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ADVANCED TRANSPORT

PROCESSES
Energy Transport

Introduction

Principles of Energy Transport

Energy an be transmitted by
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Conduction :- Molecular energy transport due to
the motion of the constituent molecules.
Convection :- Energy transport due to the bulk
motion of the fluid and depends on the density of
the fluid.
Radiation :- Unlike conduction and convection does
not require material medium to be transmitted.
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Fouriers Law of Heat


Conduction
It is found that for sufficiently
small values of T the following
relation holds:

Q
T
k
A

The rate of heat flow per unit area is


proportional to the temperature
decrease over the distance

A solid slab between two


parallel plates

Fouriers Law of Heat


Conduction
In differential form
q y k

dT
dy

One- dimensional form of the


Fouriers Law of Heat conduction

Fouriers Law of Heat conduction :- The heat flux by conduction is


proportional to the temperature gradient.
If the temperature varies in all three directions in Cartesian coordinate:

T
q x k
x

q y k

T
y

T
q z k
z

T
T
T
q k x
y z kT
y
z
x

Three- dimensional
form of the Fouriers
Law.
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In cylindrical coordinates:

T
qr k
r

1 T
q k
r

T
q z k
z

Estimation of Thermal
Conductivity
When thermal conductivity data for
a particular compound cannot be
found an estimate by can be made
using the corresponding state
principle.

Estimation of Thermal
Conductivity
Procedure

When k1 is known at some T1 and P1 and k at some other


temperature T and pressure P is required.
1.

Determine kr1 from Tr1, Pr1

2.

Determine kc
kc

k1
k r1

3.

Determine kr from Tr, Pr

4.

Determine k

k kc k r

Estimation of Thermal
Conductivity
Second approach/ using low density region
The Chapman-Enskog formula for the
thermal conductivity of a monoatomic
gas at low density and temperature T
kc 1.989110

T /M
2 k

k [=] cal/cm.s.K
T [=] K
[=]
k (collision integral for thermal
conductivity)dimensionless
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Estimation of Thermal
Conductivity
Thermal diffusivity:- In addition to thermal conductivity
thermal diffusivity is also commonly used.

k
C p

The Prandtl Number (Pr) is used to measure the relative ease


of momentum and energy transport in flow systems.
C p
Pr

Convective Energy Transport


Convective Energy Transport :- Energy transport due to
the bulk motion of the fluid.

The convective energy flux through a surface area


perpendicular to:
x : ( 1 v 2 U )v x
2

1
2

y:

( 12 v 2 U )v y

z:

( 12 v 2 U )v z

v 2 12 (v x2 v y2 v z2 ) Kinetic energy per unit volume


U :

Internal energy per unit volume

Work Associated With Molecular


Transport
The rate of work per unit area due to molecular stress, , can
be expressed as follows:
( x v) xx v x xy v y xz v z

( y v) yx v x yy v y yz v z
( z v) zx v x zy v y zz v z

The total molecular stress can be split into two parts as follows:

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Combined energy flux vector


The combined energy flux is the sum of the
(a)

the rate of heat transport per unit area by molecular


mechanism

(b)

convective energy flux

(c)

rate of doing work per unit area by molecular


mechanism
e q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ v]

Splitting the molecular stress we get p


e q ( 12 v 2 H )v [ v]

H U pV enthalpy

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Combined energy flux vector


e q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ v]
q ( 12 v 2 U )v [ p v v]
q ( 12 v 2 U p )v [v]

mU
q ( v
p )v [v]
V
1
2

m pV
(U
)v [v]
V
m
m
q ( 12 v 2 (U pV )v [v] V Specific volume
V

q ( 12 v 2

e q ( 12 v 2 H )v [v]
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