Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12
ACADEMIE BULGARE DES SCIENCES INSTITUT D'ETUDES BALKANIQUES ETUDES BALKANIQUE 1388 FEATURES OF THE FERTILITY DECLINE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES SINCE THE END OF XIX CENTURY Until recently all generalizations regarding the historical aspects of demographic development were based mainly on the experience of Western and Northern Europe. ‘This was reflected in the s. c. “demographic transition theory” — created as an attempt fo explain ina unifed, conceptual manner the overall trends in population development, In its classical version it describes the demographic history of the last centuries with a four stages schema: J. the first stage is characterized by high mortality matched by high fertility and low rates of population growth. It is associated with the pre-industrial societies; 2. om the second stage mortality deciines, but fertility mainteins its high level: leading to rapid incresse in population; 3. thirdly, fertility begins to decline rapidly, while the decrease of mortality tends fo slow down. The second and the third stages are associated with the industrial revolution and the transition from agrarian to industrial type of society; 4. the forth stage constitutes re-establishment of gradual rates of growth, with low levels of fertility and mortality. This stage is typical for the developed industrial countries. The theory implies the existence of some sort of homeos. tatic mechanisms in the demographic system (usually the emphasis is put on the role of stich social regulators as moral codes, !aws, community customs, religious doctrines, marriage habits, and family organization, ete.) which provide the equilibrium bet. ween population and environment (both natural, economic, and social) It has already been shown that the experience of some nations conforms neither to the sequence of stages, nor to the mechanisms of the transition outlined in the theory®, ‘We presume that the demographic development of the Tegion under study may also give some material in this respect. Having this in mind, the aim of the present paper is fo examine some features of the demographic development of the Ballon counteien shich deviate from the theoretical postulates. Special emphasis will be put on the fer” tility decline, Because of the fact that the quality of the statistical datafor the region under study is usually not very good, and that in some cases we were not able to obtain all the existing inforination, our analysis will be a bit biased toward Bulgaria’. Albania and Turkey will be omitted due to the total lack of data for these two countries. 1 Demegraphic transition theory originates in the 1990's and 1940's. Usually it is considered to bectested by Landry, A. Lardvolution démograpluaues Bart, 1934. However the theory did got find its systemic fori until Notes teinrte We Boptlation: The Lene Views tn Schultz, 1. W. (ed). Food for the World. Chicngn, 1945, 2697-For a mererel{ied and delatled disetssion ofthat theory's basie principles and postilatessee’ Brie sek nh het Bois octog waceaenn obteerao. levopi', coppeutincte, sarnagn 8 Syaysice” M, 1085, S Seseg: Les taeg ie, R. Ledossier des rans tion eemesraphtgue. ~ Curgpean Demo- graphic Information Bullein, 1, 1970-1971, No 4; Vat de Walle Es 3: Kaogel, Demo: aphie Transition and Fertility Decline: The European Case Paper prosenied io IUSSP Centers Tai T9BF"Seneyh ete : 2 Bulgaria is definitely the best statistically documented casein this region: Bases, this in formation isos! easily accessible. On the other han, one should keep tt mind that Tine countey is'n some aspects an cxireme example of the features "we will dscise 87 1. THE FACTS While the classical theory of the demographic transition interprets population changes as a response to relevant economic and social developments in a society passing from a mostly agrarian and rural to a mostly industrial and urban state, and as.a re- sult of the concomitant interaction among the demographic variables, the fertility de- cline in most of the countries in Southern and Eastern Europe started in a predominant- ly agrarian economy and rural social structure‘, The Balkan countries are an extreme example in this respect, with over 70 per cent of the male labour force employed in the agricultural sector* — Table 1, and about 3/4 of the population living in rural areas. ‘These proportions were quite stable over time and very little progress wes evident until World War Il, although fertility dropped substatitially over this period Within this line of reasoning it should be mentioned that some studies indicate an unusually low educational level of the population (another crucial variable accord. ing to the theory) in the region under study at the onset of fertility decline®. According to the official data at the turn of {he century more than 70 per cent of the population over 10 years of age was illiterate (incl. nearly 90 per cent of the females). If should be noted that these figures are hiding large differences in the literacy levels by age, Due to the fact that school enrolment increased very fast since the last decade of XIX and the beginning of XX centuries, sharp contrasts between the generations did occur. The share of illiterates among older peoples was very high, while younger generations Tabled Proportions of Male Labour Force in Agriculture and of Uliterates (Population Over 10 years of Age)— ‘Census Age (%) Titerstes Mae tad. | Urban mal force in” | pope z Agricull. | intone | tolat | femates vos | 1529 [soa | 50% Bulgaria 1500 ms Brak s 1329 me stor Gok SBS 1908 ms tla Sats Greece 1879 a ce vee {sor : erie chs eam eee ut 1923 sil 418 SBA SBS Yagostavia 100% aa Moe ee 1931 mr BS ASB BH Source : Annuaire statistique du Royaume de Bulgarle, 1910, 66-67; 1932, 4445; 1941, p. 28; Mitchel, B. R. European Historical Statistics, 1750-1975. 2nd ed, London, 1981; Trichopoulos, D, G. Papaevangelou. The Population of Greece. Paris, p. 42. ‘2 — the definitions of urban population are not sivictly comparable ; ‘ne — eitles of more than 1000 inhabitants ; owe Serbia, ‘Van de Walle, Bu J.Knodel, Op. cit, 47-56 + Greece is an exception with stighily over 80 percent t the male Labour force employed in rieulture 7 *Van de Walle, E., J. Knodel. Op. cit, 88 — Table 2 Tadices of Overall Fertility (IH), Marital Fertility (Ig), and Proportion Married (Im) in Some European intries i le is vero] 800 1850] 1960 | 70 | 550] 50 | 60] e380] 959] 00 Balgaa O31 gig — om on om — 07 om 078 bee sr 88 = Gm Oh BB = se te oe oti os = te (ae = a OF OH Hegel oss 03) = G6 ome OH = GR ome Set per es tse og 021 — a77 os 09 — 070 069 a6 Becagal Oa G3 om G6 OH OH om O18 Be Os Noe bi? $23 Ore fin ke os O8 os ow See song Gig bi Gr gt Sa eae O8 RB Oe Bes England & Wales Ireland 015 032 068 054 029 029 051 O48 030 O71 024 029 067 074 065 060 042 O31 085 O47 France O18 022 O48 038 0390 O31 O54 O57 O58 O87 Source + Coale, A. J. Factors Associated with the Development of Law Fectlity: an. Historical Summary. Vol. Il Beigiads,’ 1965, p. 209; Slampos, G.S, Valaoras. Long Term Feilty Trends in Greece,—tn 1UiSSH Conference, Voi, London, 1968, 60-605; and estimates by the author, I= fF, Hemgumin, Ime=Fmjts F, — standard age-spcte fentty sues; fy — age-sperie tery ta the abserved population; wi mstber of women in ith age ntl m)—-namber & maried omen in fh age interval == this set of indices was proposed by Coale, A. J. Op. ct. Its alm Isto ates, through telatvely simple standardzation procedre, he impact of change in uplisity and marta fet on te overt decline of frit. ‘The Ladex of mantal erty (ils the ratio Gf the cbservedcunber ‘of irs in given population to the number thal would Gotu? il women experlenced « stndard fr Hity sehedute Qs such a standacd is wd the fertty of manied Hutterite wowen during 921-1900 The Indices of marial fertity {I) and of the proportion marred (In) show. what, would ‘have. been’ the above io the stnerved populston dies rom tne santard only In maa Tei Tovey OF fe pectvely omy Inthe stractare of the population by marl statux, ‘ — for 1900 — Serbia; - ¥ +40 "the Eovopean paris of Russa for 1900. relatively well educated (Table 1), and hence—more apt to deviate from the tra- ional value system and to adopt modern reproductive motivation and behaviour. The *profile” of the demographic transition and especially of the fertility decline in the Balkan countries also deviates from the standard. The pre-transition levels of fertility were substantially higher compared fo the rest of Europe — eg. around 1900 in the countries under study the index of overall fertility (11)? was above 0.50 in Bul- garia, Romania and Yugoslavia, and slightly lower (0.44) in Greece (Table 2 and Fig. i). The crude birth rates’ were about 40-42 per thousand (Fig. 2). These figures were not matched in any other European country with the exception of Russia. Al- though fertility was paired by mortality levels that can be labeled as higher than mo- derate (eg. infant mortality was between 150 and 210 per_thousand® — only in about 10% of the European countries this indicator was higher, 50% were within this range, and about 40% of the countries had lower pre-transition infant mortality), the popu di 7 See the footnote al Table 2 for & discussion of this Indicator, & Liveborn per 1000_ population, ® The actual figures are usually lower, but they evidently bear the fingerprints of substantial underregistration — eg. in the process of life-table construction fer Bulgaria, voricue aulliers have EPH Etimates ot (0) (oth sexes, er 1000) ranging item 148.9 for the period 1960-1905 (T10 nc, FP. Cronanexa Buarapwa npes 1911 r. C., 1918) to 218.3 for 1692-1906 (Bowen, B. TaGanuaTa a cnruprnocrra s Bearaprin. €., 1920, 32.38) (see also Cuspruocrra na wacesennevo 3 Bearapna npes nepuona 1887-1940 r. C., 1955), while the olficial figures for the Infant mortality rates were 130-6 (1892-1905) and 145.4" (1200- 1805) 89 poy B18 op mms ined uPadosng aos uy ( 90 is jun 3823949 24) st Cy 20 ARN) 2164 UoHoNposdoy joN Sas aging pane oy ua olos aque 8 roloalag asap ot som © Aq ws04 aq 0} po}2ad xa Sra) yfn~p Jo 4 ‘p9r0ua st aif aanonpostas o4y Jo Pua aif 222 Jo4 YyE>P Jo KysyaesoH ul Jo 195 UaaiB © 0} Kaqpsoave *3ji¢ aatyonpaadar tay, 4O pus ayy 11 OF He Jo Uewom © yeup saajqanep jo wequinu ades9N0 ayy at (ye HAD) ofey Ue (puesnosy 124) S851-0881 “YAD) S943 yep pue (Yad) HVsIG epNID ZH osst 56 ost ost oiet___osat o “ or rt SEG) ot sr a ist a We ox a oe oe Joc | We sx . fe 7 syopotax a oT ot 7 ONE i I er | lex x 7 sc ayy Jo Buwonauny oy} 0} saBuorfe4> rerue|sqns pus ssososos o|gefieae ayy uodn aans sud Big pasneo seq Siyy AysnOIAgO “6"f-L°T Puno — oye uOKIMpoIdar Jou at) PUE ‘puvsnoyy sad og Su ypavoxo wore sporrad sutos ut ‘puesnoy sad gy-g] jnoge sem ase: UP Tempeu Jo ayer ayy “TeNUE;SGRS sem aUFDap K;1]1}395 JO yosUO 94} Je YmOId VOLE 26 EPI-1OI ‘8961 ,wopuoy “Aso4stl1 ws uoReindog “(spa)_K21S sana “9 -d GAG $8819 fa S sdnsodsing uy suisiied oBejiew uestomg"p -Peu fe ft ‘au9 Buypazead auy saveydas 20400 v stm ze oles ayy sjuasald Py ‘spaod sSiyo W overs “soHo0 waar # 40] “Ayspepsour pub AyI1}39) yjog jo salnpolos ay}ods-ase 94) Su oustiodxs wel (1 Bed pur Z 21921) s,o961 Apa ayy Ut 08°0 ynoge 0} QOBT Punose 94°9 puP g9°9 WoaMyaq sfoAa{ MOI} patidoup YoIu “(B]) ATH “29f [B}LsPUL Jo XOpUT a4} UW! auNpPep daoys auy Aq umoys st SIM] “ABeLAeW UIYTIM suet Jo wore] — Ayn [fesoA BuNo!SOr soy joo) aalyetnidyle ue UO AlUTeM LONI “wey Hou) Jo Buguujsaq £194 ay} wort padtas €pnjs Jopun suoreyndod aq) peaysu| wa) Joy [e94dKj s]9A9| ay} poypeas soAdU nq dost wH9}S9)\ tl asoiy) Bur[qurasay sus9}yed pazrqiyxo jeyy Axyum0o Ajuo ayy st s0d015 “(urou} soupeotdde yeu} 98e9 dquo ayy Bulag wleBe vjssny “adoingy Jo ysox at} ut payojeuuin os[e s9an34}) £21TeL — £/1 jnoqe asa ¥Z-9g aBe ay} yo sajeulay Sus suorys0dosd aq pue (Z 91921 995) 82°09} ¢9°0 wiosy poBues (wT) porsset suoH sodozd Jo xoput a4} — [estoaitin jsolnge pur Ajseo orm saietsiew “wioyyed aBe1sseu Jouompes ayy Alosoyp Buymolfoy sem ApUyS Jepumn sorsquinos amoy ayy Jo [ye wy Arendnu *apou ,uvadoung,, 24) oF kesyU0D wor isues; aiqdeadowap ay} Jo asznoo ayy ty sBazsdsyJo Jo soquenu ayy y]u11{ 0) yduayye ue se papred 91 9q ued pue *,,t819} ed aBerieU ueodomg,, pare sem $1411, “(901 J0N0 GF-Gros® 18 918415 Suqureuras tamoMm Jo wo};sodosd) Soeqiya9 Jo soyes YBIy pue *{cg-4g aAoqe uowlON, Jo] eBe1sseut yssty ye, aBe aBesoAe) aBeissew djey kq paztsoyoeseyo “usqyed Ay!yenjdnu & Po}iqIxXa adoungy UsOyJION pu W9}s9,M tH SaEs}UNOD 14} AIMIUOD TAY jnoqe soulg “Ose [esoUl9H U! poyLU| JOA Sem woHesBIyNO pue Kovqioo ‘yuouauodysod aBer2seW se s10}eyNB92 Siydeiouap Jeuoy PEI Yons jo aos ay 1 's9/sjuNoD uso}sax ayy UL Asay) WOH, Ajer}UEYSqns J9]NIp pHs JopuN UoIsas ax) UY saBuEYD o1YdesBouap pue s}uoLO9-01908 0} sosuddso! ath wont 81509 — 9 ‘smn tune wopans — b HeHsma) yssa —'E ‘(Oad) Aubuiieg — G IG — | womyssues, o1ydemsourap a4} 40 as9U1}01dy BG (230 sonsuen om 30 1 dt #2 __» (y ® € SB) €¢°0-81'0 OF 08° Inoqe wosy Ay1p14J05 []eI0A6 fo xapur oy} asnpas oF KsnplIad e y]et] JOAO }SAl OO} } — sdomg Jo so ayy 0} pasedinoo s9ysey sem sureyjoq ayy uo ssodoad wo!}fsUes) Ot} “Jynsou v sy “wonendod ayy wosy asuodso. pydva e soy Sufjeo smi) “td9}sKs D1yde:Souap 8 GPG 4 "ON "6z61 “oun 'g “maxhay yuauidoqa40q puP uoreyndog — -sexpmyg AytH04 180120) ut jo Suontor diay Ano seg ayy mio suossoy > [Le MA 9P UES GL TSP SE SL {yp 2fsomaUreay peoug x Jo yUaUta}e}S e Se afoKT pazapysuoD 9q plnoys sOjOq syuOLINBIE 24L, “SION LEAAP,, Paq!sOs9p 21 0} p9q aAey pInoD Jey} s2040H) [espIND pue dIWOUocs ‘1208 oypoods alos uodn woyjtay}e mo zoqua9 1118 om Ai Sf UL “ye SoHysaDyDe LEYS spans uv sous “epson gu sayes wouonposdas (YUN) 12N pUe (YAD) S801 “FATT Onc" cost. __ovst__ocst__onct___ ovat onar__ Sonat * over, 196 Fo OG T_T O_O tc ee or ve sz ose 2 eomy oe por : nd vt io s et zz ee oz ape. o aaa lve wk. eae RISE | yo a4uwouI0s9-0190s uourUoD yBHOaKy pauye/dxa oq youuED you} Kem UY KypeuOIB4.19}SN/9 0} sueadde aurpoap 4311149) ou Jo peasds pue yasuo oyy, jou} adoang ty HOM istes) Apt] !9s0f ‘Wo Yoseasos yro0o1 ayy Jo SBuIpury 247 Jo axoud sayjoue jenf ase syaey pasmppe aif], SUOLOVA AHL “IT +6 solsqunos ueqfeg at}y pub eissny $0 aousysedxa at woanyaq poysixe yoy sonuimyis ayy Jo woneUBlaea 2ygeqoud e at lu. oe 810.9 "1861 "9 “F teat doqueg eH widow exouruorg “dy u govasny “oy “y owodseod ¢ “189° “ajoyn vse Ayaqpos ayy pue Ajurey ay} ui yj0q suorpejar jenxas pu Wolyeassoxd Suyye S94 su0U 24} Pur wautos Jo 9]03 a}euypJogns ay} ‘suorMyySUT KjiMey pu aBelzeW 94) 910M WOK], Buomy ‘worBor ayy ws Ay1114304 YBIy 34} Su;UOL|IpUOD osye sem swLoU [e:N} [ND Jo Jas Y aWNO1F uoreINdod jo sayes soy! SuNLrIO) "(29 ‘erreasny ‘epeuen “ysn ‘elsshy 9441) UouIa 19s Mot peorg BurouDliadxa s91s}uN09 94, uy pavaddey pry yes 0} ajqeseduios “(poriod y2oys & 407 Aquo ysnoMy[2) uONENpIS payeas siyy “se]ImtIs exam Apmys JapuN soxsytNoD Jayjo aq} WI sUOHIpLIOD au “sues ID “ing Aq poyjjese4 puk payeaen arom uray FO [ye JSOWTY “p,]U99 10d Og PUL ex UdDMIaq parses uoriodosd siyy pied wsoyysou ay} Jo sjotysip snofzea ayy ur ayiy “spsoqpue] ue syueseod yspyany. Jo spuey ou) us arom (souo o}}.oj ysow ayy Aqjensn) spuey 9|qeze 9 Jo yu—9 sad Tp UOlyesaqyy BY} Jo Aa a4 UF Anjo d4 Jo syzed LAaY}TIOS oy) UY} NoYs B1108 ng JO] B}Ep aiqz fede ayy “spuey payeova ayy Ui ap}as ptie ayeoo|al Oy (story “24 snourequMoM aarjanposd ssa] pue a7qIssOIDe ssay UE paysnd asom Jsonbu0D UEUIO} JO, 243 Jo oun 21 FP Hout Jo syed 28.1) uonendod Jwo0| ayy panorye uo|saxddo 10 onesa}1199 ayy pue uoHeindod Ysiysny JO sassem JeryUeysGNs Jo femespyIN oY “saqmytas XX Jo BurwuyBoq 347 pue XTX JO pus ax} ye y}mMord ure |ndod so soyed Bry pue Ayiprs94 Jo sfoaa] (Bulsvo.ou! A ust}s uosa puR) y8ly 40 aoudzsIS10d yy payyruad axey ApBuymisse yeq]} ss0}0v4 ay) UPI UOISsMOsIp 94) }3EIS [IM OM “] “pasnoie swi3{qozd ayy jo UoN|M|os aAlyIs od 8 Jo} jioyjo ue se ueY) JoyJeS pojduayye aq AwuE sJoRF ay} Jo MONWeUE;dxo Ue yoy “eer 2 “subi Cxapedioroy — mdsuvag o eussousedg “9 ‘eaodeu ky sep6t ‘wopuoy “Aiviy urdoheindag ara) fo182943 9-4 a “Ag 'se01p) st —sausndsing uf suaneg Beueyg easton “pte are], {cG-2ee "9861 “uItogl wotnstesy aufdesBouIeg “Cps) g I¥eq Je | Fug ct -ejuoumog Uh tnreued syudeasowsg pue Auyrenday “A ‘1214914, 26u6 oonsHaA dyudesBouoC NA ‘ery ‘SCOI-FEOT IAC} “ang 9p ouimekoy np anbisers aivenvuy"! se-ae “Test 9989 H ap andyisNqs STemuuy oss ed a 2 & ow it ae 8S oe ba ormeteg a ce og ge us cee su a & a OR ge set = oe fe a HOR ce st a cing oy [om | wor crsr | est | vow ae oy (4) sinoin a8 ureH9 uw s3peuag optus Jo suopsodong fare 96 sourtynday aos pe suey pazyyy ideo aBre] equstOY UT 5100 ey 29-00 8 “out Jo s8uppaoo.g st — “A URIEN waLOW BuNDAEY SHEE “GATE aos wET AS SES Bievoneuoal ay) jS'uoysnosip W sou “epe-see 'g ON “VEoL “82 oIMAS eoHINdag — “DDS. PuNOIY domg uijsea Jo oy ay) “ionwud] outeiBouny a UI TROMENG SATII oN sea CLE 8136) sunyyno sas) Jo satan sy Jo oo8s ay 9tsmKayy Tot ONaAE od NS Soe forse “161 93orsquv “serpnjg yuassng Jo, wonDaHIOg y swonerdog pu sanyIND “(pa) “s “se STO Au]-~ “sonst je5189|0p04 oy BuE IEA dadLE> ads “Ay fog pus ainjonsie Ayer! Papua, “1 Lo USO OW "W249 g So1-o91 “Ga6) “SpesBloy “g '19A aA) susNOD worEINdag PLB Stapdig Gy hued aul oak hates Say oly! ager ae mow enuypadofoep apy “pd "SM LK ef = Sstasy podojoasproptn ur Rutiaeg GaIRe dutsnoned Selon Buest cysat Sy 3 yaleig! aos Ayrensdn’ bue Ayaan} uo ody Ayan] yo aataniiar oy Burp wseg ‘ere tee “BuG1 “eBprsquey Cou, ys2q UF AUlueg puE prouoSOH CAPA) “TET ME ed “Th 9188 ey Sood © 50 85.907 MLV de "1S ww SH “pOe-GaT “Oegt “sea SeyseginDy meg oul FW a1 ~ “0481-0081, SueHieg wssIsoMA 24} UI DloyesnoHY ue Auibge | "YD NOU ETOYS cog 0 "F Ne “09G] “Nowsodu iionndossy ~ “suaieweg Us. SelaTIOEMOY'N GkLationD ~0Nkedg suas feoea bn edknkdiny "yea 0d 04 0 4 “Bo ‘aog) 'sb9a" p>} Jo} WOIEK} -uoRdDOxS aise ae Splovosnoy pe sayy pape pie xojuoo ayy aque “ado jueUop oy #1 Ayes seopoMU aU PEA anbiv sio4yO “sare; [eadqisjed Kajduio> pue papusyse aB:vy yo pevids oy 48 aouepieo pul} okoy suey yee ayy ut Dunn ns ANE] ag) puE sodky K4ruey Buty seaasd au) uo ayeaSp © jn 41 O00 Wouy paseasoul puz] Jo sazeqoau g HON) SSO UPA sBuypToY Jo aseYs ay} (FEST PUL gZEI uaanijaq) sseak g 40} Aluo else3[ng ut "Zo ~~ sSup oy ay} Jo uoNszrqoosed ysey JoyyAMY 0} Buypvoy aim pu sooanosas purey aqqeyteak ayy uodn amssaud ayy Ajydnaqe auiseoiout aim woysks oouBy!oyU! UeIZeytTenba jwoutpisjed ayy pue y;WoIB UO!emndod Jo sojex yBIY ayy ‘siemoqey-Aep pted azom ua0 sod Z'6-0'¢ Avo pur ‘siaquiout Ayre] 40 S910 aly} f9 alo Woy} Jo U9 Jed 4G Pue g1g HO!INg S,0g61 Ale PUE s,OzEl 9}e] a4} UT “(@ 3|qeL) snyeIs Aq soy2as a4} UH AANDE KtJeonMOUODS a4 Jo UONNGI.\SIp 94} — s0]B9TP Ul soyjoUe wos] os[e juapIAD s1 23m} InatsHe ayy Jo UO!TEZH TE] AED Jo JaAa] MO] ayy pu uote |soied yo bexbap yBtt ou) 3nq “Gp oie, 995) v1sedIng, oy quo ayqepwan aie Cany -U99 XX JO Hey }SI1j 94) UE aZIS Aq SBuTpTOUpHIR] Jo LORNGESIp ayy uo cyEq “ado Jo syaed soyjo ayy Ur yoy) UeN) saKINY sour g OF g Sem salaquMos ueyfeg a4} Ut uo!eINdod Teany [n91388 40 Ayisuep ay} “9 91geL UT UMOYS Sy “uO! oNpoud Jo apo aANoaqJo mot pur aajstayttr-anoqey Kjauiox9 jerpruey uodn paseg “sBuipjoy yews yo syoy £q poyeuruiop auresag Apnys sepun sopsjunon ayy UE aunyMouBe ay, “pasiiiasd sem diysioumopuey Jo uorjesBaqutsip peounouosd e ‘sfouno [e090] pure YSHLINL UasANjaq spur] Jo LOHING!NSIpar dy} PUB LW}SAS ULIACIBe EPH} TEM} dy} JO UNOP-ea19 10 BsnoD ayy UI “SapIsog, *s9] ]UN09 Ub3| [eg aU} JO soo.nOs3z pure] payTeATT ayy Aq payuosUo WOES sem ss9D0d JUDUED| +y9504 pauoHuats ayy Jo syys{am oalyelaz ayy “Aypens suoremndod of} wosy asuodsos yytas @ posinbas qorya ‘saomosez ajqepeae ayy uo sanssaid ayy Ut asies daays pauorjuom iy) pey aAeq pynoo souanjtuT juEOTIUaIG sBuLRoyfo] a4} soups ysnUT aa Kany XX Jo sopeoap SII} ay} UF AIHFI9y Jo oUt|Sap Tenweysqns pue ysej oyp posnsua jeu} stustiresaur ayy pue si0}oe5 a4} OF Su “g ‘MOHBAHOU aAyonpoidas usopoul Jo juautdojeAdp J9]Se5 B pamolfe PUR A11}J95 Jo uoHep uty] ay} 40) aanssoad ofwiouods ay) paanrexre AysnoAgo yore “(I “Ble 998) sIS119 DmoHTODa PION (TT PUP | sseM PIJOA\) seALIOIUT OM] YAU Pap fou}oO WOHas aif UI HysRoId Teuor}1sue3} ou; J0 Pad, ay) eu} 7985 94} Aq payeALIBBe soM}AnNj sem LOL MIS aL VBUULUT jH2za}}IP & UF wa|qord uOAeInded snjdins ueLiesBe uy tym ao oF poosoy afew yng ‘eae ueqin oy 0} snout pile ,suteya, Jf 4P2:9 Of seAyqusoUT! ou pel pur] Jo saypjed Kyfed stouy 0} pauteroua azam Oya 30]D98 JemNy NOIATE au} Ur ssoUMO []eUIS a4} “BdtI9}Y “MO] sem 9940} moqu] aL JOE pLEWOD ax] PLE 2[da04 PUP mojs sem ssovo1d UOREz[eI.YSNpUE ay} }TNs—I e SY “Moqe] Jo VOISTAIp [es}spUr 94 Ur sou “yoy{seul JeISNPU p]ioM 94} uO saeIM s194} put] OF a]qe yOu a:om OTH! a4 Ut soLsqumod ayy ‘juauldojaasp o]wouos9 sroy} WY puyyeq BuIPAe] ‘puey say;0 94 UD ¢ “yuo Jad 9-91 61 O'S tory paseasap soaejs9y Qt UBY] B1OU YpIM asom a]syM ‘yUOD sed Z"E9 0} BOE samnss — y ‘aumnoue uy” pagoy 79ae Melt ag RUMEBE 2u Lonnd aynoe Aeomouse av sd oueosi) uel fqn — 2) Epue ayes uy “bs Yad uone|ndod yeimyjnoysse — qt Aaoysz0) ath Jo "wy -be 2a “Ny wind — ¥ ‘96 "2 “QPL "D “om tituots omvoden oxovaeer20u0 H osoxaiesway am suveencen onvozmmardg “oj *Y ‘esto tS etmay 8 +991 og 961 Mn es ee ca 86 AgeBungy a al fe @ & ruewett & we of oh acu OE, rurmou & te i Of aon ger EB ies a oe OR vontog 03 Teton anna ofo[e[e lelof«] +] Goer S389) s01295 waaay 2 vF aIMsso1g WORE|NdoA 94) Yo sop/S|a}IHIEyD aISER BHOS 9 rae cot ze oo em oe cet sraisoog cor ro a 222819 oor os oo 9 est ool Be 8 a dee wer | sromoat | sion gern Tsao (09861 Ause9 pur s.0z6t a1) % — sop Aq aMROUBY ayy wy angoy AeoquIOGORG 9 1aey 16 ¥ ‘sonbyueyieg sopmya 2 spouaut yeuorypesy 30 9fesn a pu sooustojoud ayy ut ymunuas e sysayas gwsyeasseuod, siuy ABNOIAdO,“Grgl) Staetsoan a at jwo od go} “elueuoy uy osae ysoue 03) rse Sqiyt Butsn Bsa fo suon sseost oy aly “pod aud Jpquo9.ng ofa tsa oy) se sn ydnssoyu! 30109 Pazseep axey S9sN Yuaz4Nd ayy JO IUD fod eer eas ssHiBe) pu (Gap “elusuiow) py uoston Soya ath ut ino Dtzd Sanane ina) oy Sp sease = smonteyeq anit davesqoo ajouy Ut feuoitped) Klon {Ins a4 Apmis sapun suoneitdod sty ‘61 UNI UoRdsoanLOD Kk jeopsy “aN “sow TES 01 dA ft yo aupaooag ut = si “nego poeta ur momo few sonny pw buined Aan ears sT bed mot [8 928 s201081p “B3) syuotes0¥s ow) Jo amos Jo uoNeaxdsoyI yuDIEAHP aM PUB SEDI yeD9q Sy} Uh ‘jaony) Stour soa13 yoqyin ypanys ay {0 aunyonsys euoReymyeUs Pazileaiuassp oh oie Lon fone AN “9p 9g) Jo Fuquay ayy pus odeys ou} paoton gut axel pyweD jeu} RxOpAMyaQ Jo sNyea} FOLIO. i dog (mp9) 9119894 74 “AA on “wopuog -sBury yepog pue uonemdog “(s99) 2 | 19a aa "H “Aca ‘se 19 ane eon eSE auqdsitaiag i bonvey y ceoedimeer ony. us aetieocesim sey Aang ek Ge bw are ssaoosd oatyanposd “94 911] U) douaa]JaquT AzeytMJOA yo apr AioA ayy ‘adoan UISYIION PUE U1I9}S9/\\ JO sar -ayum09 Butsoouord ayy Uy ‘|apoU JO Jasu0 aty} ye Ayes SF. EU “-gSOIOUT APUMZWOD J0/pue seul Bop snoiBijas Kq poy iqiyosd sem asn s1ayy Safjaloos JeUOT}IpeN) UL "sour 11919 “UB WOsJ UMOUY a1om UoHJOE Prre Uo!daseIuoD yeu ajqeyndsipul si yY YBNOUyTY ‘sways anfeA pue sapnjnyye usapour fo uor dope ay} Jo y]ns04 v st JosItIOD AIG JO s}s09 [ea!BojoyoKsd puv [eID0s oy} aanpos O} wat] pamosye sty ]."94n} no Wseys9/M 34} JO SpudULaAaroR ay Jo amIOs }da09e 0} 91q2 319m Kou} ‘2ouopy ‘s91Jjuno9 ueadomg 101)}0 ayy Jo.ysou oF pareduiod ‘s9}e] uO!IsuEN 1911) po}ieys vO'os at UY SaEsjUMOD ayy YH) JOEY dy) osye ey axey pod 3[03 jue] 0duly : ‘suraysas o1ydesgoutap puz 21t#04009-0190s ay) Jo Suyuorjouny aug ui soBueys Aue oy aanjgeos a1ow adomg uxO}Se-INIOG ul VOTE INdod al} peu sey sity ‘paumsse aq wed sy *,,[0z]H09 441g Jo vase ay} UE ,SUOISTOND sMOIyUaTOstIGD Buryeur sof oy pus puegsny wo Sonsiqisuodsar Areurlad saveid wortpen xopomyIG, Ou}, NO sjuiod AapBe| “WY se — vOTONposdas ueumMy pue suONELES Jonxes “KyTMEy pazmoy sapnynye 24} 0} os|e siojo4 SIL “g:StIONNBUTMONAP URNSLIID JoU]o puE uIsiO}, -ouy20 uEM ApETEMpLAIpUT ay} Ho siseyduta tayza.3 ynd 0} puv [e9q!| axOU oq 0} pano.d Syaadse jo sjo] wt sjdaouea jwowyya sy! ‘aouay “Jeonsizjed pue jeoojeydoou A [a3] sem. Axopouyjig Jo s{seq Jea1ofoapt ay} ‘sjdape siy pue sculMby sewoyy Jo seapr ayy yo aouaniguy Buosys ay Jopun sem SatIN}UWD AX-ATX adU[s JAI STOI|OHIED a|ryA “UOIRD SY} UF WOIB}fax yueTIMTO v st YoIyaR *ApUUEHYS!aYD XopOq}IO Jo s}daDu09 JedTHIO at) 2q quit yyed won Ryu, MyyIN 9] [eytseM ay] Ave yyBLE ae) 0} Apnys spun sonsqUNOD au uy uoneindod ay} pamo||e aaey pynoa yeu) s1oj>eF uP} JOdur! ysou aq} Jo 3uQ JerONO sf BaMpoNAS [EUOHHINsU! s,A7—I90S Jo ajox ayy yoadsas siq} UT “sUoySKS anfea jeuonspesy ayy 0} saBuaqyeyo s9]v915 Sosod 47 asnedaq ‘ulaysks [21903 ay]) pue aan} 210 9yy wos, KAIGIxO{] 2soU saanb9r yyed uOReZTUTY AyL|NI9F [ByLIeUI BU} ‘25309 JO “aBueyD ayy Wosy AuIUITUD}S s}J0}WODsIp ot] O}EPIlL|SSe O} JOpJ0 UW) LOI;BIaUaS aU ysvay Jo Jo Be] w soipduy pauauodysod aeisseu ayia, saBueyo ayy 0} UOHDWDS JaxIp B sytOS oad 1 asne0q S1 je4{] ‘asiodsas ayenbape aout w St Ayr]N4J9] [eyIem Jo LOTT} HLH OM yysso4 £20}8) 2s 158] JO saseo UL apna ‘uamdofarap AreUO! MN [OAD IaO|s Jo suONEN}Is uE jueaojea st “jt poonpuil oAeg yeu} sosueyD ayy 0} astiodso4 BuyuNsHOD-aUI:| PUB MOIS JOU, “PL e Bulg “yrowauodjsod aBers2em ySnomyy Bursvag-pyy> SUN] 18H} amnsard oat Buwoseos yo oury siqy Buys60} jog “,,2UrTPeP Ay1[139F Jo paods ayy o} pajejas9g yYSILI Ay1]1) 86 161, “W “(Hoy 5“ “yunoaanmag “yy ‘Yad) eve nds ee gana9 “asoNde¥wod “usoMAedg 2g ~~ “rRyOR yOuOE ie Woudau oY suodsy pouseoy # YorAwediNay] # uiDONIeYIOS HaDOHHI9IO “W'S MN 9 ae ayyeu sy) vo woneuwsojdy paey 4atyy go a9agd yuo aup st sup yng ‘syynsox ayy Jo soueoyrud}s jsonsneys ayy Jox0 sjgnop aWos SySe9 fds yjouis ou, "(erseBing Wapysea-uNION) Uouing Jo yDHNSIP 34) WOs} UDUON ORS SOASD IT ag gd “wopiat ‘geo1. “worekty Tosa ovarent ex visrdidu 4 exis0noeIKed Adis umaMNE oLogoreK Mseidogy “Heda g *As00y} uo! sues) o1ydeafowap ayy Jo siamod aanjorpasd pue Asoyeueydxa ayy aoueytra [[1a S10} Ie5 ss0y) Jo Bupueyssapun seajo pue Apnys Myeseo ayy “sjaxay feuorBoz pu £ayunoo y}Oq UO ampprd palyszaatp & sayeas9 siyy, “s10}9e] “9}9 ‘SIUNJa “yeamyyMD *Jeor 204814 a1pI9ads Jo yas 8 put yuourdojarep o1uoH0s9-01905 Jo FeAzT [184900 ay} Jo SOT}SHa|eLeYD dy) uadMjag wor oerojur xe[duron e Aq payoayye oe ‘seinat}sed uy autfpap Arq Naf. ay pue ‘ssaoo1d uojztsties} ayy Jo asnyeu au} pue paads ayy yeu} sysoBBns sisAjouk ogy “ArMUINS Uy ‘Wat}} 0} jUEZOYUT sara] af} soydeaS aa ynq ‘adomg UEqION pue Livysa ay Ut asoyy Butyquiasas susayped pu spuds ausos spIqiyxXo aD90N] A[UQ ,,UONIS =e} JO adky ,1139)S0Aj-ttOU,, Se 0} paxsafax Ajjensn st yeym Jo adomng ur afdurex feoidAy pou ay} syudsasd pue swSipesed paysiiqeyss awos wrod sjoadse Jo sjo us sayeiaap 7] ‘{ynmoflun yo aaasap o[qeuoseas e soys AanqusD XIX JO pua ayy aous ApNys spun s>t -s}unoo ayy jo ‘seynayyaed ut autfpap Ap1124295 ayy pur ‘ooua;sodxo oyydesBowap 94, SNOISM19NO9 “HL ‘ad 1981, — siva g jo assnos ayy u uty Aq poyonpuos Kaas e Jo yep yyLM woIsHJoUOD stip Sjlod dns 944 “gg,S048 [esN pue Ueqan ax} UI YIOq K}]19394 U] DUTfoap a4} Jof asneD aos 2x7, ‘aram Kay} Je) put ‘suONIodo1d aBie| payovas pey eLseBINg Ut suoAIOe paonput ayy “@L-GI61) S12 94) 29)32 A]yeI9ads0 you] UOISMoUOD at} Sabsp JON IME OH, “pgAOINT “LT AG “yg > “ape ‘womb “oxom -susoen on exoedndy H exizonaevaeed Axdee aniamrn otoioson us inudopy “TE ff aate'g Peeing rete eee a "=n wo oS & tee at een ree % & eat corse | game | umes] game | OSES | iti svojuogy Burt weds | paonpuy sequny saquuny ‘01a Aq pafoains uowoa ay) of suopoge puE SII 2 erges