDUDPXUDV SRDW  kQLvQWRDWHGLUHF LLOHQDLQWH


GH SRPSDUHD VDUDPXULL DFXO VH UHWUDJH SH R GLVWDQ

 GH FLUFD   FP SHQWUX FD VDUDPXUD V 

SRDW  DMXQJH L vQ SXQFWXO vQ FDUH VH DIODVH YkUIXO DFXOXL ,QMHFWDUHD VH IDFH vQ WLPSXO UHWUDJHULL

acului din carne. Saramura nX WUHEXLH LQWURGXV

 SHUSHQGLFXODU SH ILEUHOH F UQLL SHQWUX D VH HYLWD

IRUPDUHDJ XULORUGHLQMHFWDUH
E ,QMHFWDUHD vQ DUWHU

 D OXDW vQ XOWLPXO WLPS R ODUJ  U VSkQGLUH $FHVW VLVWHP GH V UDUH

SRDWHILDSOLFDWQXPDLODSXOSHOHLVSHWHOHODFDUHV DXS VWUDWODWUDQDUHDUWHUHOHSULQFLSDOHFDUH

LULJ UHJLXQHDUHVSHFWLY 

UDUHDPL[W

6 UDUHDPL[W HVWHPHWRGDGHV UDUHFHDPDLIRORVLW vQLQGXVWULDF UQLLvQWUXFkWDVLJXU R


V UDUHPDL XQLIRUP  'HRELFHL PHWRGDVHDSOLF  OD IDEULFDUHD UDSLG D SURGXVHORU V UDWH FDUH VH
FRQVXP  FUXGH 'XS  DFHDVW  PHWRG  SURGXVHOH VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ MXP WDWHD WLPSXOXL QHFHVDU
SHQWUXV UDUHDXVFDW VDXSULQVDUDPXUDUH
3HQWUXV UDUHDPL[W FDUQHDVHLQMHFWHD] PDLvQWkLFXRVDUDPXU FXFRQFHQWUD LHGH
vQ SURSRU LH GH  VDUDPXU  ID

 GH JUHXWDWHD F UQLL 'XS  DFHDVWD FDUQHD VH IUHDF  ELQH FX

DPHVWHF GH V UDUH L DSRL VH DHD]  vQ ED]LQH XQGH VH IRUPHD]  R VDUDPXU  SURSULH 3HVWH
SURGXVHOH SUHVDWH VH WRDUQ  SHQWUX FRPSOHWDUH R VDUDPXU  GH 

-15 0Be. De altfel concentrD LD

VDUDPXULLYDULD] vQIXQF LHGHUH HWDGHIDEULFDUHDSURGXVXOXL

$FFHOHUDUHDV

ULLF

UQLL

3HQWUX DFFHOHUDUHD V U ULL F UQLL V DX H[SHULPHQWDW GLIHULWH PHWRGH vQWUH FDUH V UDUHD FX

recircularea saramurii, folosirea saramurilor calde, folosLUHD FXUHQWXOXL


YLEUDWRDUHORUFXIUHFYHQ

UDUHDF

HOHFWULF L IRORVLUHD

P ULW 

UQLLFXVDUDPXU

FDOG

$FHDVW PHWRG DIRVWvQFHUFDW vQvQYHGHUHDVFXUW ULLWLPSXOXLGHVDUDPXUDUH&HOH


PDLEXQHSURGXVHDXIRVWRE LQXWHSULQVDUDPXUDUHDODWHP

peratura de 48,90C, timp de 24 ore, cu

RVDUDPXU DYkQGFRQFHQWUD LDGHIRUPDW GLQVDUH]DK UD]RWD LLD]RWL L

UDUHDFXDMXWRUXOFXUHQWXOXLHOHFWULF

$FHDVW PHWRG DIRVWH[SHULPHQWDW WRWvQVFRSXODFFHOHU ULLSURFHVXOXLGHV UDUH


'XS  GDWHOH GLQ OLWHUDWXU  vQ XQHOH vQWUHSULQGHUL VH IRORVHWH vQ DFHVW VFRS V UDUHD F UQLL
FXDMXWRUXOFXUHQWXOXLHOHFWULF6HIRORVHWHILHFXUHQWHOHFWULFDOWHUQDWLYGH
SkQ  OD 9 L FX R IUHFYHQ

-35 A cu o tensiune

 GH  +] FDUH FLUFXO  vQWUH GRL HOHFWUR]L GH F UEXQH ILH FXUHQW

continuu de 1-2 A, cu o tensiune de 8 V.

UDUHDFXDMXWRUXOYLGXOXL

2 DOW  PHWRG  SHQWUX DFFHOHUDUHD V U ULL F UQLL HVWH VDUDPXUDUHD vQ YLG SULQ LQWURGXFHUHD
F UQLL vQ UHFLSLHQWH FDUH VH SRW vQFKLGH HUPHWLF XUPDW  GH YDFXXPDUHD UHFLSLHQWHORU L
LQWURGXFHUHDXQHLVDUDPXULGHRDQXPLW FRQFHQWUD LHVXESUHVLXQH
([SHULHQ HOH DX DU WDW F  VDUDPXUD S WUXQGH UHSHGH vQ VWUDWXULOH H[WHUQH S WUXQGHUHD vQ

VWUDWXULOH LQWHULRDUH I FkQGX

-se ncet. n cazul n care produsele de carne se LQMHFWHD]

 FX

VDUDPXU HVWHSRVLELOV VHSURGXF RXQLIRUPL]DUHDDV U ULL


3ULQDSOLFDUHDDFHVWXLSURFHGHX V UDUHDFRPSOHW DXQHLEXF

LGHFDUQH SRDWHILUHDOL]DW 

vQ GHFXUV GH FkWHYD PLQXWH 0HWRGD SRDWH IL DSOLFDW  OD V UDUHD XQFLORU D EXF

LORU G

e carne

GH]RVDW  L FKLDU D VO QLQLL 3LHUGHULOH VH UHGXF OD PLQLPXP VXFXO GH FDUQH ILLQG UH LQXW vQ
SURGXVFHHDFHDVLJXU SURGXVHILQLWHFXJXVWSO FXW
3ULQ H[SXQHUHD VDUDPXULL XQRU YLEUD LL VRQRUH VDX XOWUDVRQRUH VH SRDWH DFFHOHUD VLP LWRU

procesul dH V

UDUH )RORVLQGX VH XOWUDVXQHWHOH L R EDLH GH VDUDPXU  RELQXLWH V D UHXLW V  VH

UHGXF  GXUDWD GH V UDUH GH  RUL ID

 GH VDUDPXUDUHD VWD LRQDU  8OWUDVXQHWHOH H[HUFLW  L R

DF LXQHEDFWHULFLG DVXSUDVDUDPXULLIHULQGX

3.3. ConservaUHDF

-o de infectare.

UQLLSULQDIXPDUH

3.3.1. Principiile conservrii crnii prin afumare


$IXPDUHD HVWH XQ SURFHV DMXW WRU GH FRQVHUYDUH D SURGXVHORU V UDWH FDUH GH FHOH PDL
PXOWHRULHVWHvQVR LWLGHDF LXQHDWHPSHUDWXULLULGLFDWH
(IHFWXO SULQFLSDO DO DIXP ULL FRQVW  vQ vPEXQ W

LUHD JXVWXOXL GDWRULW  SURSULHW

LORU

FRPSRQHQ LORU IXPXOXL L DF LXQLL WHPSHUDWXULL OD FDUH VH IDFH DIXPDUHD /D DFHDVWD VH PDL
DGDXJ vPEXQ W

LUHDDVSHFWXOXLGDWRULW FXORULLVSHFLILFHSHFDUHRFDS W SURGXVHOHSUHOXQJLUHD

duratei de FRQVHUYDUH GDWRULW

 DF LXQLL DQWLEDFWHULHQH D FRPSRQHQ LORU IXPXOXL SUHFXP L R

DF LXQHDQWLR[LGDQW 

Fumul este un aerosol format dintr-XQ DPHVWHF GH DHU FX SURGXL DL DUGHULL LQFRPSOHWH D
OHPQXOXLVDXUXPHJXXOXL$JHQWXOGHGLVSHUVDUHHVWHDHUXOLDUID]DGLVSHUV HVWHDWkWOLFKLG FkW
LVROLG LJD]RDV  YDSRULGHDS SDUWLFXOHVROLGHJD]HHWF
GHVROX LLOHFRORLGDOHDHURVROLLDXRLQVWDELOLWDWHIRDUWHPDUH3DUWLFXOHOHORUSUH]LQW 

)D

R PLFDUH EURZQLDQ  IRDUWH LQWHQV  L VH FRDJXOHD]  XRU

Particulele puternic dispersate ale

DHURVROXOXL VXQW DFRSHULWH FX XQ IHO GH SHOLFXO  IRUPDW  GLQ PROHFXOH GH DHU GLQ FDUH FDX] 
S WUXQGHUHDvQSURGXVDFRPSRQHQ LORUDFWLYLDLIXPXOXLHVWHvQJUHXQDW
&DQWLWDWHD L IHOXO VXEVWDQ HORU FKLPLFH GLQ IXP SUHFXP L FDQWLWDWHD GH IXP FDUH VH
RE LQH vQWU R DIXPDUH GHSLQGH GH IHOXO FRPEXVWLELOXOXL L GH FRQGL LLOH GH DUGHUH ,QGLIHUHQW GH

HVHQ D OHPQXOXL VH RE LQ vQ JHQHUDO XUP WRULL FRPSRQHQ L JD]H &2 &22

, CH4, H2, C2H4);

YDSRUL GH DS  OLFKLGH FRQVWkQG GLQ VHULD GH DFL]L DOFRROL DOGHKLGH JXGURDQH XRDUH VROLGH
FRQVWLWXLWHGLQSDUWLFXOHGHF UEXQH IXQLQJLQH FHQX HWF

$F LXQHDDQWLVHSWLF

DIXPXOXL

$FHDVW DF LXQHHVWHGHWHUPLQDW GHFRPSRQHQ LLIXPXOXLLGHWHPSHUDWXUDGHDIXPDUH

Majoritatea cercHW
acizilor.

ULORU DWULEXLH DF LXQHD EDFWHULFLG  D IXPXOXL IHQROLORU DOGHKLGHORU L

)HQROLLVXQWXQDGLQVXEVWDQ HOHEDFWHULFLGHFHOHPDLSXWHUQLFHGLQIXPFXWRDWHF vQIXP


VHDIO XQFRQ LQXWGHIHQROLGHVWXOGHPLF
Q FHHD FH SULYHWH UH]LVWHQ D PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU OD DF LXQHD IXPXOXL PDMRULWDWHD VXQW
GLVWUXVHGXS 

-2 ore de afumare.

Q IXP UH]LVW  GH DVHPHQHD L PXOWH PXFHJDLXUL 8QHRUL VSRULL GH PXFHJDL VXQW DGXL R
GDW FXUXPHJXXOLQIHFWkQGSURGXVHOHGLQFDUHFDX] VHLPSXQHFRQWUROXODWHQWDOUXPHJXXOXL
&X FkW PHGLXO HVWH PDL DFLG FX DWkW DF LXQHD EDFWHULFLG  D IXPXOXL FUHWH 'LQWUH
EDFWHULLOHSDWRJHQHRUH]LVWHQ

PLF ODDIXPDUHRDUHEDFLOXOWXEHUFXOR]HLFDUHHVWHGLVWUXVGXS 

GRX RUHGHDIXPDUH

$F LXQHDFDQFHULJHQ DIXPXOXL

O proEOHP

IRDUWHPXOWGLVFXWDW RFRQVWLWXLHSUHVXSXQHUHDF IXPXOvQDQXPLWHFRQGL LL

DUDYHDRDF LXQHFDQFHULJHQ GDWRULW DQXPLWRUKLGURFDUEXULGLQIXP


'LQ GDWHOH H[LVWHQWH vQ OLWHUDWXU  QX VH SRDWH DSUHFLD SkQ  vQ SUH]HQW GDF  vQWU DGHY U

produseleDIXPDWHSRWFRQVWLWXLVDXQXXQSHULFROSHQWUXV

Q WDWHDFRQVXPDWRULORU

3HQWUX FRQGL LLOH DFWXDOH GLQ IDEULFLOH GH SURGXVH GH FDUQH GLQ DUD QRDVWU  VH FRQVLGHU 
QHFHVDU FD V  VH LD P VXUL GH FXU

LUH SHULRGLF  D JXGURDQHORU GLQ DIXP WRULL L GH DVLJXUDU

ea

unei temperaturi de producere a fumului sub 300 C.

WUXQGHUHDIXPXOXLvQSURGXVH

0HFDQLVPXO DIXP ULL HVWH GHVWXO GH VLPSOX L DUH ORF vQ GRX  ID]H SULPD GHSXQHUHD
VXEVWDQ HORUGHDIXPDUHSHVXSUDID DSURGXVXOXLSULQJD]HOHGLQIXPFDUHFLUFXO OLEHULDGRXD
GLIX]LDVXEVWDQ HORUGHSXVHvQLQWHULRUXOSURGXVXOXL
0RGLILF ULOHGLQSURGXVVXQWGHWHUPLQDWHGHIHOXODIXP ULLQIXQF LHGHIHOXOSURGXVXOXL
DF LXQHDSULQFLSDO vQSURFHVXOGHDIXPDUHRDUHF OGXUDVDXIXPXOFDUHDF LRQHD] SULQFRPSXLL
OXL YRODWLOL /D PDMRULWDWHD SURGXVHORU FDUH VH IDEULF  vQ 5RPkQLD VH SOLF  PDL PXOW DIXPDUHD
FDOG vQFkWvQSURFHVXOGHDIXPDUHLQWHUYLQHDWkWWHPSHUDWXUDFkWLIXPXO
3 WUXQGHUHD IXPXOXL vQ SURGXV DUH ORF SULQ GLIX]LXQH 9LWH]D GLIX]LXQLL HVWH GLUH

ct

SURSRU LRQDO  FX WHPSHUDWXUD IXPXOXL GXUDWD IXP ULL GHQVLWDWHD IXPXOXL L YLWH]D OXL GH
FLUFXOD LHHDHVWHLQIOXHQ DW GHDVHPHQHDLGHFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHSURGXVXOXL
7HPSHUDWXUDLXPLGLWDWHDIXPXOXLIDFFDGHSXQHUHDVXEVWDQ HORUGHDIXPDUHSHVXSUDID D
SURGXVXOXLV VHIDF UHSHGHVDXPDLvQFHWvQIXQF LHGHQDWXUDVXSUDIH HL'XS :DWWVIXPXOVH
FRQFHQWUHD] vQFHDPDLPDUHSDUWHSHVXSUDID DSURGXVXOXLS WUXQ]kQGIRDUWHSX LQvQLQWHULRU
0DMRULWDWHD DXWRULORU VXQW GH DFRUG F  vQ VWUDWXOH[WHUQDOF UQLL VHDFXPXOHD]  PDLPXO L
IHQROLGHFkWvQSURIXQ]LPHQJU VLPHvQV IHQROLLS WUXQGGHVWXOGHXRU

0RGLILF

ULVXIHULWHGHSURGXVHSULQDIXPDUH

3ULQ DIXPDUH SURGXVHOH VXIHU  SLHUGHUL vQ JUHXWDWH SUHFXP L XQHOH PRGLILF UL FKLPLFH

fizico-chiPLFHLVWUXFWXUDOH
a. Pierderile n greutate VXQW GHWHUPLQDWH GH WHPSHUDWXUD XPLGLWDWHD L YLWH]D DHUXOXL
GLQDIXP WRULSUHFXPLGHFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHSURGXVXOXL
3LHUGHULOH vQ JUHXWDWH YDULD]  vQWUH OLPLWH PDUL GLQ FDX]D YDULD LHL UDSRUWXOXL JU VLPH

SURWHLQHLDGLPHQVLXQLORUSURGXVXOXL VXSUDID DVSHFLILF LUHSUH]LQW vQWUHLvQIXQF LH


GHFRPSR]L LDSURGXVXOXLLGXUDWDDIXP ULL
E 0RGLILF

ULOH FKLPLFH DOWHOH GHFkW FHOH DU WDWH DQWHULRU VXQW OHJDWH L GH SURFHVXO GH

V UDUH vQ FDUH SULQ DF LXQHD VLOLWUHL L D QLWULWXOXL VH RE LQH FXORDUHD URLH FDUDFWHULVWLF  Q XUPD
DIXP ULL FDQWLWDWHD GH QLWULW GLQ SURGXV VFDGH FX FLUFD  &XORDUHD VH PHQ LQH IUXPRDV  vQ
XUPD

DF LXQLL

WHPSHUDWXULL

ULGLFDWH

FDUH

IDYRUL]HD] 

WUDQVIRUPDUHD

D]R[LPLRJ

lobinei n

D]R[LPLRFURPRJHQFRPSXVPDLVWDELOFXRFXORDUHURLHFDUDFWHULVWLF 
0DUHSDUWHGLQPRGLILF ULOHFKLPLFHFDUHDXORFVXQWGDWRULWHWHPSHUDWXULLFDUHSURGXFHR
GHQDWXUDUHDSURWHLQHORU'HDVHPHQHDVHSURGXFXQHOHPRGLILF ULIHUPHQWDWLYH

mbXQ

LUHD SURSULHW

LORU RUJDQROHSWLFH L D GLJHVWLELOLW

LL VXQW LQIOXHQ DWH DWkW GH

DF LXQHD FRPSRQHQ LORU IXPXOXL FkW L GH DF LXQHD WHPSHUDWXULL FDUH GHWHUPLQ  R XPIODUH D
FRODJHQXOXL L GHFL R P ULUH D VXFXOHQ HL L IU JH]LPLL SURGXVXOXL L R P ULUH

a indicelui de

digestibilitate.
7UHEXLH PHQ LRQDW F  VXE LQIOXHQ D DIXP ULL FRQ LQXWXO GH YLWDPLQ  %1

se reduce n

SURSRU LHGH &HOHODOWHYLWDPLQHVXIHU VXELQIOXHQ DDIXP ULLPRGLILF ULQHvQVHPQDWH

3.3.2. Metode de afumare


Metodele de afumare se clDVLILF

 GXS  PHGLXO vQ FDUH VH IDFH DIXPDUHD GXS 

WHPSHUDWXUDLGXUDWDGHDIXPDUHLGXS WHKQLFDGHDIXPDUH

'XS  PHGLXO GH DIXPDUH VH GLVWLQJ DIXPDUHD vQ FXUHQW GH IXP L DIXPDUHD FX SUHSDUDWH

lichide. Afumarea n curent de fum VH SRDWH IL GH GRX

 IHO

uri: afumare cu particule n stare

FRORLGDO  IXPXORELQXLW LDIXPDUHDvQFDUHWR LFRPSRQHQ LLIXPXOXLVXQWvQVWDUHJD]RDV LDU


QXDQ DIXPXOXLQXVHREVHUY QXPLW LPSURSULXDIXPDUHI U IXP

Afumarea cu preparate lichide se poate face prin stropirea produsului cu lichidul


UHVSHFWLY SULQ LPHUVLD SURGXVXOXL vQ OLFKLG VDX SULQ vQJOREDUHD OLFKLGXOXL GH DIXPDUH vQ WRF WXUD
SURGXVXOXLFDUHXOWHULRUHVWHVXSXVDF LXQLLWHUPLFHVDXXVF ULLI U IXP
'XS  WHPSHUDWXUD L GXUDWD GH DIXPDUH VH GHRVHEHWH DIXParea cum fum cald (601000& GHQXPLW vQLQGXVWULDQRDVWU KL XLUHFXRGXUDW VFXUW  3 ore); afumarea cu fum de
25-400&FXRGXUDW GH-48 ore; afumarea cu fum rece (10-180& FXRGXUDW GH-15 zile.
'XS  WHKQLFD DIXP ULL H[LVW  R DIXPDUH vQ FDmere cu tiraj natural sau artificial, n care
SURGXVHOHVXQWDIXPDWHFXIXPSURGXVvQFDPHUDUHVSHFWLY LDIXPDUHvQFDUHIXPXOHVWHSURGXV
vQ DIDUD FDPHUHL GH DIXPDUH vQ LQVWDOD LL VSHFLDOH GH XQGH HVWH FRQGXV SULQ WXEXUL vQ FDPHUD GH

afumare.
4. TEHNOLOGIA FABRICRII MEZELURILOR
6XE GHQXPLUHD GH PH]HOXUL vQ VHQVXO ODUJ DO FXYkQWXOXL VH vQ HOHJ SUHSDUDWHOH GH FDUQH
IDEULFDWH GLQ FDUQH WRFDW  L FRQGLPHQWDW  LQWURGXV  vQWU R PHPEUDQ  QDWXUDO  VDX DUWLILFLDO  L

VXSXVH XQHL SUHOXFU UL WHUPLFH SXWkQG IL IRORVLWH vQ DOLPHQWD LH FD DWDUH I U  DOWH SUHOXFU UL

culinare.
Q VHQV UHVWUkQV SULQ PH]HOXUL VH vQ HOHJ SUHSDUDWHOH GH FDUQH SUHOXFUDWH SULQ ILHUEHUH L
DIXPDUH VDX QXPDL SULQ ILHUEHUH FX R GXUDW  VFXUW  GH FRQVHUYDUH 3UHSDUDWHOH FX R GXUDW  PD

PDUH GH FRQVHUYDUH VXQW GHQXPLWH VDODPXUL Q YRUELUHD RELQXLW  DFHVWH GRX  GHQXPLUL DX GH
PXOWHRULDFHODLVHQV
&D PDWHULH SULP  SHQWUX PH]HOXUL VH IRORVHWH vQ FHD PDL PDUH P VXU  FDUQH GH YLW 
FDUQH GH SRUF JU VLPH GH SRUF ILFDW L VXESURGXVH ERJDWH vQ JHODWLQ  EX]H XUHFKL GH SRUF

picioare etc.) iar uneori creierul, inima, splina, pulmonul, rumenul, stomacul de porc etc.
'XS  PDWHULD SULP  L GXS  SURFHVXO WHKQRORJLF DSOLFDW PH]HOXULOH FXSULQG XUP WRDUHOH

categorii de produse: salamuri fierWHVDXSURVS

WXULSUHOXFUDWHGLQ FDUQH WRFDW  ILQVXEIRUP GH

SDVW  DSRL DIXPDWH OD FDOG ILHUWH L U FLWH SDUL]HU SRORQH] FUHQYXUWL IUDQNIXUWHU VDIDODGH
HWF  VDODPXUL VHPLDIXPDWH FDUH SH OkQJ  FDUQH WRFDW  ILQ FRQ LQ L FDUQH WRFDW  PDL JURVLHU L
FDUH VXQW SUHOXFUDWH SULQ DIXPDUH FDOG  ILHUEHUH L DIXPDUH UHFH VDODP LWDOLDQ UXVHVF
YkQ WRUHVF FUDFDXHU HWF  VDODPXUL GH GXUDW  IDEULFDWH GLQ FDUQH WRFDW  ILQ VDX JURVLHU I U 
DGDRV GH SDVW  L FDUH VH SUHOXFUHD]  SULQ DIXPDUH UHFH L XVFDUH VDODPXO GH LDUQ  VDX QXPDL

prin uscare (ghiudenul).


3URGXVHOH FDUH DX FD PDWHULH SULP  GH ED]  ILFDWXO SRDUW  GHQXPLUHD GH OHE UYXUW
FDOWDERL HWF FHOH IDEULFDWH SH ED]  GH VkQJH VH QXPHVF VkQJHUHWH VDX EOXWYXUW LDU FHOH
IDEULFDWHSHED] GHVXESURGXVHERJDWHvQJHODWLQ VHQXPHVFWREH

0DWHULDSULPmLVXEVWDQ HOHDX[LOLDUHIRORVLWH

la prepararea mezelurilor

0DWHULDSULP

0DWHULD SULP  R FRQVWLWXLH FDUQHD GH OD GLIHULWH VSHFLL GH DQLPDOH JU VLPHD FUXG 

subprodusele, sngele etc.


La pURGXVHOH FX R FRQVHUYDELOLWDWH OLPLWDW

 OD FDUH VH XUP UHWH FD SURGXVXO ILQLW V  ILH

VXFXOHQWVHSUHIHU RFDUQHPDLERJDW LQL LDOvQXPLGLWDWHIXUQL]DW GHDQLPDOHOHPDLWLQHUH/D


SURGXVHOHGHGXUDW VHSUHIHU vQJHQHUDOFDUQHSURYHQLW GHODDQLPD

le adulte.

,QGLIHUHQW GH VSHFLD GH OD FDUH SURYLQH FDUQHD WUHEXLH V  ILH V Q WRDV  YHULILFDW  GH

serviciul veterinar.

&DUQHD VH DGXFH GH OD DEDWRU vQ GLIHULWH VW UL WHUPLFH GXS  QHFHVLW

L L DQXPH FDOG 

]YkQWDW VDXUHIULJHUDW GHDVHPHQHDSRDWHILIRORVLW vQDQXPLWHSURSRU LLLFDUQHDFRQJHODW 


/D SULPLUHD vQ IDEULF  FDUQHD VH UHFHS LRQHD]  FDQWLWDWLY L FDOLWDWLY L DSRL ILH F  VH
VXSXQHLPHGLDWSUHOXFU ULLILHF VHGHSR]LWHD] vQIULJRULIHUGXS SUHVFULS LLOHWHKQRORJLFH

xiliare

6XEVWDQ HOHDX

&RQGLPHQWHOH VXQW VXEVWDQ H GH RULJLQH YHJHWDO  OLSVLWH GH SURSULHW

L QXWULWLYH FDUH vQV 

DG XJDWHvQDOLPHQWHvQGR]HPRGHUDWHDXSULQ JXVWXOLPLURVXOORUSO FXWRDF LXQHVWLPXODWRDUH


DVXSUD SRIWHL GH PkQFDUH LQWHQVLILFkQG VHFUH LLOH VXFXULORU GLJHVWLYH L DFWLYLWDWHD PLF ULORU
SHULVWDOWLFHDOHLQWHVWLQHORUvPEXQ W

LQGDVWIHOGLJHVWLDLDVLPLODUHDVXEVWDQ HORUDOLPHQWDUH

QGR]DPDULHOHDXDVXSUDRUJDQLVPXOXLRDF LXQHLULWDQW G XQ WRDUH

Dintre condimente, unele au un gust picant FX DF LXQH vQ P

ULUHD VHFUH LLORU JDVWULFH L

LQWHVWLQDOHLDUDOWHOHOXFUHD] vQVSHFLDODVXSUDQHUYLORUROIDFWLYLLQWHQVLILFkQGVHFUH LDVDOLYDU 


0DMRULWDWHDFRQGLPHQWHORUDXDWkWRDF LXQHSLFDQW FkWLRDF LXQHDURPDWLF 

Piperul este condimentul FXFHD PDLODUJ

XWLOL]DUH'HIDSWVXEGHQXPLUHDGHSLSHUVXQW

FXSULQVH R VHULH GH FRQGLPHQWH FX JXVW VSHFLILF SLFDQW vQ HS WRU RE LQXWH GLQ XVFDUHD IUXFWHORU
XQRU SODQWH WURSLFDOH DSDU LQkQG XQRU IDPLOLL GLIHULWH 'LQWUH DFHVWHD LPSRUWDQ D FRPHUFLDO 

cea

PDLPDUHRDXXUP WRDUHOHFRQGLPHQWHSLSHUXOQHJUXSLSHUXODOESLSHUXOGH&D\HQQHLSLSHUXO

de Jamaica.
%RLDXDGHDUGHLHVWHFRQGLPHQWXORE LQXWSULQP FLQDUHDDUGHLXOXL&DSVLFXPDQXXPGLQ

familia solanaceelor.
%RLDXDGHDUGHLHVWHIRORVLW SHVFDU PDUHvQLQGXVWULDF UQLLODFRQGLPHQWDUHDVO QLQLLD
VDODPXULORU SLFDQWH EDELF JKLXGHQ  SUHFXP L D DOWRU WLSXUL GH SUHSDUDWH GH FDUQH vQ SURSRU LH

de 50- J OD  NJ FRPSR]L LH %RLDXD HVWH vQWUHEXLQ DW  SH VFDU  PDUH L vQ LQGXVWULD
conserveORU GH FDUQH 6H DWUDJH DWHQ LD DVXSUD QHFHVLW LL VWHULOL] ULL ERLHOLL SHQWUX D VH HYLWD
eventualele rebuturi posibile.
1XFRDUDHVWHV PkQ DFRDSW LXVFDW DIUXFWXOXLDUERUHOXLWURSLFDO0LULVWLFDIUDJDQV
1XFRDUDGDWRULW XOHLXOXLHWHULFSHFDUH

-l FRQ LQHDUHDF LXQHDQWLR[LGDQW

'HL QXFRDUD HVWH IRORVLW  GH PDL PXOWH VHFROH L HVWH XQXO GLQ FRQGLPHQWHOH FHOH PDL

apreciate, abia n 1959 s-D DIODW F

 HD FRQ LQH R VXEVWDQ

 IRDUWH WR[LF  PLULVWLFLQD FDUH HVWH XQ

FRQVWLWXHQW QRUPDO DO IUDF LXQLL YRODWLOH D XOHLXOXL HWHULF GH PXVFDW ,QJHUDW  vQ GR]  GH  J
QXFRDUDSURGXFHPDQLIHVW ULWR[LFHFXV ULGHGHSUHVLHRFFRP DFLGR] 
)ORDUHD GH PXVFDW VDX PDFLVXO HVWH vQYHOLXO VHPLQ HORU GH QXFRDU  L QX R IORDUH vQ

sensul botanic al cuvntului.


CXLRDUHOHVXQWPXJXULLXVFD LDLDUERUHOXL=DPERVDFDU\SK\OODWD(XJHQLDDURPDWLFDVDX
Caruphyllus aromaticus, ce face parte din familia myrtaceelor.
3URGXVHOHGLQFRPHU FXSULQVWXOSLQL HOHPXJXUHOXLGHFLUFDFPLPXJXUHOHSURSULX-zis
de circa 3-4 mm QFRQMXUDWGHVHSDOHI U FDERERFXOIORULLV ILHGHVI FXW
6FRU LRDUD HVWH FRDMD XQRU DUERUL I FkQG SDUWH GLQ IDPLOLD ODXUDFHHORU Q FRPHU  VXQW
FXQRVFXWH WUHL WLSXUL VFRU LRDUD GH &H\ORQ VFRU LRDUD GH &KLQD L VFRU LRDUD GH 0DODEDU VDX
VFRU LR

ara de lemn.

&RULDQGUXO HVWH IUXFWXO XQHL SODQWH GLQ IDPLOLD XPEHOLIHUHORU GHQXPLW  &RULDQGUXP
VDWLYXPFDUHvLDUHSDWULDGHRULJLQHvQ$VLDGHXQGHV DU VSkQGLWLvQGLIHULWH

putnd fi considerat ca un condiment indigen, ntruct sHFXOWLY

ULDOH(XURSHL

LvQ DUDQRDVWU 

&RULDQGUXO HVWH XQ FRQGLPHQW IRORVLW SH VFDU  PDUH vQ LQGXVWULD SUHSDUDWHORU GH FDUQH GH
OD QRL $VWIHO OD SURVS WXUL SDUL]HU FUHQYXUWL  VH XWLOL]HD]  vQ SURSRU LH GH  J OD  NJ
FRPSR]L LH OD VDODPXULOH VHPLDIXPDWH G

e 20-50 g la 100 kg , iar la salamurile ieftine este

FRQGLPHQWXOGHED] IRORVLQGX VHSkQ ODJODNJFRPSR]L LH VDODPXOGHYDF 

&KLPHQXO HVWH IUXFWXO XQHL SODQWH DQXDOH GLQ IDPLOLD XPEHOLIHUHORU &KLPHQXO FUHWH
V OEDWLFvQWRDWHOLYH]LOHGHODQRL(VWHFXOWLYDWvQGLIHULWH

ULGLQ(XURSD

Foile de dafin care se folosesc drept condiment sunt frunzele uscate ale arborelui Laurus
QRELOLV FDUH FUHWH vQ VWDUH V OEDWLF  L FXOWLYDW vQ RULHQW L vQ VXGXO (XURSHL vQ VSHFLDO SH

UPXO

Mediteranei

L vQ VXGXO &ULPHLL )RLOH GH GDILQ VXQW IRORVLWH vQ LQGXVWULD F UQLL OD IDEULFDUHD

FRQVHUYHORUvQEDL XOGHV UDUHODFRQVHUYHOHGHFLRODQGHSRUFFXIDVROHODFKLIWHOHODSUHSDUDUHD


VRVXULORUODPDULQDWHOHGHSHWHODLDKQLDGHIDVROHODPXU WXULODDURPDWL]DUHDR HWXOXLHWF
&LPEUXO HVWH R SODQW  GLQ IDPLOLD ODELDWHORU 3ODQWD XVFDW  DUH PLURV FDUDFWHULVWLF IRDUWH
SO FXW 6H vQWUHEXLQ HD]  OD DURPDWL]DUHD VDUDPXULORU OD FRQVHUYHOH FX YDU]  vQ VSHFLDO OD
VDUPDOH ODWRFDQHJXODLPXFKLvQVRVGHYLQFLRODQGHSRUFFXIDVROHDOE HWF
&HDSDWUHEXLHUHFROWDW QXPDLvQWLPSXVFDWLS VWUDW vQIULJRULIHU

-20C , la o umiditate

de 75%.
6XEVWDQ HOH FDUH LQWU  vQ FRPSR]L LD FHSHL VWLPXOHD]  VHFUH LD VWRPDFXOXL L DOH

intestinelor, nlesnind n aceODLWLPSGLJHVWLD


&HDSD VH IRORVHWH vQ VWDUH FUXG  L FRQVHUYDW  OD SUHSDUDUHD GLIHULWHORU PH]HOXUL VDODWH
LPkQF UL'HDVHPHQHDVHFLWHD] IRORVLUHDVXFXOXLGHFHDS FDDQWLR[LGDQW
8VWXURLXO HVWH EXOEXO SODQWHL $OLXP VDWLYXP FDUH FRQ LQH XQ XOH

i eteric (izocianatul de

DOLO vQSURSRU LHGH DUHPLURVS WUXQ] WRULJXVWSLFDQW8VWXURLXODUHDF LXQHGLJHVWLY 

SUHFXPLRLPSRUWDQW DF LXQHDQWLVHSWLF 

5. TEHNOLOGIA FABRICRII CONSERVELOR DE CARNE


Conservele de carne sunt produse de cDUQHvQFKLVHHUPHWLFvQFXWLLVDXERUFDQHLVXSXVH
unui tratament termic la temperaturi peste 1000& FX VFRSXO GH D GLVWUXJH PLFURRUJDQLVPHOH L
HQ]LPHOHQHPLFURELHQHLvQVSHFLDOR[LGD]HOHFDUHDUSXWHDDOWHUDFRQ LQXWXOS VWUkQGvQDFHODL

timp unele

VXEVWDQ H WHUPRODELOH DVWIHO FD vQVXLULOH RUJDQROHSWLFH DOH SURGXVXOXL L YDORDUHD OXL

QXWULWLY V U PkQ FkWPDLQHVFKLPEDWH


3URGXVHOHGHFDUQHvQFKLVHHWDQvQFXWLLLFDUHDXIRVWVXSXVHvQSUHDODELODOWRUSURFHGHH
GH FRQVHUYDUH V UDUH DIXPDUH ILHUEHUH  L FDUH GXS  vQFKLGHUHD vQ FXWLL VXQW VXSXVH

WUDWDPHQWXOXL WHUPLF OD R WHPSHUDWXU  PDL VF ]XW  GH  & SRDUW  GHQXPLUHD GH VHPLFRQVHUYH
GH FDUQH $FHVWH SURGXVH DX R FRQVHUYDELOLWDWH PDL UHGXV  L QHFHVLW  FRQGL LL VSHFLDOH GH
S VWUDUH

Principiul GH FRQVHUYDUH FDUH VW

 OD ED]D IDEULF ULL FRQVHUYHORU vQ FXWLL vO FRQVWLWXLH

GLVWUXJHUHD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU GLQ SURGXV FX DMXWRUXO F OGXULL L vPSLHGLFDUHD S WUXQGHULL


JHUPHQLORUGLQDIDU SULQDPEDODUHHUPHWLF 
6XSXQHUHDFRQVHUYHORUODDF LXQHDWHPSHUDWXULORUSUHDULGLFDWHHVWHXUPDW GHVFKLPEDUHD
SURIXQG  D vQVXLULORU RUJDQROHSWLFH GH DFHHD WUHEXLH V  VH IRORVHDVF  QXPDL WHPSHUDWXUD FDUH
DVLJXUkQGS VWUDUHDFDUDFWHUHORUSURGXVXOXLGLVWUXJHPDMRULWDWHDJHUPHQLORU

7UDWDUHDWHUPLF ODWHPSHUDWXULFDUHGHS HVF &HVWHGHQXPLW VWHULOL]DUH6WHULOL]DUHD


LPSOLF GLVWUXJHUHDFRPSOHW DJHUPHQLORU
Q PRG WHRUHWLF SURGXVHOH ELQH VWHULOL]DWH L vQFKLVH HWDQ DU WUHEXL V  VH FRQVHUYH WLPS
QHOLPLWDW GDF  FRQ LQXWXO Q DU LQIOXHQ D vQ WLPS DVXSUD DPEDODMXOXL L GDF  vQ PRG SUDFWLF DU IL

complet lipsit de germeni.


Q FD]XO VWHULOL] ULL FRQVHUYHORU vQV  QX vQWRWGHDXQD VH RE LQH R VWHULOL]DUH DEVROXW 
6SHFLDOLWLL FDUH VH RFXS  GH VWHULOL]DUHD FRQVHUYHORU DX vQ DFHDVW  SULYLQ

 RSLQLL GLIHULWH 8QLL

FRQVLGHU  F  FRQVHUYHOH FDUH VH GDX vQ FRQVXP WUHEXLH V  ILH VWHULOH vQ DGHY UDWXO VHQV DO
FXYkQWXOXLDO LLvQV VXQWGHS UHUHF FRQVHUYHOHSRWILSXVHvQFRQVXPFKLDUGDF QXVXQWVWHULOH
FX FRQGL LD FD SURGXVXO V  QX FRQ LQ  JHUPHQL SDWRJHQL L V  QX DLE  VHPQH GH PRGLILF UL
RUJDQROHSWLFHGDWRULW IORUHLPLFURELHQH

%D]HOHWLLQ LILFHDOHVWHULOL]
6WHULOL]DUHD

FD

PHWRG 

GH

ULL

FRQVHUYDUH

VH

ED]HD] 

SH

DF LXQHD

F OGXULL

PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU FDUH VH J VHVF vQ SURGXVXO VXSXV FRQVHUY ULL $F LXQHD F O

DVXSUD

durii asupra

SURGXVXOXL vQFKLV vQ UHFLSLHQW VH H[HUFLW  vQ WUHL WLPSL XUFDUHD WHPSHUDWXULL SkQ  OD OLPLWD

VWDELOLW  PHQ LQHUHD OD DFHDVW  WHPSHUDWXU  XQ DQXPLW WLPS L FRERUkUHD WHPSHUDWXULL 'HFL
SDUDPHWULL SULQFLSDOL DL VWHULOL] ULL VXQW WHPSHUDWXUD L

durata de sterilizare. n unele cazuri, n

DIDU  GH DFHWL GRL IDFWRUL LQWHUYLQH L SUHVLXQHD L DQXPH OD FRQVHUYHOH vQ ERUFDQH XQGH
SUHVLXQHD HVWH IRORVLW  SHQWUX HYLWDUHD V ULUL FDSDFHORU VDX OD XQHOH FRQVHUYH vQ FXWLL XQGH HVWH
IRORVLW SHQWUXHYLWDUHDGHIRUP ULLFXWLLORU
$FHWL SDUDPHWUL YDULD]  vQ IXQF LH GH R VHULH GH IDFWRUL OHJD L GH VWUXFWXUD L FRPSR]L LD
PDWHULHL SULPH GH QDWXUD L GLPHQVLXQLOH UHFLSLHQWXOXL GH VWDUHD GH UHSDXV VDX PLFDUH D
UHFLSLHQWXOXLGHVWDUHDWHUPLF LQL LDO DFRQVH

)DFWRULLFDUHLQIOXHQ HD]

a6WUXFWXUDLFRPSR]L

rvei etc.

VWHULOL]DUHD

LDPDWHULHLSULPHLQIOXHQ HD] vQPDUHP VXU WHUPRSHQHWUD LD

$VWIHOvQFHHDFHSULYHWHVWUXFWXUD FRPSDFW S VWRDV OLFKLG GHQV HDYDGHWHUPLQDRYLWH] 


GLIHULW GHS WUXQGHUHDF OGXULLvQIXQF LHGHPRGXOFXPVHWUDQVPLWHF OGXUD SULQFRQYHF LHVDX

prin conductibilitate).
/D FRQVHUYHOH FX XQ FRQ LQXW FRPSDFW IRUPDWH GLQ EXF
FHOH S VWRDVH WLS DSHULWLY SDWHXUL HWF  S WUXQGHUHD F OGXU

L PDUL vQWUHJL WDUL XQFD  VDX

ii n centrul cutiei se face prin

FRQGXFWLELOLWDWH GHFL GHVWXO GH vQFHW /D FRQVHUYHOH FH FRQ LQ EXF

L GH FDUQH L FX R FDQWLWDWH

PLF GHOLFKLGWUDQVPLWHUHDF OGXULLVHIDFHSULQFRQGXFWLELOLWDWHLOLPLWDWSULQFRQYHF LH$FHVWD

este cazul conservelor de carne n suc propriu.


/D FRQVHUYHOHFH FRQ LQEXF

L PLFL vQWU RFDQWLWDWH VXILFLHQW  GH OLFKLG FDUH V  SHUPLW  R

FLUFXOD LH LQWHQV  vQ vQWUHJXO FRQ LQXW DO FXWLHL FXP HVWH JXODXO WRF QL D HWF WUDQVPLWHUHD
F OGXULLVHIDFHPDLPXOWSULQFRQYHF LH
E)HOXOPLFURRUJDQLVPHORULJUDGXOGHvQV

PkQ DUHDOPDWHULHLSULPHFRQGL LRQHD] 

vQPRGHVHQ LDOSURFHVXOVWHULOL] ULL


'XUDWD

L

WHPSHUDWXUD

GH

VWHULOL]DUH

YDULD] 

microorganismelor.
Deci la stabilirea regimului de sWHULOL]DUHWUHEXLHV

vQWUH

OLPLWH

IRDUWH

ODUJL

FX

IHOXO

VH LQ VHDPDGHWLSXOGHEDFWHULLLGH

VSRUL SUHFXP L GH QXP UXO GH JHUPHQL GLQ PDWHULD SULP  'H DFHHD VH LPSXQH FD vQDLQWH GH
VWHULOL]DUH V  VH IDF  FRQWUROXO SURILODFWLF DO PDWHULHL SULPH =LOQLF vQ WLPSXO XQXL VFKLPE

trebuLHI

FXW GHGRX RULDQDOL]DFRQ LQXWXOXLFXWLLORUvQDLQWHGHVWHULOL]DUH

F 7HPSHUDWXUD LQL LDO

 D FRQVHUYHL LQIOXHQ HD]  DVXSUD VWHULOL] ULL GXS  SURSULHW

LOH

IL]LFH DOH SURGXVXOXL DGLF  GXS  IHOXO FXP VH SURGXFH WHUPRSHQHWUD LD /D SURGXVHOH OLFKLGH

la

FDUH F OGXUD VH WUDQVPLWH SULQ FRQYHQ LH WHPSHUDWXUD LQL LDO  QX LQIOXHQ HD]  DD GH PXOW GXUDWD
VWHULOL] ULL FD OD FRQVHUYHOH FX FRQ LQXW VROLG OD FDUH F OGXUD VH WUDQVPLWH SULQ FRQGXFWLELOLWDWH
'HDFHHDODSURGXVHOHGHQVHWHPSHUDWXUDLQL LDO WUHEXLHV ILHPDLULGLFDW 

0DWHULLOHSULPHLDX[LOLDUH

Materiile prime

3HQWUXIDEULFDUHDFRQVHUYHORUGHFDUQHVHIRORVHVFFDUQHDLSURGXVHOHVHFXQGDUHUH]XOWDWH
GHODW LHUHH[DPLQDWHGHPHGLFXOYHWHULQDUSUHFXPLS V ULLHSXULGHFDV LYkQ

at.

&DUQHD HVWH DGXV  GH SUHIHULQ

 vQ VWDUH UHIULJHUDW  6H SRDWH IRORVL OD QHYRLH L FDUQH

FRQJHODW 
&DUQHDFRQGL LRQDWFRQVXPDELO QXHVWHUHFRPDQGDWDILIRORVLW vQDFHVWVFRS7RWXLvQ
XOWLPXOWLPSRVHULHGHFHUFHW ULWLLQ LILFHDXDU WDWF HVWHSRVLELO IRORVLUHDvQFRQVHUYHDF UQLL
FRQGL LRQDWH L D F UQLL SURYHQLWH GH OD DQLPDOH IRORVLWH OD SUHSDUDUHD YLUXVXOXL L D VHUXOXL

vQWUXFkW DQDOL]HOH GH ODERUDWRU DX DU WDW F  SULQWU R VWHULOL]DUH I FXW  FKLDU QXPDL OD 

bacteriile paratifice sXQW GLVWUXVH GH DVHPHQHD L YLUXVXO SHVWHL SRUFLQH 9HULILFDUHD ELRORJLF
SULQ DGPLQLVWUDUHD DFHVWRU FRQVHUYH OD DQLPDOH GH H[SHULHQ

 FkW L LQRFXODUHD H[WUDFWXOXL GH

conserve sterilizate nu a transmis pesta la porci.


QRULFHFD]DWkWFDUQHDFkWLVXESURGXVHOHWUHEXLHV vQGHSOLQHDVF LQGLFLGHSURVSH LPH

FRUHVSXQ] WRUL
&DOLWDWHD FRQVHUYHORU GHSLQGH vQ SULPXO UkQG GH FDOLWDWHD PDWHULHL SULPH &KLDU GDF  VH
DSOLF SURFHGHHWHKQRORJLFHDPHOLRUDWHQXVHSRDWHRE LQHXQSURGXVVXSHULRUDWXQFLFkQGFDUQH

IRORVLW QXSUH]LQW FXORDUHDJXVWXOLFRQVLVWHQ DQHFHVDU 

n general, la fabricarea conservelor de carne nu s-D GDW DWHQ LH FXYHQLW

 VWUXFWXULL F UQLL

L vQ VSHFLDO DOHJHULL FRUHFWH D S U LORU SX LQ GLJHVWLELOH D H[FHVXOXL GH JU VLPH L vQGHS UW UL

cheagurilor de snge.
$OHJHUHD LQFRUHFW  D WHQGRDQHORU L DSRQHYUR]HORU SRDWH GXFH OD R VWHULOL]DUH QHVLJXU 
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-7 ani,

&DUQHDDQLPDOHORUSUHDWLQHUHQXHVWHLQGLFDW DILIRORVLW GHFkWSHQWUXDQXPLWHWLSXULGH


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-18 luni. Nu este indicat a fi

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YHUGHD DSURDVS W 

Materiile auxiliare

0DWHULLOHDX[LOLDUHWUHEXLHV vQGHSOLQHDVF FRQGL LLOHVSHFLILFDWHDQWHULRU


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PL[WH ]DK UXOHLR HWJHODWLQ 


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n care se sterLOL]HD]

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V UXULGHPDJQH]LXODOSHQWUXFDFRQVHUYHOHV FDSHWHJXVWDPDU6 UXULOHGHFDOFLXLPDJQH]LX
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potrLYLWGHGXU
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la 20

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ub

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Uleiul de floarea-soareluiIRORVLWvQLQGXVWULDGHFRQVHUYHWUHEXLHV
-

ILHGXEOXUDILQDW(O

WUHEXLHV ILH OLPSHGHLV QX LSLDUG DFHDVW OLPSH]LPHFKLDUGXS RS VWUDUHvQGHOXQJDW GH
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Uleiul de floarea VRDUHOXL WUHEXLH V

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-soarelui este de obicei

VRDUHOXLI U QLFLXQIHOGHJXVWLPLURVVWU LQ&XORDUHDXOHLXOXLGHIORDUH

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volatile din uleiul de floarea-VRDUHOXL GH EXQ  FDOLWDWH WUHEXLH V  ILH GH PD[LPXP  GXS 
0
vQF O]LUH OD  & *UHXWDWHD VSHFLILF  D XOHLXOXL GH IORDUHD-soarelui este de la 0,920 la 0,927.
Aciditatea uleiului de floarea-VRDUHOXLGHEXQ FDOLWDWHFDOFXODW vQJUDGHVDXvQSURFHQWHGHDFLG
0
ROHLFHVWHGHVDX,QGLFHOHGHUHIUDF LHOD C este de 62-66, cifra de saponificare de
188-195, iar propor LDGHVXEVWDQ HQHVDSRQLILFDELOHSkQ OD
2 HWXO FDUH VH XWLOL]HD]  vQ LQGXVWULD GH FRQVHUYH SRDWH IL GH GRX  IHOXUL R HW GH YLQ
RE LQXW SULQ IHUPHQWDUHD DFHWLF  D YLQXULORU OLPSH]L V Q WRDVH QRUPDOH VDX DFULWH FX FHO SX LQ
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2 HWXO WUHEXLH V  ILH OLPSHGH I U  SUHFLSLWDWH 6  QX FRQ LQ  UHVWXUL YL]LELOH GH EDFWHULL
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pULP

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R HWXOXLWUHEXLHV ILHGH

Gelatina IRORVLW

vQLQGXVWULDFRQVHUYHORUVHSUH]LQW VXEIRUP GHSO FLVDXGHSUDI

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FRQFHQWUD LD HVWH VXILFLHQW  IRUPHD]  XQ JHO *HOXO RE LQXW VH WRSHWH OD 

-330C. Cantitatea de

JHODWLQ QHFHVDU IRUP ULLJHOXOXLHVWH

Pentru geluri foarte slabe


Pentru geluri potrivit de slabe
Pentru geluri potrivit de tari
Pentru geluri tari

3-4%
4-6,5%
6-8%
8-10%

*HODWLQD IRORVLW  vQ VFRSXUL LQGXVWULDOH vQ LQGXVWULD GH FRQVHUYH WUHEXLH V  ILH DSURDSH
LQFRORU WUDQVSDUHQW I U PLURVLJXVWQDS UHFHWUHEXLHV VHXPIOHGDUI U V VHGL]ROYHLDU
vQ DS  ILHUELQWH WUHEXLH V  VH GL]ROYH L V  IRUPH]H XQ OLFKLG FOHLRV FX UHDF LH QHXWU  OLPSHGH VDX
XRU WXOEXUH L FDUH OD U FLUH OD R SURSRU LH GH  V  IRUPH]H XQ JHO &RQ LQXWXO GH FHQX  DO
JHODWLQHLQXWUHEXLHV GHS HDVF *HODWLQDQXWUHEXLHV FRQ LQ FXSUXVDXDOWHPHWDOHJUHOH

5.3. Fluxul tehnologic de fabricare a conservelor de carne


3URFHVXO WHKQRORJLF GH IDEULFDUH D FRQVHUYHORU GH FDUQH FXSULQGH XUP WRDUHOH RSHUD LL
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livrarea; transportarea conservelor.

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Q WLPSXO VWHULOL] ULL FRQVHUYHORU GH FDUQH DX ORF R VHULH GH PRGLILF UL DOH SURGXVXOXL
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DF LXQHDGHIDYRUDELO DDSHLDYkQGFDDF LXQHGLUHFW VXSUDvQF O]LUHDSRU LXQLORUGHOkQJ SHUH LL


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centrul cutiei.
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pURQXQ DW

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conservei la temperatura de 370C, arH


microorganismelor.

HVWH

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D

Termostatarea conservelor

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utiilor pline, un anumit

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-a respectat
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microbiologic.
BactHULLOH DHUREH VH J

VHVF vQ FXWLL vQ FDUH QX V D I FXW YDFXXP VDX FDUH DX U PDV

QHHWDQH

999

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2.

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4.

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distrugere a microorganismelor?

VI NI FI CAREA STRUGURI LOR

2%,(&7,9(850

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REZUMAT
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strugure n produs semifabricat-must,

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ce au loc n must.

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9

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ntr-un

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struguri pentru vin) n carH VH SRW UHDOL]D SURGXVH GH EXQ

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de SUHOXFUDUH DVWUXJXULORU vQ YHGHUHD RE LQHULL XQRU FDWHJRULL L WLSXUL GHYLQ VDX DDOWRU SURGXVH
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calitativi ai produsului finit cu cei ai materiei prime din care a provenit, asigurnd astfel
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3

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-un ax principal pe care sunt

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LVWDUHDILWRVDQLWDU DUHFROWHLFLRUFKLQLLUHSUH]LQW 

-10% din greutatea strugurilor.


Boaba sau fructul propriu-]LV HVWH R EDF  DOF WXLW  GLQ SLHOL  PLH] L VHPLQ H Q UDSRUW
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din 7-VWUDWXULGHFHOXOHDOXQJLWHERJDWHvQVXEVWDQ HRGRUDQWHWDQDQWHLFRORUDQWH


Miezul sau pulpa HVWH DOF WXLW GLQ PH]RFDUS L HQGRFDUS Mezocarpul este format din
11-16 straturi de celule pline aproape n totalitate, cu suc vacuolar (must) bogat n zaharuri, acizi
RUJDQLFL V UXUL PLQHUDOH HWF &LWRSODVPD vQ FDUH HVWH VLWXD QXFOHXO VH J VHWH VXE IRUPD XQXL
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SXOSHL /D PDWXULWDWHD GHSOLQ  SXOSD UHSUH]LQW  

-88% din greutatea boabei, iar resturile de

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SkQ ODGLQJUHXWDWHDOXL
6HPLQ HOHUHSUH]LQW 

-6% din greutatea boabei.

7RDWH DFHVWH S U L FRQVWLWXWLYH DOH VWUXJXUHOXL L ERDEHL GHRVHE

ite ntre ele din punct de

YHGHUH PRUIRORJLF L IL]LRORJLF VXQW GHQXPLWH XQLW

L XYRORJLFH 'HWHUPLQDUHD ORU VXE UDSRUW

JUDYLPHWULF L QXPHULF L D UDSRUWXULORU vQ FDUH VH J VHVF XQHOH ID

 GH DOWHOH FRQVWLWXLH RELHFWXO

analizei mecanice a strugurilor. PeED]DGDWHORURE LQXWHGLQDFHDVW

DQDOL] HIHFWXDW RELQXLWFX

DMXWRUXOXQRUEDODQ HWHKQLFHVHFDOFXOHD] RVHULHGHLQGLFLXYRORJLFLGLQWUHFDUHPDLLPSRUWDQ L


VXQW LQGLFHOH GH VWUXFWXU  D VWUXJXUHOXL LQGLFHOH ERDEHL LQGLFHOH GH FRPSR]L LH D ERDEHL L

indicele de randament.
,QGLFHOHGHVWUXFWXU

DOVWUXJXUHOXL

este dat de raportul

greutatea boabelor
greutatea ciorchinelui

L

SUH]LQW  YDORUL FXSULQVH vQWUH  L  YDORULOH PLFL ILLQG FDUDFWHULVWLFH VRLXULORU GH YLQ LDU FHOH

mari sunt proprii strugurilor pentru maV


Indicele boabei UHVSHFWLY QXP


UXO GH ERDEH OD  J VWUXJXUL HVWH PLF OD VRLXULOH GH

PDV XQGHSRDWHV FRERDUHSkQ ODLPDUHODVRLXULOHGHYLQXQGHXQHRULGHS HWH

,QGLFHOHGHFRPSR]L LHDOERDEHL

, dat de raportul

are valori cuprinse ntre 10-ODVRLXULOHSHQWUXPDV

greutatea miezului
greutatea pielitei + greutatea semintelor

LvQWUH

-8 la cele pentru vin.

Indicele de randament, rezultat din raportul greutatea mustului/ greutatea tescovinei,


poate varia de la 2,5 la 5, cu o valoare medie GHILLQGPDLSX LQFDUDFWHULVWLFFDV ILHOXDWGUHSW

FULWHULX GH GHRVHELUH D VRLXULORU GH YLQ GH FHOH GH PDV  Q VFKLPE DO WXUL GH LQGLFHOH GH
FRPSR]L LH DO ERDEHL HO RJOLQGHWH ILGHO UDSRUWXO vQWUH HOHPHQWHOH SODVWLFH L FHOH PHFDQLFH DOH

strugurelui.

1.2. Recoltarea strugurilor


1.2.1. Stabilirea momentului optim de cules
Problema stabiliri momentului optim de recoltare a constituit obiectul de studiu a multor
a acelei date n cursul perioadei de

FHUFHW WRUL Q SULQFLSLX HD UH]LG  vQ FXQRDWHUHD L DOHJHUH

FRDFHUH vQ FDUH VWUXJXULL DX DMXQV V  FRUHVSXQG  VFRSXOXL SHQWUX FDUH VXQW GHVWLQD L $OHJHUHD
MXGLFLRDV DDFHVWXLPRPHQWQXHVWHRRSHUD LXQHDDGHXRDU vQWUXFkWDFHVWDHVWHGHWHUPLQDWGH
QXPHURL IDFWRUL GLQWUH FDUH R LPSRUWDQ

 GHRVHELW  SUH]LQW  VWDUHD GH PDWXULWDWH D VWUXJXULORU

VWDUHDORUGHV Q WDWHFRQGL LLOHHFRQRPLFHPRGXOGHUHFROWDUHHWF

Starea de maturitate a strugurilor

3ULPXOIDFWRUFDUHFRQGL LRQHD] FDOLWDWHDVWUXJXULORUHVWHDDFXPV DDU

tat, starea lor de

PDWXULWDWHQFHUFDUHDGHDGHILQLULJXURVDFHDVW QR LXQHHVWHGHVWXOGHDQHYRLRDV vQWUXFkWSHGH


R SDUWH SURFHVXO GH PDWXUD LH vQ DQVDPEOXO V X HVWH FRPSOH[ L FRQGL LRQDW GH R SOXUDOLWDWH GH
IDFWRUL LDU SH GH DOW  SDUWH vQV L VWDUHD GH PDWXULWDWH GLIHU  vQ IXQF LH GH GHVWLQD LD FDUH VH G 
VWUXJXULORUSUHFXPLGHFDOLWDWHDSURGXVHORUFHWUHEXLHRE LQXWHGLQSUHOXFUDUHDORU

0DWXULWDWHDIL]LRORJLF

$FHDVW  QR LXQH VH UHIHU  PDL DOHV OD VHPLQ H 6H FRQVLGHU  F  VWUXJXULL DX DWLQV DFHDVW 
VWDUH GH PDWXULWDWH vQ PRPHQWXO FkQG VHPLQ HOH GLQ ERDEH L DX vQFHWDW FUHWHUHD L DX GREkQGLW

SRVLELOLWDWH GH D JHUPLQD /D VRLXULOH D F URU VWUXJXUL VH FRF WkU]LX PDWXULWDWHD IL]LRORJLF 
PDWXULWDWHD VHPLQ HL  HVWH DWLQV  GH RELFHL FHYD PDL vQDLQWH DVWIHO vQFkW SkQ  OD UHFROWDUHD
VWUXJXULORU VHPLQ HOH vQFHS V  FHGH]H VXEVWDQ H SXOSHL FDUH OH vQFRQMRDU  /D VRLXULOH DOH F URU
VWUXJXUL VH FRF WLPSXULX XQHOH VRLXUL GH PDV  SXOSD VH PDWXUHD]  PDL UHSHGH GHFkW VHPLQ HOH

nct, acestea din urP

 GREkQGHVF PDL JUHX SRVLELOLWDWHD GH D JHUPLQD GHRDUHFH DSRUWXO

VXEVWDQ HORUQHFHVDUHSHQWUXFRPSOHWDORUGH]YROWDUHvQFHWHD] 

0DWXULWDWHDGHSOLQ

0DWXULWDWHD GHSOLQ  VDX PDWXULWDWHD SXOSHL QX FRUHVSXQGH vQWRWGHDXQD FX PDWXULWDWHD
IL]LRORJLF  3HQWUX GHILQLUHD HL VH UHFXUJH OD GHWHUPLQDUHD GLIHULWHORU S U L FRQVWLWXWLYH DOH
VWUXJXUHOXL OD DQDOL]D SULQFLSDOLORU FRQVWLWXHQ L DL ERDEHL L OD VWDELOLUHD XQRU UDSRUWXUL vQWUH
YDORULOH J VLWH 'LQWH WRDWH D DFHVWHD PDL LPSRUWDQWH L PDL VLPSOX GH XUP ULW VXQW YDULD LD
JUHXW

LL ERDEHORU FDUH IXUQL]HD]  LQGLFD LL DVXSUD ODWXULL FDQWLWDWLYH YDULD LD FRQ LQXWXOXL vQ

JOXFLGHLDFLGLWDWHSUHFXPLVWDELOLUHDUDSRUWXOXLvQFDUHVHJ VHVFDFHVWHDLFDUHGHIDSWGDX
LQGLFD LLDVXSUDODWXULLFDOLWDWLYH

MDWXULWDWHDWHKQRORJLF

0DWXULWDWHD WHKQRORJLF  FXQRVFXW  L VXE QXPHOH GH PDWXULWDWH LQGXVWULDO  SULYHWH


VWUXJXULL GHVWLQD L FD PDWHULH SULP  SHQWUX YLQLILFDUH 6H FRQVLGHU  F  VWUXJXULL DX DWLQV
PDWXULWDWHD WHKQRORJLF  DWXQFL FkQG FRPSR]L LD ORU HVWH RSWLP  SHQWUX SURGXFHUHD XQXL DQXPLW
WLS GH YLQ VDX D XQXL DOW SURGXV 3UHFL]DUHD RELHFWLY  D PDWXULW

LL WHKQRORJLFH SULQ DQDOL]H GH

ODERUDWRU FRQVROLGHD]  DO WXUL GH VRL SRGJRULH HWF ED]D GH SOHFDUH vQ UHDOL]DUHD GLIHULWHORU
FDWHJRULL L WLSXUL GH YLQ Q 5RPkQLD JDPD YLQXULORU FH VH SURGXF ILLQG GHVWXO GH ODUJ 
QHFHVLWDWHD RE LQHULL ORU GLQ VWUXJXUL FXOHL OD JUDGH GH PDWXULWDWH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH FRQVWLWXLH R
SUREOHP  GH SULP RUGLQ 3URFHGkQG DVWIHO VH SRDWH UHVSHFWD FX XXULQ

 SULQFLSLXO GH D SUR

duce

YLQXULQDWXUDOHLGHDSOLFDPHWRGHLVXEVWDQ HFDUHV QXDIHFWH]HQDWXUDOH HDDFHVWRUD3UDFWLFD


FRUHFW ULL PXVWXULORU QX FRPSHQVHD]  QLFLRGDW  vQ WRWDOLWDWH LQVXILFLHQ HOH GH HFKLOLEUX GDWRULWH

XQHL PDWXUD LL GHIHFWXRDVH GXS  FXP QLFL YLQXULOH vPEXQ W

LWH SULQ GLIHULWH SURFHGHH QX

DMXQJ OD FDOLWDWHD FHORU QDWXUDOH 7URRVW *  DUDW  F  HVWH R JUHHDO

V

 VH DILUPH F

YLQXULOH RE LQXWH GLQ VWUXJXUL LQFRPSOHW PDWXUD L VH SRW FRUHFWD vQ WRWDOLWDWH SULQ WHKQRORJLL
X]XDOHGHFRUHF LL0DWXULWDWHDVWUXJXULORUHVWHRvQVXLUHELRORJLF

$URPDLEXFKHWXOYLQXULORU

VXQWFRQGL LRQDWHGHFRDFHUHDVWUXJXULORULQXSRWILRE LQXWHSULQWHKQLFLOHYLQLFROHX]XDOH


QIXQF LHGHFDWHJRULD LWLSXOYLQXOXLFHXUPHD] D ILSURGXV FRQVXPFXUHQWLVX
VHF GHPLVHF GHPLGXOFHL GXOFH VDX VSXPDQW L VSXPRV HWF FHULQ HOHID
ID

perior

 GH PDWHULD SULP  L

GHJUDGXOV XGHPDWXUD LHVXQWGLIHULWH $VWIHO vQXQHOHSRGJRULLLODDQXPLWHVRLXUL FDGH

H[HPSOX OD FHOH GHVWLQDWH RE LQHULL YLQXULORU SHQW

ru distilare n vederea producerii de coniacuri,

GH PXOWH RUL HVWH DYDQWDMRV FD VWUXJXULL V  VH FXOHDJ  vQDLQWH GH WHUPHQXO PDWXUD LHL GHSOLQH L
DFHDVWDFXVFRSXOGHDS VWUDvQHLRDFLGLWDWHFHYDPDLULGLFDW GHFkWVHFHUHVWUXJXULORUUH]HUYD L
RE LQHULL YLQXULORU SHQWUX FRQVXP Q DOWH SRGJRULL GLQ FRQWUD HVWH DYDQWDMRV V  VH UHFROWH]H OD
VXSUDPDWXUD LH 'LQ FHOH UHODWDWH VH SRDWH VSXQH F  vQ JHQHUDO L vQ FRQGL LLOH

ULL QRDVWUH

PDWXULWDWHD WHKQRORJLF  SRDWH VH SUHFHDG  PDWXULWDWHD GHSOLQ  YLQXUL SHQWUX GLVWLODUH  V 
FRLQFLG  FX HD YLQXUL GH FRQVXP FXUHQW L VXSHULRDUH VHFL  VDX V  R XUPH]H YLQXUL GHPLVHFL
GHPLGXOFLLGXOFLQDWXUDOH 

6XSUDPDWXUD LDVWUXJXULORU

3ULQ VXSUDPDWXUD LH QXPLW  L SRVWPDWXUD LH VH vQ HOHJH R VWDUH FH XUPHD]  PDWXUD LHL
VWDUH vQ FDUH ERDEHOH VWUXJXUHOXL VXQW PDL PXOW VDX PDL SX LQ VWDILGLWH LDU VXFXO DFHVWRUD HVWH
SXWHUQLF FRQFHQWUDW 3URFHVXO GH VXSUDPDWXUDUH SRDWH DYHD ORF VXE DF LXQHD F OGXULL VRODUH VDX
DUWLILFLDOH SUHFXP L GDWRULW  XQXL SURFHV GH ERWULWL

zare. La rndul ei, supramaturarea sub

DF LXQHDF OGXULLVRODUHVHSRDWHGHVI XUDvQFRQGL LLQDWXUDOHFkQGVWUXJXULLQXVXQWGHVSULQLGH


SH EXWXF VDX vQ FRQGL LL DUWLILFLDOH FkQG VWUXJXULL VXQW FXOHL L DSRL H[SXL OD VRDUH SH SDLH
URJRMLQLVDXJU

tare din lemn.


Botritizarea strugurilor FD] SDUWLFXODU GH VXSUDPDWXUDUH HVWH FRQVHFLQ D LQIHFW ULL
boabelor cu miceliul de Botrytinia fuckeliana (De Bary). Wetzel. Aparatul vegetativ, respectiv
miceliul acestei ciuperci, este reprezentat printr-un tal filamentos. Din punct de vedere al
QXWUL LHL FLXSHUFD HVWH VDSURILW  IDFXOWDWLY HD vL SHWUHFH R SDUWH GLQ YLD

UHVWXUL RUJDQLFH DSRL GXS  FH FDS W  R DQXPLW  YLUXOHQ

 vQ PRG VDSURILW SH

 GHYLQH SDUD]LW  SH GLIHULWH IUXFWH L

ndeosebi pe boabele de struguri.


'H]YROWDUHD DFHVWHL FLXSHUFL VXE IRUP  GH SXWUHJDL FHQXLX DUH ORF vQ PDMRULWDWHD
SRGJRULLOH L DSURDSH OD WRDWH VRLXULOH ILLQG PDL IUHFYHQW  vQ ]RQHOH XPHGH GHFkW vQ FHOH XVFDWH
Q XUPD S WUXQGHULL PLFHOLXOXL OD VXSUDID D SLHOL HL DSDU SHWH FLUFXODUH GH FXORDUH URLH

-viloacee

FDUHVHP UHVFSkQ FXSULQG vQWUHDJDERDE &XWLPSXO SLHOL DVHEUXQLILF VHGHVSULQGHXRUGH


SXOS  LDU ERDED vQ DQVDPEOXO HL VH DFRSHU  FX SXI FHQXLX FDUH DEVRDUEH L UH LQH DSD vQWRFPDL

ca un burete. Cnd umiditateD DWPRVIHULF  GHS HWH  L VH PHQ LQH ULGLFDW  PDL PXOW WLPS
iar temperatura este suficient de mare (20- 250&  DWDFXO HYROXHD]  DWkW GH UDSLG vQFkW vQWUHDJD
UHFROW SRDWHILFRPSURPLV vQFkWHYD]LOH
3UH]HQ D FLXSHUFLL %RWU\WLQLD IXFNHOLQD VXE IRUP  GH SXWUHJDL QRELO HVWH VHPQDODW  vQ
IRDUWH SX LQH SRGJRULL L QXPDL OD QXPLWH VRLXUL 'LQWUH FHOH HXURSHQH VHDPLQWHVF 6DXWWHUQHV
)UDQ D OD VRLXULOH 6DXYLJQRQ L 6HPLOORQ 5KHLQ
OD)XUPLQWQ

-Gau- *HUPDQLD OD 5LHVOLQJ L 7RNDM- Ungaria

ULOH YLWLFROHVXGLFH VHvQWkOQHWHLPDL UDU/D QRLvQ DU SXWUHJDLXOQRELODSDUH

PDLIUHFYHQWODVRLXO*UDV vQSRGJRULLOH&RWQDULL3LHWURDVHOH

7(+12/2*,$35(/8&5

5,,6758*85,/25

7HKQRORJLD SUHOXFU ULL VWUXJXULORU VDX YLQLILFD LD SURSULX ]LV  FXSULQ

de un ansamblu de

RSHUD LLFDUHDVLJXU WUDQVIRUPDUHDVWUXJXULORUvQ YLQ QXUPD YLQLILF ULLVHRE LQYLQXULDOEHVDX


URLL GH XQGH L H[LVWHQ D D GRX  PDUL OLQLL WHKQRORJLFH OLQLD GH YLQLILFD LH vQ DOE L OLQLD GH
YLQLILFD LHvQURXQFD]XOSURGXFHULLYLQXULORUDOEHPXVWXOVHVHSDU FkWPDLUDSLGGHERWLQ L
VH IHUPHQWHD]  VHSDUDW /D SURGXFHUHD YLQXULORU URLL VHSDUDUHD OLFKLGXOXL VH HIHFWXHD]  GXS  FH

mustuiala a trecut printr-un proces de macerare-fermentare, proces ce trebuie luat n considerare


LODHODERUDUHDYLQXULORUDURPDWHLDFHORUUR]H
,QGLIHUHQW GH JUXSHOH GH YLQXUL FH XUPHD]  D VH RE LQH DOEH URLL DURPDWH UR]H  HVWH
DEVROXW QHFHVDU FD SUHOXFUDUHD VWUXJXULORU V  VH HIHFWXH]H FkW PDL UDSLG L FRPSOHW /D R
SUHOXFUDUH OHQW  DSDUH LQIOXHQ D G XQ WRDUH D DHUXOXL L WHPSHUDWXULL 0LFURRUJDQLVPHOH
vQGHRVHELFHOHSDWRJHQHVHvQPXO HVFUDSLGvQFkWDO WXULGHIHUPHQWD LDDOFRROLF VHGHVI RDU L
DOWHSURFHVHIHUPHQWDWLYHPDLSX LQGRULWH$FHVWHXUP ULQHJDWLYHSRWILGHSURSRU LLLPDLPDUL
FkQG VWUXJXULL VXQW PXFHJ L L SXWUH]L L VDX DWDFD L GH GLIHUL L G XQ WRUL 'LQ FRQVLGHUHQWHOH
DU WDWH VH UHFRPDQG  FD VWUXJXULL V  ILH YLQLILFD L FkW PDL UDSLG vQ PRG REOLJDWRULX vQ ]LXD
UHFROW ULL &HO PDL ELQH HVWH DWXQFL FkQG GH OD FXOHV L SkQ  OD SUHOXFUDUH Q

-a trecut mai mult de

FLUFD SDWUX RUH 'H DFHHD VH LPSXQH FD UHFROWDWXO WUDQVSRUWXO L SUHOXFUDUHD VWUXJXULORU V  ILH
RUJDQL]DWHvQDDPRGvQFkWvQWUHHOHV H[LVWHRGHSOLQ FRQFRUGDQ

2.1. Zdrobitul strugurilor


Zdrobitul strXJXULORU FRQVW

 vQ GLVWUXJHUHD LQWHJULW

LL ERDEHORU vQ YHGHUHD HOLEHU ULL

VXFXOXLSHFDUHvOFRQ LQI U DI UkPL DSLHOL HOHVHPLQ HOHLFLRUFKLQLLQXUPDDFHVWHLRSHUD LL


PLFURIORUDH[LVWHQW  SH VWUXJXUL HVWH GLVSHUVDW  vQ vQWUHDJD PDV  GHPXVWXLDO  'DF  VWUXJXULL QX
VXQW ]GUREL L VXFXO QX VH SRDWH WUDQVIRUPD vQ YLQ GHRDUHFH OHYXULOH SUH]HQWH vQ SULQFLSDO SH
VXSUDID DERDEHORUQX LSRWH[HUFLWDDF LXQHDORUDVXSUDVXFXOXLvQFKLVvQERDE $HUD LDSURGXV 

vQ WLPSXO ]GURELULL IDYRUL]HD]  vQPXO LUHD OHYXULORU FDUH OD UkQGXO ORU GHWHUPLQ  R IHUPHQWDUH
UDSLG  L XRDU  D PXVWXOXL 'H DVHPHQHD GXS  ]GURELUH UHFROWD SRDWH IL XRU YHKLFXODW  SULQ
SRPSDUHVXOILWDW vQWU-XQPRGPDLRPRJHQLDUPDFHUD LDYHULJ LPSRUWDQW vQIOX[XOWHKQRORJLF
de prodXFHUH DO YLQXULORU URLL L DURPDWH DUH ORF vQ FRQGL LL RSWLPH GHRDUHFH VXSUDID D GLQWUH
ID]DOLFKLG LVROLG HVWHPXOWP ULW 

2.2. Desciorchinatul strugurilor


Desciorchinatul strugurilor QXPLWvQF

 L GH]EURERQLW FRQVW  vQ GHWDDUHD ERDEHORU GH

FLRUFKLQH L HOLEHUDUHD VHSDUDW  D VXFXOXL L ERDEHORU SH GH R SDUWH L D FLRUFKLQLORU L UHVWXULORU
YHJHWDOH SH GH DOW  SDUWH 2SRUWXQLWDWHD H[HFXW ULL DFHVWHL RSHUD LL GHSLQGH GH QXPHURL IDFWRUL
GLQWUHFDUHXQUROSULQFLSDOvOMRDF FDWHJRULDLUHVSHF

tiv tipul de vin proiectat a se produce.


Pentru vinurile albe desciorchinatul s-D GRYHGLW PDL SX LQ QHFHVDU vQWUXFkW LQIOXHQ D SH

FDUHRH[HUFLW SUH]HQ DFLRUFKLQHOXLDVXSUDFDOLW

LLYLQXOXLHVWHQHVHPQLILFDWLY 3HGHDOW SDUWH

VHWLHF DWXQFLFkQGUHFROWDHVWHQHGHVFLRUFKLQDW VFXUJHUHDPXVWXOXLLSUHVDUHDERWLQHLVHIDFH


FX PDL PXOW  XXULQ

 GHRDUHFH PXVWXLDOD DUH XQ JUDG GH HODVWLFLWDWH PDL ULGLFDW LDU FLRUFKLQLL

MRDF  UROXO XQRU F L GH GUHQDM0XVWXO RE LQXWDUH PDL SX LQ  EXUE  L XQJXVW P

rezultat dintr-R PXVWXLDO

ai bun dect cel

 GHVFLRUFKLQDW  &UHWHUHD FRQ LQXWXOXLvQ EXUE  L DSDUL LD XQRU JXVWXUL

PDL SX LQ SO FXWH VH GDWRUHD]  I UkPL

ULL L VWULYLULL SDU LDOH D FRPSRQHQWHORU VROLGH vQ FXUVXO

GHVFLRUFKLQ ULL 5LEHUHDX*D\RQ-D

976).

6HDSUHFLD] vQV F GHVFLRUFKLQDWXOGHYLQHREOLJDWRULXFkQGUHFROWD]GURELW VWDJQHD] SH


SDUFXUVXO IOX[XOXL WHKQRORJLF XQ WLPS RDUHFDUH vQ VWDGLXO GH PXVWXLDO  VDX FkQG vQ VFKHPD
WHKQRORJLF HVWHSUHY ]XW LRSHUD LXQHDGHPDFHUDUHvQYHGHUHDULGLF ULLFRQ LQXWXOXLYLQXOXLvQ
H[WUDFW Q DVWIHO GH VLWXD LL VH LPSXQH GHVFLRUFKLQDWXO GHRDUHFH FLRUFKLQLL GLQ PXVWXLDO 
LQIOXHQ HD]  QHJDWLY FDOLWDWHD YLLWRUXOXL YLQ Q ILQH GHVFLRUFKLQDWXO HVWH UHFRPDQGDELO L DWXQFL

cnd ciorchinii nu sunt lignifica L GHRDUHFH SUH]HQ D ORU vQ PXVWXLDO

 IDFH V  FUHDVF  FRQ LQXWXO

PXVWXOXL vQ FRPSXL IHQROLFL vQ VSHFLDO vQ FHL R[LGDELOL SUHFXP L vQ XQHOH V UXUL GH FDOFLX

potasiu etc.
3HQWUX YLQXULOH URLL L DURPDWH GHVFLRUFKLQDWXO V D GRYHGLW R RSHUD LH WHKQRORJLF 

LQGLVSHQVDELO  'LQWUH DYDQWDMHOH SH FDUH OH FUHHD]  VH PHQ LRQHD]  RE LQHUHD XQXL YROXP GH
PXVWXLDO PDLUHGXVLDUGHDLFLPDLSX LQ ERWLQ GHPDQLSXODWLSUHVDWLPDLSX LQ WHVFRYLQ 
GH S VWUDW 3ULQ vQGHS UWDUHD FLRUFKLQLORU FLRUFKLQLL FH UHSUH]LQW    GLQ JUHXWDWH L SkQ  OD

 GLQ YROXPXO UHFROWHL VH UHDOL]HD]  R HFRQRPLH GH YDVH L GH VSD LX SHQWUX PDFHUDUH

IHUPHQWDUH ,PSRUWDQ D GHVFLRUFKLQDWXOXL UH]LG  vQV  PDL DOHV vQ DFHHD F  YLQXULOH VH
vPEXQ W

HVF GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH FDOLWDWLY

au un grad alcoolic mai ridicat cu circa 0,5 vol.% ,

VXQW PDL LQWHQV FRORUDWH FHYD PDL DFLGH VH OLPSH]HVF XRU L QX VXQW OLSVLWH GH R DQXPLW 
VXSOH H L ILQH H 0DFHUDUHD
RE LQHUHD GH YL

- IHUPHQWDUHD PXVWXLHOLL QHGHVFLRUFKLQDWH GHWHUPLQ  GLQ FRQWU 


nuri cu gust ierbos de ciorchine (mai ales cnd acesta este verde), bogate n

VXEVWDQ H DVWULQJHQWH L FX R GXULWDWH SURQXQ DW  DWXQFL FkQG VXQW WLQHUH 6H OLPSH]HVF JUHX GLQ
FDX]D XQXL FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW vQ VXEVWDQ H D]RWDWH 'LPLQXDUHD FXORULL L D JUDGX

lui alcoolic se

GDWRUHD]  DEVRUE LHL DFHVWRUD GH F WUH FLRUFKLQL PDL DOHV FkQG VXQW OLJQLILFD L 6F GHUHD
DFLGLW

LLVF GHUHFDUHSRDWHV DMXQJ SkQ ODJO+2

SO4VHH[SOLF

SULQDFHHDF FLRUFKLQHOH

HVWH PDL SX LQ DFLG L PDL ERJDW vQ SRWDVLX L FDOFLX GHFkW VXFXO EREXOXL Q ILQH SUH]HQ D
FLRUFKLQLORU vQ PXVWXLDO  FRQWULEXLH vQWU R DQXPLW  P VXU  L OD SROXDUHD YLQXOXL FX GLIHULWH

SHVWLFLGH UH LQXWH vQ DVSHULW

LOH DFHVWRUD FX RFD]LD WUDWDPHQWHORU GH FRPEDWHUH D EROLORU L

G XQ WRULORU YL HL GH YLH 6H PHQ LRQHD]  F  L GLVWLODWHOH RE LQXWH GLQ WHVFRYLQD FDUH FRQ LQH
FLRUFKLQL VXQW FDOLWDWLY PDL VODEH 7RDWH DFHVWH DVSHFWH DX GHWHUPLQDW FD GHVFLRUFKLQDWXO V  ILH
DSUHFLDW FD R RSHUD LH WHKQRORJLF  XWLO  SHQWUX SURGXFHUHD YLQXULORU DURPDWH L D FHORU URLL
VXSHULRDUHIDFXOWDWLY SHQWUXYLQXULOHURLLGHFRQVXPFXUHQWLREOLJDWRULHDWXQFLFkQGVWUXJXULL
SULQ QDWXUD VRLXOXL GLQ FDUH SURYLQ GDX YLQXUL DVSUH DVWULQJHQWH SUHFXP L vQ FD]XO XQXL FXOHV
WLPSXULXFkQGFLRUFKLQLLVXQWvQF LHUEDFHL

2.3. Tratamente aplicate mustuielii


0XVWXLDOD UH]XOWDW  GLQ SUHOXFUDUHD VWUXJXULORU WUHEXLH SURWHMDW  ID

 GH DF LXQHD

G XQ WRDUH DDHUXOXL SUHFXP L vPSRWULYD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU SDWRJHQH 3URWHF LD VH LPSXQH PDL
DOHVFkQGUHFROWDHVWHDWLQV GHSXWUHJDLXOFHQXLXVDXLQYDGDW GHGLIHULWHPXFHJDLXULSUHFXPL
DWXQFLFkQGVWD LRQDUHDHLvQVWDGLXOGHPXVWXLDO GHS HWHXQDQXPLWWHUPHQ
,QIOXHQ D R[LJHQXOXL GLQ DHU DVXSUD PXVWXLHOLL HVWH IRDUWH SXWHUQLF  vQGHRVHEL FkQG

aceasta provine din struguri albi 'DF

 QX VH LDX P VXUL GH SURWHMDUH DURPD PXVWXOXL VH

GHQDWXUHD] IUXFWXR]LWDWHDVHGLVWUXJHLDUFXORDUHDGHYLQHGLQFHvQFHPDLvQFKLV (IHFWXOHVWHL


PDL SURQXQ DW vQ FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH ID]D OLFKLG  GLQ PXVWXLDO  U PkQH vQWU R FDQWLWDWH PDL PLF 

fa

 GH FHD LQL LDO  IDSW FH VH REVHUY  OD VFXUJHUHD PXVWXOXL L SUHVDUHD ERWLQHL Q FD]XO

VWUXJXULORUQHJULR[LGDUHDHVWHPDLSX LQSHULFXORDV GHRDUHFHPXVWXLDODHVWHSDU LDOSURWHMDW GH


SUH]HQ DVXEVWDQ HORUWDQDQWHFDUHMRDF XQURODQWLR[LGDQW

PHQWUX D HYLWD XUP

ULOH QHIDVWH DOH R[LG ULL FHO PDL ELQH DU IL FD PXVWXLDOD V  QX YLQ  vQ

FRQWDFW FX DHUXO Q SUDFWLF  vQV  DFHVWOXFUX QXHVWH SRVLELO GHRDUHFH vQFHSkQG GHOD ]GURELUHD
VWUXJXULORU L SkQ  OD vPEXWHOLHUHD YLQXOXL PDMRULWDWHD RSHUD LXQLORU SH FDUH OH UHFODP  IOX[XO
WHKQRORJLF VXQW vQVR LWH PDL PXOW VDX PDL SX LQ GH XQ SURFHV GH R[LJHQDUH 'LQ DFHVWH PRWLYH
DSOLFDUHD XQRU WUDWDPHQWH vQ YHGHUHD DQLKLO ULL HIHFWXOXL G XQ WRU DO R[LJHQXOXL GHYLQH
REOLJDWRULH 3URWHF LD HVWH QHFHVDU  vQGHRVHEL vQ WLPSXO YLQLILF ULL GHRDUHFH vQ DFHVW VWDGLX
UHFROWD HVWH PXOW PDL VHQVLELO  OD R[LGDUH GHFkW XOWHULRU FkQG HVWH WUDQVIRUPDW  vQ YLQ 'H
DVHPHQHDSUH]HQ DR[LGRUHGXFWD]HORUvQWU RSURSRU LHPDLULGLFDW SHS U LOHVROLGHGHFkWvQVXF
GHWHUPLQ FD PXVWXLDODV DEVRDUE

 GH -4 ori mai mult oxigen dect mustul. Astfel, s-a constat

F OD PLQXWHGHOD]GURELUHDVWUXJXULORUFDQWLWDWHDGHR[LJHQGL]ROYDW vQPXVWXLDO SRDWHV 

DMXQJ OD PJO$FHVWIDSWUHOLHIHD] F vQWHKQRORJLDSURGXFHU

ii vinurilor albe separarea

PXVWXOXL GH ERWLQ  WUHEXLH I FXW  FkW PDL UDSLG ([LVWHQ D vQ PXVWXLDO  D UHVWXULORU GH IUXQ]H L
O VWDUL DD FXP VH vQWkPSO  XQHRUL vQ FD]XO UHFROWDWXOXL PHFDQL]DW LQWHQVLILF  GH 

activitatea oxidorectazelor. De aceea XQLL DXWRUL UHFRPDQG

-3 ori

 GHIROLHUHD EXWXFLORU vQDLQWH GH

LQWURGXFHUHDvQSODQWD LHDFRPELQHORUGHUHFROWDW 'DWXQDVFKYLOL(1L0LGGDG]H5. 


'LQWUH  WUDWDPHQWHOH FX URO DQWLR[LGDQW FDUH VH DSOLF  PXVWXLHOLL FHO PDL HILFDFH L PDL

generalizat vQ SURGXF LD YLQLFRO

V

-a dovedit sulfitarea. Prin administrare de SO2 n timpul sau

LPHGLDW GXS  RE LQHUHD PXVWXLHOLL HQ]LPHOH FDUH FDWDOL]HD]  UHDF LLOH GH R[LGRUHGXFHUH
UHVSRQVDELOH GH EUXQLILFDUHD PXVWXOXL L GH DOWH PRGLILF UL QHGRULWH VXQW SXVH v

n stare de

LQDFWLYLWDWH/DGR]HOHvQFDUHVHXWLOL]HD]   JKO ELR[LGXOGHVXOIGHWHUPLQ GHDVHPHQHD

R LQDFWLYLWDWH GH VFXUW  GXUDW  D OHYXULORU L GHFL R vQWkU]LHUH vQ GHFODQDUHD IHUPHQWD LHL
DOFRROLFH SUHFXP L R GLVWUXJHUH SDU LDO  D EDFWHULLORU UHVSRQVDELOH GH DSDUL LD XQRU IHUPHQWD LL
QHGRULWH DFHWLF PDQLWLF ODFWLF HWF 6 DFRQVWDWDWvQVFKLPEF 622QXvPSLHGLF PDFHUD LD

FLGLQFRQWU RIDYRUL]HD] PDLDOHVDWXQFLFkQGJUDGXOGHVXOILWDUHHVWHULGLFDW

Oxidarea mustuielii sH PDL SRDWH SUHYHQL L FX DMXWRUXO &22. n acest sens, trebuie

PHQ LRQDW IDSWXO F  LQGXVWULD YLQLFRO  D vQFHSXW V  IRORVHDVF  PDLQL L LQVWDOD LL DVWIHO HFKLSDWH
vQFkWRSHUD LLOHFHOHUHYLQ ]GURELUHSUHVDUHHWF OHHIHFWXHD] vQDWPRVIHU GHJD]FDUE

onic, gaz
ce poate proveni dintr-o butelie sau de la un vas cu must n fermentare. Inconvenientul acestei
WHKQRORJLL FRQVW  vQ IDSWXO F  UHFROWD SUHOXFUDW  vQ PRPHQWXO FkQG YLQH vQ FRQWDFW FX DHUXO HVWH
YLROHQWR[LGDW LDUXUP ULOHVXQWLPDLGLILFLOGH

corectat.

3HQWUX LQDFWLYDUHD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU vQ YHGHUHD HYLW ULL XQHL IHUPHQWD LL WLPSXULL V

-ar

PDL SXWHD IRORVL L WUDWDPHQWXO FX IULJ 3H OkQJ  XQ FRQVXP PDUH GH HQHUJLH LPSXV GH
IXQF LRQDUHD LQVWDOD LLORU IULJRULILFH WUDWDPHQWXO DUH L LQFRQYHQLHQWXO F  IDYRUL]HD]  GL]ROYDUHD
XQRUFDQWLW

LPDULGHR[LJHQvQPDVDGHPXVWXLDO 

Q DIDUD WUDWDPHQWHORU DSOLFDWH FX VFRSXO GH D GLPLQXD LQIOXHQ D G XQ WRDUH D R[LJHQXOXL
L D PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU PXVWXLDOD PDL SRDWH IL WUDWDW  L FX GLIHULWH SUHSDUDWH HQ]L

matice:

SHFWROLWLFH L SURWHROLWLFH $GDXVXO VXSOLPHQWDU GH HQ]LPH DO WXUL GH FHOH H[LVWHQWH vQ PRG
QDWXUDOvQPXVWXLDO FRQGXFH ODR KLGUROL]  PDLUDSLG D VXEVWDQ HORUSHFWLFHLDFHORUSURWHLFH

Transformarea lor din macromolecule coloidale n substaQ H FX PROHFXOHPDL PLFL GHWHUPLQ

 R

PDL UDSLG  HOLEHUDUH D VXFXOXL GLQ FHOXOH D VXEVWDQ HORU FRORUDWH L DURPDWH R PLFRUDUH D
YkVFR]LW

LLPXVWXOXLLDUFDXUPDUHVHvPEXQ W

HWHFDOLWDWHDJUDGXOGHVFXUJHUHLUDQGDPHQWXO

n must.

2.4. Separarea mXVWXOXLGHERWLQ


QWHKQRORJLDSURGXFHULLYLQXULORUDOEHVSHUDUHDPXVWXOXLGLQUHFROWD]GURELW FXVDXI U 
GHVFLRUFKLQL]DUHHVWHRRSHUD LHHVHQ LDO LGHPDUHLQIOXHQ

DVXSUDFDOLW

LL2ELQXLWOXFUDUHD

VH HIHFWXHD]  vQ GRX  HWDSH FDUH VH VXFFHG FX VDX I U  vQWUHUXSHUH vQ IXQF LH GH LQVWDOD LLOH FX
DMXWRUXOF URUDVHUHDOL]HD] QSULPDHWDS PXVWXOVHVHSDU GHFRPSRQHQWHOHVROLGHFXFDUHVH
J VHWH vQ FRQWDFW SULQ VFXUJHUH LDU vQ D GRXD HWDS  SULQ SUHVDUHD ERWLQHL 0XVWXO UH]XOWDW vQ

pULPDHWDS

SRDUW QXPHOHGHPXVWUDYDFLDUFHOGLQDGRX PXVWGHSUHV 

Separarea mustului prin scurgere

(VWHRSHUD LDFDUHSUHFHGHLXXUHD] SUHVDUHDERWLQHL6FXUJHUHDSRDWHDYHDORFvQPRG


VSRQWDQ SH FDOH JUDYLWD LRQDO  VDX SRDWH IL SURYRFDW  FkQG HVWH FXQRVFXW  L VXE QXPHOH GH
VFXUJHUHLQWHQVLILFDW QDPEHOHVLWXD LL RSHUD LD VHUHDOL]HD] FX DMXWRUXOXQRULQVWDOD LLQXPLWH
VFXUJ WRDUH FDUH SRWIL VWDWLFH SDVLYH  VDX GLQDPLFH DFWLYH  3ULPHOHIXQF LRQHD]  GLVFRQWLQXX

cele din a doua categorie, continuu.

Separarea mustului prin presare

3UHVDUHDHVWHXOWLPD RSHUD LXQH GLQSURFHVXOGH SUHOXFUDUHDVWUXJXULORU&XDMXWRUXOHLVH


H[WUDJH IUDF LXQHD GH PXVW FDUH LPSUHJQHD]  ERWLQD GXS  VFXUJHUH 2SHUD LD WUHEXLH DVWIHO
FRQGXV  vQFkW GLQ ERWLQ  V  VH H[WUDJ  QXPDL VXFXO GXOFH HOLEHUDW FX RFD]LD ]GURELULL GLQ
YDFXROHOHFHOXOHORUSXOSHLQXLFHOGLQSLHOL HFDUHLPSULP XQJXVWLHUEDFHXDVWULQJHQWLDPDU
0XVWXOUH]XOWDWQXPLWLPXVWGHSUHV HVWHPDLOLPSHGHGHFkWFHOGHODVFXUJ

eri, n special de la

VFXUJHULOHSURYRFDWHFHHDFHvQVHDPQ F SULQSUHVDUHVHUHDOL]HD] LRRDUHFDUHILOWUDUH


/DYLQLILFD LDvQDOESUHVDUHDVHIDFHFkQGERWLQDHVWHSURDVS W ODYLQLILFD LDvQURXVH
HIHFWXHD]  GXS  PDFHUDUH IHUPHQWDUH DD F  GLQ DFHVW SXQFW GH YHGHUH vQWUH FHOH GRX  PRGXUL

GHSUHVDUHH[LVW XQHOHGHRVHELUL

QSULPXOFD]SUHVDUHDVHUHDOL]HD] PDLJUHXSRUQLQGGHODDFHHDLFDQWLWDWHGHVWUXJXUL
YROXPXOGHERWLQ FDUHVHSUHVHD] HVWHPDLPDUHVFXUJHUHDOLFKLGXOXLHVWHPXOWPDLDQHYRLRDV 
GLQFDX]DFRQ LQXWXOXLULGLFDWGH]DK ULvQSHFWLQHvQF GHKLGUROL]DWHERWLQDHVWHPDLERJDW vQ
PXFLODJLLLDUFkQGUHFROWDDIRVWPXFHJ LW HDIRUPHD] RPDV FRPSDFW DSURDSHLPSHUPHDELO 
SUHVDUHD SUH]LQW  XQ FDUDFWHU GH XUJHQ

 HIHFWXDW  PDL WkU]LX GH OD WHUPLQDUHD VFXUJHULL

LQIOXHQ HD]  QHIDYRUDELOFRPSR]L LD L FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH YLQXULORU PDLDOHV OD FHOH VXSHULRDUH XQGH
GXUDWDFRQWDFWXOXLPXVWXOXLFXPDWHULDOHOHVROLGHVHFHUHV ILHFkWPDLUHGXV GDF VWUXJXULLVXQW

alterD LXUJHQ DSUHV

ULLSUH]LQW RLPSRUWDQ

LPDLPDUH

/D YLQLILFD LD vQ URX SUHVDUHD VH HIHFWXHD]  SH P VXUD WHUPLQ ULL PDFHUD LHL

IHUPHQWD LHL L WUDJHULL YLQXOXL GH SH ERWLQ  &RPSR]L LD L FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH YLQXOXL VXQW
LQIOXHQ DWH GH FRQGL LLOH L GXUDWD SURFHVXOXL GH PDFHUD LH IHUPHQWD LH L PDL SX LQ VDX GHORF GH

WLPSXOLPRGXOFXPV

-a efectuat presarea.

2.5. Randamentul n must la prelucrarea strugurilor


5DQGDPHQWXOUHVSHFWLYSURFHQWXOGHPXVWFHUH]XOWDW GLQSUHOXFUDUHDVWUXJXULORUYDULD] 
vQ OLPLWH ODUJL ILLQG LQIOXHQ DW GH QXPHURL IDFWRUL 'LQWUH DFHWLD VH DPLQWHVF VRLXO JUDGXO GH
PDWXULWDWH L VWDUHD GH V Q WDWH D VWUXJXULORU WHKQRORJLD GH SUHOXFUDUH L WLSXO PDLQLORU XWLOL]DWH
&RWHD'9D 
Q

DUD QRDVWU  UDQGDPHQWXO vQ PXVW FD GH DOWIHO L VF ] PLQWHOH FH VH DFRUG  OD

prelucrarea strugurilor sunt reglementate printr-un act normativ elaborat de Ministerul


$JULFXOWXULL L ,QGXVWULHL $OLPHQWDUH 0$,$  &RQIRUP DFHVWXL QRUPDWLY vQWRFPLW SH ED]D

rezultatelor de

SURGXF LH FRURERUDWH FX FHOH RE LQXWH vQ XUPD YHULILF ULORU H[SHULPHQWDOH GLQ

SUHOXFUDUHDD.JVWUXJXULGLQYL
VHOXFUHD]

DOWRLW LLQGLJHQ WUHEXLHV UH]XOWH

- 3 kg must, cnd
 FXSUHVH KLGUDXOLFHPHFDQR -KLGUDXOLFHLSQHXPDWLFHL- 3 kg cnd presarea

VHIDFHFXSUHVHFRQWLQXL6F ] PLQWHOHFDUHVHDFRUG ODSUHOXFUDUHUHSUH]LQW vQPHGLH

Randamentele de 76%, respectiv 83,5% sunt valabile numai pentru anii normali de
UHFROW  L FkQG VWUXJXULL VXQW V Q WRL Q FD]XO DQLORU VHFHWRL VDX FkQG VWUXJXULL VXQW DYDULD L
GDWRULW  JULQGLQHL DWDFXOXL GH PXFHJDL PDQ  I LQD HWF XQLW

LOH GH YLQLILFD LH vPSUHXQ  FX

GHOHJDWXO IRUXOXL WXWHODU YRU HIHFWXD H[SHULPHQW UL vQ YHGHUHD VWDELOLULL UDQGDPHQWXOXL VSHFLILF

recoltei care se prelucUHD]

QSUDFWLFDYLQLFRO PXVWXOUH]XOWDWVHFROHFWHD] GHRELFHLVHSDUDWvQWUHLFDWHJRULLDF URU


GHQXPLULLSURSRU LLID

GHFDQWLWDWHDWRWDO  FRQVLGHUDW  VXQWXUP WRDUHOH

D PXVWUDYDFFDUHvQPHGLHUHSUH]LQW 
E  PXVW GH SUHV  FDU

e este n medie ntr-R SURSRU LH GH  vQJOREHD]

 PXVWXO RE LQXW

GH OD SUHVDUHD , L D ,, D vQ FD]XO SUHVHORU GLVFRQWLQXL L GH OD WX XO , L ,, FkQG VH IRORVHVF

presele continui;
F PXVWGHODXOWLPDSUHVDUHvQSURSRU LHGHFRUHVSXQ]kQGvQFD]X

l preselor continui

FXFHOGHODWX XO,,,
3URSRU LLOH DFHVWRU PXVWXUL QXPLWH vQ PRG VLPSOX L PXVWXUL D E F QX VXQW DEVROXW
FRQVWDQWHFLYDULD] vQIXQF LHGHVRLDQGHUHFROW JUDGXOGHPDWXULWDWHDOVWUXJXULORUGHPRGXO

cum s-au efectuat opera LLOHGH]GURELUHLGHVFLRUFKLQDUHGHWLSXOSUHVHORULWHKQLFDSUHV

ULLHWF

$D GH H[HPSOX FkQG VWUXJXULL QX VXQW ELQH FRS L SURSRU LD PXVWXOXL UDYDF VH PLFRUHD] 
P ULQGX VH vQ VFKLPE SURSRU LD PXVWXOXL GH SUHV  3ULQ IRORVLUHD ]GURELWXOXL FHQWULI

ugal se

P UHWHSURSRU LDPXVWXOXLUDYDFLVFDGHFHOGHODSUHV HWF


3H ED]D GDWHORU GH PDL VXV FRURERUDWH FX YDORDUHD GHQVLW

LL VXFXOXL SURDVS W H[WUDV VH

FDOFXOHD]  FDQWLWDWHD GH PXVW vQ OLWUL DGLF  vQ XQLWDWHD GH P VXU  FX FDUH HVWH JHVWLRQDW

trDQVSRUWDWOLYUDWYkQGXWHWF'HH[HPSOXGDF

VHSRUQHWHGHODXQUDQGDPHQWPHGLXGHL

PXVWXO UH]XOWDW DUH FRQFHQWUD LH vQ ]DKDUXUL GH  JO FHHD FH vQVHDPQ  F  YDORDUHD GHQVLW

este de 1,075 g/cm , atunci din prelucrarea a 100 kg struguri re]XOW

LL

  OLWUL PXVW GLQ FDUH

 OLWUL PXVW UDYDF    OLWUL PXVW GH SUHV    L  OLWUL PXVW GH OD XOWLPD

presare (10%).

7(+12/2*,$35(/8&5

5,,08678/8,

$O WXULGHWHKQRORJLDGHSUHOXFUDUHDVWUXJXULORUODFDOLWDWHDYLLWRUXOXLYL

n mai contribuie

L OXFU ULOH FH VH DSOLF  PXVWXOXL vQDLQWH GH IHUPHQWDUH 'LQWUH DFHVWHD XQHOH FD DVDPEODUHD
FXSDMDUHD L GHEXUEDUHD VXQW FRQVLGHUDWH FD RSHUD LL WHKQRORJLFH ILUHWL vQWRFPDL FD L ]GURELUHD
GHVFLRUFKLQDUHD HWF FH VH HIHFWXHD]  vQ FDGU

ul fluxului tehnologic de prelucrare a strugurilor.

$OWHOH GHVHPQDWH VXE QXPHOH GH WUDWDPHQWH VH IDF FX VFRSXO GH D SUHYHQL VDX GH vQO WXUD
HYHQWXDOHOH GHIHF LXQL GDWRUDWH R[LG ULL SUH]HQ HL vQ H[FHV D SURWHLQHORU HQ]LPHORU HWF Q ILQH

tot n cadrul

RSHUD LLORU FH VH DSOLF  PXVWXOXL vQDLQWH GH IHUPHQWDUH WUHEXLH vQFDGUDWH L OXFU ULOH

GH FRUHF LH D XQRU GHILFLHQ H GH FRPSR]L LH FX DMXWRUXO F URUD VH P UHWH VDX VH PLFRUHD] 
FRQFHQWUD LDSULQFLSDOHORUFRPSRQHQWH]DKDUXULDFL]LLHYHQWXDOVXEVWDQ H

tanante.

7RDWHDFHVWHOXFU ULVXVPHQ LRQDWHVHIDFFXVFRSXOGHDVHRE LQHvQILQDOXQYLQV Q WRV


ELQHFRQVWLWXLWLHFKLOLEUDW

2SHUD LLWHKQRORJLFHDSOLFDWHPXVWXOXLvQDLQWHGHIHUPHQWDUH
3HQWUX UHDOL]DUHD XQXL YLQ DUPRQLF FRQVWLWXLW L V Q WRV XQHRUL HVWH QHFHVDU FD vQDLQWH
IHUPHQW ULLV VHHIHFWXH]HDVDPEODUHDLFXSDMDUHDPXVWXULORUFXFDUDFWHULVWLFLGLIHULWHSUHFXPL

deburbarea acestora.

Asamblarea musturilor

5HXQLUHDPXVWXOXLUDYDFFXFHOGHSUHV LHYHQWXDOFXPXVWXOGHODXOWLPDSUHVDUHSRDUW 
QXPHOH GH DVDPEODUH 2SHUD LXQHD FDUH QX vQWRWGHDXQD HVWH QHFHVDU  VH HIHFWXHD]  GLIHUHQ LDW
vQUDSRUWGHSDUWLFXODULW

LOHSHFDUHOHSUH]LQW ILHFDUHIUDF LXQHGHPXVWSUHFXPLvQIXQF LHGH

tipul de vin ce trebuie realizat.


Un alt FULWHULX GH FDUH WUHEXLH V  VH LQ  VHDPD DWXQFL FkQG VH H[HFXW  RSHUD LXQHD GH
DVDPEODUHHVWHDDGXS FXPV-DDU WDWLWLSXOGHYLQFHWUHEXLHUHDOL]DWQDFHDVW SULYLQ HVWH
XQDQLP UHFXQRVFXW F  SHQWUX SURGXFHUHD YLQXULORU GH PDUH ILQH H VDX D FHOor ce vor constitui
PDWHULH SULP  SHQWUX SUHSDUDUHD YLQXULORU VSXPDQWH VH YD IRORVL QXPDL PXVWXO UDYDF 0XVWXO
UH]XOWDWGLQDPHVWHFDUHDFHORUODOWH GRX IUDF LXQL ELF YDILIHUPHQWDWVHSDUDWFXVFRSXO GHDL
VHGDDOW vQWUHEXLQ DUH

Cupajarea musturilor

$PHVWHFDUHD XQXL PXVW FX DOWXO SURYHQLW GH OD XQ VRL PDL YDORURV vQ YHGHUHD ULGLF ULL
FDOLW

LLSULPXOXLSRDUW QXPHOHGHFXSDMDUH2SHUD LDFDDWDUHQXFRQVWLWXLHRYHULJ WHKQRORJLF 

QHFHVDU  FL GLQ FRQWU  HVWH FKLDU FRQWUDLQGLFDW  GHRDUHFH FDUDF

terul vinului rezultat este mai


SX LQ GHILQLW 8QHRUL VH DGDXJ  WRWXL vQ PXVWXUL FX JXVW L PLURV QDWXUDO -10% must provenit
dintr-un soi puternic aromat. Efectundu-VH vQDLQWH GH IHUPHQWDUH DVHPHQHD LQWHUYHQ LH SUH]LQW 
DYDQWDMXO F  VH SRDWH SOHFD GH OD vQFHSXW FX XQ YLQ WkQ U PDL DURPLF GHFkW FHO FDUH DU UH]XOWD

ulterior din combinarea partenerilor ce au fermentat separat.

Deburbarea mustului

0XVWXO RE LQXW GLQ SUHOXFUDUHD VWUXJXULORU FRQ LQH vQ VXVSHQVLH LPSXULW

L VROLGH FDUH

LPSULP  DFHVWXLD XQ DQXPLW JUDG GH WXOEXUHDO  $QVDPEOXO WXWXURU DFHVWRU LPSXULW

L SRDUW 

QXPHOH GH EXUE  LDU RSHUD LD GH OLPSH]LUH D PXVWXOXL L GH HOLPLQDUH D EXUEHL VH QXPHWH

deburbare.

1DWXUDLRULJLQHDEXUEHLGLQPXVW

,PSXULW

LOH VROLGH FDUH LQWU  vQ DOF WXLUHD EXUEHL VXQW GH QDWXU  GLIHULW  SDUWLFXOH GH

S PkQW UHVWXUL GH VXEVWDQ H IRORVLWH OD FRPEDWHUHD EROLORU L G XQ WRULORU IUDJPHQWH GH
FLRUFKLQL SLHOL H L XQHRUL GH VHPLQ H FRQLGLL L FRQLGLRIRUL GH OD GLIHULWH FLXSHUFL IUDJPHQWH L

spori de mucegaiuri; levXULLEDFWHULLFULVWDOHGHWDUWUDWDFLGGHSRWDVLXLWDUWUDWQHXWUXGHFDOFLX


VXEVWDQ HSHFWLFHSURWLGLFHLWDQDQWHLQVROXELOHSOXVGLIHULWHPXFLODJLLLJXPHYHJHWDOH

1HFHVLWDWHDLLQIOXHQ DGHEXUE

ULL

0HQ LQXW  vQ PXVW EXUED VXIHU  XQ SURFHV GH PDFHUD LH vQ XUPD F UXLD FRQVWLWXHQ LL
VROXELOL GLQ LPSXULW

LOH VROLGH FH R DOF WXLHVF WUHF vQ ID]D OLFKLG  $FHDVW  WUHFHUH HVWH PXOW

DFFHQWXDW vQWLPSXOIHUPHQWD LHLPXVWXOXLGDWRULW FUHWHULLWHPSHUDWXULLLIRUP ULLDOFRROXOXLQ

raport de cantiWDWHDLQDWXUDFRQVWLWXHQ LORUH[WUDLYLQXOSRDWHF


FHLvQU XW

S WDPLURVXULLJXVWXULVWU LQH

HVFFDOLWDWHD

)DSWXO F  SULQ GHEXUEDUH VH vQO WXU  FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH GLQ VXVSHQVLL vQVHDPQ  F  L
VXSUDID D GHFRQWDFW OLFKLG VROLG HVWH PXOW PLFRUDW  QDFHDVW  VLWXD LH WHPSHUDWXUD L ULWPXO GH

IHUPHQWDUHVHDWHQXHD] GUHSWXUPDUHSLHUGHULOHGHDOFRROLDURP VXQWPDLPLFLLDURSDUWHGLQ


]DK U SRDWH U PkQH QHIHUPHQWDW 3ULYLW  GLQ DFHVW SXQFW GH YHGHUH GHEXUEDUHD SRDWH FRQVWLWXL
GHFL L XQ DMXWRU SUH LRV vQ RE LQHUHD YLQXULORU FX UHVW GH ]DK U I U  V  vQORFXLDVF  ELQHvQ HOHV
FHOHODOWH PLMORDFH FX DMXWRUXO F URUD VH SRDWH VLVWD IHUPHQWD LD DD FXP R FHUH WHKQRORJLD

producerii unor astfel de vinuri.


Procedee de deburbare
Mustul tulbure poate fi considerat ca un sistem eterogen (suspensie) format dintr-un

PHGLX OLFKLG vQ FDUH VXQW GLVSHUVDWH SDUWLFXOH VROLGH GH GLIHULWH IRUPH L GLPHQVLXQL 6HSDUDUHD
FHORUGRX ID]HOLFKLG VROLGvQYHGHUHDRE LQHULLXQXLPXVWOLPSHGHVHSRDWHUHDOL]DILHXWLOL

znd

DF LXQHD IRU HL JUDYLWD LHL VDX D IRU HL FHQWULIXJH ILH UH LQHUHD SDUWLFXOHORU VROLGH SH VWUDWXUL
ILOWUDQWH Q FRQIRUPLWDWH FX FHOH PHQ LRQDWH GHEXUEDUHD HVWH SRVLELO  V  VH HIHFWXH]H SULQ WUHL

mari procedee: sedimentare-GHFDQWDUHFHQWULIXJDUHLIiltrare.


a) Deburbarea mustului prin sedimentare decantare
Sedimentarea FRQVW  vQ GHSXQHUHD SULQ F GHUH OLEHU
LPSXULW

 VXE DF LXQHD IRU HL JUDYLWD LHL  D

LORU VROLGH GLVSHUVDWH vQ PDVD PXVWXOXL LDU GHFDQWDUHD HVWH RSHUD LD GH VHSDUH D

lichidului limpede de pe sediment.


'HEXUEDUHDVXEDF LXQHDIULJXOXL QDWXUDO HVWHSRVLELO  OD PXVWXULOHRE LQXWH GLQVRLXUL FH
VH UHFROWHD]  WkU]LX vQ WRDPQHOH UHFL SRDWH IL DSOLFDW  L OD VRLXUL PDL WLPSXULL 5H]XOWDWHOH VXQW
EXQH PDL DOHV DWXQFL FkQG UHFROWD HVWH V Q WRDV  LDU PXVWXO EHQHILFLD]  GH IULJXO GLQ WLPSXO
QRS LL

Decantarea

FRQVW 

vQ

VHSDUDUHD

PXVWXOXL

OLPSHGH

GH

EXUED

GHSXV 

vQ

WLPSXO

VHGLPHQW ULL Q IXQF LH GH PRGXO FXP VXQW HFKLSDWH YDVHOH VDX ED]LQHOH GH GHFDQWDUH
RSHUD LXQHD VH SRDWH H[HFXWD vQ PDL PXOWH PRGXUL $VWIHO FkQG DFHVWHD VXQW SUHY ]XWH FX
URELQHWH GH VFXUJHUH GLVSXVH OD GLIHULWH QLYHOHHYDFXDUHD PXVWXOXL OLPSHGH VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ PRG
VLPSOX SULQ GHVFKLGHUHD VXFFHVLY  GH VXV vQ MRV D URELQHWHORU ILJ   /D XQHOH WLSXUL GH ED]LQH

decantaUHDVHSRDWHIDFHFXDMXWRUXOXQXLGLVSR]LWLY FXFRWPRELOFDUHSULQURWLUHG

 SRVLELOLWDWHD

UHJO ULLvQ O LPLLGHSUHOXDUH&kQGYDVHOHGHGHFDQWDUHQXVXQWHFKLSDWHFXDVWIHOGHURELQH LVDX

dispozitive, tragerea mustului se face cu ajutorul unei pompe.

Q DFHVW FD] VH YD DYHD JULM  FD

IXUWXQXO GH DVSLUD LH V  ILH FRERUkW SURJUHVLY DGLF  SH P VXU  FH QLYHOXO OLFKLGXOXL VFDGH
,QWURGXFHUHD OXL GH OD vQFHSXW SkQ  DSURDSH GH OLQLD GH VHSDUD LH GLQWUH PXVW L GHSR]LW GXFH OD
IRUPDUHDXQRUFXUHQ LFDUHDQWUHQHD] SDUWHGLQEXUE GLQQRXvQPXVWFRPSURPL kQGX

-se astfel

vQV LXWLOLWDWHDGHEXUE ULL


'LQWUH LQFRQYHQLHQWHOH GHEXUE ULL PXVWXOXL SULQ VHGLPHQWDUH
LPSRVLELOLWDWHD FD RSHUD LXQHD V  VH GHVI

decantare se amintesc:
RDUH vQ IOX[ FRQWLQXX QHFHVLWDWHD Ge a avea multe

ED]LQH VDX F ]L GH OLPSH]LUH SUHFXP L VSD LX VXILFLHQW SHQWUX DPSODVDUHD ORU RSHUD LXQHD
UHFODP  R GXUDW  GH WLPS OXQJ  L UHODWLY PXOW  IRU
EXUE FDUHUH]XOW HVWHvQJHQHUDOSUHDPDUH

 GH PXQF  PDQXDO  L vQ ILQH YROXPXO GH

b) Deburbarea prin centrifugare


Centrifugarea HVWH RSHUD LD GH VHSDUDUH VXE DF LXQHD IRU HL FHQWULIXJH D FRPSRQHQ LORU
FX GHQVLWDWH GLIHULW  GLQWU-un amestec eterogen (suspensie sau emulsie). Comparativ cu
deburbarea prin sedimentare-decantare, limpezirea prin DFHVW SURFHGHX HVWH PXOW PDL UDSLG 
&ODXGH(DUDW F FHQWULIXJDUHDHVWHRGHFDQWDUHDFFHOHUDW 
9LWH]D GH vQGHS UWDUH D SDUWLFXOHORU GH WXOEXUHDO  GLQ PXVW VXE DF LXQHD FkPSXOXL
FHQWULIXJDOSRDWHILUHGDW SULQH[SUHVLD

Vsc =

2g (p m )d p 2
9 m

r n 2

n care VscHVWHYLWH]DGHVHGLPHQWDUHvQFkPSFHQWULIXJDOUHVWHUD]DGHURWD LHFDUHHVWH

DSUR[LPDWLYHJDO FXUD]DFHQWULIXJHLLDUQHVWHYLWH]DGHURWD LH

'LQUHOD LDGHPDLVXVUHLHVHF YLWH]DGHVHGLPHQWDUHDLPSXULW

LORUVROLGHGLQPXVW

sub

DF LXQHDIRU HLFHQWULIXJHFDLvQFD]XOVHGLPHQW ULLvQFkPSJUDYLWD LRQDOHVWHFXDWkWPDLPDUH


FX FkW FHOH GRX  GHQVLW

L GLIHU  PDL PXOW vQWUH HOH GLDPHWUHOH SDUWLFXOHORU VXQW PDL PDUL LDU

YkVFR]LWDWHD PXVWXOXL PDL PLF  /D GHEXUEDUHD SULQ FHQWULIXJDUH YLWH]D GH vQGHS UWDUH D
SDUWLFXOHORUHVWHvQVFKLPEFXPXOWPDLPDUHHDFUHWHOLQLDUFXUD]DGHURWD LHLSURSRU LRQDOFX

S WUDWXOYLWH]HLGHURWD LHQ XOWLPDILLQGKRW UkWRDUH

c) Deburbarea prin filtrare


QP VXUDvQ FDUHHVWHQHYRLHV VHRE LQ  XQPXVWFXOLPSLGLWDWHULGLFDW vQWU

-un termen

UHODWLY VFXUW L FX SLHUGHUL IRDUWH PLFL GHEXUEDUHD V DU SXWHD HIHFWXD L SULQ ILOWUDUH 2SHUD LD

FRQVW vQVHSDUDUHDSDUWLFXOHORUGHWXOEXUHDO GLQPXVWODWUHFHUHDDFHVWXLDSULQWU

-un mediu poros.

&RPSDUDW  FX FHOHODOWH GRX  RSHUD LL GH VHSDUDUH VHGLPHQWDUHD L FHQWULIXJDUHD ILOWUDUHD VH
FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ IDSWXO F  QX HVWH FRQGL LRQDW  GH GLIHUHQ D GLQWUH GHQVLW
VHSDU $FHVWSURFHGHXHVWHvQV H[WUHPGHSX LQH[WLQVvQSU

)(50(17$

,$,0$&(5$

LOH ID]HORU FDUH VH

actica limpezirii mustului.

,$17(+12/2*,$

PRODUCERII VINULUI
)HUPHQWD LDDOFRROLF

DPXVWXOXL

3URFHVXOGHIHUPHQWD LHDOFRROLF SULQIRUPDOXLGHPDQLIHVWDUHDIRVWFXQRVFXWLXWLOL]DW


vQWHKQLFDSUHSDU ULLXQRUE X

turi, din cele mai vechi timpuri. n schimb cauzele care-OSURYRDF

DX IRVW O PXULWH GHVWXO GH WkU]LX L DQXPH DELD SULQ VHFROXO  FkQG D DX S UXW PDL PXOWH WHRULL
8QHOHGLQDFHVWHDVXV LQHDXF IHUPHQWD LDDOFRROLF HVWHXQSURFHVSXUFKLPLFvQWLPSFH

altele,

GLQFRQWU GHPRQVWUDXF HVWHXQIHQRPHQELRORJLF


Q SUH]HQW IHUPHQWDUHD HVWH GHILQLW  FD XQ SURFHV GH GHJUDGDUH ELRFKLPLF  VXE DF LXQHD
HQ]LPHORU D XQRU SURGXVH QDWXUDOH FX VWUXFWXUL FRPSOH[H vQ SURGXVH FX VWUXFWXU  PDL VLPSO 

Prin acest pURFHVVHGHJDM

vQWRWGHDXQDHQHUJLHvQPDMRULWDWHDHLVXEIRUP GHHQHUJLHFDORULF 

)HUPHQWD LDDOFRROLF DPXVWXOXLHVWHWRWXQSURFHVELRFKLPLFVSRQWDQVDXSURYRFDWSULQ


FDUH JOXFLGHOH VH WUDQVIRUP  vQ DOFRRO HWLOLF L &22 FD SURGXL SULQFLSDOL vQVR L L GH R VHULH GH
SURGXLVHFXQGDUL3URFHVXOGHDVHPHQHDHVWHH[RHQHUJLF

$FHVWHD HQ]LPH LQWHUYLQ vQ UHDF LLOH GH WUDQVIRUPDUH D JOXFLGHORU GXS  PHFDQLVPXO
JHQHUDO GH DF LXQH DO ELRFDWDOL]DWRULORU Q SULQFLSLX HQ]LPD VH FRPELQ  FX PROHFXOD UHDFWDQW
QXPLW  JHQHULF VXEVWUDW L IRUPHD]  XQ FRPSXV LQWHUPHGLDU HQ]LP

-substrat. La rndul lui acest

FRPSXV LQWHUPHGLDU VH SRDWH FRPELQD FX DOW  PROHFXO  UHDFWDQW  IRUPkQG SURGXL GH UHDF LH L
UHJHQHUkQG HQ]LPD (Q]LPD DVWIHO UHJHQHUDW  HVWH FDSDELO  V  UHLD G

in nou ciclul respectiv.

6FKHPDWLFSURFHVXOVHSRDWHUHSUH]HQWDWvQPRGXOXUP WRU

(Q]LP VXEVWUDW

(Q]LP 

substrat

(Q]LP 

3URGXLGHUHDF LHHQ]LP

substrat+R

'DWRULW 

FRQVLGHUHQWHORU

VXV

PHQ LRQDWH

vQ

LQGXVWULD

YLQLFRO 

VH

SUDFWLF

numai

IHUPHQWD LD FX OHYXUL QXPLW  GH 3DVWHXU OD YLH VDQV DLU vQWUXFkW HVWH XQ SURFHV FDWDEROLF
DQDHUREQDFHVWSURFHVOHYXULOHvLSURFXU HQHUJLDQHFHVDU vQGHSOLQLULLIXQF LLORUORUYLWDOHGLQ
GHJUDGDUHDJOXFLGHORUI U LQWHUYHQ LDR[LJHQXOXLFRQIRUPUHDF LHLJOREDOH

C6H12O6

2CH3 CH2OH+2CO2-33 Kcalorii

7HKQRORJLDIHUPHQW

ULLPXVWXOXL

Q WHKQRORJLD GH RE LQHUH D YLQXOXL DOE IHUPHQWD LD DOFRROLF  D PXVWXOXL UHSUH]LQW  R
YHULJ  GHFLVLY  vQWUXFkW HVWH HWDSD vQ FDUH HO VH QDWH 'H PRGXO FXP HVWH SDUFXUV  DFHDVW 
HWDS  GHSLQGH vQ PDUH P VXU  QLYHOXO FDOLWDWLY DO YLQXOXL (D WUHEXLH UHDOL]DW  FkW PDL ELQH GLQ
SXQFWGHYHGHUHWHKQRORJLFvQWUXFkWDUHUHSHUFXUVLXQLLDVXSUDHYROX LHLXOWHULRDUHDYLQXOXL

Pentru ca fermentarea mustuOXL V

 VH GHFODQH]H L V  GHFXUJ  FkW PDL ELQH HVWH QHFHVDU

FDvQSULPXOUkQGV  VHDVLJXUHOHYXULORUXQPHGLX RSWLPGHGH]YROWDUH$FHVWHDFD RULFHILLQ H


YLL DX QHYRLH GH VXEVWDQ H QXWULWLYH L DQXPLWH FRQGL LL GH PHGLX 3ULPHOH VXQW GH RELFHL

asiJXUDWHGHF

WUHPXVWFDDWDUHI U DUPDLILQHFHVDUYUHXQDGDRVVXSOLPHQWDU

'LQWUH FRQGL LLOH GH PHGLX VH PDL vQWkOQHVFvQ SULQFLSDODHUD LD L WHPSHUDWXUD $HUD LD
DWkW FkW HVWH QHYRLH VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ SURFHVXO GH SUHOXFUDUH DO VWUXJXULORU 8OWH

rior, ea este

vPSLHGLFDW SULQHFKLSDUHDYDVHORUFXGLVSR]LWLYHSULQFDUHVHOLPLWHD] S WUXQGHUHDDHUXOXLFDUH

n schimb, permit evacuarea CO2 QWUXFkW UHDF LD GH GHJUDGDUH D JOXFLGHORU HVWH vQVR LW

 L GH R

GHJDMDUHGHF OGXU YDWUHEXLFDVROX LLOHWHKQLFHDGRSWDWHV DVLJXUHQXQXPDLHOLPLQDUHDJD]XOXL


FDUERQLFLDH[FHVXOXLGHF OGXU 

8PSOHUHDYDVHORUGHIHUPHQWDUHFXPXVWLHFKLSDUHDORU

'XS  RE LQHUHD DVDPEODUHD L DSOLFDUHD XQRU HYHQWXDOH WUDWDPHQWH (ca de exemplu,


sulfitare, bentonizare, tratament termic, tratament enzimatic etc.)- mustul este dirijat n vasele de
IHUPHQWDUH6HSUHFL]HD] F DFHVWHDQXVHXPSOXFRPSOHW/DILHFDUHGLQHOHVHODV XQVSD LXGH
UH]HUY  QXPLW JRO GH IHUPHQWDUH FDUH vQ JHQHUDO HVWH GH DSUR[LPDWLY  GLQ

capacitatea
butoiului. Cnd musturile au fost deburbate, golul de fermentare poate fi redus la 5% . Din
FRQWU  GDF  VH SUHYHGH R IHUPHQWDUH PDL WXUEXOHQW  DD FXP HVWH FD]XO OD PXVWXULOH SURYHQLWH
GLQ VWUXJXUL LQFRPSOHW FRS L DWXQFL SHQWUX D VH HYLWD SHULFROXO GHERUG ULL VSD LXO GH UH]HUY 
SRDWHV FUHDVF SkQ OD

)D]HOHGHGHVI

XUDUHDOHIHUPHQWD LHLDOFRROLFH

)HUPHQWDUHD PXVWXOXL QX GHFXUJH vQ PRG XQLIRUP Q GHVI XUDUHD DFHVWXL SURFHV VH SRW
GLVWLQJHWUHLID]HSUHIHUPHQWDWLY GHIHUPHQWDUHWXPXOWRDV LSRVWIHUPHQWDWLY 

a)

)D]D SUHIHUPHQWDWLY

 QXPLW  L ID]  LQL LDO  VH GHVI RDU  GH OD LQWURGXFHUHD

PXVWXOXLvQYDVXOGHIHUPHQWDUHSkQ ODGHJDMDUHDHYLGHQW D&22GLQWRDW PDVDGHOLFKLG

Macroscopic, n cursul acestei faze, se observ  FXP PXVWXO vQFHSH V  VH WXOEXUH LDU
- 30&&RQ LQXWXOvQJOXFLGHvQFHSHV VFDG LLPSOLFLWVHPLFRUHD] L

WHPSHUDWXUDXUF OHQWFX

GHQVLWDWHD PXVWXOXL &X WRDWH F  VH IRUPHD]  &22 GHJDMDUHD DFHVWXLD LQL LDO QX VH REVHUY 

GHRDUHFHHOVHGL]ROY vQOLFKLG7UHSWDWvQV &22vQFHSHV VHGHJDMHLDUODVXSUDID DOLFKLGXOXLVH

IRUPHD] VSXP FHDFHLPSXQHSUH]HQ DXQXLDQXPLWVSD LXGHUH]HUY QXPLWJROGHIHUPHQWDUH


QFRQGL LLOHvQFDUHYDVXOQXHVWHHFKLSDWFXSkOQLLGHIHUPHQWDUHVDXDOWHGLVSR]LWL

ve de nchidere

FDUHV vPSLHGLFHDFFHVXODHUXOXLFDOLWDWHDYLQXOXLSRDWHILDIHFWDW $FHDVWDVHGDWRUHD] IDSWXOXL


F  vQ VSXPD IRUPDW  OD VXSUDID D OLFKLGXOXL vQ SUH]HQ D DHUXOXL VH SRW GH]YROWD XRU L DOWH

IHUPHQWD LLGHFkWFHDDOFRROLF 'XUDWDDFHVWHLID]HLQL LDOHHVWHGHRELFHLVFXUW GH

-3 zile.

b)

)D]D GH IHUPHQWDUH WXPXOWRDV

  ]JRPRWRDV

 VH GHVI RDU  GH OD WHUPLQDUHD ID]HL

SUHIHUPHQWDWLYHSkQ ODVF GHUHDHYLGHQW DGHJDM ULLGH&22QDFHDVW ID] GDWRULW IDSWXOXLF 

levurile se nmul HVF UDSLG L DX R DFWLYLWDWH IRDUWH LQWHQV  WHPSHUDWXUD OLFKLGXOXL FUHWH IRDUWH
0
UHSHGH DMXQJkQG LFKLDU GHS LQG - 30 &&RQ LQXWXO vQ ]DKDUXUL VFDGHLQWHQVDWU JkQG GXS 
VLQH FUHWHUHD JUDGXOXL DOFRROLF L IRUPDUHD XQRU FDQWLW L PDUL GH JD] FDUERnic. Bioxidul de
FDUERQ FDUH VH IRUPHD]  ULGLF  FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH GLQ WXOEXUHDO  GH OD IXQGXO YDVXOXL OD SDUWHD
VXSHULRDU DOLFKLGXOXL8OWHULRUGDWRULW JUDYLWD LHLWXOEXUHDODvQFHSHV VHVFXIXQGHvQPDVDGH
OLFKLG SHQWUX FD DSRL SULQ ULGLF UL L FRERUkUL UHSHWDWH HD V  ILH VS ODW  FRQWLQXX GH PXVW &kQG
PXVWXO FRQ LQH R FDQWLWDWHD PDUH GH WXOEXUHDO  GDWRULW  VXSUDIH HL PDUL GH FRQWDFW GLQWUH FHOH
GRX  ID]H - OLFKLG  L VROLG  IHUPHQWD LD HVWH PXOW DFFHOHUDW  'XS  -4 zile, ca urmare a
procesului dH GHVFRPSXQHUH D SHFWLQHORU WXOEXUHDOD GH OD VXSUDID D OLFKLGXOXL vQFHSH V  VH
GHSXQ UHGXFkQGX-LWRWRGDW PXOWLGLQYROXP(DGHYLQHPDLSX LQPRELO HVWHPDLJUHDLQX
VHPDLULGLF DDXRUODVXSUDID

Q JHQHUDO ID]D GH IHUPHQWDUH WXPXOWRDV  VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQWU R DJLWDUH SXWHUQLF  D

OLFKLGXOXL L R GHJDMDUH LQWHQV  GH &22FDUH SURGXFH XQ ]JRPRW XLHU WRU FH VHDXGHFKLDU GH OD

GLVWDQ

 &kQG JD]XO FDUERQLF WUHFH SULQ SkOQLD GH IHUPHQWDUH OLFKLGXO GLQ HD vQFHSH V 

EROERURVHDVF  VDX FXP

se spune ntr-XQ WHUPHQ PDL SX LQ SURSULX-V

 ILDUE  GH OD ODWLQHVFXO

fervere = a fierbe.
)HUPHQWDUHD WXPXOWRDV  SRDWH GXUD SkQ  OD   ]LOH XQHRUL FKLDU L WUHL V SW PkQL &X

FkW DFHDVW ID]  VH GHVI RDU  PDLvQFHWDGLF  SH R GXUDW  GHWLPS PDLOXQJ  FX DWkW L YLQXULOH
UH]XOWDWH VXQW PDL DURPDWH /D IHUPHQW UL UDSLGH VH SURGXF SLHUGHUL PDUL GH VXEVWDQ H DURPDWH
'HRELFHLPXVWXULOHERJDWHvQ]DK UIHUPHQWHD] PDLvQFHW&HOHODFDUHFRQFHQWUD LDvQ]DK UHVWH
PDL VF ]XW  IHUPHQWHD]  UDSLG L PXOW Pai zgomotos. Cei mici fac ntotdeauna cel mai mare
scandal (Troost G., 1972).
c) )D]D SRVWIHUPHQWDWLY  QXPLW  L ID]D GH IHUPHQWDUH OLQLWLW  Q DFHDVW  HWDS 
GDWRULW  DOFRROXOXL FDUH V-D IRUPDW SXWHUHD GH IHUPHQWDUH D OHYXULORU HVWH PXOW PDL VF ]XW 
'HJDMDUHD JD]XOXL FDUERQLF SURYHQLW GLQ IHUPHQWDUHD XOWLPHORU UHVWXUL GH ]DK U HVWH PXOW
vQFHWLQLW  GHYHQLQG DSURDSH LPSHUFHSWLELO  7XOEXUHDOD VH GHSXQH I U  D PDL UHYHQL vQ PDVD
OLFKLGXOXL LDU RGDW  FX HD vQFHS V  VH GHSXQ  L OHYXULOH 7HPSHUDWXUD YLQXOXL vQFHSH V  VFDG 
WUHSWDW SkQ  OD QLYHOXO FHOHL GLQ VDOD GH IHUPHQWDUH LDU GDF  WLPSXO HVWH ULJXURV DUH ORF L
GHSXQHUHD WDUWUD LORU 'UHSW XUPDUH YLQXO vQFHSH V  VH OLPSH]HDVF  L V  FDSHWH vQVXLULOH OXL

specifice.
0DFHUD LDvQWHKQRORJLDRE LQHULLYLQXULORU
6HWLHF LPSUHVLDGHDQVDPEOXSHFDUHRSURYRDF XQYLQDVXSUDFRQVXPDWRUXOXLWUHEXLH
V  ILH vQ FRQFRUGDQ

 FX JUXS  L UHVSHFWLY FDWHJRULD GH YLQXUL GLQ FDUH DFHVWD IDFH SDUWH /D

YLQXULOHURLLvQDIDU GHOLPSLGLWDWHJXVWLPLURVXQUROLPSRUWDQWvQDSUHFLHUHDORUFDOLWDWLY vO


MRDF  FXORDUHD LDU OD FHOH DURPDWH DURPD 3HQWUX UHDOL]DUHD DFHVWRU vQVXLUL KRW UkWRDUH vQ
GHILQLUHD XQRU DVWIHO GH YLQXUL DO WXUL GH FHOHODOWH RSHUD LL WHKQRORJLFH FRPXQH ]GURELUH

desciorchinare IHUPHQWDUH HWF  PDL LQWHUYLQH L XQ DVSHFW VSHFLILF L DQXPH PDFHUD LD 'DWRULW

DFHVWXL IDSW YLQXO URX LDU vQ SDUWH L FHO DURPDW VXQW FRQVLGHUDWH SH GUHSW FXYkQW YLQXUL GH
PDFHUD LH
0DFHUD LD HVWH R RSHUD LXQH WHKQRORJLF  SULQ FDUH ERWLQD HVWH PHQ LQXW  XQ WLPS
RDUHFDUH vQ FRQWDFW FX PXVWXO vQ YHGHUHD H[WUDF LHL DQXPLWRU FRPSRQHQWH GLQ S U LOH VROLGH DOH
VWUXJXUHOXL $FHDVW  RSHUD LH HVWH FRQVLGHUDW  YHULJD FHD PDL GHOLFDW  GLQ IOX[XO WHKQRORJLF DO
YLQLILFD LHL vQ URX GHRDUHFH GH HD GHSLQGH H[WUDF LD FRPSXLORU IHQRLOFL FDUH DX R LQIOXHQ

GHFLVLY  DVXSUD FXORULL FDUDFWHUHORU JXVWR ROIDFWLYH L VWDELOLW

LL YLQXOXL $FHHDL LQFLGHQ

SR]LWLY  R DUH PDFHUD LD L vQ WHKQRORJLD RE LQHULL YLQXULORU DURPDWH %D\RQRYH &D 
VXEOLQLD]  F  R EXQ  H[SORDWDUH D SRWHQ LDOXOXL WHUSHQLF VSHFLILF VRLXULORU FX JXVW GH PXVFDW VH
SRDWHRE LQHGHODPXVWXLDO vQID]DSUHIHUPHQWDWLY FkQGPDFHUD LDHVWHvQVR LW LGHXQvQFHSXW

GHIHUPHQWD LH
QPHFDQLVPXOGHGHVI XUDUHDOPDFHUD LHLIRDUWHFRPSOH[LLQIOXHQ DWGHRPXOWLWXGLQH
GH IDFWRUL VH GLVWLQJ vQ SULQFLSDO SDWUX SURFHVH GH QDWXU  SUHGRPLQDQW IL]LFR FKLPLF  FDUH GH

IDSW FRQVWLWXLH WRW DWkWHD HWDSH FDUDFWHULVWLFH PDFHUD LHL $FHVWH HWDSH VXQW H[WUDF LD GLIHUL LORU
FRQVWLWXHQ L GLQ S U LOH VR

lide ale strugurelui; difuzia acestora n masa lichidului; refixarea

SDU LDO DORUGHF WUHERWLQ LDOWHLQJUHGLHQWHVROLGHH[LVWHQWHvQOLFKLGPRGLILFDUHDVDXFKLDU


GLVWUXJHUHD XQRU FRQVWLWXHQ L H[WUDL 'LQWUH DFHVWH SDWUX SURFHVH VH vQ HOHJH F  Q

umai primele

GRX  FRQGXF OD P ULUHD FRQFHQWUD LHL YLQXOXL vQ FRQVWLWXHQ L SURYHQL L GLQ S U LOH VROLGH DOH
VWUXJXUHOXL FHOHODOWH GRX  GLQ FRQWU  GLPLQXHD]  FRQFHQWUD LD DFHVWRUD 3ULYLWRU OD IDFWRULL FDUH
FRQGL LRQHD] GHVI XUDUHDPDFHUD LHLVHPHQ LRQHD] F DFHWLDVXQWVSHFLILFLSHQWUXILHFDUHGLQ
FHOHSDWUXSURFHVHLDF LRQHD] GLIHUHQ LDWvQIXQF LHGHFRQVWLWXHQWXOH[WUDV

0DFHUD LDODYLQLILFD LDvQURX


QWHKQRORJLDSURGXFHULLYLQXULORUURLLPDFHUD LDVHIDFHFXVFRSXOGHDH[WUDJHFRPSXL
IHQROLFL LDUvQWUHDFHWLDvQPRG GHRVHELW FRPSXLLIHQROLFLFRORUD L([WUDF LD DFHVWRUDGLQ XUP 
DUH ORF GXS  XUP WRUXO PHFDQLVP Q SULPD HWDS  VXE LQIOXHQ D DFLGLW

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mod spontan n masa de

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desciorchinarea, separarea mustului prin scuUJHUH LQWHQVLILFDW

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amintesc: reFHS LDVWUXJXULORUSULQPHWRGHX]XDOHVHSDUDUHDPXVWXOXLSULQVFXUJHUHJUDYLWD LRQDO

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anume:

V SHUPLW SUHOXFUDUHDVWUXJXULORUvQWU

V IDF  SRVLELO  RE LQHUHD XQXL UDQGDPHQW ULGLFDW vQ PXVW GLQ FDUHFHO UDYDF V  DLE  SRQGHUH

-un interval de timp ct mai scurt;

ct mai mare;

IUDF LXQLOH GH PXVW UH]XOWDWH GH OD SUHOXFUDUHD VWUXJXULORU V  ILH OLSVLWH GH VXEVWDQ H FDUH DU

SXWHDLQIOXHQ DQHJDWLYDVXSUDFDOLW

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bilitate

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cheltuieli minime;

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V DVLJXUHFRQGL LLFHUWHGHSURWHF LHDPXQFLLSHQWUXSHUVRQDOXOFDUHOXFUHD] 

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GLIHULWH FULWHULL 'LQWUH DFHVWHD PXOW IRORVLW  HVWH FODVLILFDUHD GXS  FDSDFLWDWHD GH OXFUX DO linie
tehnologice. Din acest punct de vedere se deosebesc linii tehnologice de mare capacitate, de
FDSDFLWDWHPHGLHLOLQLLWHKQRORJLFHGHFDSDFLWDWHPLF 
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YLQLFRO VHPDLvQWkOQHVF OLQLDWHKQRORJLF GHSURGXFHUHD YLQXULORUDURPDWH LOLQLDWHKQRORJLF 

de producere a vinurilor de tip roze.


/LQLDWHKQRORJLF

GHYLQLILFD LHvQDOE

6H DSUHFLD]  F  vQ JHQHUDO WHKQRORJLD GH YLQLILFD LH SULPDU  vQ DOEHVWH UHODWLY VLPSO  L
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e de

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producerea vinurilor albe, de consum curent, a vinuriloU DOEH VHFL GH FDOLWDWH VXSHULRDU

 L D

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7HKQRORJLDGHYLQLILFD LHSULPDU SHQWUXSURGXFHUHDYLQXULORUDOEHGHFRQVXPFXUHQW


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ii, prezentate n figura

VXQWUHGDWHvQFHOHFHXUPHD] 

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irea la bascula-pod sau la cntarul cu

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VXPDUH GLQWUH FDUH REOLJDWRULH HVWH GHWHUPLQDUHD ]DK UXOXL HIHFWXDW  OD R SURE  PHGLH GH
VWUXJXULSUHOHYDW GLQILHFDUHvQF UF WXU 

Zdrobitul strugurilor se face cu fulopompa sau egrafulpompa.


'HVFLRUFKLQDWXOVHH[HFXW IDFXOWDWLY
Sulfitarea mustuielii se face cu 60-80 mg/l SO2FkQGVWUXJXULLDXIRVW V
mg/l SO2GDF

Q WRLLFX

-200

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GH  RUH LDU YUHPHD HVWH F OGXURDV  VH SUHIHU  FD MXP WDWH GLQ GR]D DPLQWLW  V  VH DSOLFH

direct pe strugurii din mijloacele de transport.

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prese continui.
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-12 ore cu asigurarea n

prealabLODXQXLFRQ LQXWGH-30 mg/l SO2 liber.


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-se

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Fermentarea mustului, care are loc n cisterne sau bidoane unde se ODV

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C. Un

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Umplerea vaselor de fermentare se face imHGLDW GXS


apoi periodic la 4-]LOHSkQ

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ODWUDJHUHDYLQXOXLGHSHGURMGLH

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GXS  *LRVDQX 7 L 6WRLDQ 9  6H PHQ LRQHD] F  SH OkQJ  IHUPHQWD LDFODVLF D PXVWXOXL
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continui, permite reDOL]DUHDXQXLSURFHVGHYLQLILFD LHGHWLSLQGXVWULDOvQIOX[FRQWLQXX

CULESUL STRUGURILOR
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utilizate pentru realizarea acestui obieFWLYPXOWLSOHPRGDOLW

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-a folosit mai

mult cu scop experimental.

7HKQRORJLD FODVLF

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consum curent
2SHUD LLOHWHKQRORJLFHLVXFFHVLXQHD lor n cadrul acestei tehnologii, prezentate n figura
9 sunt redate mai jos.
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-150 mg/l n loc de 60-200 mg/l.


-

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Macerarea-fermentarea se face n cisterne rotative metalice, preferndu-se cele termostate.


6HSRWIRORVLGHDVHPHQHDF ]LGHOHPQ GHVFKLVHVDXvQFKLVH SUHFXPLFLVWHUQHODFDUHH[LVW 
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LL PXVWXOXL GH - RUL SH ]L SUHFXP L SULQ DSOLFDUHD XQRU P VXUL FDUH V  SHUPLW 
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recipiente statice nchise.
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L FDOLWDWHD UHFROWHL ,&99 RSWHD]  SHQWUX XUP WRDUHOH GXUDWH -48 ore n cazul cisternelor
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macerarea-IHUPHQWDUHD V  VH IDF  SkQ  OD UHDOL]DUHD D - YRO DOFRRO UHVSHFWLY SkQ  OD
densitatea de 1,006-1,010.
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4
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mic de 3,1- FRQ LQXW vQ DQKLGULG

 VXOIXURDV  GH PD[LPXP  PJO 622 OLEHU L  PJO622

- 220& 3HQWUX VWLPXODUHD IHUPHQWD LHL


0
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WRWDO LDU WHPSHUDWXUD YLQXOXL V  ILH FXSULQV  vQWUH 

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20 mg/l.

SO2

CULESUL STRUGURILOR
TRANSPORTUL STRUGURILOR LA CENTRUL DE
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ZDROBITUL STRUGURILOR
DESCIORCHINATUL
STRUGURILOR (FACULTATIV)
VEHICULAREA MUSTUIELII N VASELE DE
MACERARE-FERMENTARE

EVACUAREA
CIORCHINILOR

SULFITAREA MUSTUIELII
MACERAREA FERMENTAREA MUSTUIELII

EVACUARE CO2

OMOGENIZAREA MUSTUIELII N PERIOADA DE


MACERARE-FERMENTARE
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VIN RAVAC

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PDFHUDUHWUHEXLHDVWIHOFRQGXVvQFkWV HYLWH ULGLFDUHDWHPSHUDWXULL SHVWH  &QIXQF LHGH VRL


JUDGXO GH PDWXUDUH L VWDUHD GH V Q WDWH D VWUXJXULORU PDFHUDUHD vQ FLVWHUQH URWDWLYH SRDWH GXUD

12-18 oUHLDUvQYDVHVWDWLFHGHVFKLVHVDXvQFKLVHSRDWHV

DWLQJ L]LOHQUHVWRSHUD LLOHGLQ

IOX[XO WHKQRORJLF VXQW VLPLODUH FX FHOH FDUH VH DSOLF  OD SURGXFHUHD YLQXULORU DOEH QHDURPDWH GH
DFHHDLFDOLWDWH

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GHYLQLILFD LHSHQW

ru producerea vinurilor

de tip roze
'HQXPLUHD GH YLQ UR]H HVWH UH]HUYDW  SURGXVXOXL FDUH SURYLQH GLQ YLQLILFD LD vQ DOE D
VWUXJXULORU QHJUL FDUH SULQ QDWXUD ORU ELRORJLF  VXQW VODE SLJPHQWD L $UDPRQ 6DQJHRYHVH  VDX
FDUH GDWRULW  FRQGL LLORU QHIDYRUDELOH GH PDWXUDUH QX UHDOL]HD]  R SLJPHQWD LH VDWLVI F WRDUH
SHQWUX RE LQHUHD YLQXULORU URLL % EHDVF  1HJUX PRDOH 1HJUX YkUWRV % WXW  QHDJU  HWF 
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5RLRDU 6WHLQVFKLOOHU 
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1. Care sunt tipurile de maturare ale strugurilor?


2.

&HVXFFHVLXQHGHRSHUD LXQLWHKQRORJLFHVHDSOLF VWUXJXULORUGXS UHFROWDUHLSkQ OD

asamblarea mustului?
3.

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CONSERVE DE FRUCTE

2%,(&7,9(850

5,7(

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REZUMAT
Pornind de la prHOXFUDUHD

PDWHULHL SULPH L LQGLFLL GH FDOLWDWH FRUHVSXQ] WRUL VH

HYLGHQ LD]  HWDSHOH VSHFLILFH SURGXVHORU KRUWLFROH FX JUDG GLIHUHQ LDW GH SHULVDELOLWDWH $VWIHO vQ
IXQF LHGHVWUXFWXUD HVXWXULORUGLIHULWHORUFDWHJRULLGHIUXFWHVHDSHOHD] ODWHKQLFL

individuale cu

VFRSXORE LQHULLXQXLUDQGDPHQWULGLFDWSUHFXPLSHQWUXFRQVHUYDUHDvQWU RFkWPDLPDUHP VXU 

a principiilor active cu rol trofic, de biocatalizatori sau terapeutic.


3UH]HQWDUHD VXFFLQW  D JDPHL YDULDWH GH SURGXVHFRQVHUYDWH GLQ IUXFWH VFRDWH vQ HYLGHQ

JUDGXO ULGLFDW GH UHQWDELOLWDWH DO DFHVWXL VHJPHQW GLQ LQGXVWULD DOLPHQWDU  SULQ DVLJXUDUHD
SURGXVHORUSHED] GHIUXFWHSHWRWSDUFXUVXODQXOXL

CUVINTE SAU EXPRESII CHEIE: glucoza, pectina.


9
3UH]HQWHOH WHKQRORJLL VHUHIHU OD

fabricarea conservelor de fructe, ambalate n recipiente

vQFKLVHHUPHWLFLSDVWHXUL]DWH
6RUWLPHQWHOHGHFRQVHUYHGHIUXFWHVXQWFXSULQVHvQXUP WRDUHOHJUXSH

ABCDEFGHI-

compot
gem
GXOFHD

jeleu
SDVW GHIUXFWH
PDUPHODG

magiun
diverse
produse dietetice din fructe

1. MATERIA PRIM
&RQGL LLGHFDOLWDWH
&DOLWDWHDPDWHULHLSULPHHVWHGHWHUPLQDQW vQDVLJXUDUHDFDOLW

LLSURGXVHORUILQLWH

La fabricarea conservelor de fructe se folosesc fructe proaspete sau preconservate


FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHFDOLWDWLYFRQGL LLOor impuse de normativele tehnice de produs.
$SUHFLHUHD FDOLW

LL PDWHULHL SULPH IRORVLWH vQ LQGXVWULD FRQVHUYHORU VH IDFH LQkQG VHDPD

GH FRQGL LLOH LPSXVH SULQ SURFHVXO WHKQRORJLF GH SUHOXFUDUH FDOLWDWHD IUXFWHORU SURDVSHWH ILLQG
GHILQLW SULQLQGLFDWRULJHQHUDOLLLQGLYLGXDOLDLVSHFLHLLVRLXOXL
QFDGUXODFHOXLDLVRLSURSULHW

LOHRUJDQROHSWLFHLIL]LFR FKLPLFHGLIHU LHOHvQIXQF LH

GH IDFWRUL FD SHULRDGD GH UHFROWDUH JUDGXO GH PDWXULWDWH FRQGL LLOH GH VRO L FOLP  DJURWHKQLFD
DSOLFDW HWDSHOHGHUHFROWDUHFRQGL LLOHGHWUDQVSRUWLVWRFDUHWHPSRUDU VWDUHDLJLHQLFR VDQLWDU 

LFDSDFLWDWHDGHS VWUDUHvQVWDUHSURDVS W DIUXFWHORU


3URSULHW

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VSHFLILF IHUPLWDWHHWFFDUHGHILQHVFJUDGXOGHPDWXULWDWHLGHSURVSH LPHDOIUXFWHORU


3URSULHW

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WLPSXOWUDQVSRUWXOXLGHSR]LW ULLLSUHOXFU ULLIUXFWHORU'LQSXQFWGHYHGHUHFKLP

ic fructele sunt

DOF WXLWHGLQDS    VXEIRUP OLEHU VDXOHJDW VXEVWDQ HRUJDQLFHLVXEVWDQ HPLQHUDOH

vQJHQHUDOV UXULGL]ROYDWHvQVXFXOFHOXODU vQFDUHSUHGRPLQ SRWDVLXO

6XEVWDQ HOHRUJDQLFHVXQWFRPSRQHQWHOHFHOHPDLLPSRUWDQWHLVX

nt reprezentate de:

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GHFDUERQXRUDVLPLODELOLGRPLQD LGHJOXFR] LOHYXOR] SUHFXPLVXEVWDQ HOHSHFWLFH SHFWLQ 


LSURWRSHFWLQ GHRVHELWGHLPSRUWDQWHSHQWUXF

VXEVWDQ HDFWLYH

onservele de fructe;
YLWDPLQHLHQ]LPH

SURGXVH DOH PHWDEROLVPXOXL SODQWHORU FX DFL]L RUJDQLFL JOXFR]LGH VXEVWDQ H WDQDQWH

XOHLXULHWHULFHFRORUDQ LHWF
&RPSR]L LD FKLPLF  L YDORDUHD HQHUJHWLF  D SULQFLSDOHORU VSHFLL GH IUXFWH XW

ilizate n

LQGXVWULD FRQVHUYHORU VH SUH]LQW  vQ WDEHOXO QXP UXO QU  YDORDUHD HQHUJHWLF  HVWH FDOFXODW 
QXPDLODSDUWHDFRPHVWLELO &RPSR]L LDFKLPLF LYDORDUHDHQHUJHWLF ODXQHOHVSHFLLGHIUXFWH

Tabelul nr.26
Nr.
crt.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Specia

Afine
$JULH

Caise
& SXQL
&LUHH
&RDF ]H

Coarne
Gutui
Mere
Mure
Pere
Pepene
galben
Piersici
Prune
Struguri
VLLQH
=PHXU

Zaharuri

Proteine

Subst.
pectice

Subst.
tanante

CeluOR]

Vitamine

Caroten mg

Vitamine din
complex

%
5-6
8-8,5
12-12,9
5-5,5
10-12
10
10-11
7-7,5
8-8,3
5-6
10-11
5-6

%
0,6
0,8
0,8
0,9
0,8
0,9
0,4
0,5
0,3
1,2
0,5
0,3

%
0,5
0,6
0,6
0,3
0,1
0,7
0,5
0,7
0,6
0,8
0,6
0,09

%
0,1
0,1
0,03
0,12
0,06
0,6
0,55
0,2
0,06
0,07
0,03

%
1,6
2,5
0,7
1,4
0,6
5,4
0,4
1,8
0,9
4,0
0,3

%
22,0
35,0
12,0
59,6
10,0
200
72
13,0
12,0
17,0
5,0
30,0

%
0,13
0,21
1,15
0,06
0,3
0,6
0,3
0,06
0,270
0,12
12,0

Bmg

7-8
12-14
15-16
10-11
6-7

0,5
0,5
0,7
0,9
1,3

0,6
0,6
0,1
0,2
0,5

0,06
0,06
0,18
0,13

1,4
0,7
0,5
0,3
0,5

8,0
6,0
3,0
12,0
23,0

0,3
0,15
0,30
0,03
0,04

0,98

7,06

0,03

Aciditate
tartric

0,9
1,6
0,8
0,9
0,4
3,5
3,1
0,9
0,5
0,9
0,3
0,3
0,5
1,2
0,5
1,4
4,8

6XEVWDQ HPLQHUDOHPJ

9DOHQHUJHWLF

Ca
10,0
29,0
15,0
26
16
10,9

Mg
2,4
15,0
11,0
14
12
0,9

K
65,0
20,30
300,0
242,0
250
300

Na
1,0
1,6
5,0
3,2
3
29

P
9,0
30,0
23,0
33
21
27

10
8
290
17
12

8
2,6
10
10

200
130
190
120
32

1,7
3,0
2,0
2,0

20
11
22,0
20,6

Kcal%100g
54,5
72,5
108,2
45,2
96,0
96,0
90,5
65,0
73,5
54,5
90,5
46,0

5
12
22
1,40

10
21
8,0
30

220
230
1500
110
120

3
2,7
-

30
2,4
7
14,0

63,5
108,0
140,0
90,0
69,0

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QU VH SUH]LQW  FRPSR]L LD FKLPLF  D PLH]XOXL VkPEXULORU OD XQHOH VSHFLL GH IUXFWH 'H

asemenea, s-D FRQVWDWDW F

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VkPEXULORUDFHVWRUIUXFWHDUHXQFRQ LQXWERJDWGHVXEVWDQ HWDQDQWH

&RPSR]L LDFKLPLF

DPLH]XOXLVk

mburilor unor specii de fructe


Tabelul nr.27

Specia

&RQ LQXW

&HQX 

DS 

Caise
Piersici

14-17
13-18
38-40
39-41

%
2-3
2,5-3,5
2-3
2-3

&LUHH
9LLQH

Zaharuri
%
9-12
8-11
6-8
6-7

&HOXOR] 

*U VLPL

%
2,5-3,5
2,5-3,8
3,5-4,0
3,5-4,0

%
32-49
32-45
12-13
25-35

Proteine
%
15-16
22-26
5-6
6-7

$PLJGDOLQ 

%
3,4-4,5x
3,5-3,6
2-3
2-3

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sunt:

FRQ LQXWULGLFDWvQVXEVWDQ

XVFDW VROXELO 

UDSRUWRSWLPvQWUHFRQ LQXWXOGH]DK ULDFL]L


FXORDUHDURP LJXVWVSHFLILFHLELQHH[SULPDWH
FRQ LQXWULGLFDWvQYLWDPLQHLV UXULPLQHUDOH
SURFHQWUHGXVGHGHHXUL
JUDGRSWLPGHPDWXULWDWHLQGXVWULDO 

stare LJLHQLF -VDQLWDU

FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

5HFHS LD
5HFHS LDVHH[HFXW vQSXQFWHIL[HODLQWUDUHDvQXQLWDWHDGHSUHOXFUDUHVDXODSXQFWHOHGH
DFKL]L LH L FXSULQGH FRQWUROXO FDQWLWDWLY L FDOLWDWLY DO PDWHULHL SULPH 2ELHFWLYHOH XUP ULWH SULQ
UHFHS LDFDOLWDWLY VXQW

JUDGXOGHSURVSH LPH

starea igienico-VDQLWDU

FRQVLVWHQ DIUXFWHORU

gradul de maturitate;
DVSHFWXOH[WHULRUIRUPDP ULPHDLFXORDUHD
JXVWLDURP 
VXEVWDQ

XVFDW VROXELO 

&RQWUROXO FDOLWDWLY DO IUXFWHORU VH HIHFWXHD]  SULQ H[DPHQ RUJDQROHSWLF L DQDOL]H GH
ODERUDWRUXWLOL]kQGDSDUDWHGHP VXU LFRQWURO*UDGXOGHPDWXULWDWHLSURVSH LPHDIUXFWHORUVH
SRW GHWHUPLQD YL]XDO VDX SULQ YHULILFDUHD IHUPLW
SHQHWURPHWUXO6WDUHDVDQLWDU VH

LL WH[WXULL XWLOL]kQG PDWXURPHWUXO VDX

poate determina prin metode microbiologice rapide de depistare

D vQF UF WXULL PLFURELHQH GH SH VXSUDID D IUXFWHORU ,QGLFDWRULL UHIHULWRUL OD IRUP  P ULPH
FXORDUH JXVW DURP  L VXEVWDQ

pUHOXFUDUHDVXEIRUP

 VROXELO  VH DX vQ YHGHUH OD VWDELOLUHD GHVWLQD LHL IUXFWHORU OD

GHFRPSRWJHPGXOFHD

HWF

1.3. Transport
7UDQVSRUWXO IUXFWHORU OD XQLW

LOH GH SUHOXFUDUH VH IDFH vQ FHO PDL VFXUW WLPS GH OD

UHFROWDUH vQ YHKLFXOH DFRSHULWH SHQWUX SURWHMDUHD GH LQIOXHQ D LQWHPSHULLORU 3HQWUX IUXFWHOH FX

texWXU  VHQVLELO  F SXQL PXUH ]PHXU


mijloacelor de transport frigorifice.

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QWLPSXOWUDQVSRUWXOXLIUXFWHOHWUHEXLHIHULWHGHRFXULVDXY W P ULPHFDQLFH
$PEDODMHOHIRORVLWHVXQWvQ IXQF LHGH WH[WXUDIUXFWHORU3HQWUXIUXFWHFX WH[WXU VHQVLELO 
VH XWLOL]HD]  O ]L GH GLIHULWH WLSXUL LDU SHQWUX IUXFWHOH FX WH[WXU  IRUP  PDUH SHUH JXWXL 

transportul se face n containere de capacitate mare.


6HLQWHU]LFHVXSUDvQF UFDUHDFXIUXFWHDDPEDODMHORUSHQWUXDHYLWDY W PDUHDSULQVWULYLUH
D IUXFWHORU L GH DFHHD VWUDWXO GHIUXFWH YD ILFX   FP VXE QLYHOXO VXSHULRU D SHUH LORU O ]LORU

VDX FRQWDLQHUHORU Q DFHHDL XQLWDWH GH DPEDODM VH WUDQVSRUW  IUXFWH FX JUDG GH PDWXULWDWH

apropiat, pentru a evitDGHJUDG

ULOHLSLHUGHULOH

1.4. Depozitarea
'HSR]LWDUHD WHPSRUDU  D IUXFWHORU SkQ  OD LQWURGXFHUHD vQ SURFHVXO GH SUHOXFUDUH WUHEXLH
V ILHFkWPDLVFXUW VDXGDF HVWHSRVLELOFKLDUVXSULPDW 
)UXFWHOH VH S VWUHD]  vQ GHSR]LWH VLPSOH ELQH DHULVLWH U FRURDVH XVFDWH VDX vQ GHSR]LWH

frigorifice.
Q WLPSXO GHSR]LW ULL IUXFWHOH VXIHU  R VHULH GH PRGLILF UL GH QDWXU  IL]LF  ELRFKLPLF  L
PLFURELRORJLF  vQ IXQF LH GH VSHFLD VRLXO FDOLWDWHD L SURVSH LPHD IUXFWHORU GXUDWD L
WHPSHUDWXUDGHS VWUDUHXPLGLWDWHDUHODWLY DDHUXOXLSRVLELOLWDWHDGHFLUFXOD LHDDHUXOXLHWF
'LQWUHPRGLILF ULOHIL]LFHFHDSDUvQWLPSXOGHSR]LW ULLRLPSRUWDQ

GHRVHELW RSUH]LQW 

SLHUGHUHD DSHL SULQ HYDSRUDUH FH DUH FD UH]XOWDW VF GHUHD vQ JUHXWDWH SULQ GHVKLGUDWDUH
VXSHUILFLDO  ]EkUFLUHD  FHHD FH FRQIHU  IUXFWHORU XQ DVSHFW QHFRUHVSXQ] WRU FX LPSOLFD LL

nedorite asupra produselor finite.


0RGLILF ULOHELRFKLPLFHPDLGHVvQWkOQLWHvQWLPSXOGHSR]LW ULLIUXFWHORUVXQW

vQPXLHUHD

HVXWXULORU IUXFWHORU FD XUPDUH D KLGUROL]HL HQ]LPDWLFH D VXEVWDQ HORU SHFWLFH

insolubile;

SLHUGHULGH]DKDUXULFDXUPDUHDWUDQVIRUP ULLORUvQELR[LGGHFDUERQLDS SULQUHVSLUD LH


WUDQVIRUPDUHD]DK UXOXLvQDPLGRQ
UHGXFHUHDFRQ LQXWXOXLGHYLWDPLQHFDXUPDUHDSURFHVHORUR[LGR UHGXF WR

are.

7UDQVIRUP ULOHELRFKLPLFHFHDSDUvQIUXFWHOHS VWUDWHvQFRQGL LLQHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHVXQW


PXFHJ LUH IHUPHQWDUHD DOFRROLF  EXWLULF  ODFWLF  $PEHOH IHQRPHQH GXF OD GHSUHFLHUHD
VXEVWDQ LDO  D FDOLW

LL IUXFWHORU I FkQGX

-le inapte pentru prelucraUHD

LQGXVWULDO  Q FD]XO

XWLOL] ULL DFHVWRU IUXFWH YRU FUHWH VXEVWDQ LDO SLHUGHULOH SULQ DOWHU UL PLFURELRORJLFH ERPEDMH 
3ULQFLSDOLLIDFWRULFDUHGHWHUPLQ LQWHQVLWDWHDWUDQVIRUP ULORUPLFURELRORJLFHVXQWWHPSHUDWXUDL

durata de depozitare, calitateDLVWDGLXOGHPDWXULWDWHFRQGL LLOHLJLHQLFR-sanitare ale ambalajelor


LGHSR]LWHORU
'XUDWD PD[LP  GH S VWUDUH WHPSRUDU  D IUXFWHORU GHVWLQDWH LQGXVWULDOL] ULLGH OD UHFROWDUH
SkQ ODLQWURGXFHUHDvQSURFHVXOGHIDEULFD LHvQIXQF LHGHFRQGL LLOHGHGHSR]LWDUHVHSUH]LQW vQ

tabelul nr.28.

'XUDWDPD[LP

GHVWRFDUHWHPSRUDU

DIUXFWHORUGHVWLQDWHLQGXVWULDOL]

ULL

Tabelul nr.28
Nr.
crt.
1

Specia

'HVWLQD LD

produsului
&RPSRWGXOFHD

Afine

Gem
0DUPHODG

$JULH

&RPSRWGXOFHD

Gem
3
4
5

& SXQL

&RPSRWGXOFHD

& WLQ

Gem
Gem
Compot

Caise

'XOFHD

Gem
6

Caise
verzi

&LUHH

'XOFHD

&RPSRWGXOFHD

Gem
0DUPHODG

Coarne

Compot
Gem

&RDF ]H

&RPSRWGXOFHD

10

Gutui

Gem
Compot

11

Mere

12

Mure

'XOFHD

JHP

Compot
Piure
0DUPHODG
&RPSRWGXOFHD

Gem
0DUPHODG

13
14

Nuci
verzi
Pere

'XOFHD

de

WRDPQ

&RPSRWGXOFHD

Piure
0DUPHODG

15
16
17

Piersici
Prune
verzi
Prune

&RPSRWGXOFHD

Gem
DuOFHD
Compot
'XOFHD

Gem
0DUPHODG

Magiun
18
19

Struguri
9LLQH

&RPSRWGXOFHD
&RPSRWGXOFHD

Gem
0DUPHODG

20

=PHXU

&RPSRWGXOFHD

Gem

Depozite

Depozite frigorifice

RELQXLWH

Durata n
ore

Temperatura 0C

Umiditatea reODWLY
a aerului %

24
48
120
48
96
8
16
72
36
48
72
4

0-2
0-2
0-2
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
2-3

85-90
85-90
85-90
90-95
90-95
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
90-95

6
8
10
5
10
1
3
8
4
3
5
2

12
36
48
8
24
24
48
72
98
120
200
336
12
24
36
24

0-2
0-2
0-2
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-2
0-2
0-3
0-3
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-4

8590
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90

2
3
4
1
3
4
7
7
15
20
30
2
3
4
4

120
240
336
36
48
8

0-1
0-1
0-1
0-2
0-2

85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90

15
20
7
10
3

24
48
48
24
12
48
48
8
12

0-1
0-1
0-1
1-2
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1

85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90
85-90

4
7
10
3
3
5
1
2

Durata n
zile

2. MATERIALE AUXILIARE
/D IDEULFDUHD FRQVHUYHORU GH IUXFWH SH OkQJ  PDWHULLOH SULPH VH XWLOL]HD]  R VHULH GH
PDWHULDOH DX[LOLDUH FDUH DGHVHD DX URO GHWHUPLQDQW DVXSUD vQVXLULORU FDOLWDWLYH L D YDORULL
QXWULWLYH DOH SURGXVHORU ILQLWH &XQRDWHUHD FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU PDWHULDOHORU DX[LOLDUH FRQWULEXLH vQ
PRG HILFLHQW OD RSWLPL]DUHD SURFHVHORU WHKQRORJLFH L HYLWDUHD XQRU GHIHFWH FDOLWDWLYH DOH

produselor finite.
La fabricarea conservelor de frXFWH VH XWLOL]HD]

 FD PDWHULDOH DX[LOLDUH XUP WRDUHOH DS 

VXEVWDQ H vQGXOFLWRDUH ]DK U JOXFR]  DFL]L DOLPHQWDUL FLWULF WDUWULF DVFRUELF  L VXEVWDQ H
JHOLILDQWH SHFWLQ 

&RQGL LLGHFDOLWDWH

Apa
$SD FRQVWLWXLH XQXO GLQ IDFWRULL HVHQ LDOL vQ GHVI XUDUHD SURFHVHORU WHKQRORJLFH vQ

DFWLYLWDWHD GH LQGXVWULDOL]DUH D IUXFWHORU $SD XWLOL]DW  vQ SURFHVXO WHKQRORJLF GH IDEULFDUH DO
FRQVHUYHORU OD VS ODUHD PDWHULLORU SULPH DPEDODMHORU XVWHQVLOHORU XWLODMHORU L VXSUDIH HORU GH
OXFUX OD RS ULUH OD SDVWHXUL]DUH VDX FD DGDRV vQ SURGXVH WUHEXLH V  ILH SRWDELO  L GHFL V 
vQGHSOLQHDVF FRQGL LLOHIL]LFR FKLPLFHLPLFURELRORJLFHSUHY ]XWH

=DK

UXO

&DOLWDWHD ]DK UXOXL VH SRDWH VWDELOL UDSLG FKLDU L SULQ H[DPHQ RUJDQROHSWLF &ULVWDOHOH
WUHEXLH V  ILH XVFDWH DOEH I U  JXVW LVDX PLURV VWU LQ Q VROX LD GH  FRQFHQWUD LH vQ ]DK U
WUHEXLHV ILHFRPSOHWVROXELO I U VHGLPHQWLI U FRUSXULVWU LQH

Glucoza
*OXFR]D VH SRDWH XWLOL]D VXE IRUP  GH JOXFR]  OLFKLG  vQ VSHFLDO OD IDEULFDUHD GXOFH

ei,

F UHLDvLLPSULP XQDVSHFWGHRVHELWGHSO FXWSULQRE LQHUHDXQXLVLURSELQHOHJDWLVWLFORV

Acizi alimentari
$FL]LL DOLPHQWDUL VH XWLOL]HD]  SHQWUX FRUHFWDUHD DFLGLW

XQXLUDSRUWRSWLPID

LL SURGXVHORU SHQWUX DVLJXUDUHD

GHFRQ LQXWvQ]DK U

6H XWLOL]HD]  DFLGXO FLWULF WDUWULF L XQHRUL DVFRUELF SHQWUX YLWDPLQL]DUH &HO PDL GHV
XWLOL]DW OD FRQVHUYHOH GH IUXFWH HVWH DFLGXO FLWULF 'LQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH FDOLWDWLY WUHEXLH V 
FRUHVSXQG  FRQGL LLORU 675

- 2292- 6H SUH]LQW

 VXE IRUP  GH FULVWDOH D

lbe, uscate cu gust

acru.
Pectina
3HQWUX RE LQHUHD SURGXVHORU FRQFHQWUDWH JHOLILFDWH JHP MHOHX  VH XWLOL]HD]  FD DGMXYDQW
SHFWLQD$FHVWSURGXVVHRE LQHGLQGHHXULGHIUXFWHFXFRQ LQXWERJDWvQVXEVWDQ HSHFWLFH

Cele mai bune resurse pentru pectin

 VXQW UHSUH]HQWDWH GH VXESURGXVHOH UH]XOWDWH OD

IDEULFDUHDVXFXULORUGLQFLWULFHLGLQPHUH
3HQWUX SURGXVHOH GLQ IUXFWH GH FXORDUH vQFKLV  VH SRDWH XWLOL]D L SHFWLQD GH YDO 
QHSXULILFDW FDUHDUHJUDGXOGHJHOLILFDUHGH

-25 SAG.

3. AMBALAJE
ConsHUYHOHGHIUXFWHVHDPEDOHD] vQERUFDQHFXFDSDFLW
FXWLLFXFDSDFLW LLFXSULQVHvQWUH-4250 ml.

LFXSULQVHvQWUH POL

5HFLSLHQWHOH GLQ VWLFO  DX R ODUJ  XWLOL]DUH vQ LQGXVWULD FRQVHUYHORU FD XUPDUH D XQRU

avantajeGHRUGLQHFRQRPLFLWHKQRORJLFSHFDUHOHSUH]LQW

LDQXPH

SRVLELOLWDWHDUHFXSHU ULLERUFDQHORULXWLOL]DUHDORUUHSHWDW 

UH]LVWHQ DVWLFOHLODDJUHVLYLWDWHDFRPSRQHQWHORUGLQSURGXVH

VWLFODVHIDEULF GLQPDWHULLSULPHLHIWLQHQHGHILFLWDUH

IRUPHOHERUFDQHORUSRWILXRU

diversificate.

DezavantajeleSHFDUHOHSUH]LQW

fragilitate;

ERUFDQHOHFDDPEDODMHSHQWUXFRQVHUYHVHUHIHU OD

UH]LVWHQ DUHODWLYVODE ODRFXULWHUPLFH

greutate mare pe unitatea de ambalaj;

FRQGXFWLELOLWDWHWHUPLF UHGXV 

Aceste dezavantaje ale rHFLSLHQWHORU GH VWLFO  VXQW FRPSOHW vQO


cutiilor metalice pentru ambalarea conservelor.
&XWLLOHPHWDOLFHSUH]LQW XUP WRDUHOHavantaje:

UH]LVWHQ

WXUDWH vQ FD]XO XWLOL] ULL

 OD RFXUL WHUPLFH L OD YDULD LL GH SUHVLXQH FH DSDU vQ WLPSXO WUDWDPHQWHORU

termice;

FRQGXFWLELOLWDWHWHUPLF EXQ 

JUHXWDWHUHGXV SHXQLWDWHDGHDPEDODM

SRVLELOLW

LVSRULWHGHPHFDQL]DUHLDXWRPDWL]DUHDSURFHVHORUGHIDEULFD LHvQID]HOH

de dozare, nchidere, pasteurizare, etichetare, ambalare etc.


Ca dezavantaje n utilizareDFXWLLORUPHWDOLFHPHQ LRQ P

LPSRVLELOLWDWHDGHUHFXSHUDUHLUHXWLOL]DUH

WDEODSRDWHILDWDFDW GHDJHQ LDJUHVLYLGLQFRPSR]L LDSURGXVHORU

PDWHULDOXOGHED] LODFXULOHGHSURWHF LHGHILFLWDUH

&RQGL LLGHFDOLWDWH

Calitatea ambalajelor are R LQIOXHQ


UHQWDELOLW

 FRYkULWRDUH DVXSUD FDOLW

LL SURGXVHORU ILQLWH L D

LLvQWUHSULQGHULORUSURGXF WRDUHGHFRQVHUYH

8QD GLQ FDX]HOH SULQFLSDOH DOH DSDUL LHL GH UHEXWXUL L ERPEDMH HVWH FDOLWDWHD LQIHULRDU  D

ambalajelor. Din punct de vedere calitaWLY ERUFDQHOH FXWLLOH L FDSDFHOH XWLOL]DWH vQ LQGXVWULD
FRQVHUYHORUWUHEXLHV FRUHVSXQG FRQGL LLORUWHKQLFHGLQQRUPDWLYHOHGHFDOLWDWHvQYLJRDUH

23(5$

,,7(+12/2*,&(*(1(5$/(

Procesul tehnologic de fabricare a conservelor de fructe cuprinde uUP


principale:
1. Sortare I
2. 6S ODUH
3. Sortare II, calibrare
4. &XU LUH
5. Divizare
6. 2S ULUH
7. Prepararea produselor
8. Prepararea lichidului de acoperire (sirop)
9. &RQGL LRQDUHDDPEDODMHORU
10. Umplere
11. Marcarea
12. nchiderea
13. Pasteurizare
14. &RQGL LRQDUHDUHFLSLHQtelor pline
15. Depozitare
16. Livrare

WRDUHOH ID]H

1. Sortarea I
6RUWDUHD , DUH VFRSXO GH D vQGHS UWD IUXFWHOH QHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUH GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH
VDQLWDU DWDFDWH GH EROL DOWHUDWH PXFHJ LWH IHUPHQWDWH HWF  L FRUSXULOH VWU LQH SHQWUX D HYLWD

contaminarea ntregii cDQWLW


6S

LLGHPDWHULDOHSULPHDLQVWDOD LLOHLDDSHLGHVS ODUH

ODUH

3ULQ VS ODUHD IUXFWHORU VH vQGHS UWHD]  LPSXULW

LOH PLQHUDOH S PkQW QLVLS SUDI HWF 

XQHOHUHVWXULYHJHWDOHLRSDUWHvQVHPQDW GLQPLFURIORU 
6S ODUHDVHH[HFXW SULQ

LPHUVLHvQED]LQHFXDS 

aspersiune;
barbotare cu aer comprimat;
frecare.

7LSXOPDLQLLXWLOL]DWHVWHGHWHUPLQDWGHWH[WXU LJUDGXOGHPDWXULWDWHDOIUXFWHORU
3HQWUX IUXFWHOH FX WH[WXU  VODE  F SXQL DILQH HWF  VH IRORVHVF PDLQL GH VS ODW FX

duXUL (ILFDFLWDWH VS

O ULL GHSLQGH GH SUHVLXQHD L GHELWXO DSHL IRUPD GX]HORU GLVWDQ D GLQWUH

MHWXULJURVLPHDVWUDWXOXLGHIUXFWH3UHVLXQHDDSHLODGXXULGHUHFRPDQG DILGH

-1,5 at. Acest

WLSGHPDLQ VHXWLOL]HD] LODFO WLUHDIUXFWHORUVS ODWHFXDOWHPDLQL


3HQWUX VS ODUHD IUXFWHORU FX WH[WXUD VHPLWDUH L WDUH VH IRORVHVF PDLQL GH VS ODW FX
YHQWLODWRU FDUH DVLJXU  vQGHS UWDUHD LPSXULW

LORU DGHUHQWH L FROHFWDUHD DFHVWRUD vQ SDUWHD

LQIHULRDU DED]LQXOXL(OLPLQDUHDFRQWLQX DLPSXULW

LORUGLQED]LQXOPDLQLLGHVS ODWDVLJXU R

VS ODUHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHDIUXFWHORULPHQ LQHDSDGHVS ODUHvQWU RVWDUHLJLHQLF VDWLVI F WRDUH

3HQWUXVS ODUHDIUXFWHORUWDUL PHUHSHUHJXWXLHWF IRDUWHvQF UFDWHFXQLVLSLS PkQWVH


UHFRPDQG IRORVLUHDPDLQLLGHVS ODWFXWDPEXULSHULL

3. Sortarea II, calibrare


QDFHDVW ID] VRUWDUHDFXSULQGHGRX RSHUD LLGLVWLQFWH

Sortarea propriu-]LV

 FDUH FRQVW  vQ vQGHS UWDUHD IUXFWHORU QHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUH L

FRUSXULORU VWU LQH U PDVH GXS  SULPD VRUWDUH L VS ODUH FODVDUHD FDOLWDWLY  GXS  FULWHULL
RUJDQROHSWLFH P ULPHFXORDUHVWDGLXGHPDWXULWDWHJUDGGHSURVSH LPHHWF
3ULPD RSHUD LXQH VH H[HFXW  PDQXDO FRQFRPLWHQW FX LQVSHF LD SH EHQ]L GH VRUWDUH

Pentru a se realiza un control eficient se foloVHVF WUDQVSRUWRDUH FX UROH FDUH LPSULP

 IUXFWHORU

PLF ULGHURWD LH9LWH]DRSWLP DEHQ]LORUGHVRUWDUHHVWHGHFLUFDPVHF'HFHOHPDLPXOWH


RUL FRQFRPLWHQW FX VRUWDUHD VH HIHFWXHD]  L FODVDUHD IUXFWHORU SH FDOLW

L vQ IXQF LH GH P ULPH

culoare, fermitate, grad de coacere etc.


Clasarea pe dimensiuni (calibrare) a fructelor se poate realiza la unele specii de fructe
FX PDLQL GH FDOLEUDW GH GLIHULWH WLSXUL FX WDPEXU FX VLWH YLEUDWRDUH FX FDEOXUL HWF 
&DOLEUDWRDUHOHFXWDPEXUXWLOL]DWHODYLLQHLFLUHHWUHEXLHV ILHSURWHMDWHvQLQWHULRUFXFDXFLXF
VSRQJLRV SHQWUX D IHUL IUXFWHOH GH WUDXPDWL] UL 6LWHOH YLEUDWRDUH VH IRORVHVF SHQWUX IUXFWHOH FX
WH[WXU VODE LGLPHQVLXQLPLFL

&XU

LUH

2SHUD LD GH FXU

LUHD IUXFWHORU FRQVW  vQ VHSDUDUHD L vQGHS UWDUHD S U LORU QHFRPHVWLELOH

VDX JUHX GLJHUDELOH SRU LXQL VDX H[HPSODUH FX ORYLWXUL PHFDQLFH DWDFDWH GH EROL HULSWRJDPLFH
FRGL HVkPEXULFRMLSLHOL HHWF 2SHUD LDVHSRDWHUHDOL]DPDQXDOVDXSULQSURFHGHHPHFDQLFH

termice, chimice sau combinate.


D  &XU

LUHD PDQXDO

 HVWH QHLQGLFDW  GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH VDQLWDU L QHLJLHQLF  DYkQG

GXUDWD SUHOXQJLW  FHHD FH FUHHD]  FRQGL LL GH GH]YROWDUH D PLFURIORUHL GHDOWHUDUH SH XVWHQVLOH L
SH

PDWHULD

SULP 

VXSXV 

SUHOXFU ULL

6H

UHPDUF 

FRQVXP

ULGLFDW

GH

IRU

GH

PXQF 

SURGXFWLYLWDWHDPXQFLLVF ]XW FHHDFHGXFHODFUHWHUHDSUH XOXLGHFRVWDOSURGXVHORUILQLWH

E  &XU

LUHD PHFDQLF

 VH UHDOL]HD]  FX PDLQL GH WLSXUL GLIHULWH DGHFYDWH VFRSXOXL

XUP ULWLDFDUDFWHULVWLFLORUIUXFWHORUVXSXVHSUHOXFU ULL


QGHS UWDUHD FRGL HORU OD FLUHH L YLLQH VH HIHFWXHD]  OD PDLQL GH VFRV FRGL H DO F URU
SULQFLSLXGHIXQF LRQDUHVHED]HD] SHVPXOJHUHDFRGL HORUFXDMXWRUXOXQRUYHUJHOHFDUHVHURWHVF
vQ VHQV FRQWUDU 'LDPHWUXO YHUJHOHORU L GLVWDQ D GLQWUH HOH VH DGDSWHD]  OD P ULPHD IUXFWHORU L
JURVLPHDFRGL HORU'XS vQO WXUDUHDFRGL HORUIUXFWHOHVXQWVXSXVHVS O ULLVXEGXXUL$FHVWWLS
GHPDLQ VHSRDWHXWLOL]DLODVHSDUDUHDERDEHORUGHVWUXJXULGHSHFLRUFKLQL
3HQWUX vQO WXUDUHD FRGL HORU LQFOXVLY D VHSDOHORU OD F SXQL VH IRORVHWH R PDLQ  GH
FRQVWUXF LH VLPLODU  FX FHD GHVWLQDW  SHQWUX YLLQH L FLUHH 0DLQD SRDWH IL XWLOL]DW  L SHQWUX
DOWHVSHFLLGHIUXFWHDJULHSUXQHHWF
2SHUD LLOH GH VFRV VkPEXULL L FDVD VHPLQDO  OD IUXFWH VH H[HFXW  FX PDLQL GH GLIHULWH
WLSXULvQIXQF LHGHVSHFLH3HQWUXDDYHDUH]XOWDWHVDWLVI F WRDUHHVWHQHFHVDUFDIUXFWHOHV ILHvQ
SUHDODELOVRUWDWHSHP ULPL
0DLQLOHGHVFRVVkPEXULODYLLQHFLUHHLSUXQHIXQF LRQHD] SHSULQFLSLXOVWU SXQJHU

ii

IUXFWHORUFXSRQVRDQH)UXFWHOHVXQWGLVSXVHvQDOYHROHGHVFKLVHvQSDUWHDLQIHULRDU SHXQGHVXQW
HOLPLQD L VkPEXULL 'LDPHWUXO DOYHROHORUHVWH GH   PP SHQWUX YLLQH L FLIUH L FLUFD  PP

pentru prune.
QGHS UWDUHDVkPEXULORUODSLHUVLFLVHHIHFWXHD] vQJHQHUDOPDQXDO
0DLQD GH VFRV FDVD VHPLQDO  OD PHUH SHUH L JXWXL H[HFXW  FRQFRPLWHQW FX W LHUHD
IUXFWHORUvQMXP W

LVIHUWXULVDXRSWLPL

c) Decojirea VH H[HFXW

 OD XQHOH VSHFLL GH IUXFWH VkPEXURDVH VDX VHPLQ RDVH GHVWLQDWH

IDEULF ULLFRPSRWXOXLVDXGXOFH LL


2SHUD LDSRDWHILH[HFXWDW PDQXDOPHFDQLFWHUPLFFKLPLFVDXFRPELQDW
'HFRMLUHDWHUPLF

DIUXFWHORUVHUHDOL]HD] vQSULQFLSDOSULQ

-RS ULUHDvQDS ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH- 980C;


-DF LXQHDDEXUXOXLVXSUDvQF O]LW

6XE DF LXQHD F OGXULL SURWRSHFWLQD FDUH GHWHUPLQ  DGHUHQ D HSLGHUPHL IUXFWHORU VH
WUDQVIRUP  vQ SHFWLQ  VROXELO  VH HOLPLQ  DHUXO GLQ VSD LLOH LQWHUFHOXODUH YROXPXO VFDGH FHHD FH
SHUPLWH GHVIDFHUHD XRDU  D SLHOL HL FDUH VH vQO WXU  SULQ VS ODUH 5 FLUHD UDSLG  GXS  GHFRMLUH
vQOHVQHWHPXOWSURFHVXOHYLWkQGX VHWRWRGDW vQPXLHUHDWH[WXULL

'HFRMLUHD VXE DF LXQHD DHUXOXL VXSUDvQF O]LW FRQVW  vQ WUDWDPHQW WHUPLF OD SUHVLXQL

cuprinse ntre 3,5- DW 8UPDW GH R GHWHQW

 EUXVF  OD SUHVLXQHD DWPRVIHULF  3HQWUX vQGHS U

tarea

SLHOL HL GXS  WUDWDPHQWXO WHUPLF IUXFWHOH VXQW VS ODWH VXE GXXUL Q WDEHOXO QU  VH SUH]LQW 
GXUDWDWUDWDPHQWXOXLWHUPLFODGHFRMLUHvQIXQF LHGHVSHFLHLSUHVLXQHDDEXUXOXL

3DUDPHWULLGHOXFUXODGHFRMLUHDWHUPLF

Tabelul nr.29
Specia de fructe
Mere
Pere
Gutui
Piersici

'XUDWDWUDWDPHQWXOXLWHUPLFvQVHFvQIXQF LHGH

p = 6-7 at.
20-25
30-35
35-40
20-25

presiunea aburului
p = 5-6 at.
25-30
35-40
40-45
25-30

p = 3,5-5 at.
30-35
40-45
45-50
20-35

'HFRMLUHD FKLPLF  VH ED]HD]  SH DF LXQHD WHPSHUDWXULL ULGLFDWH D VROX LHL GH KLGUROL]  GH
VRGLX DVXSUD HVXWXOXL YHJHWDO FDUH GHWHUPLQ  KLGUROL]D VWUDWXOXL DIODWVXE HSLGHUP DFHVWDILLQG
DOF WXLW vQ JHQHUDO GLQ VXEVWDQ H SHFWLFH FH VROXELOL]HD]  vQ PHGLX DOFDOLQ L VH VHSDU  GH SXOSD

fructelor.

5. Divizare
'LYL]DUHD VH DSOLF  QXPDL OD XQHOH VSHFLL GH IUXFWH L VH H[HFXW  PHFDQLF FX PDLQL
DGHFYDWHvQIRUPHOHLGLPHQVLXQLOHLPSXVHGHFRQGL LLOHFDOLWDWLYHDOHSURGXVHORUILQLWH
0 UXQ LUHD IUXFWHORU GHVWLQDWHIDEULF ULL PDUFXOXLSHQWUX SDVW  VDX PDUPHODG  VH H[HFXW 
FRQFRPLWHQW FX HOLPLQDUHD VHPLQ HORU L FRMLORU OD SDVDWULFH Q FD]XO IUXFWHORU WDUL PHUH SHUH
JXWXL HWF  SDVDUHD IUXFWHORU VH HIHFWXHD]  GXS  ILHUEHUH vQ YHGHUHD vQPXLHULL WH[WXULL L
LQDFWLY ULLHQ]LPHORU

2S

ea

ULU

8QHOHIUXFWHGHVWLQDWHIDEULF ULFRPSRWXOXLJHPXOXLVDXGXOFH HLVHVXSXQRS ULULL


2S ULUHDFRQVW vQWUDWDPHQWXOWHUPLFDOIUXFWHORUvQDS ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

de 2- PLQXWH 'XUDWD GH RS

- 950C timp

ULUH D IUXFWHORU VH VWDELOHWH vQ IXQF LH GH XUP WRULL IDFWRUL

SULQFLSDOL VSHFLDJUDGXOGH PDWXULWDWHP ULPHDSRU LXQLORU JUDGGHP UXQ LUH LVRUWLPHQWHORU


FHXUPHD] DVHIDEULFD
3ULQRS ULUHVHUHDOL]HD] XUP WRDUHOHHIHFWHSR]LWLYH

LQDFWLYDUHD HQ]LPHORU R[LGDWLYH L S VWUDUHD FDOLW

LORU RUJDQROHSWLFH LQL LDOH JXVW

DURP FXORDUH

HOLPLQDUHD DHUXOXL GLQ HVXWXUL FHHD FH FRQWULEXLH OD UHGXFHUHD SUHVLXQLL LQWHUQH vQ

UHFLSLHQWHvQWLPSXOSDVWHXUL] ULLODvQO WXUDUHDIHQRPHQHORUGHFRUR]LXQHDFXWLLORUPHWDOLFHLOD

protejarea vitamine C;
rHGXFHUHDYROXPXOXLIUXFWHORUSULQFRQWUDFWDUHFDXUPDUHDKLGUROL]HLSURWRSHFWLQHLL
DGL]ROY ULLSDU LDOHDKHPLFHOXOR]HLGLQSHUH LLFHOXODUL

vQGHS UWDUHD JXVWXOXL LPLURVXOXL QHGRULWH OD XQHOH PDWHULL SULPH SUXQH YHU]L FDLVH

verzi, nuci verzi etc.);

VS ODUHD VXSOLPHQWDU  FX HIHFWH SR]LWLYH vQ vQGHS UWDUHD VXEVWDQ HORU IXQJLFLGH L

pesticide utilizate la tratamente aplicate fructelor;

UHGXFHUHD QXP UXOXL GH PLFURRUJDQLVPH FHHD FH FRQGXFH OD FUHWHUHD HILFDFLW

LL

SDVWHXUL] ULL

fixarea culorii fructelor;

vQPXLHUHD WH[WXULL IUXFWHORU FHHD FH IDYRUL]HD]  RSHUD LLOH GH P UXQ LUH L SDVDUH vQ

FD]XOSDVWHLGHIUXFWHLPDUPHODGHL 
2S ULUHDVHHIHFWXHD] vQRS ULWRDUHFRQWLQXHVDXvQDUMHPLFLvQFD]DQHGXSOLFDWH
'XS RS ULUHIUXFWHOHVXQWU FLWHLPHGLDWSHQWUXDVHHYLWDvQPXLHUHDH[FHVLY D HVXWXOXL
YHJHWDO L SHQWUX D vPSLHGLFD GH]YROWDUHD PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU UHPDQDQWH 5 FLUHD VH H[HFXW  vQ
DS UHFHFXUHQW SkQ ODWHPSHUDWXUDGHFLUFD

C.

7. Prepararea produselor (fierbere, concentrare)


FiHUEHUHD L FRQFHQWUDUHD SURGXVHORU JHP GXOFHD  PDUPHODG

 SDVW MHOHX  VH H[HFXW 

OD SUHVLXQHD DWPRVIHULF  QRUPDO  VDX vQ FD]DQH GXSOLFDWH VDX vQ FRQFHQWUDWRDUH VXE YLG

Temperatura de fierbere a acestor produse n cazane duplicate este de 1000C iar n aparatele
vacumm de 650C la un vid de 600 mm col. Eg.
/D IDEULFDUHD GXOFH HL SHQWUX S VWUDUHD LQWHJULW

LL IUXFWHORU VH UHFRPDQG  ILHUEHUHD vQ

DUMHPLFLGHPD[LP.JLGHFLXWLOL]DUHDFD]DQHORUGXSOLFDWH3HQWUXSURGXVHOHODFDUHQXVH

pune problemD S VWU ULL LQWHJULW


500-1000 kg n aparate vacumm.

LL WRWDOH D IUXFWHORU ILHUEHUHD VH SRDWH H[HFXWD vQ DUMH PDUL GH

&RQFHQWUDUHD VXE YLG DVLJXU  RE LQHUHD XQRU SURGXVH VXSHULRDUH FDOLWDWLY vQ FRQGL LL GH
HFRQRPLF VSRULW SULQ

HILFLHQ

eliminarea riVFXOXLGHFDUDPHOL]DUHLGHFLS

VWUDUHDFXORULLLJXVWXOXLSO FXWVSHFLILF

PHQ LQHUHDYDORULLQXWULWLYHLQL LDOHLS VWUDUHDvQPDLPDUHP VXU DYLWDPLQHORU

economia de combustibil ca urmare a reducerii duratei de fierbere.


LOH SULYLQG modul de fabricare al sortimentelor pe grupe de produse se

3DUWLFXODULW

SUH]LQW vQWHKQRORJLDVSHFLILF SURGXVHORU

8. Prepararea lichidului de acoperire


3UHSDUDUHD VLURSXOXLSHQWUXFRPSRUW VHHIHFWXHD]  SULQGL]ROYDUHD]DK UXOXLvQDS DGXV 

la temperatura de fierbere. nainte de utilizare siropul trebuie filtrat. La compoturile din fructe cu
DFLGLWDWH UHGXV  FLUHH SLHUVLFL SUXQH HWF  VH UHFRPDQG  DG XJDUHD GH DFLG FLWULF SHQWUX
UHGXFHUHD YDORULL S+ L vQOHVQLUHD SURFHVXOXL GH SDVWHXUL]DUH &RQFHQWUD LD VLURSX
IXQF LH GH VXEVWDQ D XVFDW  VROXELO  D IUXFWHORU L VH VWDELOHWH vQ FRQFRUGDQ

lui este n

 FX QRUPDWLYHOH GH

calitate n vigoare.
/DFRPSRWXULOHGLHWHWLFHOLFKLGXOGHDFRSHULUHHVWHDSDILDUW 
$SD XWLOL]DW  OD SUHSDUDUHD OLFKLGXOXL GH DFRSHULUH SHQWUX FRPSXWXUL WUHEXLH V  ILH
VHPLGXU OLSVLW GHV UXULGHILHUFDUHSURYRDF vQFKLGHUHDODFXORDUHDSURGXVXOXL

9. Umplere
'R]DUHD SURGXVHORU vQ UHFLSLHQWH SUH]LQW  R PDUH LPSRUWDQ
WHKQRORJLFFkWLDODVSHFWXOXLSURGXVXOXLILQLW/DFRPSRWLGXOFHD

 DWkW GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH


SDUWHDVROLG WUHEXLHV ILH

XQLIRUP UHSDUWL]DW  vQ PDVD OLFKLGXOXL VLURS  SHQWUX D VH vQOHVQL WUDQVPLWHUHD F OGXULL vQ WLPSXO
SDVWHXUL] ULLLSHQWUXDVHRE LQHDVSHFWHVWHWLFFRUHVSXQ] WRUDOSURGXVHORUILQLWH/DRSHUD LDG

GR]DUH WUHEXLH V  VH DVLJXUH HOLPLQDUHD DHUXOXL GLQ UHFLSLHQWH 3UH]HQ D DHUXOXL vQ SURGXVH
LQWHQVLILF SURFHVHOHGHR[LGDUHLGHGLVWUXJHUHDYLWDPLQHL&'HDVHPHQHDDHUXOGLQUHFLSLHQWH
vPSUHXQ  FX YDSRULL UH]XOWD L vQ WLPSXO SDVWHXUL] ULL P UHVF SUHVLXQHD LQWHULRDU  GHS LQG PXOW
SH FHD GLQ DXWRFODY LDU UHFLSLHQWHOH vL SLHUG HWDQHLWDWHD FUHkQGX VH FRQGL LL GH UHLQIHFWDUH D

SURGXVXOXLvQWLPSXOGHSR]LW ULL
3HQWUX HOLPLQDUHD DHUXOXL GR]DUHD SURGXVXOXL VH IDFH OD WHPSHUDWXUL ULGLFDWH DD vQFkW

lLFKLGXOGLODWDWRFXS vQWUHJXOYROXPDOUHFLSLHQWXOXLLDUGXS
n recipiente un vid de 250-300 mm cl.Hg.

U FLUHSULQFRQWUDFWDUHVHFUHHD] 

'R]DUHDSURGXVHORUVHIDFHXWLOL]kQGXUP WRDUHOHWLSXULGHLQVWDOD LL

dozatoare pentru produse solide;


dozatoare pentru produse lichide;
dozatoare pentru produse vscoase.

'R]DUHDS U LLVROLGHODFRPSRWXULVHHIHFWXHD] ODPHVHGHXPSOHUHURWDWLYHSHQWUXIUXFWH


vQWUHJLGHGLPHQVLXQLPLFL FLUHHYLLQHDJULHHWF VDXPDQXDOODEHQ]LGHXPSOHUH

Pentru dozarea lichidelor de acoperire se folosesc dozatoare de nivel sau volumetrice.


'R]DWRDUHOH SHQWUX SURGXVH YkVFRDVH WLS 5DIRPD IXQF LRQHD]  SH SULQFLSLXO GR] ULL
YROXPHWULFH$FHVWWLSGHGR]DWRUVHSRDWHXWLOL]DSHQWUXJHPSDVW PDUPHODG LMHOHX

10. nchidere
QFKLGHUHD UHFLSLHQWHORU UHSUH]LQW  ID]D WHKQRORJLF  FX URO KRW UkWRU vQ DVLJXUDUHD
FRQVHUYDELOLW

LLSURGXVHORU

'XS GR]DUHUHFLSLHQWHOH VHvQFKLGLPHGLDW6WD LRQDUHDUHFLSLHQWHORUvQDLQWHGHvQFKLGHUH


LSDVWHXUL]DUHIDYRUL]HD] DSDUL LDIHQRPHQXOXLGHDFULUHI U ERPEDM
/D vQFKLGHUHDFXWLLORU VHIRORVHVFPDLQL GH vQFKLV VHPLDXWRPDWH LDXWRPDWH QFKLGHUHD
VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ DF LXQHD GH SUHVDUH D UROHORU DVXSUD PDUJLQLL FDSDFXOXL L D ERUGXULL FXWLHL

Controlul nchiderii se face prin veriILFDUHDvPELQ

ULLUHDOHDIDO XOXLFXWLLORUGXS ILHFDUHUHJODUH

LvQWLPSXOIXQF LRQ ULLODLQWHUYDOGHPLQXWH


&DOLWDWHDvQFKLGHULLERUFDQHORUVHYHULILF SULQH[DPLQDUHDPRGXOXLGHIL[DUHDFDSDFXOXL
8Q FDSDF ELQH IL[DW QX WUHEXLH V  VH URWHDVF  'XS  HIHFWXDUHD WUDWDPHQWXOXL WHUPLF VH
H[DPLQHD] VXSUDID DPDVHLGHHWDQHLWDWHLPRGXOGHLPSULPDUHSHJXUDERUFDQXOXLQFKLGHUHD
FRUHFW  VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ LPSULPDUH YL]LELO  L XQLIRUP  D JXULL ERUFDQXOXL vQ PDVH GH
HWDQDUH 3UHVDUHD SUHD DGkQF  SRDWH SURYRFD W LHUHD PDVHL GH HWDQDUH L GHFL GLVWUXJHUHD
HWDQHLW

LL Q IXQF LH GH DFHWL IDFWRUL VH UHJOHD]  FDSXO GH vQFKLGHUH L UHVRUWXO GH SUHVDUH DO

FDSDFXOXL vQFKLGHULL PDQXDOH RSHUD LD VH YD H[HFXWD FX GHRVHELW  DWHQ LH GH PXQFLWRULL

speciDOL]D L&RQGL LDHVHQ LDO vQFD]XOXWLOL] ULLDFHVWXLWLSGHERUFDQHHVWHGR]DUHDSURGXVXOXLOD


temperaturi de minim 850& vQ YHGHUHD HOLPLQ ULL DHUXOXL GLQ SURGXV L UHDOL] ULL vQ UHFLSLHQW D
vidului necesar de 200-250 mm Hg.

11. Pasteurizare
Pasteurizarea UHSUH]LQW

 ID]D FHD PDL LPSRUWDQW  GLQ SURFHVXO WHKQRORJLF vQ FHHD FH

SULYHWH FRQVHUYDELOLWDWHD SURGXVHORU 'LQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH EDFWHULRORJLF SDVWHXUL]DUHD VH

GHILQHWHFDWUDWDPHQWWHUPLFDSOLFDWSkQ ODWHPSHUDWXULGH

C asupra produselor ambaODWHL

vQFKLVH vQ VFRSXO DVLJXU ULL FRQVHUY ULL SH WLPS vQGHOXQJDW 0HWRGD GH FRQVHUYDUH SULQ
SDVWHXUL]DUHVHDSOLF SURGXVHORUFXDFLGLWDWHULGLFDW DGLF  S+ XOVXE Q DFHDVW  FDWHJRULHGH

produse se nscriu majoritatea conservelor de fructe. La unele compoturi, care au valoarea pH


0
0
PDL PDUH GH  WUDWDPHQWXO WHUPLF DSOLFDW GHS HWH WHPSHUDWXUD GH  C, fiind de 105- 110 C,

SHQWUX D VH DVLJXUD GLVWUXJHUHD WXWXURU IRUPHORU YHJHWDWLYH DOH PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU L VSRULORU

capabili de a se dezvolta ulterior. Pentru a se vita unele accidente de substerilizare provocate de


valori ridicate ale pH-XOXL VH UHFRPDQG  DG XJDUHD GH DFLG FLWULF vQ SURSRU LH GH -0,2% n
siropul utilizat la fabricarea compoturilor.
6WDELOLUHD FRUHFW  D UHJLPXULORU GH SDVWHXUL]DUH VSHFLILF ILHF UXL SURGXV SUHFXP L
DSOLFDUHD vQWRFPDL D DFHVWRUD VXQW HOHPHQWH KRW UkWRDUH SHQWUX RE LQHUHD XQRU SURGXVH ILQLWH
FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH 2ULFH DEDWHUH GH OD UHJLPXO GH SDVWHXUL]DUH VWDELOLW SRDWH DYHD XUP UL QHJDWLYH
DVXSUDFRQVHUYDELOLW

LLLFDOLW

LLSURGXVHORU

5HJLPXULOH WUDWDPHQWXOXL WHUPLF VH VWDELOHVF vQIXQF LH GH YLWH]D GH S WUXQGHUHD F OGXULL
vQSURGXV WHUPRSHQDWUD LH LGHUH]LVWHQ DODF OGXU DPLFURRUJDQLVPHORU
7HUPRSHQHWUD LDGHSLQGHGHXUP WRULLIDFWRUL

dimensiunile recipienWXOXLLPDWHULDOXOGLQFDUHHVWHFRQIHF LRQDW


VWDUHDSURGXVXOXL OLFKLGVROLGYkVFRV LUDSRUWXOVROLGOLFKLG ODFRPSRWLGXOFHD

WHPSHUDWXUDLQL LDO DSURGXVXOXL

3HQWUXDVHvQOHVQLWHUPRSHQHWUD LDvQSURFHVXOGHSURGXF LHVHSRDWHLQWHUYHQL

n faza de

XPSOHUH SULQ VWDELOLUHD FRUHFW  D SURSRU LHL GLQWUH FRPSRQHQWHOH VROLGH L OLFKLGH SUHFXP L

dozarea produselor la temperaturi ridicate de minim 850&QDFHODLVFRSVHYRUHYLWDVWDJQ ULOH


vQ IOX[XO WHKQRORJLF vQ VSDFLDO GXS  GR]DUH L vQFKLdere, astfel nct la introducerea la
SDVWHXUL]DUHWHPSHUDWXUDSURGXVHORUV ILHULGLFDW 
3DVWHXUL]DUHD FRQVHUYHORU GH IUXFWH VH H[HFXW  vQ DXWRFODYH GLVFRQWLQXH 6H UHFRPDQG 
FORULQDUHDDSHLXWLOL]DW ODSDVWHXUL]DUHLU FLUH

Regimurile de pasteurizaUH
tehnologice specifice ale produselor.

SHQWUX ILHFDUH VRUWLPHQW VH SUH]LQW  vQ LQVWUXF LXQLOH

&RQGL LRQDUHDUHFLSLHQWHORUSOLQH
&RQGL LRQDUHD SURGXVHORU ILQLWH FXSULQGH R VHULH GH RSHUD LL WHKQRORJLFH SULQ FDUH OL VH
FRQIHU DVSHFWFRPHUFLDOFRUHVSXQ] WRU
2SHUD LLOHGHFRQGL LRQDUHFRQVWDXvQ

GHVF UFDUHDFRXULORU
VS ODUHDLXVFDUHDUHFLSLHQWHORU

verificarea aspectului exterior;


SURWHMDUHDVXSUDIH HLH[WHULRDUH

paletizarea;
etichetarea;
ambalarea;
paletizarea ambalajelor de transport.

'HVF UFDUHD UHFLSLHQWHORU GLQ FRXULOH DXWRFODYHORU VH HIHFWXHD]  QX PDL PDQXDO VDX

mecanic.
6S ODUHD UHFLSLHQWHORU SOLQH VH IDFH VXE GXXUL FX DS  FDOG  LDU XVFDUHD vQ WXQHO FX DHU

cald.
&RQVHUYHOH VWHULOL]DWH vQ LQVWDOD LLOH FRQWLQXH VXQW WUHFXWH GLUHFW OD

uscare, deoarece

VS ODUHD VH H[HFXW  vQ ]RQD ILQDO  OD VWHULOL]DWRDUH 7LSXULOH QRL GH LQVWDOD LL FRQWLQXH SHQWUX
VWHULOL]DUHVXQWGRWDWHLFX]RQ GHXVFDUH

Verificarea aspectului exterior se face vizual pe benzi transportoare.

Conservele ambalate n FXWLL VH SURWHMHD]

 SH VXSUDID D H[WHULRDU  FX XQ VWUDW VXE LUH GH

YDVHOLQ WHKQLF QHXWU 


'HSR]LWDUHDFRQVHUYHORUVHIDFHSHSDOHWHL]RODWVDXSDOHWL]DWvQIROLHFRQWUDFWDELO VDXvQ
O ]LGHFDUWRQ
(WLFKHWDUHD UHFLSLHQWHORU VS ODWH L XVFDWH VH SRDW

e efectua nainte de paletizare sau la

OLYUDUHXWLOL]kQGPDLQLDGHFYDWHSHQWUXFXWLLLERUFDQH
$PEDODUHD UHFLSLHQWHORU VH IDFH vQ O ]L GH OHPQ FXWLL GLQ FDUWRQ VDX vQ IROLH
WHUPRFRQWUDFWDELO 

13. Depozitare
Depozitarea conservelor de fructe se face n magazii curate, uscate, bine aerisite, ferite de
0

vQJKH  OD WHPSHUDWXUL GH PD[LP  & L XPLGLWDWH UHODWLY  D DHUXOXL GH PD[LP 
7HPSHUDWXULOH PDL ULGLFDWH SURYRDF  GHJUDGDUHD FXORULL JXVWXOXL FRQVLVWHQ HL L UHGXFHUHD
FRQ LQXWXOXLGH YLWDPLQH7HPSHUDWXULOH VF ]XWHIUkQHD] SURFHVHOH GHGHJUDGDUHGDU vQFD]XOvQ
FDUH SURGXVHOH vQJKHD

 VH GHSUHFLD]  FDOLWDWHD SULQ PRGLILF UL HVHQ LDOH DOH FRQVLVWHQ HL

8PLGLWDWHDDHUXOXLLQIOXHQ HD] vQVSHFLDOSURFHVHOHGHFRUR]LXQHODFXWLL

Depozitarea proGXVHORUVHIDFHSDOHWL]DWGXS

HIHFWXDUHDRSHUD LLORULQGLFDWHPDLVXV

3DOHWHOHFXFRQVHUYHVHSURWHMHD] FXIROLHGLQSROLHWLOHQ 

14. Livrare
&RQVHUYHOHVHOLYUHD] SDOHWL]DWVDXFRQWHLQHUL]DW

5. FABRICAREA CONSERVELOR DE FRUCTE

5.1. Compot
CompotuULOHUHSUH]LQW

FRQVHUYHGHIUXFWHvQWUHJLVDXGLYL]DWHvQVLURSGH]DK UDPEDODWH

vQ UHFLSLHQWH vQFKLVH HUPHWLF L SDVWHXUL]DWH Q JHQHUDO FRPSRWXULOH VH IDEULF  GLQWU R VLQJXU 

VSHFLH GH IUXFWH L SRDUW  GHQXPLUHD IUXFWXOXL GLQ FDUH SURYLQ 'DF  vQ FRPSRQHQ D XQXL
VRUWLPHQWLQWU PDLPXWHVSHFLLGHIUXFWHFRPSRWXOSRDUW GHQXPLUHDGHDVRUWDW

'HIHFWHGHIDEULFD LH

D $OWHUDUHDPLFURELRORJLF
'HIHF LXQHD SRDWH DSDUH VXE IRUP  GH ERPEDM XPIODUHD FDSDFHORU L FKLDU DUXQFDUHD
DFHVWRUD LDFULUHI U ERPEDM
&HDGHDGRXDIRUP GHDOWHUDUHGHQXPLW LDFULUHSODW VHLGHQWLILF PDLXRUODERUFDQH
SULQDSDUL LDXQXLVHGLPHQWGHFXORDUHDOELFLRDV 
&DX]DSULQFLSDO DDOWHU ULLPLFURELRORJLFHHVWHVXEVWHULOL]DUHD
3UHYHQLUHDDSDUL LHLDFHVWXLDFFLGHQWGHIDEULFD LHVHSRDWHUHDOL]DSULQ

XWLOL]DUHDPDWHULHLSULPHvQVWDUHSURDVS W LV Q WRDV 

UHVSHFWDUHD WHPSHUDWXULL GH GR]DUH D VLURSXOXL L DSOLFDUHD SUHvQF O]LULL vQDLQWH GH

pasteurizare atunci cnd se impune;


HYLWDUHDVWDJQ ULORU vQIOX[XOWHKQRlogic, n special ntre fazele de dozare, nchidere
LSDVWHXUL]DUH

DVLJXUDUHDHUPLFLW

respectarea regimului de pasteurizare.

LLvQFKLGHULL

b) Bombaj chimic
%RPEDMXOFKLPLFHVWHGHIHF LXQHDFHDSDUHODUHFLSLHQWHOHPHWDOLFHFDXUPDUHDFRUR]LXQLL

n SUH]HQ DR[LJHQXOXLDSRU LXQLORUGHWDEO

FXODFXOGHDFRSHULUHGHWHULRUDW

3UHYHQLUHDDFFLGHQWXOXLVHUHDOL]HD] SULQ

IRORVLUHDDPEDODMXOXLFRUHFWSURWHMDWSULQO FXLUH

RS ULUHDIUXFWHORUSHQWUXHOLPLQDUHDDHUXOXLGLQ HVXWXUL

dozarea siropului fierELQWHSHQWUXvQO

WXUDUHDDHUXOXLGLQSURGXV

c) Bombaj fizic
$FHVWGHIHFWDIHFWHD] DVSHFWXOSURGXVXOXLI U FDDFHVWDV GHYLQ QHFRPHVWLELO
(YLWDUHD DSDUL LHL DFHVWHL GHIHF LXQL VH UHDOL]HD] SULQ UHVSHFWDUHD WHPSHUDWXULL ULGLFDWH OD

dozare a siropuOXL L vQFKLGHUHD LPHGLDW

 FDUH V  DVLJXUH GXS  SDVWHXUL]DUH YLGXO QHFHVDU GH

PLQLPPPFRORDQ +J

G &RQFHQWUD LDSURGXVXOXLVXEOLPLW
'HILFLHQ DVHHYLW SULQ

YHULILFDUHDODILHFDUHDUM DFRQFHQWUD LHLVLURSXOXLFDOFXODW vQIXQF LHGHVXEVWDQ D


XVFDW VROXELO DIUXFWHORU

UHVSHFWDUHDSURSRU LHLGHIUXFWHvQUHFLSLHQWH

H &RQ LQXWGHIUXFWHVXEOLPLW
'HIHF LXQHDVHHYLW SULQ
LLGHIUXFWHLQWURGXVHvQID]DGHGR]DUHvQUHFLSLHQWH

FRQWUROXOFDQWLW

ODXQHOHIUXFWHFXFRQ LQXWPDUHGHDHUvQ HVXWXUL F SXQLPHUHHWF VHUHFRPDQG 


RS ULUHDvQVLURSVDXGR]DUHDIUXFWHORUvQYLG

I )UXFWHGHVWU

PDWHVDXWHUFLXLWH

$FHVWGHIHFWLPSULP SURGXVHORUDVSHFWQHSO FXWLSRDWHILSUHYHQLWSULQ

evitarea folosirii fructelor supramaturate;


rHVSHFWDUHD UHJLPXULORU WHUPLFH OD RS

ULUH L SDVWHXUL]DUH SUHFXP L U FLUHD

VXILFLHQW FRQIRUPFHULQ HORU

g) Gust fad
'HIHF LXQHDSRDWHILHYLWDW SULQ

utilizarea fructelor din soiurile recomandate pentru industrializare, n stadiul de


maturitate indXVWULDO DYkQGJXVWLDURP ELQHH[SULPDW 

FRUHFWDUHDDFLGLW

LLvQFD]XULOHFkQGVHLPSXQH

K &XORDUHDPRGLILFDW

Modificarea culorii la compoturi poate apare prin:

R[LGDUHDHQ]LPDWLF DIUXFWHORU

GHS LUHDUHJLPXOXLWHUPLF

3UHYHQLUHDDSDUL LHLDFHVWHLGHIHF LXQLVHIDFHSULQ

HYLWDUHDVWDJQ ULLIUXFWHORUFXU

UHVSHFWDUHDUHJLPXOXLGHRS ULUHLSDVWHXUL]DUH

LPHUVLDIUXFWHORUGHFRMLWHvQVROX LLVODEDFLGH

DWHLGLYL]DWH

5.2. Gem
*HPXULOH UHSUH]LQW  SURGXVH FRQFHQWUDWH JHOLILFDWH RE LQXWH

din fructe proaspete sau

VHPLFRQVHUYDWHFXDGDRVGH]DK UDFLGFLWULFLSHFWLQ DPEDODWHvQUHFLSLHQWHvQFKLVHHUPHWLFL

pasteurizate.
Gemurile se pot prepara dintr-RVLQJXU
SURYHQLHQ

VSHFLHGHIUXFWHLSRDUW GHQXPLUHDIUXFWXOXLGH

VDXGLQDPHVWHFGHIUXFWHLSRDUW GHQXPLUHDGHJHPDVRUWDW

*HPXULOH VH IDEULF  GLQ XUP WRDUHOH IUXFWH DILQH DJULH FDLVH F SXQL FRDF ]H FLUHH

IUDJL JXWXL PHUH PXUH SLHUVLFL SUXQH YLLQH ]PHXU  L SHWHOH GH WUDQGDILU JHPXO DVRUWD VH
IDEULF  GLQ DPHVWHF GH GRX  VDX WUHL IUXFWH PHUH SHUH JXWXL SUXQH F WLQ  vQ SURSRU LLOH
LQGLFDWHvQUH HW 

0DWHULDSULP

/D IDEULFDUHD JHPXOXL VH IRORVHVF IUXFWH SURDVSHWH GH FDOLWDWHD , L D ,,


PDWXULWDWH GH FRQVXP 6H UHFRPDQG  IUXFWH GLQ VRLXUL FX VXEVWDQ

-a, n stadiul de

 XVFDW  VROXELO  ULGLFDW  FX

DURP  ELQH H[SULPDW  FRORUD LH SURQXQ DW  6H SRW IRORVL L IUXFWH FRQVHUYDWH FX ELR[LG GH VXOI
VXEIRUP GHSXOSH

Prepararea produsului

3UHSDUDUHDSURGXVXOXLHVWHID]DFHDPDLLPSRUWDQW GLQSURFHVXOWHKQ

ologic de fabricare a

JHPXOXLLFXSULQGHXUP WRDUHOHHWDSH

DOF WXLUHDDUMHORU

SUHSDUDUHDVROX LHLGHSHFWLQ 

fierberea;
concentrarea.

3UHSDUDUHDJHPXOXLVHSRDWHIDFHSULQGRX PHWRGH

GLIX]LDSUHDODELO DIUXFWHORUFX]DK UXUPDW GHFRQFHQWUDUHSU

ILHUEHUHD GLUHFW  D IUXFWHORU FX ]DK U VDX vQ VLURS GH ]DK U L FRQFHQWUDUHD D

in fierbere;

produsului.
$OF WXLUHDDUMHORUVHIDFHSULQFkQW ULUHDFRPSRQHQWHORUGLQUH HWDGHIDEULFD LH
QWRFPLUHD UH HWHL GH IDEULFD LH VH IDFH LQkQG VHDPD GH QRUPHOH G

e consum specific

SHQWUXPDWHULLSULPHLPDWHULDOHDX[LOLDUHLXUP WRDUHOHFDUDFWHULVWLFL

VXEVWDQ DXVFDW VROXELO DIUXFWHORU

VXEVWDQ DXVFDW VROXELO DSURGXVXOILQLW

SXWHUHDGHJHOLILFDUHDSHFWLQHLIRORVLWHLFRQ LQXWXOGHVXEVWDQ HSHFWLFHvQ

aciditatea fructelor.

fructe;

&DOFXOXOFDQWLW

LLGH]DK UQHFHVDU SHQWUXRDUM GHWHUPLQDW GHSURGXVILQLWVHIDFHSH

ED]D ELODQ XOXL GH VXEVWDQ

 XVFDW  D FRPSRQHQWHORU L FRQFHQWUD LD ILQDO  D JHPXOXL GH PLQLP

67 R
QVFRSXORPRJHQL] ULLSHFWLQHLvQSURGXVVHUHFRPDQG DG XJDUHDDFHVWHLDVXEIRUP GH
VROX LH
3UHSDUDUHD VROX LHL GH SHFWLQ  VH IDFH SULQ DPHVWHFDUHD SHFWLQHL FX ]DK U vQ SURSRU LH GH
 L XPHFWDUHD WUHSWDW  FX DS  OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH 
FRQVLVWHQ

- 500& SkQ

 VH RE LQH XQ DPHVWHF GH

VHPLIOXLG 

6ROX LD GH SHFWLQ  SUHSDUDW  WUHEXLH IRORVLW  vQ FHO PDL VFXUW WLPS SHQWUX D VH HYLWD
GHJUDGDUHDSULQIHUPHQWDUHVDXPXFHJ LUH
3H OkQJ  ]DK U IUXFWH L SHFWLQ  vQ UH HWD GH IDEULFD LH D JHPXULORU LQWU  L DFLGXO FLWULF

Cantitatea de acid FLWULF DG XJDW


DLE S+FXSULQVvQWUH3,0.

 HVWH vQ IXQF LH GH DFLGLWDWHD IUXFWHORU DVWIHO vQFkW SURGXVXO V 

)LHUEHUHLFRQFHQWUDUH

3UHSDUDUHDJHPXOXLSULQPHWRGDGLIX]LHLSUHDODELOHFX]DK UVHDSOLF vQFD]XOIUXFWHORUFX


WH[WXU  VODE  F SXQL PHUH ]PHXU  HWF  3URSRU LD GH ]DK U L IUXFWH LQWURGXVH OD GLIX]LH HVWH
FHD LQGLFDW  SULQ UH HWD GH IDEULFD LH H[FOXVLY ]DK UXO IRORVLW OD SUHSDUDUHD VROX LHL GH SHFWLQ 

Durata difuziei este de 2- RUH OLPLWDW


fenomenele de fermentare.

 vQ IXQF LH GH WH[WXUD IUXFWHORU DVWIHO vQFkW V  ILH HYLWDWH

)LHUEHUHD L FRQFHQWUDUHD DPHVWHFXOXL GH IUXFWH FX ]DK U VH IDFH vQ FD]DQH GXSOLFDWH VXE
FRQWLQX DJLWDUH/DVIkULWXOILHUEHULLVHDGDXJ VROX LDGHSHFWLQ LDFLGXOFLWULFGL]ROYDW

Prepararea gemului sH


0

SRDWH IDFH L SULQ ILHUEHUHD IUXFWHORU vQ VLURS GH ]DK U FX

FRQFHQWUD LDGH 5ILHUEHUHDGHVI XUkQGX VHvQFRQGL LLOHGHVFULVHPDLVXV

)UXFWHOH FX WH[WXUD WDUH JXWXL  VH ILHUE SkQ  OD vQPXLHUH VH DGDXJ  ]DK UXO L VH
FRQFHQWUHD] SkQ ODVXEVWDQ DXVFDW GRULW 
Q FD]XO XWLOL] ULL IUXFWHORU VXOILWDWH VH H[HFXW  vQ SUHDODELO GH VXOILWDUHD SULQ ILHUEHUHD
IUXFWHORU FX DGDRV GH DS  1X VH DGPLWH DG XJDUHD ]DK UXOXL vQDLQWH GH VXOILWDUHD IUXFWHORU
GHRDUHFHvQFRQGL LLOHIRUP ULLFRPSXLORUVXOILURLHOLPLQDUHDELR[LGXOXLGHVXOIHVWHvQJUHXQDW 
3ULQFRQFHQWUDUHVHUHDOL]HD] XUP WRDUHOHGH]LGHUDWH

HYDSRUDUHDH[FHVXOXLGHDS 

LQYHUWLUHDSDU LDO D]DK UXOXL

omogenizarea produsului;

FUHDUHDFRQGL LLORUIDYRUDELOHSHQWUXIRUPDUHDJHPXOXL

DefecteGHIDEULFD LH
a) Produs negelificat
b) Siroparea produsului

F &DUDPHOL]DUHDLPRGLILFDUHDFXORULL

d) Zaharisirea
H &RQ LQXWXOGHELR[LGGHVXOI
I 0XFHJ LUHD

g) Fermentarea

'XOFHD D
'XOFHD D UHSUH]LQW  SURGXVXO RE LQXW SULQ ILHUEHUHD L FRQFHQWUDUHD IUXFWHORU vQ VLURS GH
]DK U DPEDODW vQ UHFLSLHQWH vQFKLVH HUPHWLF L SDVWHXUL]DWH 'XOFHD D VH SUHSDU  GLQWU R VLQJXU 

VSHFLHGHIUXFWHLSRDUW GHQXPLUHDIUXFWXOXLGLQFDUHSURYLQH
'XOFHD D VH IDEULF  GLQ XUP WRDUHOH IUXFWH DILQH DJULH FDLVH FDLVH YHU]L F SXQL
FLUHH FLUHH DPDUH FRDF ]H IUDJL JXWXL PXUH QXFL YHU]L SHUH SLHUVLFL SUXQH SUXQH YHU]L
VWUXJXULYLLQH]PHXU SHWDOHGHWUDQGDILULPRUFRY

0DWHULDSULP

)UXFWHOH XWLOL]DWH OD IDEULFDUHD GXOFH HL WUHEXLH V  FRUHVSXQG  FDOLW

LL H[WUD L , GLQ

VWDQGDUGHOHGHIUXFWHSURDVSHWH6HUHFRPDQG VRLXULOHFDUHvQGHSOLQHVFXUP WRDUHOHFRQGL LL

JXVWLDURP VSHFLILF ELQHH[SULPDWH

FXORDUHXQLIRUP LQWHUQ 

WH[WXU IHUP 

VXEVWDQ

OperD

XVFDW VROXELO ULGLFDW 

LLSUHOLPLQDUH

2SHUD LLOHSUHOLPLQDUHVSHFLILFHFRQVWDXvQ

vQW ULUHDWH[WXULLIUXFWHORUPRL
vQ HSDUHD IUXFWHORU YHU]L FDLVH YHU]L SUXQH YHU]L  SHQWUX D vQOHVQL S WUXQGHUHD
VLURSXOXLGH]DK U

RS ULUHDIUXFWHORUFXWH[WXU WDUH JXWXLFDLVHYHU]LS

rune verzi etc.).

3HQWUX vQW ULUHD WH[WXULL IUXFWHORU VH SURFHGHD]  OD LPHUVLH vQ VROX LH GH 

  FORUXU

de calciu timp de 20-PLQXWHQDFHODLVFRSSRDWHILXWLOL]DW LDSDGHYDUFDUHVHSUHSDU vQ


IHOXO XUP WRU 6H LQWURGXF -4 kg var stins vQ  OLWUL GH DS  VH DPHVWHF  SkQ  VH RE LQH R
VXVSHQVLH RPRJHQ   L VH ODV  vQ UHSDXV WLPS GH - RUH /LFKLGXO GHFDQWDW VH VHSDU  vQWU-un
ED]LQvQFDUHIUXFWHOHVHPHQ LQWLPSGH-PLQXWH'XS DFHVWWUDWDPHQWvQDLQWHGHXWLOL]DUH
fructele se sSDO FXDWHQ LHvQDS FXUHQW 
)UXFWHOH YHU]L FDLVH SUXQH  VH vQ HDS  SHQWUX D VH vQOHVQL S WUXQGHUHD VLURSXOXL vQ

interior.

2S ULUHD IUXFWHORU WDUL VH DSOLF  vQ VFRSXO vQPXLHULL WH[WXULL LQDFWLY ULL HQ]LPHORU
R[LGDWLYH HOLPLQ ULL DHUXOXL GLQ HVXWXUL L vQOHVQLULL GLIX]LHL ]DK UXOXL vQ IUXFWH 'XS  RS ULUH
IUXFWHOHVHU FHVFvQDS FXUHQW 

3UHSDUDUHDGXOFH HL

3UHSDUDUHDGXOFH HLUHSUH]LQW ID]DFHDPDLLPSRUWDQW GLQSURFHVXOWHKQRORJLFLVHSRDWH


UHDOL]DSULQPDLPXOWHSURFHGHHLDQXPH

difuzLD SUHDODELO

 D IUXFWHORU FX ]DK U WLPS GH   RUH XUPDW  GH FRQFHQWUDUHD

SURGXVXOXLSkQ ODVXEVWDQ DXVFDW ILQDO 

GLIX]LD IUXFWHORU vQ VLURS GH ]DK U FRQFHQWUDW WLPS GH   RUH FDUH VH DSOLF  OD

IUXFWHOH FX WH[WXU  VODE  SHQWUX D HYLWD GHVWU PDUHD LDU OD IUXFWHOH FX WH[WXU  WDUH
SHQWUXDVHHYLWD]EkUFLUHDDFHDVW ID] HVWHXUPDW GHFRQFHQWUDUHDSURGXVXOXL

ILHUEHUHDIUXFWHORUvQDS LFRQFHQWUDUHDFXDGDRVGH]DK U
ILHUEHUHDIUXFWHORUvQVLURSGH]DK UFRQFHQWUDWGHFLUFD

R;

 D SURGXVXOXL FDUH FRQVW  vQ ILHUEHUHD IUXFWHORU FX ]DK U

concentrarea discRQWLQX

VDXvQ VLURSGH]DK UDSOLFkQG

-3 ntreruperi a cte 5-PLQXWHSkQ

ODDWLQJHUHD

FRQFHQWUD LHLILQDOH
3UHSDUDUHDGXOFH HLSULQPHWRGHOHUHFRPDQGDWHFXSULQGHXUP WRDUHOHHWDSH

DOF WXLUHDDUMHORU
GLIX]LDFX]DK UVDXvQVLURS IDFXOWDWLY 
ILHUEHUHDLFRQFHQWUDUHD
vQGHS UWDUHDVSXPHL

$OF WXLUHDDUMHORUVHIDFHSULQFkQW ULUHDFRPSRQHQWHORUGLQUH HWDGHIDEULFD LH


0 ULPHD DUMHORU GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH DO S VWU ULL LQWHJULW

LL

fructelor depinde de specie,

formitatea pulpei, gradul de maturitate, modul de divizare etc.


QSUDFWLF VHOXFUHD] vQDUMHPLFLPHGLLLPDULGXS FXPXUPHD] 

DUMH PLFL SkQ  OD  NJ SURGXV ILQLW SHQWUX IUXFWHOH FX WH[WXU  VODE  F SXQL

piersici,PXUH]PHXU

IUDJLHWF 

DUMH PHGLL SkQ  OD  NJ SURGXV ILQLW SHQWUX IUXFWHOH FX WH[WXU  PDL IHUP  L
GLPHQVLXQLPLFL DILQHFRDF ]HYLLQHHWF 

DUMH PDUL GH SHVWH  NJ SURGXV ILQLW SHQWUX IUXFWHOH FX WH[WXU  IHUP  L GLYL]DWH
VXEIRUP GHFXEXULVDXW L HL SHWDOHGHWUDQGDILULJXWXLSHUHDJULHHWF 

QWRFPLUHDUH HWHLGHIDEULFD LHVHIDFH LQkQGVHDPDGHXUP WRDUHOHFRQVLGHUHQWH

FRQ LQXWGHIUXFWHvQSURGXVILQLW
FRQVXPVSHFLILFGHPDWHULLSULPHLPDWHULDOHDX[LOLDUH
VXEVWDQ

XVFDW VROXELO DIUXFWHORU

VXEVWDQ

XVFDW VROXELO DSURGXVXOXLILQLW

aciditatea fructelor.

&DOFXOXOFDQWLW

LLQHFHVDUHGH]DK ULJOXFR] SHQWUXRDUM GHWHUPLQDW GHSURGXVILQLW

VHIDFHSHED]DELODQ XOXLGHVXEVWDQ

XVFDW DFRPSRQHQWHORULFRQFHQWUD LHLILQDO DGXOFH LLGH

minim 720R refractometrice conform standardului n vigoare.

3HOkQJ ]DK ULIUXFWHUH HWDGHIDEULFD LHFXSULQGHLDFLGFLWULFLDUODXQHOHVRUWLPHQWH


L DURPH&DQWLWDWHD GHDFLGDG XJDW HVWHvQ IXQF LH GH DFLGLWDWHD

fructelor, astfel nct valoarea

S+DSURGXVXOXLILQLWV ILHGHFLUFD
5H HWDJHQHUDO LQIRUPDWLY SHQWUXNJSURGXVILQLW GXOFHD

fructe

]DK ULJOXFR] vQHFKLYDOHQW]DK U

acid citric

Difuzia IUXFWHORU FX ]DK

GHPLQLP

R):

75kg
70 kg
0,2-0,5 kg

U VDX vQ VLURS VH IDFH UHVSHFWkQG SURSRU LD LQGLFDW  vQ UH HW 

)UXFWHOH L ]DK UXO VH LQWURGXF vQ VWUDWXUL DOWHUQDWLYH Q FD]XO GLIX]LHL vQ VLURS IUXFWHOH VH

introduc n sirop fierbinte la temperatura de 600& L FRQFHQWUD LD GH FLUFD 50R. Utilizarea
JOXFR]HL vQ SURFHQW GH SkQ  OD  vPEXQ W HWH FDOLWDWHD SURGXVXOXL ILQLW FRQIHULQGX-i un
aspect translucid.
)LHUEHUHD L FRQFHQWUDUHD UHSUH]LQW  ID]D SULQFLSDO  vQ WHKQRORJLD GH IDEULFDUH D GXOFH LL
QDFHDVW ID] VHSURGXFHHYDSRUDU

ea SDU LDO

DDSHLGLQIUXFWHVHvQOHVQHWHGLIX]LD]DK UXOXLvQ

IUXFWH L LQYHUWLUHD SDU LDO  D ]DK UXOXL DG XJDW 7LPSXO GH ILHUEHUH WUHEXLH V  ILH FkW PDL VFXUW
SHQWUXD UHGXFH ODPLQLP PRGLILF ULOH GHIRUP  JXVW L FXORDUH DOH IUXFWHORU 3HQWUX DFFHO
GLIX]LHL ]DK UXOXL VH UHFRPDQG  vQWUHUXSHUHD ILHUEHULL WLPS GH 

erarea
-2 minute n 2-3 etape.

$G XJDUHDDFLGXOXLFLWULFvQFD]XOVRUWLPHQWHORUGLQIUXFWHFXFRQ LQXWERJDWvQVXEVWDQ HSHFWLFH


JXWXLSUXQHF SXQLHWF VHIDFHODvQFHSXWXOILHUEHULL3HQWUXREXQ XQLIRUPL]DUHvQSURGXVVH
UHFRPDQG DG XJDUHDDFLGXOXLFLWULFVXEIRUP GHVROX LHGH
3HQWUX R PDL EXQ  S VWUDUH D LQWHJULW

LL IUXFWHORU VH UHFRPDQG  FD vQ SULPD SDUWH D

ILHUEHULLV VHIRORVHDVF DEXUODSUHVLXQLPDLPLFL DW SULQFDUHVHUHDOL]HD] RILHUEHUHOHQW 


LDUvQID]DILQDO SUHVLXQHDWUHEXLHV ILHGHDW
&RQFHQWUD LD ILQDO  D SURGXVXOXL VH GHWHUPLQ  OD SURED PHGLH PDMRUDW  RE LQXW  GLQ
FDQWLW

LHJDOHGHIUXFWHLVLURS
QGHS UWDUHD VSXPHL VH IDFH vQ GRX  HWDSH OD vQFHSXWXO ILHUEHULL L OD SURGXVXO ILQLW

fierbinte.

FLUHD

5 FLUHD GXOFH LL VHIDFH vQ ED]LQH vQ DHU OLEHU L DSDUH FD R QHFHVLWDWH SHQWUX XUP WRDUHOH

motive:

VHHYLW FDUDPHOL]DUHD

VHRPRJHQL]HD] SURGXVXO

VH FRQWLQX  GLIX]LD L GHFL VH HYLW  VHSDUDUHD IUXFWHORU SULQ ULGLFDUHD OD VXSUDID D

siropului.

5 FLUHDGXOFH LLVHIDFHSkQ ODWHPSHUDWXUDGH

Dozare

'R]DUHD PDMRULW
LQWHJULW

C.

LL VRUWLPHQWHORU GH GXOFHD

 VH HIHFWXHD]  PDQXDO SHQWUX SURWHMDUHD

LLIUXFWHORU L SHQWUX D VH UHDOL]D R UHSDUWL]DUHD XQLIRUP  DIUXFWHORU 'R]DUHD PHFDQLF 

SRDWHILSUDFWLFDW vQFD]XOGXOFH LLGLQSHWDOHGHWUDQGDILU

'HIHFWHGHIDEULFD LH

D 'HVWU PDUHDIUXFWHORU
E &RQ LQXWGHIUXFWHVXEOLPLW

c) Zaharisirea
d) Zbrcirea fructelor
e) Separarea fructelor din sirop
f) Fructe tari
J &XORDUHPRGLILFDW

h) Caramelizarea
i) Gelificarea
M )HUPHQWDUHDLPXFHJ LUHD

5.4. Jeleu
-HOHXULOH UHSUH]LQW  SURGXVH FRQFHQWUDWH JHOLILFDWH GLQ VXFXUL GLQ IUXFWH FX DGDRV GH
]DK USHFWLQ LDFLGFLWULF

JeleXULOH VH SUHSDU  GLQWU-XQ VLQJXU VRUWLPHQW GH VXF L SRDUW


care provin sucurile utilizate.

 GHQXPLUHD IUXFWHORU GLQ

-HOHXULOHVHIDEULF GLQVXFXULGHF SXQLJXWXLPXUHYLLQH]PHXU F WLQ VDXVWUXJXUL

0DWHULDSULP

6HXWLOL]HD] VXFXULGHIUXFWH

$OF

proaspete sau conservate cu bioxid de sulf.

WXLUHDDUMHORU

$OF WXLUHDDUMHORUVHH[HFXW SULQFkQW ULUHDFRPSRQHQWHORUSUHY ]XWHvQUH HW 


&DOFXOXO FDQWLW

LL GH ]DK U SHQWUX R DUM  GHWHUPLQDW  VH IDFH vQ IXQF LH GH VXEVWDQ D

XVFDW VROXELO DVXFXOXLGHIUXFWHXWLOL]DWLGHFRQFHQWUD LDSURGXVXOXLILQLW


&DQWLWDWHD GH SHFWLQ  SXULILFDW  FX JUDG GH JHOLILFDUH   6$* QHFHVDU  SHQWUX

fabricarea jeleurilor este de 1- L VH DGDSWHD]


sucurilor de fructe.
$FLGXOFLWULFVHDGDXJ vQFDQWLW

 vQ IXQF LH GH FRQ LQXWXO vQ VXEVWDQ H SHFWLFH D

LFDUHV DVLJXUHSURGXVXOXLILQLWS+GHPD[LP

5H HWDJHQHUDO LQIRUPDWLY SHQWUXIDEULFDUHDDNJMHOHXGHIUXFWHFXVXEVWDQ DXVFDW 

ILQDO GHPLQLP 5HVWHXUP WRDUHD

suc de fructe 5-100R

]DK U
SHFWLQ

acid citric

60 kg
65 kg
1-2 kg
1 kg

QWDEHOXOQUVXQWSUH]HQWDWHUH HWHOHGHIDEULFD LHSHQWUXMHOHXULOHGHIUXFWH

5H HWDGHIDEULFD LHSHQWUXMHOHXULGHIUXFWH

Nr.
crt.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
x

5H HWDGHIDEULFD LHSHQWUXNJMHOH

Sortimente
-HOHXGHF SXQL

Jeleu de gutui
Jeleu de mure
-HOHXGHYLLQH
-HOHXGH]PHXU
-HOHXGHF WLQ DOE

Jeleu de struguri
aromatizat
SABINA.

Suc de
fructe
60
60
60
60
60
60
45 must
struguri
180R

=DK U

3HFWLQ

Tabelul nr.30
u de 670R

Acid citric

Arome

66
65
65,5
65,0
65,5
66,0

1
2
2
1
0,8

0,3
0,3
0,3
0,3
-

62

0,8

0,055x)

$URP GHPXVFDW

5.5. Pasta de fructe


3DVWD GH IUXFWH UHSUH]LQW  R JUXS  GH SURGXVH RE LQXWH SULQ FRQFHQWUDUHD PDUFXOXL GH
IUXFWHFXDGDRVGH]DK UDPEDODWHvQUHFLSLHQWHvQFKLVHHUPHWLFLSDVWHXUL]DWH
3DVWDGHIUXFWHVHSUHSDU GLQWU RVLQJXU VSHFLHGHIUXFWHLSRDUW GHQXPLUHDDFHVWHLD

3DVWDGHP

FHH

Q ID]D GH SUHJ WLUH D PDWHULHL SULPH SDVWD GH P FHH SUH]LQW  XQHOH SDUWLFXODULW
IXQF LHGHIRUPDvQFDUHVHSUH]LQW P FHHOH SURDVSHWHGHVKLGUDWDWHVDXFRQVHUYDWHFX622

L vQ

).

Q FD]XO P FHHORU GHVKLGUDWDWH VH SURFHGHD]  OD UHKLGUDWDUHD vQ ED]LQH FX DS  vQ

SURSRU LHGHvQFDUHVHPHQ LQRUH


0 FHHOHFRQVHUYDWHFX622VHGHVXOILWHD] SU

in fierbere.

0 FHHOHSURDVSHWHUHKLGUDWDWHVDXGHVXOILWDWHVHILHUELDSRLVHSDVHD] vQGRX HWDSH

pasarea prin pasatrice cu site avnd orificiu cu 1,3 mm;


rafinarea n raficatrice cu site avnd orificiu de 0,5 mm;

)D]HOHXUP

toare sunt identice cu cele descrise la pastele de fructe.

'HIHFWHGHIDEULFD LH

a) Caramelizarea
E 3UH]HQ DQLVLSXOXL
F 0XFHJ LUHDLIHUPHQWDUHD

0DUPHODG
0DUPHODGDHVWHSURGXVXORE LQXWSULQFRQFHQWUDUHDFX]DK UDPDUFXOXLGHIUXFWHSURDVS W
VDXFRQVHUYDWFXELR[LGGHVXOIFXVDXI U DGDRVGHDFLGFLWULF
0DUPHODGDVHIDEULF vQGRX FDOLW

LLVXSHULRDU LDPHVWHF

0DUPHODGD VXSHULRDU  VH IDEULF  GLQWU R VLQJXU  VSHFLH GH IUXFWH L DQXPH DILQHDJULH

FDLVH F SXQL FLUHH FRDF ]H FRDUQH IUDJL JXWXL P FHH PXUH PHUH SLHUVLFL SUXQH YLLQH
]DU] UH]PHXU VDXVWUXJXUL
0DUPHODGD VXSHULRDU  VH IDEULF  GLQ DPHVWHF GH IUXFWH FXSULQ]kQG PLQLP  GLQ
XUP WRDUHOH VSHFLL DILQH DJULH FDLVH F SXQL FLUHH FRDF ]H FRDUQH IUDJL P FHH SLHUVLFL
VWUXJXULYLLQH]PHXU ]DU] UHLDUGLQVSHFLLOHJXWXLPHUHPXUHSUXQH
0DUPHODGD DPHVWHF VH IDEULF  GLQ WRDWH VSHFLLOH GH IUXFWH L WUHEXLH V  FRQ LQ  PLQLP 

specii de fructe.
3URSRU LD GH SHUH vQ PDUPHODGD DPHVWHF QX WUHEXLH V  GHS HDVF   GLQ FDQWLWDWHD
WRWDO GHIUXFWH

999

175(%

5,3(1758$872(9$/8$5(

1.

&HLQGLFLGHFDOLWDWHWUHEXLHUHVSHFWD LODUHFHS LDIUXFWHORU"

2.

&DUHHVWHVXFFHVLXQHDRSHUD LLORU WLSGLQIOX[XOWHKQRORJLFGHRE LQHUHDOFRQVHUYHORU

din fructe?
3.

&HWLSXULGHFRQVHUYHGLQIUXFWHVHSUHOXFUHD] LQGXVWULDO"

CONSERVE DE LEGUME

2%,(&7,9(850

5,7(

$WUDJHUHD DWHQ LHL VWXGHQ LORU DVXSUD LPSRUWDQ HL YDORULL DOLPHQWDUH D DFHVWXL UH]HUYRU
ELRORJLF GH YLWDPLQH L SULQFLSLL FKLPLFH FX URO WHUDSHXWLF vQ FRQWH[WXO XQHL YDORULILF UL

industriale eficiente a produselor acestui sector horticol.

REZUMAT
$FHVW FDSLWRO YLQH V  FRPSOHWH]H FXQRWLQ HOH DVLPLODWH GLQ VWXGLXO FRQVHUY ULL IUXFWHORU

prezentndu-VHIOX[XOWHKQRORJLF GHSUHOXFUDUHDOOHJXPHORU FXGLIHUHQ LHULOHVSHFLILFHWH[WXULLL


JUDGXOXLGHUH]LVWHQ ODSUHOucrare.
6H PHQ LRQHD]  GH DVHPHQHD WLSXULOH GH DPEDODMH IRORVLWH vQ FRQWH[WXO XQRU LQGLFL GH
FDOLWDWH SUHFXP L FRQGL LLOH FH WUHEXLHVF vQGHSOLQLWH SHQWUX DVLJXUDUHD XQHL EXQH VWDELOLW

L

ELRFKLPLFHFXVFRSXOHYLW ULLGLIHULWHORUGHIHFWHGHIDEULFD LH

CUVINTE SAU EXPRESII CHEIE: PDWXULWDWHLQGXVWULDO , GHFROLUHFKLPLF



9
6RUWLPHQWHOHGHFRQVHUYHGHOHJXPHVWHULOL]DWHVHJUXSHD] DVWIHO

A -FRQVHUYHGHOHJXPHvQDS LEXOLRQ
B - conserve de legume n ulei;
C -FRQVHUYHGHOHJXPHvQR HW

PURGXVHOHWUHEXLHV

FRUHVSXQG GRFXPHQWHORUWHKQLFHQRUPDWLYHGHSURGXVvQYLJRDUH

1. MATERIA PRIM
&RQGL LLGHFDOLWDWH
0DWHULD SULP 

legumele proaspete  WUHEXLH V

 FRUHVSXQG  GRFXPHQWHORU WHKQLFH

QRUPDWLYGHSURGXVHDUHSUH]LQW IDFWRUXOHVHQ LDOvQDVLJXUDUHDFDOLW

LLSURGXVHORUILQLWH

La fabricarea conservelor de legume se folosesc ca materii prime legume proaspete sau


preconservate.

$SUHFLHUHDFDOLW
GHFRQGL

LLPDWHULHL SULPHXWLOL]DWH vQLQGXVWULDFRQVHUYHORU VHIDFH LQkQGVHDPD

iile impuse de procesul tehnologic de prelucrare.

&DOLWDWHDOHJXPHORUVHGHILQHWHSULQLQGLFDWRULJHQHUDOLLLQGLYLGXDOLDLVSHFLHLLVRLXOXL
$VSHFWXO H[WHULRU DO OHJXPHORU HVWH QR LXQHD FH LQFOXGH R VHULH GH LQGLFDWRUL FDOLWDWLYL

privind gradul de pURVSH LPH L LQWHJULWDWH SUH]HQ D FRUSXULORU


dimensiunile, stadiul de maturitate, starea igienico-VDQLWDU HWF

VWU LQH FXORDUHD IRUPD L

/HJXPHOHGHVWLQDWHLQGXVWULDOL] ULLWUHEXLHV ILHSURDVSHWHvQWUHJLI U ORYLWXULPHFDQLFH

neatacate de boli, cXUDWH I

U  XUPH GH SURGXVH ILWRIDUPDFHXWLFH GH FXORDUH P ULPH L IRUP 

VSHFLILF VRLXOXLUHFROWDWHODVWDGLXOGHPDWXULWDWHLQGXVWULDO 
&RQ LQXWXO ULGLFDW vQ VXEVWDQ H XWLOH UHSUH]LQW  XQ DOW IDFWRU LPSRUWDQW GH LQGLFDWRUL

calitativi, ce se impun leJXPHORU GHVWLQDWH LQGXVWULDOL]


UDQGDPHQWRE LQXWODFXU

ULL $LFL HVWH LQFOXV  L QR LXQHD GH

LUHDOHJXPHORU UDSRUWXOGLQWUH SDUWHDXWLO  FRPHVWLELO LGHHXULGH

DVHPHQHD HVWH IRDUWH LPSRUWDQW  SURSRU LD SULQFLSDOLORU FRQVWLWXHQ L DL S U LL FRPHVWLELOH KLGUD L
GHFDUERQDPLQRDFL]LV UXULPLQHUDOHYLWDPLQHHWF SUHFXPLUDSRUWXOGLQWUHDFHVWHD

'HHXULOHDGPLVHODFXU

LUHDOHJXPHORUVXSXVHLQGXVWULDOL]

ULL

Tabelul nr.31
Nr.
crt.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Denumirea legumei
Ardei
Bame
&DVWUDYH L

Dovlecei
Fasole verde
Tomate
Vinete
&HDS

Usturoi
Praz
Hrean
Morcovi
3 WUXQMHOU G FLQL
3 VWkUQDF
6IHFO URLH
HOLQ U G FLQL
&RQRSLG
9DU] DOE
9DU] URLH
&HDS YHUGH

Spanac
3 WUXQMHOIUXQ]H
0 UDU
/HXWHDQ
HOLQ IUXQ]H

'HHXUL

16,2-20,8
10,4-14,5
3,6-8,5
15,2-30,5
6,4-11,3
5,3-12,4
8,6-25,2
6,4-12,5
7,6-14,8
32,4-49,7
25,2-28,9
26,4-38,2
22,5-34,6
20,4-28,6
20,4-28,3
25,4-37,6
36,4-45,3
10,8-24,3
12,3-20,6
12,4-15,8
18,7-40,2
5,8-10,6
4,5-8,7
5,4-15,6
3,8-7,6

1DWXUDGHHXULORU
SHGXQFXOLFDOLFLXVHPLQ H

pedunculi, caliciu
pedunculi, caliciu
SHGXQFXOLFDOLFLXVHPLQ H
SHGXQFXOLD HYkUIXULFRGL H

pedunculi, caliciu, semiQ H


pedunculi, caliciu
frunze, disc bazal
frunze, disc bazal
U G FLQLIUXQ]H
FRMLFROHWU G FLQLODWHUDOH

coji, colet
coji, colet
coji, colet
coji, colet
coji, colet
caliciu, tulpini, frunze
WXOSLQ IUXQ]HH[WHULRDUHFRWRU
WXOSLQ IUXQ]HH[WHULRDUHFRWRU

frunze, disc radicular


U G FLQLIUXQ]HJDOEHQH

tulpini, pedunculi
tulpini, pedunculi
SH LROQHUYXUL

frunze galbene, pedunculi

6H UHFRPDQG  XWLOL]DUHD VRLXULORU GH OHJXPH FX UDQGDPHQW PD[LP OD FXU

LUH FDUH DX

FRQ LQXWULGLFDWGHVXEVWDQ HQXWULWLYHLUDSRUWRSWLPvQWUHSULQFLSDOLLFRPSRQHQ LDLS U LLXWL

le.

1R LXQHD GH FDOLWDWH D OHJXPHORU GHVWLQDWH LQGXVWULDOL] ULL LQFOXGH GH DVHPHQHD L
FRPSRUWDUHD ORU vQ GLIHULWH ID]H DOH SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF vQ VFRSXO S VWU ULL SURSULHW

LORU

FDOLWDWLYHFkWPDLDSURSLDWHGHFHOHLQL LDOH
6HUHFRPDQG VRLXULGHOHJXPHFDUHvQXUPDWUDWDPHQWHORUPHFDQLFHLWHUPLFHQXVXIHU 

PRGLILF UL HVHQ LDOH GH FXORDUH L JXVW DX SLHUGHUL PLQLPH GH VXEVWDQ H VROXELOH XWLOH ]DKDUXUL
YLWDPLQHWHF LvLS VWUHD] WH[WXUDI U vQPXLHUHDH[FHVLY D HVXWXULORU

Calitatea legumHORU HVWH FRQGL LRQDW

 L GH SHULRDGD GH UHFROWDUH 6WDELOLUHD FRUHFW  D

PRPHQWXOXL RSWLP GH UHFROWDUH SUDFWLF VH SRDWH UHDOL]D QXPDL SULQ FXQRDWHUHD IRDUWH H[DFW  D

diferitelor stadii de maturitate a legumelor.


6WDGLXO GH PDWXULWDWH VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ QXPHURDVH PRGLILF UL FH DX ORF vQ VWUXFWXUD
OHJXPHORUFXORDUHDYHUGHVHWUDQVIRUP vQFXORULVSHFLILFHGDWRULW SLJPHQ LORUYHJHWDOL FDURWHQ
OLFRSHQ  DSDU DURPHOH FD UH]XOWDW DO IRUP ULL XOHLXULORU HWHULFH JXVWXO GHYLQH SO FXW vQ XUPD

stabilirii uQRU

UDSRUWXUL DUPRQL]DWH vQWUH SULQFLSDOLL FRQVWLWXHQ L ]DKDUXUL DFL]L RUJDQLFL

VXEVWDQ HPLQHUDOHQWLPSXOPDWXULW

LLSURSULX-]LVHVHSURGXFHEUXQLILFDUHDVHPLQ HORUODXQHOH
legume (vinete, bame, ardei, dovlecei etc.)
n procesul de maturizare a lHJXPHORUVHGLVWLQJXUP WRDUHOHHWDSHSULQFLSDOH

PDWXULWDWHDFRPHUFLDO 
PDWXULWDWHDLQGXVWULDO

maturitatea de consum;
PDWXULWDWHDIL]LRORJLF 

Maturitatea de consum UHSUH]LQW  VWDGLXO vQ FDUH OHJXPHOH vQGHSOLQHVF vQVXLULOH


RUJDQROHSWLFH L IL]LFR-chimLFH WLSLFH VRLXOXL DX YDORDUHD DOLPHQWDU  PD[LP  L XQ FRHILFLHQW
ridicat de digestibilitate. La majoritatea legumelor maturitatea de consum precede maturitatea
IL]LRORJLF  (VWH FD]XO OHJXPHORU YHU]L PD] UH IDVROH S VW L DUGHL GRYOHFHL FDVWUDYH L
YHUGH XULHWF FDUHVHFRQVXP vQVWDUHLPDWXU GLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHIL]LRORJLF
0DWXULWDWHDLQGXVWULDO

UHSUH]LQW  VWDGLXORSWLPGH SUHOXFUDUHDOHJXPHORULvQJHQHUDO

WUHEXLH V  FRLQFLG  FX PDWXULWDWHD GH FRQVXP LQkQG VHDPD GH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH OHJXP

elor n

DFHDVW HWDS 
3HQWUXDVHDVLJXUDOHJXPHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHLQGXVWULDOL] ULLVHLPSXQXUP WRDUHOHP VXUL
JHQHUDOH FH WUHEXLH DSOLFDWH GH F WUH SURGXF WRULL GH OHJXPH L GH F WUH XQLW

LOH GH

LQGXVWULDOL]DUHLDQXPH

cultivarea legumelor din soiurLOHFXFDOLW

LLQGLFDWHSHQWUXLQGXVWULDOL]DUH

HDORQDUHDFXOWXULORUvQVFRSXOSUHOXQJLULLFDPSDQLHLGHSUHOXFUDUH
DVLJXUDUHDFRQGL LLORUGHPDWXUL]DUHXQLIRUP DORWXULORUvQVFRSXODSOLF ULLUHFROW ULL

mecanizate a legumelor.
Legumele preconservate dHVLQDWH SUHOXFU

ULL XOWHULRDUH VXE IRUP  GH FRQVHUYH VH RE LQ

SULQDSOLFDUHDXUP WRDUHOHPHWRGH

VXSUDV UDUH OD DUGHL JUDV DUGHL LXWH IUXQ]H FRQGLPHQWDUH S WUXQMHO P UDU WDUKRQ

IHUPHQWD LHODFWLF ODFDVWUDYH LJRJRQHOHYDU] DOE FRQRSLG GRYOHFHLSDWLVRQ

HOLQ IRLGHYL

DFLGLILUHODJRJRDULDUGHL.DSLDFDVWUDYH LGRYOHFHLSDWLVRQ

GHVKLGUDWDUHD OD FHDS  IUXQ]H FRQGLPHQWDUH S WUXQMHO

HOLQ  P UDU WDUKR 

PD] UH

VWHULOL]DUH vQ DPEDODMH PDUL OD RULFH IHO GH OHJXPH vQ SUDFWLF  DFHVW

tip de

SUHFRQVHUYDUHDVHDSOLF ODPD] UHIDVROHS VW L

FRQJHODUHODPD] UHIDVROHYHUGHHWF

vQVLOR]DUHODU G FLQRDVHFDUWRILYDU] HWF

3H OkQJ  FRQGL LLOH FDOLWDWLYH FH VH LPSXQ PDWHULHL SULPH GHVWLQDW  LQGXVWULDOL] ULL OD

legumele preconservaWH VH YD DFRUGD R DWHQ LH GHRVHELW  FRQVLVWHQ HL DYkQG vQ YHGHUH
tratamentele termice la care se supun produsele n procesul tehnologic de fabricare al
conservelor.
/HJXPHOHSURDVSHWHLSUHFRQVHUYDWHWUHEXLHV FRUHVSXQG FRQGL LLORUWHKQLFHGHFDOLWDWH

impuse de documentele tehnice normative de produs n vigoare.

5HFHS LH
5HFHS LDUHSUH]LQW FRQWUROXOFDOLWDWLYLFDQWLWDWLYDOOHJXPHORU5HFHS LDFDOLWDWLY FRQVW 
vQ H[DPHQXO RUJDQROHSWLF L YHULILFDUHD FRQGL LLORU WHKQLFH vQVFULVH vQ GRFXPH

ntul tehnic

normativ de produs.
8Q URO KRW UkWRU vO DX H[DPHQXO RUJDQROHSWLF L YHULILFDUHD VW ULL VDQLWDUH D OHJXPHORU
I U V RSRDW VWDELOLvQWRWGHDXQDYDORDUHDORUWHKQRORJLF 
'H DVHPHQHD QLFL SULQ GHWHUPLQ ULOH GH ODERUDWRU QX VH SRW VWDELOL FX

precizie valoarea

WHKQRORJLF  OHJXPHORU GLQ OLSVD XQRU PHWRGH DQDOLWLFH UDSLGH FDUH V  LQGLFH HYHQWXDOHOH
GHJUDG UL6LQJXUDPHWRG MXVW GHGHWHUPLQDUHDFDOLW

LLFRQVW vQDSUHFLHUHDOHJXPHORUSHED] 

vQWUHJXOXLFRPSOH[GHGDWH RE LQXWHSULQH[DPHQRUJDQROSHWLFSUHFXPLSULQDQDOL]HFHVHSRW

executa n timp util n laboratoarele ntreprinderilor industriale.


3HQWUX YHULILFDUHD FDOLW

LL VH UHFROWHD]  SUREH PHGLL GLQ ORWXO GH PDWHULH SULP  VXSXV

UHFHS LHL &RQ LQXWXO ILHF UXL PLMORF GH WUDQVSRUW DXWRFDPLRQ VDX YDJRQ  VH FRQVLGHU  XQ ORW
0 ULPHDXQXLORWQXWUHEXLHV GHS HDVF WRQH/DUHFROWDUHDSUREHORUPHGLLVHYRUvQO WXUD
DPEDODMHOHFXOHJXPHFHDXVXIHULWGHWHULRU ULvQWLPSXOWUDQVSRUWXOXLDFHVWHDFRQVWLWXLQGXQORW

separat.
Prelevarea probelor se face n conformitate cu prevederile SATS 7218- )UXFWH L
OHJXPHSURDVSHWH/XDUHDSUREHORU$VWIHOODSURGXVHOHWUDQVSRUWDWHvQO ]LVHLDXODvQWkPSODUH
GLQGLYHUVHORFXULDOHORWXOXLXQQXP UGHDPEDODMHFRQIRUPWDEHOXOXLQU

Tabelul nr.32
1XP UGHDPEDODMH

3kQ OD

din lot

100

1XP UGHDPEDODMHvQ

proba medie

101-300

301-500

501-1000

Peste 1000

10

15

/DSURGXVHOHvQYUDFVHLDXODvQWkPSODUHGLQFHOSX LQORFXULLVWUDWXULGLIHULWHFDQWLW

mici de legume, care IRUPHD]


0 ULPHDORWXOXLvQ

kg

SUREDPHGLHGHP ULPHVSHFLILFDW vQWDEHOXOQU

3kQ OD

201-500

501-1000

10

20

30

0 ULPHDSUREHL

medii n kg

L

Tabelul nr.33
Peste
1001-5000
5000
60

100

'LQ SURED PHGLH RPRJHQL]DW  SULQ UHGXFHUL VXFFHVLYH VH RE LQ

e proba de laborator, de

minim 3 kg, care se supune analizei.

1.3. Transport
$SURYL]LRQDUHDFXOHJXPHVHIDFHvQJHQHUDOGHSHRUD] FkWPDLDSURSLDW GHXQLWDWHDGH
SUHOXFUDUHSHQWUXDUHGXFHWLPSXOGHWUDQVSRUWGHODFHQWUHOHGHUHFROWDUHODVHF LL

le de prelucrare

LQGXVWULDO 
7UDQVSRUWXO VH IDFH FX PLMORDFH GH WUDQVSRUW DFRSHULWH SHQWUX D SURWHMD PDWHULD SULP  GH
LQIOXHQ DLQWHPSHULLORU
3H SDUFXUVXO WUDQVSRUWXOXL OHJXPHOH WUHEXLH IHULWH GH RFXUL L Y W P UL PHFDQLFH 'H

aceea, ambalajele recomandate pentru transport sunt adecvate speciei, folosindu-se diferite tipuri
GHO ]LFRQWDLQHUHEHQHFLVWHUQHHWF
Q FD]XO O ]LORU VDX FRQWDLQHUHORU QLYHOXO OHJXPHORU WUHEXLH V  ILH FX 

-10 cm, sub

vQ O LPHDDPEDODMXOXLSHQWUXDHYLWDSURYRFDUHDGHY W P ULPHFDQLFHLWHUFLXLUHSULQVWULYLUH

$PEDODMHOH WUHEXLH V  DVLJXUH DHULVLUHD SURGXVHORU DPEDODWH V  ILH vQ VWDUH IXQF LRQDO 
FXUDWHI U PLURVVWU LQLV QXPRGLILFHFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHGHFDOLWDWHDOHSURGXVXOXLDPEDODW
(VWH REOLJDWRULH VS ODUHD L GH]LQIHF LD W YLORU EHQHORU L FLVWHUQHORU GXS  ILHFDUH
WUDQVSRUWFXPD] UHGHODVWD LDGHEDWR]DUHODIDEULF 
6S ODUHD VH HIHFWXHD]  vQ VSD LL DPHQDMDWH VSHFLDOH FX DS  FDOG  FX DGDRV GH  VRG 
FDOFLQDW  XUPDW  GH FO WLUH FX DS  UHFH GLQ DEXQGHQ

 /D LQWHUYDO GH  RUH HVWH REOLJDWRULH

VS ODUHD L GH]LQIHF LD EHQHORU L FLVWHUQHORU GH WUDQVSRUW D WRPDWHORU 'H]LQIHF LD VH H[HFXW  FX
DS FORULQDW  

-100 mg clor activ la litru).

6S ODUHD FRQWDLQHUHORU VH HIHFWXHD]  RUL GH FkWH RUL VH LPSXQH

n cazul n care

FRQWDLQHUHOH VH vQFDUF  FX UHVWXUL GH OHJXPH VDX S PkQW VS ODUHD HVWH REOLJDWRULH GXS  ILHFDUH
WUDQVSRUW'XS VS ODUHFRQWDLQHUHOHVHUHLQWURGXFvQFLUFXLWXOGHWUDQVSRUWQXPDLGXS XVFDUH
8QHOHVSHFLLSRWILWUDQVSRUWDWHLvQYUDFvQPDLQLVDXUHPRUFLEDVFXODQWH
Q

DFHVW

PRG

SRW

IL

WUDQVSRUWDWH

WRPDWHOH

IDVROHD

S VW L

DUGHLRDVHOH

YLQHWHOH

U G FLQRDVHOHHWF

'HSR]LWDUHDWHPSRUDU
6WRFDUHD OHJXPHORU SkQ  OD LQWURGXFHUHD vQ SURFHVXO GH LQGXVWULDOL]DUH WUHEXLH OLPLWDW 
GDF HVWH SRVLELOFKLDU VXSULPDW  DVWIHO vQFkW SH GXUDWD S VWU ULL V  QX VH SURGXF  PRGLILF UL DOH

caracteristicilor specifice.
'HSR]LWDUHDWHPSRUDU VHUHDOL]HD] vQPDJD]LLRSURDQHSODWIRUPHDFRSHULWHED]LQHFX
DS  VLOR]XUL GHSR]LWH VLPSOH VDX IULJRULILFH FXUDWH FkW PDL SX LQ VXSXVH DF LXQLL GLUHFWH D
UDGLD LLORU VRODUH L SORLORU FX SRVLELOLW

L EXQH GH YHQWLOD LH QDWXUDO  VDX PHFDQLF  D DWPRVIHUHL

interioare - conform prevederilor STAS 56952-)UXFWHLOHJXPHSURDVSHWH&RQGL LLJHQHUDOH


deDPEDODUHPDUFDUHGHSR]LWDUHLWUDQVSRUW'RFXPHQWH
3HQWUXWRPDWHLPD] UHVHSUDFWLF LGHSR]LWDUHDvQED]LQHFXDS 
Q WLPSXO VWRF ULL WHPSRUDUH OHJXPHOH VXIHU  R VHULH GH PRGLILF UL GH QDWXU  IL]LF 
ELRFKLPLF  L PLFURELRORJLF  0RGLILF ULOH VXUYHQLWH VXQW vQ IXQF LH GH VSHFLH VRL JUDG GH
PDWXULWDWHFRQGL LLGHS VWUDUH WHPSHUDWXU XPLGLWDWHFLUFXOD LDDHUXOXL LGXUDWDGHSR]LW ULL
'LQWUH PRGLILF ULOH IL]LFH FHD PDL LPSRUWDQW  HVWH SLHUGHUHD DSHL GDWRULW  HYDSRU ULL

avnd ca rezultDW VF

GHUHD JUHXW

LL L GHVKLGUDWDUHD VXSHUILFLDO  ]EkUFLUHD  FHD FH FRQIHU 

OHJXPHORU XQ DVSHFW QHFRUHVSXQ] WRU FX LPSOLFD LL QHJDWLYH DVXSUD FDOLW

LL SURGXVHORU ILQLWH L

consumurilor specifice.
QWDEHOXOQUVHSUH]LQW SLHUGHULOHvQJUHXWDWH

valori medii) la depozitarea legumelor,

vQGHSR]LWHVLPSOHLSHSODWIRUPHDFRSHULWH VXEFRSHUWLQH 
3ULQFLSDOHOH WUDQVIRUP UL ELRFKLPLFH DOH OHJXPHORU vQ SHULRDGD GH GHSR]LWDUH VXQW
XUP WRDUHOH

vQPXLHUHD HVXWXULORU YHJHWDOH FD XUPDUH D KLGUROL]HL HQ]LPDWLFH VDX VXEVWDQ HORU

pectice insolubile;

SLHUGHULGHVXEVWDQ H]DKDURDVHSULQWUDQVIRUPDUHDORUvQELR[LGGHFDUERQLDS vQ

WUDQVIRUPDUHD]DK UXOXLvQDPLGRQH[PD] UH 

UHGXFHUHDFRQ LQXWXOXLGHYLWDPLQHFDX]DW GHSURFHV

SURFHVXOGHUHVSLUD LH

ul de oxidare.

Pierderi n greutate la depozitarea legumelor


Tabelul nr.34
Nr.
crt.
1
2

Denumirea legumei

Ardei
Bame

U.M.%

Durata de depozitare
12 ore

24 ore

1,0
1,0

1,5
1,5

Peste
ore
2,5
2,5

24 2 zile

4 zile

Peste
zile

&DVWUDYH L

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1,0
0,5
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
0,5
1,0
1,0
0,5
-

&HDS
&RQRSLG

Dovlecei
)DVROHS VW L
5 G FLQRDVH
0D] UHS VW L

Tomate
Vinete
9HUGH XUL

Spanac
9DU]

Usturoi

1,5
1,0
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,0
1,5
1,5
1,0
-

2,5
1,5
2,5
2,5
2,5
2,5
1,5
2,5
2,5
1,5
-

1,0

1,5

2,0

1,0

1,5

2,0

1,0

1,5

2,0

'HSR]LWDUHDvQGHOXQJDW vQFRQGL LLQHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHDOHJXPHORUSRDWHGXFHODDSDUL LD


XQRU IHQRPHQH PLFURELRORJLFH QHGRULWH PXFHJ LUH L IHUPHQWDUH  FX GHJUDGDUHD FDOLW

LL

PDWHULHLSULPHLLQIHFWDUHDOLQLLORUGHIDEULFD LHDYkQGFD UH]XOWDWILQDOFUHWHUHDSURFHQWXOXLGH


ERPEDMH)DFWRULLSULQFLSDOLFDUHGHWHUPLQ LQWHQVLWDWHDWUDQVIRUP ULORUPLFURELRORJLFHVXQW

FRQGL LLOHGHS VWUDUH WHPSHUDWXU XPLGLWDWHFLUFXOD LDDHUXOXL 


VLVWHPXOGHGHSR]LWDUH vQO ]LFRQWDLQHUHYUDF 

calitatea igienico-VDQLWDU

DVSD LLORULDPEDODMHORU

3 VWUDUHD vQ VWDUH SURDVS W  SH SHULRDGH PDL PDUL D OHJXPHORU vQ YHGHUHD SUHOXFU ULL

ulterioare se face n silozuri, depozite frigorifice.


2. MATERIALE AUXILIARE
&RQGL LLGHFDOLWDWH
0DWHULDOHOH DX[LOLDUH IRORVLWH OD IDEULFDUHD FRQVHUYHORU GH OHJXPH WUHEXLH V  FRUHVSXQG 

documentelor tehnice normative de produs n vigoare.


Materialele auxiliare au rol determinanWDVXSUDFDOLW

LLLYDORULLQXWULWLYHDFRQVHUYHORU

3ULQFLSDOHOH PDWHULDOH DX[LOLDUH XWLOL]DWH OD IDEULFDUHD FRQVHUYHORU GH OHJXPH VXQW DS 
VDUHXOHLDFL]LRUJDQLFLDOLPHQWDUL]DK URUH]I LQ SDVWHI LQRDVHFRQGLPHQWHHWF

Apa UHSUH]LQW

 XQXO GLQIDFWRULL HVHQ LDOL vQ GHVI XUDUHD SURFHVHORU GH SURGXF LH vQIDEULFLOH

GH FRQVHUYH $SD XWLOL]DW  vQ VFRSXUL WHKQRORJLFH VS ODUH RS ULUHD VWHULOL]DUH VDX SHQWUX
SUHSDUDUHD OLFKLGHORU GH XPSOHUH D DPHVWHFXULORU FH LQWU  vQ FRPSRQHQ D SURGXVHORU

WUHEXLH V  FRUHVSXQG  FRQGL LLORU WHKQLFH GH FDOLWDWH LPSXVH GH 67$6   $S 

SRWDELO  6XSOLPHQWDU DSD WUHEXLH V  vQGHSOLQHDVF  XQHOH FRQGL LL OHJDWH GH ID]HOH
WHKQRORJLFHLGHFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHPDWHULHLSULPH
'XULWDWHD DSHL LQIOXHQ HD]  GLUHFW FDOLWDWHD FRQVHUYHORU 6H UHFRPDQG  XWLOL]DUHD DSHL FX
GXULWDWHD FXSULQV  vQWUH 

-12 grade germane pentru majoritatea produselor. Pentru produsele cu

WH[WXU  VODE  vQ VFRSXO PHQ LQHULL IHUPLW

utilizareaDSHLFXGXULWDWHDPDLULGLFDW
de calciu.

LL WRPDWH GHFRMLWH GRYOHFHL vQ DS  VH UHFRPDQG 

SkQ ODJUDGHJHUPDQHvQFDUHVFRSVHDGDXJ FORUXU 

Sare

'LQSXQFWGHYHGHUHFKLPLFSHOkQJ FORUXUDGHVRGLX   VDUHDFRQ LQHLV UXULGH

PDJQH]LX FDOFLX L SRWDVLX VXE IRUP  GH VXOID L VDX FORUXUL 3UH]HQ D vQ VDUH D XQHL FDQWLW
FORUXU LVXOIDWGHPDJQH]LXSHVWHvLP UHWHKLJURVFRSLFLWDWHDLvLFRQIHU JXVWDPDU

L GH

Ulei
/DIDEULFDUHDFRQVHUYHORUGHOHJXPHJ WLWHVHIRORVHWHXOHLUDILQDWGHIORDUHDVRDUHOXLL

soia.

Acizi alimentari citric, tartric, acetic, lactic, ascorbic- se folosesc la fabricarea conservelor
de legume n diverse scopuri.

2 HWXODOLPHQWDU
2 HWXOLDFLGXODFHWLFVHIRORVHVFODSUHSDUDUHDVROX LHLGHDFRSHULUHSHQWUXFRQVHUYHOHGH

OHJXPH vQ R HW VDX SHQWUX FRUHFWDUHD DFLGLW

LL XQRU SURGXVH vQ VFRSXO vQOHVQLULL SURFHVXOXL GH

sterilizare.
2 HWXOVHXWLOL]HD] LSHQWUXFRQVHUYDUHDXQRUOHJXPH

Acidul ascorbic-VHUHFRPDQG SHQWUXYLWDPLQL]DUHDXQRUSURGXVHLFDDQWLR[LGDQWLWUHEXLH


V FRUHVSXQG GRFXPHQWXOXLtehnic normativ de produs.
$FLGXOFLWULFLDFLGXOWDUWULFVHXWLOL]HD] SHQWUXLQKLEDUHDSURFHVHORUGHR[LGDUHHQ]LPDWLF 

Condimentele VXQW IRORVLWH vQ LQGXVWULD FRQVHUYHORU SHQWUX D FRQIHUL SURGXVHORU XQ JXVW L
PLURVSO FXWVWLPXOkQGDSHWLWXO

CondimHQWHOH QDWXUDOH VXQW GH RULJLQH YHJHWDO

 'LQ SODQWD DURPDWL]DQW  VH SRW IRORVL

IUXFWHOHVHPLQ HOHEXOELLIUXQ]HOHIORULOHFRMLLOHWXOSLQLOHVDXU G FLGLQLOH


&RQGLPHQWHOH FRQ LQ R VHULH GH SULQFLSLL DFWLYH XOHLXUL HWHULFH DOGHKLGH FHWRQH U LQ

i,

DFL]LJOXFR]LGLFLHWF FDUHGHILQHVFFDUDFWHULVWLFDILHF UXLD

=DK

UXO VH XWLOL]HD]  vQ FDQWLW

L PLFL vQ VFRSXO FRUHFW ULL VXEVWDQ HL XVFDWH VROXELOH

ODVRVXULSUHFXPLFDDGDRVODXQHOHSURGXVHGHVWLQDWHH[SRUWXOXL

Orezul LQWURGXV vQ FRPSR]L LD XQRU FRQVHUYH J

WLWH OH P UHWH YDORDUHD QXWULWLY 

SULQFRQ LQXWXOULGLFDWGHDPLGRQ
$OWHPDWHULDOHDX[LOLDUHFHLQWU  vQFRPSRQHQ DFRQVHUYHORUGH OHJXPH DPLGRQERLDGH
DUGHL SDVW  GH WRPDWH I LQ  ODSWH SUDI SDVWH I LQRDVH JOXWDPDW PRQRVRGLF HWF  FRPSOHWHD] 
YDORDUHDQXWULWLY DSURGXVHORUUHDOL]DWHLOHFRQIHU FDOLW

23(5$

LJXVWDWLYHGHRVHELWH

,,7(+12/2*,&(*(1(5$/(

Procesul tehnologic general de fabricare a conservelor de legume sterilizate cuprinde


XUP WRDUHOHID]HSULQFLSDOH

1. sortare I
2. VS ODUH
3. sortare II
4. FXU LUH
5. divizare
6. WUDWDPHQWHWHUPLFHSUHOLPLQDUHRS ULUHSU MLUH
7. SUHSDUDUHDOLFKLGHORUGHDFRSHULUH VDUDPXU EXOLRQVRVWRPDWVROX LHGHR HW
8. VS ODUHDUHFLSLHQWHORU
9. umplere
10. marcare
11. nchidere
12. sterilizare
13. FRQGL LRQDUHDUHcipientelor pline
14. depozitare

1. Sortare I
6RUWDUHDvQDFHDVW ID] DUHVFRSXOGHDvQGHS UWDOHJXPHOHQHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHDWDFDWHGH
EROL DOWHUDWH PXFHJ LWH L D HYHQWXDOHORU FRUSXUL VWU LQH Q DFHVW PRG VH HYLW  vQF UFDUHD
H[FHVLY FXFRUSXULVWU LQHDSHLGHVS ODUHLQIHFWDUHDDSHLGHVS ODUHDOHJXPHORUV Q WRDVHLD

utilajelor.
6S

ODUHD

3ULQ VS ODUHD OHJXPHORU VH vQGHS UWHD]  LPSXULW

LOH S PkQW QLVLS HWF  R SDUWH

vQVHPQDW GLQPLFURIORU SUHFXPLUH]LGXXULOHGHSHVWLFLGHDIODWHSHVXSUDID DORU


6S ODUHDOHJXPHORUVHIDFHvQWUHLID]HvQPXLDUHVS ODUHLFO WLUH
0DLQLOHGHVS ODWVHDOHJvQIXQF LHGHVSHFLDOHJXPHORUWH[WXUDLJUDGXOGHvQF UFDUHFX
LPSXULW

L
0DLQD GH VS ODW FX GXXUL HVWH LQGLFDW  SHQWUX PDWHULL SULPH FX WH[WXU  VODE  FDUH QX

QHFHVLW  R VS ODUH LQWHQV  $FHVW WLS GH PDLQ  SRDWH IL XWLOL]DW  L OD FO WLUHD OHJXPHORU VS ODWH
3UHVLXQHDDSHLODGXXULVHUHFRPDQG DILGH

-1,5 atm.

3HQWUX VS ODUHD OHJXPHORU FX WH[WXU  VHPLWDUH L WDUH VH IRORVHVF PDLQLOH GH VS ODW FX
YHQWLODWRU FDUH SULQ EDUERWDUHD DSHL DVLJXU  vQGHS UWDUHD LPSXULW

LORU DGHUHQWH FDUH VXQW DSRL

FROHFWDWH vQ ED]LQXO SUHY ]XW FX IXQG GXEOX FX VLW  QGHS UWDUHD FRQWLQX  D LPSXULW

LORU GLQ

ED]LQXO PDLQLDVLJXU  RVS ODUHHILFLHQW DOHJXPHORULSUHYLQHUHvQF UFDUHDORU FXLPSXULW

LOH

UH]XOWDWHGLQVS O ULOHDQWHULRDUH
/HJXPHOH U G FLQRDVH FDUH DX WH[WXUD WDUH L VXQW IRDUWH vQF UFDWH FX S PkQW L QLVLS VH
VSDO vQPDLQLFXWDPEXULSHULLSULQFDUHVS ODUHDHVWHPDLHILFLHQW SUL
0DLQDGHVS ODWSULQIORWD LHVHSDU LPSXULW
ID

n frecare.

LOHGDWRULW GLIHUHQ HLvQJUHXWDWHDVSHFLILF 

GHPDWHULDSULP  XWLOL]DW ODERDEHGHPD] UHERDEH GHIDVROH $FHDVW  PDLQ IDFHSDUWH

GLQOLQLDWHKQRORJLF GHIDEULFDUHDFRQVHUYHORUGHPD] UH


Q IXQF LH GH QHFHVLW

L VS ODUHD VH IDFH vQ PDL PXOWH HWDSH SULQ PRQWDUHD vQ VHULH D

PDLQLORUGHVS ODW H[ODVS ODUHDVSDQDFXOXL 


&RQWUROXOVS O ULLVHHIHFWXHD] YL]XDO
(ILFLHQ D VS O ULL VH DSUHFLD]  SULQ QXP UXO WRWDO GH PLFURRUJDQLVPH GH SH VXSUDID D
OHJXPHORU vQDLQWH L GXS  VS ODUH FDUH WUHEXLH V  VFDG  GH FHO SX LQ DVH RUL Q FD] FRQWUDU VH
LQWHQVLILF SURFHVXOGHVS ODUH

3. Sortare II
'XS  VS ODUH PDWHULD SULP  VH VXSXQH LQVSHF LHL YL]XDOH SHQWUX vQGHS UWDUHD OHJXPHORU

necRUHVSXQ]

WRDUH L D HYHQWXDOHORU FRUSXUL VWU LQH 2SHUD LD VH H[HFXW  SH EHQ]L WUDQVSRUWRDUH

VDXFXUROH9LWH]DRSWLP DEHQ]LORUGHVRUWDUHHVWHGHPVHFXQG 
&RQFRPLWHQW FX VRUWDUHD VH H[HFXW  VHSDUDUHD SH FDOLW

majoULWDWHD FD]XULORU FDOLEUDUHD FRQVWLWXLH ID]D WHKQRORJLF

L L FDOLEUDUHD OHJXPHORU Q

 GLVWLQFW  L VH HIHFWXHD]  FX XWLODMH

DGHFYDWH WULRDUHSHQWUXPD] UHVDXIDVROHS VW LVRUWDWRDUHSHQWUXWRPDWHVDXFDVWUDYH LHWF 

&XU
&XU

LUH

LUHDVHH[HFXW SHQWUXDVHSDUDUHDvQO WXUDS U LOHQHFRPHVWLELOHVDXJUHXGLJHUDELOH

DOH OHJXPHORU 2SHUD LD VH UHDOL]HD]  PDQXDO PHFDQLF WHUPLF FKLPLF VDX SULQ SURFHGHH

combinate.
&XU

LUHDPDQXDO

HVWHQHLQGLFDW GLQSXQFWGHYHGHUHVDQLWDUILLQGQHLJLHQLF LFX

R GXUDW  SUHOXQJLW  FUHkQG FRQGL LL GH GH]YROWDUH D PLFURIORUHL SH SURGXVH L
XVWHQVLOH1HFHVLWkQGXQYROXPVSRULWGHIRU

GHPXQF GXFHODFUHWHUHDSUH XOXLGH

FRVWODSURGXF LDUHDOL]DW 2SHUD LDVHHIHFWXHD] FXXVWHQVLOHGLQPDWHULDOLQR[LGDELO

&XU

LUHD PHFDQLF

se realizHD]

 FX PDLQL GH WLSXUL GLIHULWH DGHFYDWH VFRSXOXL

XUP ULW L FDUDFWHULVWLFLORU OHJXPHORU VXSXVH SUHOXFU ULL 0DLQLOH XWLOL]DWH SHQWUX
FXU

LUHD GH FRDM DOHJXPHORU DF LRQHD]  SH SULQFLSLXO U ]XLULL VXSUDIH HLL VHDSOLF 

vQ SULQFLSDO OD U G FLQRDVH 3ULQ U ]XLUH RGDW  FX FRDMD VH vQO WXU  L R SDUWH GLQ

SXOS  FDUH VH HOLPLQ  OD GHHXUL Q SUDFWLF  SHQWUX FXU

LUHD U G FLQRDVHORU V

-au

RE LQXWUH]XOWDWHFDOLWDWLYHPDLEXQHODPDLQLOHFXVXOXULDEUD]LYHFRPSDUDWLYFXFHOH
FHDXVXSUDIH HDEUD]LYH
$OWH WLSXUL GH PDLQL GH FXU

DW YRU IL SUH]HQWDWH vQ WHKQRORJLD VSHFLDO  SH VRUWLPHQWH

EDWR]DGHPD] UHPDLQLGHVFRFFRWRUXOODDUGHLPDLQDGHW LDWYkUIXULODIDVROHS VW LHWF 

&XU

LUHD GH FRDM

a unor legume prin procedee termice, chimice sau combinate se

UHDOL]HD] vQFRQGL LLHILFLHQWH


'HFRMLUHD WHUPLF  D XQRU OHJXPH VH SRDWH UHDOL]D vQ SULQFLSDO SULQ RS ULUH vQ DS  VDX
WUDWDPHQWFXDEXUVXSUDvQF O]LW
6XE DF LXQHD WHPSHUDWXULORU ULGLFDWH SURWRSHFWLQD FDUH GHWHUPLQ  DGHUHQ D HSLGHUPHL

lHJXPHORU

VH WUDQVIRUP  vQ SHFWLQ  VROXELO  DHUXO GLQ VSD LLOH LQWUDFHOXODUH HVWH HOLPLQDW

YROXPXOOHJXPHORUVFDGHFHHDFHSHUPLWHGHVIDFHUHDXRDU DSLHOL HLFHVHvQO WXU SULQVS ODUH


L XRDU  IUHFDUH SULQ WUHFHUHD OHJXPHORU SH R EDQG  IRUPDW  GL

n vergele acoperite cu cauciuc

ULIODW5 FLUHDLPHGLDW DOHJXPHORUWUDWDWHWHUPLFvQOHVQHWHGHFRMLUHDLPHQ LQHWH[WXUD IHUP 


(ILFLHQ DGHFRMLULLFXDEXUVSRUHWHvQFD]XOvQFDUHGXS WUDWDPHQWXOWHUPLFVHDSOLF U FLUHDVXE

vid, producndu-se dezlipLUHD UDSLG

 D FRMLL 'HFRMLUHD SULQ RS ULUH SUH]LQW  GH]DYDQWDMXO XQRU

SLHUGHULGHVXEVWDQ HXWLOHFHVXQWVROXELOL]DWHvQDS 
'HFRMLUHD FX DEXU VXSUDvQF
DF LXQHDDEXUXOXLODSUHVLXQHDGH

O]LW FRQVW  vQ H[SXQHUHD PDWHULLORU SULPH YHJHWDOH OD

-8,5 atXUPDW

GHRGHWHQW EUXVF ODSUHVLXQHDDWPRVIHULF 

FHHD FH GHWHUPLQ  GHVSULQGHUHD L UXSHUHD SLHOL HL QGHS UWDUHD FRMLORU VH IDFH SULQ VS ODUH VXE
GXXUL
'HFRMLUHD FKLPLF

sodiu

DVXSUD

 D OHJXPHORU VH ED]HD]  SH HIHFWXO OD FDOGDO VROX LLORU GH KLGUR[LG GH

HVXWXOXL YHJHWDO L GHWHUPLQ  KLGUROL]D VWUDWXOXL GH VXE SLHOL

 (ILFDFLWDWHD

GHFRMLULL FX VROX LH DOFDOLQ  GHSLQGH GH XUP WRULL IDFWRUL FRQFHQWUD LD L WHPSHUDWXUD VROX LHL
GXUDWD WUDWDPHQWXOXL L IHOXO PDWHULHL SULPH &RQFHQWUD LD VROX LHL DOFDOLQH YDULD]  vQWUH 

-10 %,

WHPSHUDWXUD WUHEXLH V  ILH GH PLQLP  & LDU GXUDWD WUDWDPHQWXOXL VFDGH SULQ FUHWHUHD
FRQFHQWUD LHLVROX LHLFRQIRUPWDEHOXOXLQU
&RQFHQWUD LDVROX LHLWUHEXLHV VHPHQ LQ FRQVWDQW vQWLPSXOGHFRMLULLLVHYHULILF GXS 
ILHFDUHDUM 

Parametrii optimi de decojire a legumelor


Specia de legume
Tomate
Ardei kapia
Morcovi
HOLQ
3 WUXQMHOS VWkUQDF

&RQFHQWUD LD

7HPSHUDWXUDVROX LHL

VROX LHLGH

n 0C

NaOH n %
3
5
8
10
8

95-98
95-98
95-98
95-98
95-98

Tabelul nr. 35
Durata tratamentului
minute
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-3

'XS  WHUPLQDUHD WUDWDPHQWXOXL FKLPLF OHJXPHOH VH VSDO  FX DS  GLQ DEXQGHQ

 SHQWUX

vQGHS UWDUHD VRGHL L D UHVWXULORU GH SLHOL H 3HQWUX D VH UHDOL]D vQGHS UWDUHD vQ WRWDOLWDWH D
SLHOL HORU VH UHFRPDQG  FD VS ODUHD V  VH H[HFXWH vQ PDLQL FX WDPEXU URWDWLY 1HXWUDOL]DUHD
H[FHVXOXL GH DOFDOLL VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ LPHUVLD OHJXPHORU WLPS GH  PLQXWH vQ VROX LH GH 
DFLG FLWULF VDX  VHFXQGH vQ VROX LH GH  DFLG FORUKLGULF 9HULILFDUHD QHXWUDOL] ULL VH

hrtie indicatoare, pH-XOQXWUHEXLHV

fac cu

GHS HDVF YDORDUHDGH

5H]XOWDWHOHIRDUWHEXQHODGHFRMLUHDSURGXVHORUYHJHWDOHVHRE LQSULQWUDWDPHQWFRPELQDW
FKLPLFLFXYDSRULVXSUDvQF O]L L3URFHGHXOSUH]LQW DYDQWDMXOF VHUHGXFHFRQVXPXOGH1

aOH.

'XS WUDWDPHQWXOFKLPLFVHDSOLF QHXWUDOL]DUHDvQFRQGL LLOHLQGLFDWHPDLVXV

3HUVRQDOXOFDUHGHVHUYHWHLQVWDOD LDGHGHFRMLUHFKLPLF WUHEXLHV SRDUWHHFKLSDPHQWGH


SURWHF LHQHFHVDU

5. Divizare
'LYL]DUHD OHJXPHORU LQIOXHQ HD]  EXQD GHVI XUDUH D RSHUD LLORU WHKQRORJLFH XUP WRDUH
RS ULUHSU MLUH LDVLJXU RE LQHUHDDVSHFWXOXLFRUHVSXQ] WRUDOSURGXVHORUILQLWH
7UDWDPHQWHOH WHUPLFH SUHOLPLQDUH DSOLFDWH OHJXPHORU VXQW LQIOXHQ DWH GH JUDGXO GH
P UXQ LUH
2SHUD LD VH H[HFXW  PHFDQLF FX PDLQL DGHFYDWH SHQWUX GLPHQVLXQLOH L IRUPHOH

legumelor, destinate diferitelor sortimente de produs finite.


0DLQD XQLYHUVDO  GH W LDW OHJXPH VH IRORVHWH SHQWUX GLYL]DUHD VXE GLIHULWH IRUPH L
GLPHQVLXQL vQ IXQF LH GH FX LWHOH PRQWDWH 6H UHFRPDQG  vQ V

pecial pentru divizarea legumelor

U G FLQRDVHGDUSRWILXWLOL]DWHLODDOWHVSHFLL)DVROHDS VW LVHGLYL]HD] ODPDLQDGHW LDWWLS


WXUELQ vQEXF

LGHFLUFDFPFXSRVLELOLW

LGHUHJODUHSHQWUXGLPHQVLXQLGH

-3,5 cm.

Q FD]XO U G FLQRDVHORU FDUWRILORU L DUGHLRDVHORU DWXQFL FkQG GRULP V  RE LQHP EXF

L

FkW PDL XQLIRUPH FXEXUL SO FX H IkLL  HVWH ELQH FD vQDLQWH GH GLYL]DUH V  VH DSOLFH R VFXUW 
RS ULUH   PLQXWH  SHQWUX D UHDOL]D R XRDU  vQPXLHUHD HVXWXULORU FHHD FH IDYRUL]HD]  W

ierea

FRUHFW 
0 UXQ LUHD OHJXPHORU VXE IRUP  GH SDVW  VH IDFH GXS  RS ULUH VDX ILHUEHUH OD PRUL

coloidale, cutere sau microcutere.


a) Tratamente termice preliminare
Q SURFHVXO WHKQRORJLF GH IDEULFDUH D FRQVHUYHORU OHJXPHOH VH VXSXQ XUP WRDUHORU

traWDPHQWH WHUPLFH SUHOLPLQDUH RS

ULUH ILHUEHUH SU MLUH vQ IXQF LH GH VSHFLILFXO SURGXVXOXL L

VFRSXOXUP ULWvQSUHOXFUDUHDXOWHULRDU 7UDWDPHQWHOHWHUPLFHVXQWXUPDWHGHU FLUH

2S

ULUH

3ULQ RS ULUH OHJXPHOH VH VXSXQ XQXL WUDWDPHQW WHUPLF vQ DS

(980& WLPSGHPLQXWH'XUDWDGHRS
factori principali:

specia legumelor;

gradul de maturitate;

P ULPHDEXF

la temperatura de fierbere

ULUHDOHJXPHORUVHVWDELOHWHvQIXQF LHGHXUP WRULL

LORU JUDGXOGHP UXQ LUH 

sortimentul de conserve n compRQHQ DF

UXLDLQWU OHJXPHOHUHVSHFWLYH

5HJLPXO GH RS ULUH ILLQG GLIHULW vQ IXQF LH GH VRUWLPHQW YD IL SUH]HQWDW vQ FDGUXO

tehnologiilor specifice pe produse.


3ULQRS ULUHDPDWHULLORUSULPHYHJHWDOHVHUHDOL]HD] XUP WRDUHOHHIHFWHSR]LWLYH

inactivarea HQ]LPHORU R[LGDWLYH L S

HOLPLQDUHD DHUXOXL GLQ HVXWXULFHHDFH FRQWULEXLH OD UHGXFHUHD SUHVLXQLLLQWHUQH GLQ

VWUDUHD FDOLW

LORU RUJDQROHSWLFH LQL LDOH

- gust,

DURP FXORDUH
UHFLSLHQ L vQ WLPSXO VWHULOL] ULL OLPLWDUHD IHQRPHQHORU GH FRUR]LXQH D FXW

iilor

PHWDOLFHLS VWUDUHDPDLEXQ DYLWDPLQHL&

PLFRUDUHD

YROXPXOXL

OHJXPHORU

SULQ

FRQWUDFWDUH

FD

XUPDUH

D

KLGUROL]HL

SURWRSHFWLQHL L D GL]ROY ULL SDU LDOH D KHPLFHOXOR]HL GLQ SHUH LL FHOXODUL FH D FH
SHUPLWHRPDLEXQ DH]DUHDOHJXPHORUvQUHFLSL

ente;

vQGHS UWDUHD JXVWXOXL L PLURVXOXL QHGRULW DO XQRU OHJXPH FUXGH H[ VSDQDF JXOLL
YDU] HWF 

VS ODUHD

insecticidelor, cu care au fost tratate legumele nainte de recoltare;


reduFHUHD QXP UXOXL GH PLFURRUJDQLVPH GDWRULW  HIHFWXOXL WUDWDPHQWXOXL WHUPLF

VXSOLPHQWDU  FX HIHFWH

SR]LWLYH

SHQWUX

FHHDFHVSRUHWHHILFDFLWDWHDSURFHVXOXLGHVWHULOL]DUH

IL[DUHDFXORULLOHJXPHORU PD] UHIDVROHVSDQDFHWF 

vQGHS UWDUHD

SHVWLFLGHORU

L

vQPXLHUHDWH[WXULLOHJXPHORUFHHDFHIDYRUL]HD] RSHUD LLOHGH]GURELUHLP UXQ LUH

SHQWUXFUHPHLSLXUHXUL 
'HVI XUDUHD SURFHVXOXL GH RS ULUH WUHEXLH FRQGXV  FX IRDUWH PDUH DWHQ LH SHQWUX
UHVSHFWDUHDvQWRFPDLDUHJLPXOXLRSWLPODRS ULUH
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KLGURVROXELOH ]DKDUXUL V UXUL PLQHUDOH YLWDPLQH HWF  $VWIHO VH UHPDUF  SLHUGHUL GH VXEVWDQ

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SURWHLQHVXQW UHGXVH LDQXPH GH    OD PD] UHIDVROH S VW L VSDQDF3LHUGHUL vQVHPQDWH VH

vQUHJLVWUHD] ODYLWDPLQHvQVSHFLDOODFHOHKLGURVROXELOHYLWDPLQD&WLDPLQD YLWDPLQD

B1) 1035%.

'H]DYDQWDMHOHSUH]HQWDWHODRS ULUHDOHJXPHORUvQDS VHvQO WXU vQFD]XORS ULULLvQDEXU


QSUDFWLF VHUHDOL]HD] vQDSDFDUHILHUEHvQRS ULWRDUHFRQWLQXHVDXFD]DQHGXSOLFDWH
2S ULWRUXO FRQWLQXX FX WDPEXU IRORVLW OD RS ULUHD OHJXPHORU HVWH SUHY ]XW FX YDULDWRU GH

YLWH]  DYkQG SRVLELOLWDWHD GH UHJODUH D GXUDWHL SURFHVXOXL GH RS ULUH 3HQWUX FRQWUROXO L
PHQ LQHUHD WHPSHUDWXULL DSHL XWLODMXO HVWH SUHY ]XW FX DSDUDWXU  GH P VXU  L FRQWURO D
WHPSHUDWXULLLGHUHJODUHDXWRPDW DDGPLVLHLDEXUXOXL
3HQWUX D VH PHQ LQH vQ FRQGL LLOH LJLHQLFH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH RS ULWRUXO VH VSDO  ]LOQLF FX
VROX LH GH  GHWHUJHQW SULQ ILHUEHUH XUPDW  GH FO WLUH L GH]LQIHF LH FX DS  FORUXUDW  

-100

mg clor activ la litru).


&D]DQHOH GXSOLFDWH VH IRORVHVF OD RS ULUHD XQRU OHJXPH OD FDUH VH LPSXQ FRQGL LL
GHRVHELWH RS ULUHvQVROX LHGHR HWH[EDPH 

E 5

FLUHD

leguPHORUGXS

RS ULUHVHIDFHSHQWUXDHYLWDvQPXLHUHDH[FHVLY D HVXWXULORU

LGH]YROWDUHDPLFURRUJDQLVPHORUUHPDQHQWHGHRDUHFHOHJXPHOHRS ULWHSUH]LQW FRQGL LLRSWLPH


SHQWUX GH]YROWDUHD EDFWHULLORU WHUPRILOH 5 FLUHD VH HIHFWXHD]  vQ DS  SkQ  OD WHPSHU

300& vQ U

atura de

FLWRDUH FRQWLQXH FXSODWH FX RS ULWRDUH UHVSHFWLYH 3HQWUX PDMRULWDWHD VSHFLLORU GH

OHJXPH VH IRORVHVF U FLWRDUH FX WDPEXU SHQWUX PD] UH L IDVROH ERDEH VS O WRUXO U FLWRU FX
IORWD LHLDUvQXQHOHFD]XULSHQWUXU FLUHVHXWLOL]HD] MJKHDEXULFXDS FXUHQW 

F 3U

MLUH

3U MLUHDFRQIHU OHJXPHORUJXVWLPLURVSO FXWFRORUD LHVSHFLILF LYDORDUHDDOLPHQWDU 


ULGLFDW FD XUPDUHDWUDQVIRUP ULORUFHDXORF vQFRPSOH[XOVXEVWDQ HORUD]RWRDVH L]DKDUXULORU
SUHFXPLSULQHYDSRUDUHDDSHLLDEVRUE LDGHXOHL(YDSRUDUHDDSHLVHSURGXFHODvQFHSXWQXPDL
OD VXSUDID D OHJXPHORU DSRL DSD PLJUHD]  GLQ LQWHULRU VSUH H[WHULRU FD XUPDUH D GLIHUHQ HL GH
FRQFHQWUD LH
7HPSHUDWXUD GH SU MLUH WUHEXLH V  DVLJXUH HYDSRUDUHD VXSHUILFLDO  UDSLG  GXS  FDUH VH
IRUPHD]   FUXVW  GH FXORDUH JDOEHQ DXULH FX JXVW SO FXW /D WHPSHUDWXUL MRDVH HYDSRUDUHD

VXSHUILFLDO  VH HFKLOLEUHD]  FX GLIX]LD DSHL GLQ LQWHULRU VSUH H[WHULRU L SURGXVXO U PkQH PRDOH
I U  FUXVW  VXSHUILFLDO  /D WHPSHUDWXUL SUHD ULGLFDWH HYDSRUDUHD VXSHUILFLDO  HVWH PXOW PDL
LQWHQV GHFkWGLIX]LDDSHLVSUHH[WHULRULSURGXVXODUGHODVXSUDID

crude.

LDUVWUDWXULOHLQWHULRDUHU PkQ

3U MLUHDVHH[HFXW ODWHPSHUDWXULLGH &6HUHFRPDQG SHQWUXYLQHWHLGRYOHFHL

temperaturi de 150..160

& SHQWUX U G FLQRDVH  & LDU SHQWUX FHDS  

C.

'XUDWD GH SU MLUH HVWH FXSULQV  vQWUH  PLQXWH vQ IXQF LH GH XUP WRULL IDFWRUL IHOXO L
GLPHQVLXQHD OHJXPHORU FDQWLWDWHD GH DS  VXSXV  HYDSRU ULL UHVSHFWLY P ULPHD XQHL DUMH

temperatura uleiului.
7HPSHUDWXUD L GXUDWD GH SU MLUH VH VWDELOHVF L vQ IXQF LH GH FRQ LQXWXO GH ]DKDUXUL D
PDWHULHLSULPH/HJXPHOHFXFRQ LQXWPDLULGLFDWvQ]DKDUXULVHSU MHVFODWHPSHUDWXULPDLMRDVH
FXGXUDW GHWLPSPDLUHGXV SHQWUXDHYLWDFDUDPHOL]DU

ea.

3ULQ LQWURGXFHUHD XQHL FDQWLW

L PDL PDUL GH OHJXPH vQ EDLD GH XOHL WHPSHUDWXUD VFDGH

EUXVF L DUH ORF vPELEDUHD H[FHVLY  D OHJXPHORU FX XOHL $FHVW QHDMXQV HVWH vQO WXUDW vQ FD]XO
SU MLULLvQLQVWDOD LLFXIXQF LRQDUHFRQWLQX vQFDUHWHPSHUDWXUDVHPHQ LQHFRQVWDQW 

QWLPSXOSU MLULLXOHLXOVXIHU GHJUDG ULLQIOXHQ DWHGHXUP WRULLIDFWRUL


GXUDWDPHQ LQHULLODWHPSHUDWXULULGLFDWH

FRQWDFWXOFXDHUXOLFXVLWHOH
DF LXQHDYDSRULORUFDUHVHGHJDMHD] GLQSURGXV

procesele de caramelizare a legumHORUSU

MLWH

SUH]HQ DvQXOHLSDUWLFXOHORUDUVHGHSURGXV

&D

XUPDUH

D

DFHVWRU

WUDQVIRUP UL

VH

PRGLILF 

SURSULHW

LOH

IL]LFR FKLPLFH

L

RUJDQROHSWLFHLYDORDUHDQXWULWLY DXOHLXOXL8QHRULSRWDSDUHFKLDULXQHOHHIHFWHQRFLYH

nnegrirea uleiului esWH UH]XOWDWXO R[LG

ULL L SROLPHUL] ULL DFL]LORU JUDL QHVDWXUD L

SUHFXPLDFDUERQL] ULLSURGXVHORUYHJHWDOH

JXVWXODPDUDSDUHODXOHLFDXUPDUHDIRUP ULLDFUROHLQHLSURGXVFXPLURVvQ HS WRU


FDUHSURYRDF LULWDUHDPXFRDVHORU

reducerea valorii alimenWDUH FRQVW

 vQ PLFRUDUHD FRQ LQXWXOXL GH YLWDPLQH L DFL]L

JUDLQHVDWXUD L
3HQWUX D HYLWD HIHFWHOH QHJDWLYH DOH XOHLXOXL GHJUDGDW vQ WLPSXO SU MLULL VH LPSXQH
FRQWUROXO FKLPLF L RUJDQROHSWLF OD LQWHUYDOXO GH  RUH &RQWUROXO FKLPLF VH HIHFWXHD]  SULQ
YHULILFDUHDDFLGLW

LLOLEHUHFDUHQXWUHEXLHV GHS HDVF YDORDUHDGH

3HULRGLF XOHLXO GLQ SU MLWRDUH VH vQORFXLHWH 6WDELOLUHD PRPHQWXOXL GH vQORFXLUH WRWDO  D
XOHLXOXLGLQLQVWDOD LDGHSU MLUHVHIDFHSULQFDOFXOFRHILFLHQWXOXLGHvQORFXLUH . FDUHUHSUH]LQW 
UDSRUWXOGLQWUHFRQVXPXO]LOQLFGHXOHL &= LFDSDFLWDWHDE LL & $FHVWFRHILFLHQWQXWUHEXLHV 
GH S HDVF  YDORDUHD GH  1X VH UHFRPDQG  vQORFXLUHD SDU LDO  D XOHLXOXL GHRDUHFH SURGXVHOH

de descompunere din ulei aflate n instalD LHJU

EHVFGHJUDGDUHDXOHLXOXLSURDVS WDG XJDW

3U MLUHD OHJXPHORU VH HIHFWXHD]  vQ LQVWDOD LL FX IXQF LRQDUH FRQWLQX  WLS&KLSV  FDUHDX
SRVLELOLW

L GH UHJODUH D WHPSHUDWXULL XOHLXOXL L D YLWH]HL GH WUDQVSRUW D FRXULORU vQ EDLD GH XOHL

deci a duUDWHLGHSU

MLUH&ROHFWDUHDSDUWLFXOHORUDUVHVHIDFHSULQILOWUDUH

G  /HJXPHOH SU MLWH VH U FHVF vQ DHU OLEHU SULQ PHQ LQHUHD ORU vQ W YL SHUIRUDWH SHQWUX

eliminarea uleiului n exces.


7. nchidere
QFKLGHUHD UHFLSLHQWHORU HVWH ID]D WHKQRORJLF  FX URO KRW UkWRU vQ DVLJXUDUHD FRQVHUY ULL
SURGXVHORU'XS GR]DUHUHFLSLHQWHOHVHvQFKLGLPHGLDW6WD LRQDUHDUHFLSLHQWHORUSOLQHvQDLQWHGH
GHVFKLGHUH L VWHULOL]DUH DUH HIHFWH QHJDWLYH DVXSUD FDOLW

favoriznd aFULUHD

LL L FRQVHUYDELOLW

LL SURGXVHORU ILQLWH

I U  ERPEDM SULQ GH]YROWDUHD PLFURIORUHL WHUPRILOH 'H DVHPHQHD SULQ

VF GHUHD WHPSHUDWXULL SURGXVXOXL VH vQJUHXQHD]  WHUPRSHQHWUD LD L VH UHGXFH YLGXO GLQ

recipiente.
QFKLGHUHD FXWLLORU VH IDFH OD PDLQL VHPLDXWRPDWH L DXWRPDWH QFKLGHUHD VH UHDOL]HD] 
SULQ DF LXQHD GH SUHVDUH D UROHORU DVXSUD PDUJLQLL FDSDFXOXL L ERUGXULL FXWLHL &RQWUROXO
vQFKLGHULL VH IDFH SULQ YHULILFDUHD vPELQ ULL UHDOH D IDO XOXL FXWLLORU GXS  ILHFDUH UHJODUH L vQ
WLPSXOIXQF LRQ ULLODLQWHUYDOGHPLQXWH

nchideUHD ERUFDQHORU 2PQLD VH UHDOL]HD]

 vQ GRX  HWDSH SUHVDUHD FDSDFXOXL SH JXUD

ERUFDQXOXL L VWUkQJHUHD S U LL UXODWH D FDSDFXOXL SH SDUWHD GH MRV D SURILOXOXL IXULL (WDQHL]DUHD
VHUHDOL]HD] vQWLPSXORSHUD LHLGHVWHULOL]DUH U FLUH

Calitatea nchiderLLERUFDQHORUVHYHULILF

SULQH[DPLQDUHDPRGXOXLGHIL[DUHDFDSDFXOXL

8Q FDSDF ELQH IL[DW QX WUHEXLH V  VH URWHDVF  'XS  HIHFWXDUHD WUDWDPHQWXOXL WHUPLF VH
H[DPLQHD] VXSUDID DPHVHLGHHWDQDUHLPRGXOGHLPSULPDUHSHJXUDERUFDQXOXL

nchiderea cRUHFW

 VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ LPSULPDUHD YL]LELO  L XQLIRUP  D JXULL

ERUFDQXOXLvQPDV GHHWDQDUH3UHVDUHDSUHDDGkQF  SRDWHSURYRFD W LHUHDPDVHLGHHWDQDUHL


GHFLGLVWUXJHUHDHWDQHLW

LLQIXQF LHGHDFHWLIDFWRULVHUHJOHD] FDSXOGHvQFKLGHUHLUHVFRUWXO

de presare a capacului.
6WHULOL]DUHDWHUPLF
6WHULOL]DUHD FRQVWLWXLH ID]D FHD PDL LPSRUWDQW  D SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF GH IDEULFDUH D

FRQVHUYHORU 6WHULOL]DUHD UHSUH]LQW  WUDWDPHQWXO WHUPLF DSOLFDW SURGXVHORU DPEDODWH L vQFKLVH

ermetic, la temperaturi de peste 1000& FDUH vPSLHGLF

 DOWHUDUHD PLFURELRORJLF  L OH DVLJXU 

VWDELOLWDWHD vQ WLPS 3ULQ VWHULOL]DUH VXQW GLVWUXVH IRUPHOH YHJHWDWLYH DOH PLFURRUJDQLVPHORU L
SDU LDOVSRULLDFHVWRUD
([LVW vQV IRUPHVSRUXODWHDOHXQRUPLFURRUJDQLVPHUH]LVWHQWHODDF LXQHDWHPSHUDWXULORU
vQDOWHSHQWUXGLVWUXJHUHDF URUDVXQQHFHVDUHWUDWDPHQWHWHUPLFHIRDUWH GXUHLFDUHLQIOXHQ HD] 
QHIDYRUDELODVXSUDFDOLW

LLLYDORULLQXWULWLYHDSURGXVHORUVXSXVHVWHULOL] ULL

Aceste tipuri de spori sunt gUHXUHDFWLYDELOLFDXUPDUHDWUDWDPHQWXOXLWHUPLFDSOLFDWLQX


VHPDLSRWGH]YROWDvQFRQGL LLQRUPDOHGHGHSR]LWDUHDSURGXVHORU3HQWUXDUHGXFHFkWPDLPXOW
QXP UXO DFHVWRU VSRUL VH LPSXQH DVLJXUDUHD XQRU FRQGL LL LJLHQL]DUH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH SH vQWUHJ

fluxul tehnologic.
6WHULOL]DUHDWHUPLF WUHEXLHV DVLJXUHFRQVHUYDELOLWDWHDSURGXVHORUPHQ LQHUHDFDOLW

LLL

valorii nutritive.
6WDELOLUHD FRUHFW  D UHJLPXOXL GH VWHULOL]DUH SHQWUX ILHFDUH SURGXV L DSOLFDUHD vQWRFPDL D
DFHVWRUDVXQWHOHPHQWHKRW UkWR

are n realizarea conservelor de legume. Cele mai mici abateri de

OD UHJLPXO GH VWHULOL]DUH GXUDW  WHPSHUDWXU  SUHVLXQH  SRW DYHD XUP UL JUDYH DVXSUD
LLLFDOLW

FRQVHUYDELOLW

LLSURGXVHORU

6WDELOLUHD UHJLPXULORU GH VWHULOL]DUH VH FDOFXOHD]  vQIXQF LH GH YLWH]D GH WHUPRSHQHWUD LH
LGHUH]LVWHQ

ODWHPSHUDWXULULGLFDWHDPLFURRUJDQLVPHORU

9LWH]DGHS WUXQGHUHDF OGXULL WHUPRSHQHWUD LH GHSLQGHGLUHFWGH

GLPHQVLXQLOHUHFLSLHQWXOXLLPDWHULDOXOXLGLQFDUHHVWHFRQIHF LRQDW

starea produsului (lichid, solid, vscos);


WHPSHUDWXUDLQL LDO 
VLVWHPXOGHvQF O]LUH
VWDUHDUHFLSLHQWHORUvQWLPSXOVWHULOL] ULL VWDWLFGLQDPLF 
PRGXOGHDH]DUHDDOLPHQWHORUvQUHFLSLHQW

3HQWUX D vQOHVQL WHUPRSHQHWUD LD vQ SURFHVXO GH SURGXF LH VH SRDWH LQWHUYHQL

n faza de

XPSOHUH SULQ VWDELOLUHD SURSRU LHL FRUHFWH vQWUH FRPSRQHQWHOH VROLGH L OLFKLGH SULQ DH]DUHD
OHJXPHORU vQ SR]L LH YHUWLFDO  FDVWUDYH L GRYOHFHL DUGHL GH XPSOXW HWF  SHQWUX D VH IDFLOLWD
FXUHQ LL GH FRQYHF LH L SULQ GR]DUHD SURGXVHORU OD W

emperaturii ct mai ridicate (temperatura de


)

GR]DUH D OLFKLGHORU L SURGXVHORU S VWRDVH V  ILH GH PLQLP  &  &HLODO L IDFWRUL QX VXQW
LQIOXHQ D LGHGHVI XUDUHDSURFHVXOXLWHKQRORJLF
7HUPRUH]LVWHQ DPLFURRUJDQLVPHORUGHSLQGHGH

WHPSHUDWXUDLGXUDWD

pH-ul produsului;

JUDGXOGHLQIHFWDUHLQL LDO DSURGXVXOXL

de sterilizare;

FRPSR]L LDFKLPLF DSURGXVXOXL

SUH]HQ DDHUXOXL

(ILFLHQ D SURFHVXOXL GH VWHULOL]DUH FUHWH SULQ IRORVLUHD GH PDWHULL SULPH SURDVSHWH L
V Q WRDVH VS ODUHD FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHD D OHJXPHORU L DPEDODMHORU HOLPLQDUHD VWDJQ ULORU vQ
SURFHVXO GH SURGXF LH HOHPHQWH FDUH FRQWULEXLH OD UHGXFHUHD JUDGXOXL GH LQIHFWDUH D SURGXVHORU

nainte de sterilizare.
3HQWUX SURGXVH FX DFLGLWDWH ULGLFDW  WUDWDPHQWXO WHUPLF VH HIHFWXHD]  OD WHPSHUDWXU

1000 (pasteurizare).

a de

6WHULOL]DUHDFRQVHUYHORUVHUHDOL]HD] vQVLVWHPGLVFRQWLQXX DXWRFODYH LVLVWHPFRQWLQXX

n sterilizatoare de diferite tipuri.


$SD XWLOL]DW  OD VWHULOL]DUH L U FLUH VH UHFRPDQG  D IL FORULQDW  FX  PJ FORU DFWLY OD

litru.
6WHULOL]DUHDvQDXWRFODYHYHUWLFDOHVHUHDOL]HD] ODWHPSHUDWXULPDLPDULGH

C, la care

FRUHVSXQG SUHVLXQL GH SHVWH  DWPRVIHU  FDUH VH GH]YROW  vQ LQWHULRUXO UHFLSLHQWHORU $FHDVW 
SUHVLXQH LQWHULRDU  HVWH HFKLOLEUDW  SULQ FRQWUDSUHVLXQHD FDUH VH DSOLF  SULQ LQWURGXFHUHD GH DHU

comprimat n autoclave.

6WHULOL]DUHDFRQVHUYHORUGHOHJXPHVHUHDOL]HD] vQJHQHUDOODWHPSHUDWXUDGH &GXS 


FDUHVHDSOLF U FLUHDvQDS 
$JHQWXOWHUPLFHVWHDSDvQF O]LW SULQEDUERWDUHGLUHFW 

Ridicarea temperatXULL L U

FLUHD FRQVHUYHORU VH H[HFXW  SURJUHVLY vQ WLPSXO SUHVFULV SULQ

UHJLPXO GH VWHULOL]DUH 6H YD DFRUGD R DWHQ LH GHRVHELW  FRQWUDSUHVLXQLL GH DHU FDUH VH LQWURGXFH
SURJUHVLY /D ERUFDQH FRQWUDSUHVLXQHD VH DSOLF  GXS  HOLPLQDUHD DHUXOXL GLQ UHFLSLHQte, cnd
temperatura ape din autoclav ajunge la 1150C. La cutii contrapresiunea este de 1,6-2 at., iar la
borcane de 1,5-1,8 at. n cazul borcanelor, contrapresiunea sub 1,3 at. poate determina evacuarea
SURGXVXOXL GLQ UHFLSLHQW L DUXQFDUHD FDSDFHORU LDU la cea peste 1,8 at are loc deformarea
FDSDFHORUVSUHLQWHULRULGHWHULRUDUHDPDVHLGHHWDQDUHLSLHUGHUHDHWDQHLW
5 FLUHD

FRQVHUYHORU

VH

IDFH

SkQ 

OD

WHPSHUDWXUD

GH



suprasterilizarea cu efecte nefavorabile asupra produsuOXL ILQLW FD VF

LL

C, pentru a se evita

GHUHD YDORULL DOLPHQWDUH

UHGXFHUHD VXEVWDQ LDO  D FRQ LQXWXOXL GH YLWDPLQH PRGLILFDUHD SURSULHW

LORU RUJDQROHSWLFH

intensificarea fenomenelor de coroziune, dezvoltarea bacteriilor WHUPRILOHGLQIORUDUHPDQHQW

Q DXWRFODYH U FLUHD VH HIHFWXHD]  SULQ LQWURGXFHUHD WUHSWDW  D DSHL GH U FLUH vQ WLPSXO
SUHVFULV SULQ IRUPXOD GH VWHULOL]DUH L PHQ LQHUHD SUHVLXQLL GLQ DXWRFODY FX DMXWRUXO DHUXOXL

comprimat.
&RQFRPLWHQWDSDvQF O]LW HVWHHYDFXDW SULQSUHDOSLQ

n acest mod, se reduce tUHSWDWSUHVLXQHDGLQUHFLSLHQWHLVHHYLW

GHIRUP ULOH

6WHULOL]DUHDFRQWLQX VHUHDOL]HD] SULQWUHFHUHDUHFLSLHQWHORUSULQDSDUDWHGHVWHULOL]DUHvQ

LQWHULRUXO F URU DF LRQHD]  WHPSHUDWXUL PDL PDUL GH  & GXUDWD WUDWDPHQWXOXL ILLQG vQ UHOD LH

direct

 FX YLWH]D GH vQDLQWDUHD D UHFLSLHQWHORU Q XQLW

LOH GH SURGXF LH VH XWLOL]HD]  LQVWDOD LL GH

VWHULOL]DUHWLS6WRUNL+XQLVWHU
7RDWH WLSXULOH GH VWHULOL]DWRDUH FX IXQF LRQDUH FRQWLQX  VDX GLVFRQWLQX  WUHEXLH V  ILH
GRWDWHFXDSDUDWXU GHP VXU LFRQWURODYL]DWHGHRUJDQHOHvQSUH 

&RQGL LRQDUHDUHFLSLHQWHORUSOLQH
'XS  VWHULOL]DUH FRQVHUYHOH VH H[SXQ XQRU RSHUD LL WHKQRORJLFH FDUH OH DVLJXU  DVSHFWXO
FRPHUFLDOLDQXPH

VS ODUHDLXVFDUHDUHFLSLHQWHORU

verificarea aspectului exterior;


proteMDUHDVXSUDIH HLH[WHULRDUH
paletizarea;
etichetarea;
ambalarea;
paletizarea ambalajelor de transport.

6S ODUHDUHFLSLHQWHORUVHIDFHVXEGXXULFXDS FDOG LDUXVFDUHDvQWXQHOFXDHUFDOG


&RQVHUYHOHVWHULOL]DWHvQLQVWDOD LLFRQWLQXHVXQWWUHFXWHGLUHFWODXVFDUHGHRDUHFHVS ODUHD
VH H[HFXW  vQ ]RQD ILQDO  D VWHULOL]DWRDUHORU 7LSXULOH QRL GH LQVWDOD LL FRQWLQXH SHQWUX VWHULOL]DUH
VXQWGRWDWHLFX]RQ GHXVFDUH
$VSHFWXOH[WHULRUHVWHYHULILFDWSULQH[DPLQDUHDYL]XDO 

Conservele ambalate n cuWLL VH SURWHMHD]

 OD VXSUDID D H[WHULRDU  FX XQ VWUDW VXE LUH GH

YDVHOLRQ WHKQLF QHXWU 

Depozitarea conservelor se face pe palete plane izolate sau pachetizate n folie


FRQWUDFWDELO O ]LGHFDUWRQ
(WLFKHWDUHD UHFLSLHQWHORU VS ODWH L XVFDWH VH SRDW

e efectua nainte de paletizare sau la

livrare.
$PEDODUHD

FRQVHUYHORU

VH

IDFH

vQ

O ]L

GH

OHPQ

O ]L

GH

FDUWRQ

VDX

IROLH

WHUPRFRQWUDFWDELO 
3DOHWL]DUHDFRQVHUYHORUvQYHGHUHDOLYU ULLVHHIHFWXHD] L]RODWVDXSDFKHWL]DW6HIRORVHVF

palete de diferite tipuri prezentate n tabelul nr.36.

Paletizarea recipientelor pline cu conserve


Tabelul nr.36
Nr.
crt.
1
2

7LSGHSDOHW LPRGGH
DH]DUH

BoA

BoB

C1/1

C1/2

Paleta plana de transport din


lemn, ambalare izolata

STAS
6028/3-87

588

1071

672

1260

STAS
6028,3-87

608

1008

768

1280

455

990

564

1302

900

564

1120

NII 1027-76

270

462

315

644

ODG  SOLDQW  GH X]


comercial, ambalare n pachete de NII 1027-76

252

468

322

426

3DOHW  SODQ  GH WUDQVSRUWRDUH GLQ

lemn, ambalare n pachete de 6


EXF

3DOHW 

ODG 

PHWDOLF 

DPEDODUH

L]RODW

3DOHW ODG PHWDOLF GHX]JHQHUDO

DPEDODUHvQSDFKHWHGHEXF

3DOHW 

ODG 

SOLDQW 

GH

L
X]

FRPHUFLDODPEDODUHL]RODW

1UGHUHFLSLHQWHSHSDOHW

Normatizare de
calitate

SATS 863585
STAS 963585

3DOHW 
EXF

L

10. Depozitarea
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