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PROCESSES
Energy Transport

Introduction

## Principles of Energy Transport

Energy an be transmitted by
Conduction
Convection
Conduction :- Molecular energy transport due to
the motion of the constituent molecules.
Convection :- Energy transport due to the bulk
motion of the fluid and depends on the density of
the fluid.
Radiation :- Unlike conduction and convection does
not require material medium to be transmitted.
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## Fouriers Law of Heat

Conduction
It is found that for sufficiently
small values of T the following
relation holds:

Q
T
k
A

## The rate of heat flow per unit area is

proportional to the temperature
decrease over the distance

parallel plates

## Fouriers Law of Heat

Conduction
In differential form
q y k

dT
dy

## One- dimensional form of the

Fouriers Law of Heat conduction

## Fouriers Law of Heat conduction :- The heat flux by conduction is

If the temperature varies in all three directions in Cartesian coordinate:

T
q x k
x

q y k

T
y

T
q z k
z

T
T
T
q k x
y z kT
y
z
x

Three- dimensional
form of the Fouriers
Law.
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In cylindrical coordinates:

T
qr k
r

1 T
q k
r

T
q z k
z

Estimation of Thermal
Conductivity
When thermal conductivity data for
a particular compound cannot be
found an estimate by can be made
using the corresponding state
principle.

Estimation of Thermal
Conductivity
Procedure

## When k1 is known at some T1 and P1 and k at some other

temperature T and pressure P is required.
1.

2.

Determine kc
kc

k1
k r1

3.

## Determine kr from Tr, Pr

4.

Determine k

k kc k r

Estimation of Thermal
Conductivity
Second approach/ using low density region
The Chapman-Enskog formula for the
thermal conductivity of a monoatomic
gas at low density and temperature T
kc 1.989110

T /M
2 k

k [=] cal/cm.s.K
T [=] K
[=]
k (collision integral for thermal
conductivity)dimensionless
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Estimation of Thermal
Conductivity
Thermal diffusivity:- In addition to thermal conductivity
thermal diffusivity is also commonly used.

k
C p

## The Prandtl Number (Pr) is used to measure the relative ease

of momentum and energy transport in flow systems.
C p
Pr

## Convective Energy Transport

Convective Energy Transport :- Energy transport due to
the bulk motion of the fluid.

## The convective energy flux through a surface area

perpendicular to:
x : ( 1 v 2 U )v x
2

1
2

y:

( 12 v 2 U )v y

z:

( 12 v 2 U )v z

U :

## Work Associated With Molecular

Transport
The rate of work per unit area due to molecular stress, , can
be expressed as follows:
( x v) xx v x xy v y xz v z

( y v) yx v x yy v y yz v z
( z v) zx v x zy v y zz v z

The total molecular stress can be split into two parts as follows:

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## Combined energy flux vector

The combined energy flux is the sum of the
(a)

mechanism

(b)

(c)

## rate of doing work per unit area by molecular

mechanism
e q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ v]

## Splitting the molecular stress we get p

e q ( 12 v 2 H )v [ v]

H U pV enthalpy

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## Combined energy flux vector

e q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ v]
q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ p v v]
q ( 12 v 2 U p )v [v]

mU
q ( v
p )v [v]
V
1
2

m pV
(U
)v [v]
V
m
m
q ( 12 v 2 (U pV )v [v] V Specific volume
V

q ( 12 v 2

e q ( 12 v 2 H )v [v]
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