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2 l Las \ SiG +1) + 3Gex?9-1) [ml 210 +0] = “HU + Noo? d+ BiG + D+ RG+D+ where we have used d() = P,(cas 3) = 4(300s?,3 = 1). 3.8 (a) Write xy, 12, and (2? — y2) as components of a spherical (irreducible) tensor of rank 2. (b) The expectation value Q= e(a,j,m = jl(82 -1?)Ia, j,m = j) is known as the quadrupole moment. Evaluate (ax j,nt (0? — y)lo,jm = 3), (where m! = j,j-1,j- Gordan coefficients. : in terms of Q and appropriate Clebsch- (a) Using the relations 63-3.67) we can find that in the case where = V = the components of a spherical tensor of rank 2 will be TQ = 4a?-y?)+iry TQ = 4c? -y%)-iey T2 = TQ = az-izy (3.82) T = i) = VRE So fiom the above we have (@-) =784+79, (3.83) (b) We have Q = elasjm= jl? =e, = 3) 3, THEORY OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM, 93 e (oil? llad i, ) Bela, jam = jITPa,j.m = i) “” G25 j0|7259 2 Q _VaF re) 384 OND) = eG ss So © (a,j,m'|(c?—y)la,j,m = j) es © ela, jpm'|T 2a, j,m = j) + ea, j,m'|TQa. jm = j) lr) = Gee gr MD ci 2b)25j = WPI -2) sn Q (2 sd Ve G255,00%55.3) Sintjmte omy 4 Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics 4.4 (a) Assuming that the Hamiltonian is invariant under time reversal, prove that the wave function for a spinless nondegenerate system at any given instant of time can always be chosen to be real. (b) The wave function for a plane-wave state at { = 0 is given by a complex function ¢'*"/*, Why does this not violate time-reversal invariance? (a) Suppose that: Jn) in a nondegenerate energy eigenstate, ‘Then HO|n) = OH|n) = En|r) > On) = e*|n) => Oln,to = 051) = Oc“) = Oemi#!/7 yy itl In) = eB) In) = AH) In, to = 051) = o[ f alae] Irgto = 050) 9 [/ exe] Into > J Bx(Fn,to = 0;1)"|2) = / Pre #)(ZIn, to =051)|2 > KF) =eCP MEO. (4.1) 0:4) So if we choose at: any instant of time & real. —2&t the wave function will be (b) In the case of a free particle the Schrédinger equation is Fy oP Saye) = a E\n) => IW onl) = Fen(x) => dn(a) = Ac + Bem" (4.2) ‘The wave functions d(x) = e7**”" and ¢f,() = e*7/* correspond to the s envalue = and so there is degeneracy since these correspond to different state kets [p) and |=). So we cannot apply the previous result. 4.2 Let ¢{jf) be the momentum-space wave function for state |o), that is, 4(j7) = (jfla).Is the momentum-space wave function for the