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KARAKTERISTIK BISNIS

PENGOLAHAN

Apa Yang dilakukan Refinery ??


Refinery (pengolahan) adalah proses pemisahan
bermacam-macam fraksi yang terdapat di dalam minyak bumi
dan mengkonversikannya menjadi poduk yang berguna
Fixed
Costs

Energy

Crude Oil

Refinery
Produk Yang Laku
dijual (usable)

Biaya
Investasi
Loss

Fuel Gas
& Oil
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Siklus Pemanfaatan Minyak Bumi


Crude
Oil
Terminal
Explorati
on &
Productio
n

Aviation
Refiner
y

Product
Tankag
e
Product
Shippin
g

Retail

Transport
Distributio
n Terminal

Marine

Physical Supply Chain


Kilang
Crude Source

Value Creation:
Crude Slade / Product Yield
Technology & Catalyst selection
Severity of Operation
Blending Optimization
Energy &Loss Efficiency
Cost Efficiency

Inbound Logistic

Crude Supply

Processing

Outbound Logistic

Product Distribution

Retail Distribution

Rantai Nilai Minyak Bumi


Regional
Stock
Finished
Product

ValueAdded
Time
Place &
Form
Utility

In-Transit

Customer
Order
Cycle

Raw
Material
Stock

Production

Cost-Added
Production, Storage & Transport Costs & The Time Costs of Money

Fig. 4.3

VALUE DRIVER TREE

BISNIS PENGOLAHAN (REFINERY)


CRUDE ASSAY
YIELD/BBL

REALISATION/BBL

UNIT SEVERITY
MARKET PRICE/BBL
CR-OIL COST/BBL

REFINERY
MARGIN

CRUDE SLATE

CRUDE SLATE
VOLUME
MARKET

COST/BBL

PRIMARY PROCESS
SECONDARY PROCESS
PROC. COST/BBL

UTILITIES
GA

DESIGN CAPACITY
VOLUME

SUPPORT

AVAILABILITY

PAF
VOLUME LOSS

OPERATION

UTILISATION

DAYS DOWN TIME


CALENDAR DAY
PRIMARY PROCESS
SECONDARY PROCESS

MISI BISNIS
(REFINERY)
PROFIT

MAKS

REVENUE

KILANG

= REVENUE

MAKS

COST

= VOLUME

MAKS

x PRICE

MAKS

OPT

HIGH

COST

OPT

= BIAYA BAHAN BAKU + PROCESS.


COST
8

UPAYA-UPAYA

MEMAKSIMALKAN REVENUE &

MEMINIMALKAN
COST
MAKS

1. REVENUE

= VOLUME

MAKS

x PRICE

HIGH

Mengoptimalkan Utilisasi Unit Proses (Kilang), Menekan


Loss Produk Dan Mempertahankan Yield Produk (Konversi)
Tetap Tinggi Sehingga Volume Produk Menjadi Maksimal
Merencanakan Produk
(Valuable Produk).
2. COST

OPT

Yang

Bernilai

Ekonomis

Tinggi

= BIAYA BAHAN BAKU + PROCESSING COST

Memilih Berbagai Alternatif Bahan Baku Yang Memiliki


Harga Relatif Murah, Impurities Yang Tidak Terlalu
Membebani Processing Cost, Serta Yield Sesuai Design
Kilang.
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Komponen Biaya Refinery


Biaya Tetap
Gaji
Depresiasi
Bunga
Biaya Bahan Baku
Bahan Baku
Crude
Bahan Pembantu
Katalis
Bahan
Kimia

Pemeliharaan
Nilai
Produk Utama
BBM
Non-BBM

KILANG

Produk Samping
Biaya
Utilitas
Bahan Bakar
Tenaga Listrik
Air
Udara
Nitrogen

10

Demand Crude Oil - asumsi tingkat pertumbuhan Low


Growth Case (mb/d)

Opec Report 2006

11

Source: BP Statistics.

12

Source: BP Statistics.

13

14

Hal-hal Yang Mendasari Kenaikan harga


Minyak Bumi

Supply - Demand
China and global demand factor
Supply constraint and the (changing) role of OPEC
Refining capacity factor
Non - Fundamental
Speculation factor
Fear factor
Others

15

Supply & Trading


Crude
Purchase
s 5 mbpd

Fuel &
Loss: 0.2

Product
Purchase
s3

mbpd

mbpd

2 mbpd

Supply
&
Trading

Productio
n
Crude
Sales 4.5

mbpd

2.3 mbpd

2.5 mbpd

Refinin
g2.5
mbpd

Supply
&
Trading

Marketin
g Sales

3rd Party
Product
Sales 2.3
mbpd
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3
mbpd

Skema Kegiatan Ekspor / Impor


Crude Oil & Produk Refinery

17

Optimasi Refinery :
Dari sisi Internal :
Operational Availability
Hydrocarbon Loss
Quality Giveaway
Innovation
Smarter Way of Doing Things
Costs
Dari sisi eksternal :
Selecting the Right Crude
Product Optimization
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Optimisasi Refinery (dari sisi eksternal)


1.

Crude Selection
Crude that maximises usage of the refinery
asset

Acid crude, High pour crude, Condensates,


Lube/non-lube

Crude approval process


2.

Product Management
Better pricing of products, New product grades
Increased integration / supply
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-10.0

Month

20

Mar-06

Jan-06

Nov-05

Sep-05

Jul-05

May-05

Mar-05

Jan-05

Nov-04

Sep-04

Jul-04

May-04

Mar-04

Jan-04

Nov-03

Sep-03

Jul-03

20.0

May-03

25.0

Mar-03

Jan-03

Nov-02

Sep-02

Jul-02

US$/bbl

Price Differentials Against Dubai, Monthly Averages

30.0

Kero/Jet
Gasoil
Gasoline
Naphtha

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0

-5.0

Gross Refining Margins* : A Historical Perspective


10
Cracking
Hydroskimming

$/b

(2)
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05
* Dubai Crude (Singapore CIF); Product prices based on Singapore FOB spot prices.

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Past and Projected Gross Refining Margins for Dubai,


Singapore Market (US$/b)*
8.0
7.0

Hydroskimming

Cracking

2009

2015

6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
-1.0
-2.0
1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2011

2013

2017

* Actual up to 2005 (nominal prices), 2005$ thereafter; Cracking yield is based on RCC.

22

2019

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PRODUK & DEMAND BBM


PRODUK DARI KILANG

DEMAND

Produksi BBM

BBM Subsidi

Premium

: 200.6 MBCD = 11.64 Jt KL

Premium : 17.08 Jt KL

Kerosine

: 166.5 MBCD =

Kerosine : 10.00 Jt KL

Solar (ADO)

: 266.2 MBCD = 15.45 Jt KL

Disel (IDO)

9.3 MBCD =

0.54 Jt KL

Minyak Bakar (IFO) :

68.0 MBCD =

3.95 Jt KL

TOTAL

9.66 Jt KL

Solar

: 14.50 Jt KL

TOTAL

: 41.58 Jt KL

BBM Non Subsidi

: 710.6 MBCD = 41.24 Jt KL.

(Industri)
Premium :

0.037 Jt KL

Kerosine :

0.090 Jt KL

Solar

: 13.919 Jt KL

Disel

: 0.535 Jt KL

M. Bakar :
TOTAL

Import BBM
Satuan : Jt KL

19.64 Juta KL

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4.715 Jt KL

: 19.30 Jt KL

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Refinery Pictures Process Units

Crude Distillation

Catalytic
Reforming

Catalytic Cracking

Vacuum
Distillation

Hydrocracking

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