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MT.147.02

M1 MATHEMATICS

EASA PART-66

CAT B1/B2

ISSUE: 1JAN2007

Empowering People for More Jobs and a Better Quality of Life

Training part-financed by the European Union

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M1

HAM US/F

MATHEMATICS

KrA

Feb 7, 2007

ATA DOC

Page 1

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

1.

IR PART 66

M1

ARITHMETIC

1.1 General

Just as studying a new language begins with learning basic words, the study of

mathematics begins with arithmetic, its most basic branch. Arithmetic uses real

and nonnegative numbers, which are also known as counting numbers, and

consist of only four operations, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

While you have been using arithmetic since childhood, a review of its terms and

operations will make learning the more difficult mathematical concepts much

easier.

Numbers are represented by symbols which are called digits. There are nine digits

which are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9. We also use the symbol 0 (ie zero) where no

digits exists. Digits and zero may be combined together to represent any number.

1.2 Addition

The process of finding the total of two or more numbers is called addition. This

operation is indicated by the plus (+) symbol. When numbers are combined by

addition, the resulting total is called the sum.

When adding whole numbers whose total is more than nine, it is necessary to

arrange the numbers in columns so that the last digit of each number is in the same

column. The ones column contains the values zero through nine, the tens column

contains multiples of ten, up to ninety, and the hundreds column consists of

multiples of one hundred.

To add the sum of the above, first add the ones column, 8 and 3 make 11 and 2

makes 13. Place the 3 in the ones column of the answer and carry the 1 forward

to the tens column. Adding this we have 1 and 7 is 8 and 4 is 12 and 6 is 18. Place

the 8 in the tens column of the answer and carry the 1 forward to the hundreds

column which we now add. 1 and 2 is 3 and 4 is 7. Place the 7 in the hundreds

column of the answer. We see that the answer (sum) to the addition is 783.

The process is identical if any of the numbers includes a decimal as long as the

decimal points are arranged in the same column. The number of digits after the

decimal point as no significance.

Example:

hundreds

2

+4

7

tens

7

4

6

8

.

.

.

.

ones

8

3

0

3

Example:

hundreds

2

+ 4

7

tens

7

4

6

8

ones

8

3

2

3

01/Calculations/A/B

Page 2

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.3 Subtraction

The process of finding the difference between two numbers is known as

subtraction and is indicated by the minus () sign. Subtraction is accomplished by

taking the quantity of one number away from another number. The number which

is being subtracted is known as the subtrahend (smaller number), and the

number from which the quantity is taken is known as the minuend (larger

number).

To find the difference of two numbers, arrange them in the same manner used for

addition. With the minuend on top and the subtrahend on the bottom, align the

vertical columns so the last digits are in the same column. Beginning at the right,

subtract the subtrahend from the minuend. Repeat this for each column.

Example:

hundreds

4

2

1

tens

4

6

8

ones

3 minuend

2 subtrahend

1

Place 262 under 443. 2 from 3 leaves 1. write 1 in the ones column of the answer.

6 from 4 is clearly impossible, so the 4 is increased in value to 14 by taking 1 from

the hundreds column leaving 3. 14 from 6 leaves 8. Write 8 in the tens column.

finally, 3 from 2 in the hundreds columns leaves 1.

To check a subtraction problem, you can add the difference to the subtrahend

to find the minuend.

There are two methods by which subtraction can be performed. Consider

15 8 = 7

1st method: take 8 from 15. We have 7 left.

2nd method: if to 7 we add 8 then we obtain 15. 7 is therefore the difference

between 15 and 8.

The process is identical if any of the numbers include a decimal as long as the

decimal points are arranged in the same column.

01/Calculations/A/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.4 Multiplication

Multiplication is a special form of repetitive addition. When a given number is

added to itself a specified number of times, the process is called multiplication. The

sum of 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 is expressed by multiplication as 4 x 3 = 12. The numbers

4 and 3 are called factors and the answer, 12, represents the product. The

number multiplied (4) is called the multiplicand, and the multiplier represents

the number of times the multiplicand is added to itself. Multiplication is typically

indicated by an (x), (), or in certain equations, by the lack of any other operation

sign.

One important factor to remember when multiplying is that the order in which

numbers are multiplied does not change the product.

Example:

or

4

x3

12

Example:

532 Multiplicand

x 24 Multiplier

10640 First partial product

2128 Second partial product

12,768 Product

3

x4

12

Like addition and subtraction, when multiplying large numbers it is important they

be aligned vertically. Regardless of the number of digits in the multiplicand or the

multiplier, the multiplicand should be written on top, and the multiplier beneath it.

When multiplying numbers greater than nine, multiply each digit in the multiplicand

by each digit in the multiplier. Once all multiplicands are used as a multiplier, the

products of each multiplication operation are added to arrive at a total product.

01/Calculations/A/B

Page 4

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.5 Division

Just as subtraction is the reverse of addition, division is the reverse of

multiplication. Division is a means of finding out how many times a number is

contained in another number. The number divided is called dividend, the number

you are dividing by is the divisor, and the result is the quotient. With some

division problems, the quotient may include a remainder. A remainder represents

that portion of the dividend that cannot be divided by the divisor.

Division is indicated by the use of the division sign (B) with the dividend to the left

and the divisor to the right of the sign, or with the dividend inside the sign and the

divisor to the left. Division also is indicated in fractional form.

For example, in the fraction 3 the 3 is the dividend and the 8 is the divisor. When

8

division is carried out, the quotient is 0.375.

The process of dividing large quantities is performed by breaking the problem

down into a series of operations, each resulting in a single digit quotient. This is

best illustrated by example.

Example:

dividend divisor

416

= 52

or

52

8 ) 416

40

16

16

To check a divsion problem for accuracy, multiply the quotient by the the divisor

and add the remainder (if any). If the operation is carried out properly, the

result equals the dividend.

01/Calculations/A/B

Page 5

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Addition

1. 0.251 + 10.298

Multiplication

1. 5.05 x 13.8

2. 18.098 + 210.099

2. 1.27 x 0.871

3. 0.025 + 10.995

3. 1.01 x 0.89

4. 27.3 x 9.31

Subtraction

1. 27.3 4.36

Division

1. 233.1 B 18.5

2. 21.76 18.51

2. 0.1254 B 0.057

3. 32.76 20.086

3. 0.6875 B 22

4. 24.024 B 4.62

5. 1.09 x 104 B 12

01/Calculations/A/B

Page 6

IR PART 66

M1

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

01/Calculations/A/B

Page 7

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

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M1

1.6.1 Adding Signed Numbers

When adding two or more numbers with the same sign, ignore the sign and find

the sum of the values and then place the common sign in front of the answer. In

other words, adding two or more positive numbers always results in a positive sum,

where as adding two or more negative numbers results in a negative sum.

When adding a positive and negative number, find the difference between the two

numbers and apply (+ or ) of the larger number. In other words, adding negative

number is the same as subtracting a positive number. The result of adding or

subtracting signed numbers is called algebraic sum of those numbers.

multiplication of any other number. However, after multiplying, the product must

be given a sign. There are three rules to follow when determining a products

sign.

1. The product of two positive numbers is always positive.

2. The product of two negative numbers is always positive.

3. The product of a positive and a negative number is always negative.

Example:

6 x 2 = 12

6 x 2 = 12

(6) x (2) = 12

(6) x 2 = 12

Add 25 + (15)

25

+ (15)

10

or

25

15

10

Like multiplying signed numbers, division of signed numbers is accomplished in

the same manner as dividing any other number. The sign of the quotient is

determined using the rules identical to those used in multiplication.

When subtracting numbers with different signs, change the operation sign to plus

and change the sign of the subtrahend. Once this is done, proceed as you do in

addition. For example +3 4 is the same as +3 + +4. There is no difference if the

subtrahend is larger than the minuend, since the operation is done as though the

two quantities are added.

Example:

Subtract 48 from 216

Step 1: Set up the subtraction problem 216 48

Step 2: Change the operation sign to a plus sign and change the sign of the

subtrahend. Now add.

216 + 48 = 264

Example:

12 B 3 = 4

12 B (3) = 4

(12) B ()3 = 4

(12) B 3 = 4

02/Signed Numbers/B

Page 8

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

M1

1. 8 + 5

16.11 12 B 4 + 3 x (6 2)

2. 7 6 3

17.15 B (4 + 1) 9 x 3 + 7 (4 + 3)

3. 8 7 15

18.10 12 B 6 + 3 (8 3)

4. 3 + 5 + 7 4 2

5. 6 + 4 3 5 7 + 2

6. 8 x (3)

7. (2) x (5) x (6)

8. 4 x (3) x (2)

9. (3) x (4) x 5

10.16 B (2) x (4)

11. 15 x (3) x 2 B (5) x (6)

12.3 + 5 x 2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

IR PART 66

13. 7 x 5 2 + 4 x 6

14.7 x 5 12 B 4 + 3

15.11 9 B 3 + 7

Question 1.

16 holes spaced 48mm apart are to be marked off on a sheet of metal. 17 mm

is to be allowed between the centres of the holes and the edge of the metal.

Calculate the total length of metal required.

Question 2.

In the first 2 hours of a shift an operator makes 32 soldered joints per hour. In

the next 3 hours the operator makes 29 joints per hour. In the final two hours

26 joints are made per hour. How many soldered joints are made in the 7

hours.

Question 3.

A machinist makes 3 parts in 15 minutes. How many parts can he produce in

an 8 hour shift allowing 20 minutes for starting and 10 minutes for finishing the

shift.

Question 4.

The length of a metal plate is 891 mm. Rivets are placed 45 mm apart and the

distance between the centres of the end rivets and the edge of the plate is

18mm. How many rivets are required.

Question 5.

32 pins each 61 mm long are to be turned in a lathe. If 2 mm is allowed on

each pin for parting off. what total length of material is required to make the

pins.

02/Signed Numbers/B

Page 9

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.7.1 Introduction

number is divided into three equal parts, each part is onethird ( 1 ) of the number.

3

A fraction consists of two numbers, one above and one below a line, or fraction

bar. The fraction bar indicates division of the top number, or numerator, by the

bottom number, or denominator. For example, the fraction 3 indicates that three

4

is divided by four to find the decimal equivalent of 0.75.

When a fractions numerator is smaller than the denominator, the fraction is called

a proper fraction. A proper fraction is always less than 1. If the numerator is larger

than the denominator, the fraction is called an improper fraction. In this situation

the fraction is greater than 1. If the numerator and the denominator are identical,

the fraction is equal to 1.

A mixed number is the combination of a whole number and a proper fraction.

Mixed numbers are expressed as 1 5 and 29 9 and are typically used in place of

8

16

improper fractions. The numerator and denominator of a fraction can be changed

without changing the fractions value. A mixed number can be converted into an

improper fraction and vice versa.

which will divide exactly into both its numerator and denominator. The fractions

5 and 11 are both in their lowest terms but the fraction 6 is not in its lowest terms

7

19

10

3

because it can be reduced to by dividing top and bottom numbers by 2.

5

Example:

Reduce 21 to its lowest terms

35

21 is equivalent to 21 B 7 and 35 B 7 + 3

35

5

Example:

(8 3) ) 2

Convert 8 2 =

= 26

3

3

3

27

Express

as a mixed number

4

27 = 6 3 (since 27 B 4 = 6 remainder 3)

4

4

03/Fractions/A/B

Page 10

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Convert the following mixed numbers to improper fractions:

1. 2 6

7

2. 3 4

9

3. 21 3

5

4. 5 21

25

5. 2 1

7

Convert the following improper fractions to mixed numbers:

1. 11

3

2. 21

5

3. 53

7

4. 210

4

5. 99

8

03/Fractions/A/B

Page 11

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

When the values of two or more fractions are to be compared, express each of

the fractions with the same denominator. This common denominator should be

the LCM of the denominator of the fractions to be compared. It is sometimes

called the lowest common denominator (LCM).

Example:

Arrange the fractions 5 , 8 and 7 in order of size beginning with the smallest.

6 9

8

The LCM of the denominators 6, 8, and 9 is 72, i.e. the lowest common

denominator is 72.

5 is equivalent to (5 12) + 60

6

72

(6 12)

Two fractions which have the same denominator can be added together by adding

their numerators. Thus

8 is equivalent to (8

9

(9

8)

+ 64

72

8)

7 is equivalent to (7

8

(8

9)

+ 63

72

9)

Because all the fractions have been expressed with the same denominator all

that we need to do is to compare the numerators. Therfore the order of size is

60 , 63 and 64 or 5 , 7 and 8

72 72

72 6 8

9

3 ) 5 + (3 ) 5) + 8

11 11

11

11

When two fractions have different denominators they cannot be added together

directly. However, if we express the fractions with the same denominator they can

be added.

Example:

Add 2 and 3

7

5

The lowest common denominator of 5 and 7 is 35

2 ) 3 + 14 ) 15

5 7

35 35

=

(14 ) 15)

35

= 29

35

04/Fractions/B

Page 12

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

When mixed numbers are to be added together, the whole numbers and the

fractions are added separately.

When mixed numbers are involved first subtract the whole numbers and then deal

with the fractional parts.

Example:

Example:

Add 4 2 and 2 3

3

5

Subtract 4 1 *6 3

4

3

3

1

3

6 *4 + 2 ) * 1

4

3

4 3

(9 * 4)

= 2)

12

= 2) 5

12

=2 5

12

42) 23 + 6 ) 2) 3

3

5

3 5

= 6 ) 10 ) 9

15 15

= 6 ) 19

15

= 6)1) 4

15

= 7 4

15

method similar to that for addition is used.

Example:

Subtract 3 from 5

4

6

The lowest common denominator is 12

5 * 3 + 10 * 9

6 4

12 12

(10 * 9)

=

12

1

=

12

04/Fractions/B

Page 13

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Multiplication of fractions is performed by multiplication the numerators of each

fraction to form the product numerators, and multiplying the individual

denominators to form the product denominator. The resulting fraction is then

reduced to its lowest terms.

Example:

Multiply 3 by 5

8 7

3

8

5 + (3

7

(8

Example:

Multiply 1 3

8

13

8

5)

7)

= 15

56

If any factors are common to a numerator and a denominator they should be

cancelled before multiplying.

21

3

2 1 + 11 7

3

8

3

(11 7)

=

(8 3)

= 77

24

= 3 5

24

taken as meaning multiply.

Example:

5

7

3

2

3

5

7

21 + (1

32

(1

5

1

21

32

1)

16)

5

16

04/Fractions/B

Page 14

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Division of common fractions is accomplished by inverting, or turning over, the

divisor and then multiplying. However, it is important that you invert the divisor only

and not the dividend. Once the divisor is inverted, multiply the numerators to obtain

a new numerator, multiply the denominators to obtain a new denominator, and

reduce the quotient to its lowest terms.

Example:

Divide 3 by 7

5 8

3B7 = 3

5 8

5

(3

=

(5

=

8

7

8)

7)

24

35

04/Fractions/B

Page 15

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

M1

Add the following fractions:

1. 3 ) 3

4 8

1. 3

4

5

7

2. 1 ) 2 ) 5

8 3 12

2. 2

9

12

3

3. 7 2 ) 6 3

3

5

3. 7

5

31

2

4. 3 3 ) 5 2 ) 4 3

7

8

4

4. 3 3

4

5. 23 ) 14

10

6

5. 3 of 16

4

1. 7 * 5

8 6

2. 3 3 * 1 1

8

4

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

IR PART 66

3. 5 3 * 2 9

8

10

4. 21 * 3 2

5

5

5. 1 3 * 2 2

4

5

13

5

11

8

1. 4 B 1 1

5

3

2. 2 1 B 3 3

2

4

3. 5 B 5 1

5

4. 1 2 B 3 B 9

3

5 10

5. 2 8 B 1 2 ) 1

9

3 2

04/Fractions/B

Page 16

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1. 1 AAA 5 AAA 2 AAA 7

2 6 3 12

2. 3 AAA 5 AAA 9 AAA 17

4 8 16 32

8 9 6 18

04/Fractions/B

Page 17

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.8 Decimals

Working with fractions is typically time consuming and complex. One way you can

eliminate fractions in complex equations is by replacing them with decimal

fractions or decimals. A common fraction is converted to a decimal fraction by

dividing the numerator by the denominator. For example, is converted to a

decimal by dividing the 3 by the 4.

The decimal equivalent of is 0.75. Improper fractions are converted to decimals

in the same manner. However, whole numbers appear to the left of the decimal

point.

In a decimal, each digit represents a multiple of ten. The first digit represents

tenths, the second hundredths, the third thousandths.

Example:

0.5 is read as five tenths

0.05 is read as five hundredths

0.005 is read as five thousandths

when writing decimals, the number of zeros to the right of the decimal does not

affect the value as long as no other number except zero appears. In other words,

numerically, 2.5, 2.50 and 2.500 are the same.

The number of digits after the decimal point are called decimal places

Examples:

The addition of decimals is done in the same manner as the addition of whole

numbers. However, care must be taken to correctly align the decimal points

vertically.

Example:

Add the following 25.78 + 5.4 + 0.237

rewrite with the decimals aligned and add.

25.78

5.4

+ 0.237

31.417

Once everything is added, the decimal point in the answer is placed directly below

the other decimal points.

27.16 two decimal points

27.026

three decimal points and so on.

05/Decimals/A/B

Page 18

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Like adding, subtracting decimals is done in the same manner as with whole

numbers. Again, it is important that you keep the decimal points aligned.

When dividing decimals, the operation is carried out in the same manner as

division of whole numbers. However, to ensure accurate placement of decimal

point in the quotient, two rules apply:

Example:

If you have 325.25 pounds of ballast on board and remove 30.75 pounds, how

much ballast remains?

325.25

1. When the divisor is a whole number, the decimal point in the quotient aligns

vertically with the decimal in the dividend when doing long division.

2. When the divisor is a decimal fraction, it should first be converted to a whole

number by moving the decimal point to the right. However, when the decimal in

the divisor is moved, the decimal in the dividend must also move in the same

direction and the same number of spaces.

30.75

294.50

When multiplying decimals, ignore the decimal points and multiply the resulting

whole numbers. Once the product is calculated, count the number of digits to the

right of the decimal point in both the multiplier and multiplicand. This number

represents the number of places from the left the decimal point is placed in the

product.

Example:

Divide 37.26 by 2.7

Move the decimal in the divisor to the right to convert it to a whole number.

27 ) 37.26

Example:

26.757

3 decimal

x 0.32 2 decimal

53514

80271

856224 count 5 decimal places to the left of the digit 4

8.56224

Move the decimal in the dividend the same number of places to the right.

27 ) 372.6

13.8

Divide:

05/Decimals/A/B

27 ) 372.6

27

102

81

216

Page 19

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.9 Conversions

1.9.1 Converting Decimals to Fractions

Although decimals are typically easier to work with, there are times when the use

of a fraction is more practical. For example, when measuring something, most

scales are fractional increments. For this reason it is important that you know how

to convert a decimal number into a fraction. For example, 0.125 is read as 125

thousandths, which is written as 125/1000. This fraction is then reduced to its

lowest terms.

Examples:

0.800 + 800 + 4

1000

5

6.250 + 6) 250 + 6 1

1000

4

0.037 + 37

1000

To convert a fraction into a decimal we divide the denominator into the numerator.

Convert 27 to decimals

32

27 + 27 B 32

32

= 0.84375

When we have mixed numbers to convert into decimals we need only deal with

the fractional part. Thus to convert 2 9 into decimals we only have to deal with 9

16

16

9 + 9 B 16

16

= 0.5625

16

16

Sometimes a fraction will not divide out exactly. If the number is recurring the

answer can be given to 1 or 2 decimal places or that specified by the equation.

06/Decimals/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

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M1

Example:

3 as a percentage = 3

5

5

100%=

4 3 as a percentage = 19

4

4

(3

100)

= 60%

5

100% 1900

=

= 475%

1

4

then the fraction to a decimal.

Examples:

65% as a fraction = 65 , as a decimal = 0.65

100

32% as a fraction = 32.5, as a decimal = 0.325

100

Examples:

8% as a fraction =

8%

+ 8 + 2

100%

100

25

12.5%

+ 25

100%

2

1 + 25 + 1

100

200

8

06/Decimals/B

Page 21

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

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M1

To convert a decimal to a percentage, firstly, convert the decimal to a fraction, then

convert the fraction to a percentage.

1.9.6.2

Example:

quantities and multiply by 100.

1000

100

Example:

1000

100

12 as a percentage of 50 = 12

50

100 = 24%

1000

100

4 as a percentage of 60 = 4

60

100 = 6.67%

1.9.6.1

2.4

100 = 13.333% or 13 1%

3

a fraction and multiply by the quantity.

Examples:

4% of 60 = 4

100

60 = 240 = 12 = 2 2

100

5

5

1500 = 5250 + 525 + 105 + 52 1

100

10

2

2

3% of 1500 = 3.5

100

06/Decimals/B

Page 22

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

Solve the following equations:

Convert the following decimals to fractions in their lowest terms:

1. 0.2

2. 0.45

3. 0.3125

4. 2.55

5. 0.0075

6. 2.125

Find the difference between:

1. 19 and 0.295

64

2. 1 3 and 1.1632

16

1. 3

8

2. 11

16

3. 21

32

4. 1 5

8

5. 2 7

16

Place the following in ascending order of size:

1. 1 AAA 0.167AAA 3

6

20

7

2

2. AAA 0.44AAA

5

16

11

3.

AAA 0.3594AAA 0.3125

32

IR PART 66

M1

Express the following as a percentage %:

1. 0.43

2. 0.025

3. 1.25

4. 3

8

5. 3

7

6. 1

12

7. 7

20

Express the following as fractions:

1. 25%

2. 13%

3. 4.5%

4. 16 1%

3

5. 33%

Express:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

30 as a percentage of 50

24 as a percentage of 16

0.5 as a percentage of 12.5

3.2 as a percentage of 2.4

0.08 as a percentage of 0.72

Calculate:

1. 4% of 30

2. 0.8% of 360

3. 1.5% of 60

4. 120% of 75

5. 80% of 90

06/Decimals/B

Page 23

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

M1

1.10.1

Ratio

is 75 m and a model of it is 1 m long then the length of the model is 1 of the length

75

of the aircraft. In making the model all the dimensions of the aircraft are reduced

in the ratio of 1 to 75.

The ratio 1 to 75 is usually written 1 : 75.

A ratio can also be written as a fraction, as indicated above, and a ratio of 1:75

means the same as the fraction 1 .

75

Before we can state a ratio the units must be the same. we can state a ratio

between 3 mm and 2 m provided we bring both lengths to the same units. Thus

if we convert 2 m to 2000 mm the ratio between lengths is 3:2000.

Example:

Express the following ratios as fractions reduced to their lowest terms:

i. 40 mm to 2.2 m

2.2 m = 2200

40 : 2200 = 40 = 1

55

2200

IR PART 66

engine turns at 4,000 rpm and the propeller turns at 2,400 rpm, the ratio of the two

speeds is 4,000 to 2,400, or 5 to 3, when reduced to lowest terms. This relationship

can also be expressed as 5/3 or 5:3.

The use of ratios is common in aviation. One ratio you must be familiar with is

compression ratio, which is the ratio of cylinder displacement when the piston is

at bottom centre to the cylinder displacement when the piston is at top centre. For

example, if the volume of a cylinder with the piston at bottom centre is 96 cubic

inches and the volume with the piston at top centre is 12 cubic inches, the

compression ratio is 96 :12 or 8 :1 when simplified.

Another typical ratio is that of different gear sizes, for example, the gear ratio of

a drive gear with 15 teeth to a driven gear with 45 teeth is 15:45 or 1:3 when

reduced. This means that for every one tooth on the drive gear there are three

teeth on the driven gear. However, when working with gears, the ratio of teeth is

opposite the ratio of revolutions. In other words, since the drive gear has one third

as many teeth as the driven gear, the drive gear must complete three revolutions

to turn the driven gear one revolution. This results in a revolution ratio of 3:1, which

is opposite the ratio of teeth.

Before we can state a ratio the units must be the same. We state a ratio between

3 mm and 2 m provided we bring both lengths to the same units. If convert 2 m

to 2000 mm the ratio between the two lengths is 3:2000.

1.6 kg = 1600 g

800 : 1600 = 800 = 1

1600

2

07/Ratio/A/B

Page 24

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

1.10.2

IR PART 66

M1

Proportion

1.10.2.1 General

a convenient way to solve problems involving ratios. For example, if an an engine

has a reduction gear ratio between the crankshaft and the propeller of 3:2 and the

engine is turning 2,700 rpm, what is the speed of the propeller? In this problem,

let X represent the unknown value, which in this case is the speed of the

propeller. Next set up a proportional statement using the fractional form 3 + 2700

x .

2

To solve this equatiuon, cross multiply to arrive at the equation 3x = 2 x 2,700, or

5,400. to solve for (x), divide 5,400 by 3. The speed of the propeller is 1,800 rpm.

If 5 litres of oil has a mass of 4 kg, then 10 litres of the same oil will have a mass

of 8 kg. That is, if we double the quantity of oil its mass is also doubled. Now 2

litres of oil will have a mass of 2 kg. That is if we halve the quantity of oil we halve

its mass. This is an example of direct proportion. As the quantity of oil increases

the mass increases in the same proportion. As the quantity of oil decreases the

mass decreases in the same proportion.

3 + (engine-speed)

2

(propeller-speed)

3 + 2700

x

2

3x + 5, 400

x + 1, 800rpm

150

This same proportion may also be expressed as 3:2 = 2,700 : X. The first and last

terms of the proportion are called extremes, and the second and third terms are

called the means. In any proportion, the product of the extremes is equal to the

product of the means. In this example, multiply the extremes to get 3x, and multiply

the means to get 2 x 2,700 or 5,400. This results in the identical derived earlier;

3x = 5,400.

3:2 = engine speed : propeller speed

3x = 2 : 2,700

3x = 5,400

x = 1,800 rpm.

Example:

The electrical resistance of a wire 150 mm long is 2 ohms. Find the resistance of

a similar wire which is 1 m long.

The lengths of the two wires are increased in the ratio of 1000 :150. The resistance

will aslo increase in the ratio 1000 :150.

3:2 = 2,700 : x

A motor car will travel 30 km in 1 hour if its speed is 30 km per hour. If its speed

is increased to 60 km per hour the time taken to travel 30 km will be hour. That

is when the speed is doubled the time taken is halved. This is an example of

inverse proportion. When we multiply the speed by 2 we divided the time taken by

2.

Example:

Two pulleys of 150 mm and 50 mm diameter are connected by a belt. If the larger

pulley revolves at 80 rev/min find the speed of the smaller pulley.

The smaller pulley must revolve faster than the larger pulley and hence the

quantities, speed and diameter, are in inverse proportion. The pulley diameters are

decreased in the 50 : 150, or 1 : 3. The speed will be increased in the ratio of 3 :1.

Therefore

Speed of smaller pulley = 80

07/Ratio/A/B

3 + 240 rev/min.

1

Page 25

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

The diagram below shows the line AB whose length represents 10 m divided into

two parts in the ratio 2:3. From the diagram the line has been divided into a total

og 5 parts. The length AC contains 2 parts and the length BC contains 3 parts.

Each part is 2m long, hence AC is 4m long and BC is 6m long.

Example:

A certain brass is made by alloying copper and zinc in the ratio of 7:3. How

much copper must be mixed with 30 g of zinc.

3 parts have a mass of 30 g

1 part has a mass of 10 g

7 parts have a mass of 70 g

Therefore,

Total number of parts = 2 + 3 = 5

Length of each part = 10 = 2 m

5

Length of AC = 2 x 2 = 4 m

Length of BC = 3 x 2 = 6 m

08/Ratio/B

Page 26

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

A gear wheel having 40 teeth revolves at 120 rev/min. It meshes with a wheel

having 25 teeth. Find the speed of the 25 tooth wheel.

Express the following ratios as fractions reduced to their lowest terms:

1. 15 g to 2 kg

2. 30 p to 5

3. 20 cm to 100 mm

4. 400 m to 3 km

5. 21 ft to 9 inches

Two shafts are to rotate at 150 and 250 rev/min respectively. A 120 mm diameter

pulley is fitted to the slower shaft and by means of a belt it drives a pulley on the

faster shaft. What diameter pulley is required on the faster shaft.

A bar of metal 10.5 m long is to be cut into three parts in the ratio of 1 : 1 3 : 3.

2 4

Find the length of each part.

1. 3 : 4 = 6 : x

2. 20 : 1 = x : 3.2

3. 240 : 400 = x : 1

4. 1 : 2.6 = x : 13

5. 18 : x = 2 : 1

Five men build a wall take 20 days to complete it. How long would it take 4 men

to complete it.

4 people can clean an office in 6 hours. How many people would be needed to

clean the office in 4 hours.

8 people take 5 hours to change an engine. How long would it take 4 people to do

this work.

An engineering company employ 12 men to fabricate a number of containers.

They take 9 days to complete the work. If the company had employed 8 men, how

long would it have taken.

A train travels 200 km in 4 hours. If it travels at the same rate, how long will it take

to complete a journey of 350 km.

A motor running at 400 rev/min has a pulley of 125 mm diameter attached to its

shaft. It drives a parallel shaft which has a 1000 mm diameter pulley attached to

it. Find the speed of this shaft.

08/Ratio/B

Page 27

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

When a number is multiplied by itself, it is said to be raised to a given power.

For example, 6 x 6 = 36; therefore, 6 2 = 36. The number of times a base

number is multiplied by itself is expressed as an exponent and is written to

right and slightly above the base number. A positive exponent indicates how

many times a number is multiplied by itself.

Example:

3 2 is read 3 squared or 3 to the second power. its value is found by multiplying

3 by itself 2 times.

3x3=9

2 3 is read 2 cubed or 2 to the third power. Its value is found by multiplying 2 by

itself 3 times.

2x2x2 =8

1 +1

23

2

1

2

1+1

2

8

Any number, except zero, that is raised to the zero power equals 1. When a

number is written without an exponent, the value of the exponent does not

have a SIGN (+ or ) preceding it, the exponent is assumed to be positive.

The root of a number is that value which, when multiplied by itself a certain

number of times, produces that number. For example, 4 is a root of 16 because

when multiplied by itself, the product is 16. However, 4 is also a root of 64

because 4 x 4 x 4 = 64. The symbol used to indicate a root is the radical sign

( x ) placed over the number. If only the radical sign appears over a number, it

indicates you are to extract the square root of the number under the sign. The

square root of a number is the root other than a square root, an index number

is placed outside the radical sign. for example the cube root is expressed as

3

64

inverse, or reciprocal of the number with its exponent made positive.

Example:

23 is read 2 to the negative third power. the inverse, or reciprocal of 23 with

its exponent made positive is

09/Power/A/B

Page 28

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.12 Indices

1.12.1

power of the base 2.

The number 4, which gives the number of 2s to be multiplied together is called

the index (plural : Indices).

Similarly

a + a3

1. 8 2

2. 2 4

3. 3 3

4. 2 5

5. 16

6. 144

7. 169

8. 38

9. 327

10. 3216

Thus in this expression

xn is called the nth power of x

xn

x is called the base, and

n is called the index.

Remember that, in algebra, letters such as a in the above expression merely

represent numbers.

Hence the laws of arithmetic apply strictly to algebraic terms as well as

numbers.The expression 1 is called the reciprocal of 2.

2

1

Similarly the expression p is called the reciprocal of p likewise the expression

1

2

x n is called the reciprocal of x

09/Power/A/B

Page 29

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

1.12.2

IR PART 66

M1

Laws of Indices

1.12.2.1 Multiplication

Let us see what happens when we multiply powers of the same base together.

5 2 5 4 + (5 5) (5 5 5 5)

= 5 5 5 5 5 5 + 56

or

Now lets see what happens when we divide powers of the same base.

3 5 + (3 3 3 3 3) + 3 3 3 + 33

32

(3 3)

We see that the same result could have been obtained by subtracting the

indices.

3 5 + 35*2 + 3 3

32

The law is:

c) (c c c c c)

= c c c c c c c c + c8

In both the examples above we see that we could have obtained the result by

adding the indices together.

5 2 5 4 + 52)4 + 5 6

c 3 c 5 + c 3)5 + c 8

We may apply this idea when multiplying more than two powers of the same

base together.

c3

c 5 + (c

Thus 7 2 7 5

The law is:

7 9 + 72)5)9 + 716

indices.

When dividing powers of the same base subtract the index of the

denominator from the index of the numerator.

1.12.2.3 Powers of Powers

2

How do we simplify 5 3 ?

One way is to proceed as follows:

2

5 3 +53+3 = 5 6

We that the same result would have been obtained if we multiply the two

indices together.

2

5 3 +53x2 = 56

The law is:

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

together.

10/Power/B

Page 30

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.12.2.6 Fractional Indices

5

(2

Now 2 5 +

2

(2

2

2

2

2

2

2

The cube root of 5 (written as 35 ) is the number which, when multiplied by itself

three times, gives 5.

3

5 35 35 + 5

2)

+1

2)

5 13

Comparing these expressions

3

5 + 5 13

2 + 25*5 + 2 0 Thus

20 + 1

25

4

(c c c c)

4

Also c 4 +

+ 1 or c 4 + c 4*4 + c 0 = 1

c

c

(c c c c)

The law is:

5

Now 2 7 +

2

(2

laws of indices

it follows that

The law is:

(2

2

2

2

2)

2

2 3 + 23*7 + 2 *4

27

2 *4 + 14

2

2)

(2

5 13 + 513)13)13 + 5

Similarly the fourth root of base d ( written as 4d ) is the number which, when

multiplied by itself four times, gives d.

4

d 4d 46 4d + d

5 13

2)

2

d 14

The law is:

d 14 d 14

4

d + d 14

d 14 + d 14)14)14)14 + d

denotes the root to be taken.

of the power of the base having the same, but positive, index.

10/Power/B

Page 31

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Simplify the following, giving each answer as a power

1. 2 5

1. 811/4

26

2. a

a2

a5

3. 163/4

3. n 8 B n 5

4. 10 5

10 3 B 10 4

5. z 4

z2

6. 3 2

3 *3 B 3 3

7. 9 3

4. 92.5

z *3

8. t

t 3

71

9.

2. 82/3

10/Power/B

Page 32

IR PART 66

M1

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

10/Power/B

Page 33

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

M1

The formula y + ax ) b has y as its subject. By rearranging this formula we

could make x the subject. We are then said to have transposed the formula to

make x the subject.

The rules for transforming a formula are:

1. Remove square roots or other roots.

2. Get rid of fractions.

3. Clear brackets.

4. Collect together the terms containing the required subject.

5. Factorise if necessary.

6. Isolate the required subject.

These steps should be performed in the order given.

Examples:

i. Transpose the formula F = ma to make a the subject.

Step 1. Divide both sides by m. then,

ma

F

m+ m

F

F

or

m + a or a + m

y

to make b the subject

b

Step 1. Multiply both sides by b. then,

y

x b+

b

b

bx + y or y + bx

ii. Transpose x +

IR PART 66

(R * r)

Step 1. Since there are no roots get rid of the fraction by multiplying both sides

of the equation by (R * r).

V(R * r) + 2R

Step 2. Clear the bracket.

VR * Vr + 2R

Step 3. Collect the terms containing R on the LHS.

VR * Vr + 2R

Step 4. Factorise the LHS.

R(V * 2) + Vr

Step 5. Isolate R by dividing both sides of the equation by (V * 2).

Vr

R+

(V * 2)

Although we used five steps to obtain the required subject, in very many cases

far fewer steps are needed. Nevertheless, you should work through the steps

in the order given.

iv. Tranpose d + 2hr to make h the subject.

Step 1. Remove the square root by squaring both sides.

d 2 + 2hr

Step 2. Since there are no fractions or brackets and factorisation is not needed

we can now isolate h by dividing both sides of the equation by 2r.

d 2 + h or h + d 2

2r

2r

Since it is usual to position the subject on the LHS.

11/Transposition/B

Page 34

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1. C + pd for d

15. C +

(N * n)

for N

2p

16. a +

3

(4t ) 5)

2. S + pdn for d

3. I + PRT

for R

for t

4. v 2 + 2gh for h

5. x + ay for y

6. P + RT for T

V

7. S + ts for t

T

8. M + E

I

R

9. GY + T

J

l

for R

for J

10. v + u ) at

for t

11. n + p ) cr

for r

12. y + ax ) b for x

13. y + x ) 17

5

14. C +

for x

E

for E

(R ) r)

11/Transposition/B

Page 35

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.14 Areas

The area of a plane figure is measured by seeing how many square units it

contains. 1 square metre is the area contained in a square metre is the area

contained in a square having a side of 1 metre; 1 square centimetre is the area

contained in a square having a side of 1 centimetre, etc. The standard

abbreviations are

1 square metre

1 m2

1 square centimetre

1 cm2

1 square millimetre

1 mm2

1 square inch

1 in2

1 square foot

1 ft2

1 square yard

1 yd2

Parallelogram

Area = b h

Perimeter = Sum of all 4 sides.

The following provides the formulae for areas and perimeters of simple

geometrical shapes.

Triangle

Rectangle

Area = l

Area = 1

2

Perimeter = 2l

2b

where s +

12/Areas/A/B

(a ) b ) c)

2

Page 36

IR PART 66

M1

1. Find the area and perimeter of a rectangle whose length is 12 inches and

width is 7 inches.

2. A rectangle lawn is 35 m long and 18 m wide. A path 1 m wide is made

round the lawn. Calculate the area of the path.

3. A carpet has an area of 36 m2. If it is square what length of side has the

carpet.

4. A triangle has a base of 7 cm amd an altitude of 3 cm. Calculate its area.

5. A triangle has sides which are 8 cm , 12 cm and 14 cm long. Determine the

area ofthe triangle.

6. The area of a triangle is 40 ft2. Its base is 8 ft long. Calculate its vertical

height.

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

12/Areas/A/B

Page 37

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Trapezium

Sector of a Circle

Area = 1

2

(a ) b)

Area = pr 2

q

360

Perimeter = 2r )

(prq)

180

Circle

Area = pr 2

Circumference = 2pr + pd p + 3.142 or 22

7

13/Areas/B

Page 38

IR PART 66

M1

7. Find the area of a trapezium whose parallel sides are 45 mm and 73 mm

long if the distance between them is 42 mm.

8. An annulus has an outer diameter of 10 cm and an inner diameter of 6 cm.

calculate its area.

9. Find the area and length of arc of the sector of a circle, with an angle of

150 and a radius of 21 mm.

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

13/Areas/B

Page 39

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.15 Volumes

The volume of a solid figure is found by seeing how many cubic units it contains.

1 cubic metre is the volume contained inside a cube having an edge 1 metre long;

1 cubic centimetre is the volume contained inside a cube having an edge

1 centimetre long, etc. The standard abbreviations for units of volume are as

follows:

1 square metre

1 square centimetre

1 square millimetre

1 square inch

1 square foot

1 square yard

Cylinder

1 m3

1 cm3

1 mm3

1 in3

1 ft3

1 yd3

Volume = pr 2h

Surface Area = 2pr(h ) r)

The following figures give the formulae for the volumes and surface areas of

solid figures.

Any solid having a uniform crosssection;

Cone

Length of Solid) + (Total area of ends)

3

Surface Area = prl (l is the slant height)

14/Volumes/A/B

Page 40

IR PART 66

M1

10.Calculate the volume of a metal pipe whose inside diameter is 6 cm and

whose outside diameter is 8 cm, if it 20 cm long.

11. A sphere has a diameter of 8 in. Calculate its volume and surface area.

12.Find the volume of a cone with a diameter of 7 cm and vertical height of 4

cm.

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

14/Volumes/A/B

Page 41

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Surface Area = 4pr 2

Frustum of a Cone

Pyramid

Volume = 1 ph R 2 ) Rr ) r2

3

Curved Surface Area = pl(R ) r)

Volume = 1 Ah

3

Surface Area = Sum of the areas of the triangles forming the

sides plus the area of the base

( A = Area of base)

Sphere

Volume = 4 pr 3

3

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

15/Volumes/B

Page 42

IR PART 66

M1

13.A pyramid has a square base of side 12 cm and an altitude of 15 cm.

Calculate its volume.

14. A rectangle tank is 2.7 m long, 1.8 mm wide and 3.2 high. How many litres

of water will it hold when full.

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

15/Volumes/B

Page 43

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.16 Conversions

Length

1 in

1m

1 ft

12 in

3 ft

1 yd

1 km

1 mile

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Mass

2.54 cm

39.37 in or 3.281 ft

0.3048 m

1 ft

1 yd

0.9144 m

0.621 miles

1.61 km = 5,280 ft

1 amu

1000 kg

1000 g

1 slug

1

1 m2

1 ft2

1 in2

=

=

=

=

10.76 ft2

10.000 cm2

0.0929 m2 = 144 in2

6.452 cm2

Volume

m3

1

1 ft3

1 litre

1 ft3

1 gal

1 gal

=

=

=

=

=

=

1.000.000 cm3

1728 in3 = 0.0283 m3

1000 cm3 = 1.0576 qt

7.481 gal

8 pints

4.546 litres = (3.785 litres in American)

1.66 x 1027 kg

1t

1 kg

14.59 kg

1N

1N

Area

m2

=

=

=

=

=

=

0.2248 lbf

3.5969 ozf

Velocity

1 mph

1 m/s

1 knot

1 knot

1 knot

1 mph

=

=

=

=

=

=

1.47 ft/s

3.281 ft/s

1.688 ft/s

1.151 mph

1.852 km/h

1.61 km/h

Energy

1J

1 cal

1 Btu

16/Conversions/A/B

=

=

=

0.738 ft lb

4.186 J

252 cal

Page 44

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

Time

1 year

1 day

=

=

365 days

24 h = 1,440 min

Power

1 HP

1 HP

1W

1W

1 Btu/h

=

=

=

=

=

550 ft lb/s

746 W

1 J/s

0.738 ft lb/s

0.293 W

Pressure

1 atm

1 atm

1 atm

1 atm

1 Pa

1 bar

=

=

=

=

=

=

76.0 cmHg

760 mmHg

29.92 inHg

14.7 lb/in2

0.000145 lb/in2

14.5 lb/in2

1 bar

100,000 Pa

1 litre water =

1 pint water =

1 kg

1 lb

16/Conversions/A/B

Page 45

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1. Convert 6 m to feet.

2. What is 4 ft 6in to cm.

3. Convert 25 US gallons to litres.

4. Convert 254 inches to cm.

5. Convert 4.5 litre to US gallons

6. Convert 350 imperial gallons to litres.

7. What is 220 lb in kilos.

8. What is 220 kilos in litres.

9. How many pounds in 1 metric tonne.

20C

5C

37C

88C

11. Convert the following to C

40F

16F

100F

215F

17/Conversions/B

Page 46

MATHEMATICS

M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66

M1

1.17 Test

Work out the value of the following:

1. 7 + 4 x 3 =

(2x + 5)(x + 3) =

2. 5 x 4 3 x 6 + 5 =

3. 10 12 B 6 + 3 (8 3) =

16.A triangle has length of sides 3 cm and 4 cm. Using pythagros theorem

calculate the missing length.

4. 53 =

5. 2 ) 3 =

5 7

6. 5 * 3 =

6 4

7. 3

8

5=

7

8. 3 B 7 =

5 8

9. divide 74.52 by 8.1 =

11. Convert 0.800 to a fraction =

12.convert 3 to a percentage =

5

13.Transpose the following formula to find (u)

v = u + at

17/Conversions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

2.

IR PART 66

M1

ALGEBRA

2.1 Introduction

we use letters and symbols as well as numbers to represent quantities. When we

write that a sum of money is 50 we are making a particular statement but if we

write a sum of money is P we are making a general statement. This general

statement will cover any number we care to substitute for P.

to be added, subtracted, multiplied or divided. Frequently this has to be done

without using actual numbers.

The statement:

Area of a rectangle = length x breadth

is a perfectly general statement which applies to all rectangles. If we use symbols

we obtain a much shorter statement.

if

and

l = the length of the rectangle

b = the breadth of the rectangle

A=lxb

Knowing what the symbols A, l and b stand for, this statement conveys as much

information as the first statement. To find the area of a particular rectangle we

replace the symbols l and b by the actual dimensions of the rectangle, first making

sure that l and b have the same units. To find the area of a rectangle whose length

is 50mm and whose breadth is 30 mm we put l = 50 mm and b = 30 mm.

A = l x b = 50 x 30 = 1500 mm2

Many verbal statements can be translated into symbols as the following

statements show:

The difference of two numbers = x y

Two numbers multiplied together = a x b

One number divided by another = p B q

01/Symbols/A/B

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IR PART 66

M1

MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

01/Symbols/A/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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M1

2.3 Substitution

The process of finding the numerical value of an algebraic expression for given

values of the symbols that appear in it is called substitution.

Example:

If x = 3, y = 4 and z = 5 find the value of:

(3

(3y ) 2z)

=

(x ) z)

5)

= 22 = 2.75 or 2.

8

(12 ) 10)

8

4) ) (2

3)5

02/Substitution/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

If a = 2, b = 3 and c = 5.

Find the values of the following.

1. a +7

2. 9c

3. 3bc

4. 4c + 6b

5. a + 2b + 5c

6. 8c 4b

7. abc

6

5a ) 9b ) 8c a 2

a ) b ) c

8.

02/Substitution/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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M1

Terms

Like terms are numerical multiples of the same algebraic quantity.

7x, 5x and 3x

are three like terms.

An expression consiting of like terms can be reduced to a single term by adding

or substracting the numerical coefficients.

7x 5x + 3x = (7 5 + 3) x = 5x

When using symbols multiplication signs are nearly always omitted and l x b

becomes lb. Of course the same scheme cannot apply to numbers and we cannot

write 9 x 6 as 96. The multiplication sign can, however, be omitted when a symbol

and a number are to be multiplied together. Thus 5 x m is written 5m. The system

may be extended to three or more quantities and hence P x L x A x N is written

PLAN. The symbols need not be written in any special order because the order

in which numbers are multiplied together is unimportant. Thus PLAN is the same

as LANP or NAPL. It is usual, however, to write numbers before symbols, that is,

it is better to write 8xy than xy8 or x8y. In algebraic expressions the number in front

of the symbols is called the coefficient. Thus in the expression 8x the coefficient

of x is 8.

The division sign B is seldom used in algebra and it is more convenient to write

p

P B q in the fractional form q

Example:

(lp)

= lp B 2pR

(2pR)

3y 5y = (3 5) y = 8y

q 3q = (1 3) q = 2q

containing three unlike terms and it cannot be simplified any further. Similarly with

8a2b + 7ab3 6a2b2 which are all unlike terms. It is possible to have several sets

of like terms in an expression and each set can then be simplified.

8x + 3y 4z 5x + 7z 2y + 2z

= (8 5)x + (3 2)y + (4 +7 + 2)z

= 3x + y + 5z

Page 52

MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. 7x + 11x

1. 2z x 5y

2. 7x 5x

2. 3a x 3b

3. 3x 6x

3. 3 x 4m

4. 2x 4x

4. q x 16p

5. 8x + 3x

5. z x (y)

6. 2x + 7x

6. a x a

7. 5m + 13m 6m

Page 53

MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. 6b2 4b2 + 3b2

2. 6ab 3ab 2ab

3. 14xy + 5xy 7xy + 2xy

4. 5x + 7x 3x 2x

5. 3x 2y + 4z 2x 3y + 5z + 6x + 2y 3z

Page 54

IR PART 66

M1

MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

Quantities

The rules are exactly the same as those used with directed numbers.

() x)() y) + ) (xy) + ) xy + xy

5x

3y + 5

y + 15xy

(2x)(*3y) + *(2x)(3y) + *6xy

(*4x)(2y) + *(4x)(2y) + *8xy

(*3x)(*2y) + ) (3x)(2y) + 6xy

() x)

+ ) xy + xy

() y)

(*3x)

+ * 3x

2y

2y

(*5x)(*6y) + ) 5x + 5x

6y

6y

4x + * 4x

3y

(*3y)

05/Multiplication/A/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. (3a) x (2b)

2. 8m x (3n)

3. (4a) x 3b

4. 8p x (q) x (3r)

5. 3a x (4b) x (c) x 5d

6. 3m x (3m)

05/Multiplication/A/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

When multiplying expressions containing the same symbols, indices are used:

m

m+m

3m

5m + 3

m + 15m 2

Remember the word BODMAS which gives the initial letters of the correct

sequence i.e. Brackets, Of, Division, Multiply, Add, Subtract.

Thus

= 2x 2)3x2*x 2

(*m)

m 2 + (*m)

= 5x 2*x2

m + *m 3

= 4x 2

5m 2n

3mn 3 + 5

3mn

*2n 2 + 3

(*2)

n + 15m3n 4

n + *6mn 3

denominator is often possible, cancelling is equivalent to dividing both numerator

and denominator by the same quantity:

(p q)

pq

+q

p +

p

(3p 2q)

(3

+

(6pq 2)

(6

p

p

p

q

x

x

y

y

y

z)

z)

+ 3xy

(18x 2y 2z)

(18 x

+

(6xyz)

(6

q)

3p

p

+

+

6q

2q

q)

06/Multiplication/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. 4ab B 2a

2. 12x2yz2 B 4xz2

3. (12a2b) B 6a

4. 8a2bc2 B 4ac2

5. 7a2b2 B 3ab

6. 8mn x (3m2n3)

7. 7ab x (3a2)

8. m2n x (mn) x 5m2n2

06/Multiplication/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

2.7 Brackets

Brackets are used for convenience in grouping terms together. When removing

brackets each term within the bracket is multiplied by the quantity outside the

bracket:

3(x)y) + 3x)3y

5(2x)3y) + 5

4(a*2b) + 4

When simplifying expressions containing brackets first remove the brackets and

then add the like terms together.

(3x)7y)*(4x)3y) + 3x)7y*4x*3y + *x)4y

2x)5

a*4

3y + 10x)15y

2b + 4a*8b

m(a)b) + ma)mb

2p)3x

4a(2a)b) + 4a

2a)4a

2(5a)3b))3(a*2b) + 10a)6b)3a*6b + 13a

3q + 6px)9qx

b + 8a 2)4ab

3x(2p)3q) + 3x

07/Brackets/A/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. 3(x + 4)

1. (x + 4) (x + 5)

2. 2(a + b)

2. (2x + 5) (x + 3)

3. 3(3x 2y)

3. (5x + 1) (2x + 3)

4. (x 1)

4. (7x + 2) (3x + 2)

5. 5(2p 3q)

5. (x 4) (x 2)

6. 7(a 3m)

6. (2x 1) (x 4)

7. (a + b)

7. (2x 4) (3x 2)

8. (a 2b)

8. (x 2) (x + 7)

9. (3p 3q)

9. (2x + 5) (x 2)

10.(3x + 4y) (2x 3y)

07/Brackets/A/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

Remove the brackets in the following:

1. 4(x + 3)

IR PART 66

M1

Remove the brackets in the following:

When a bracket has a minus sign in front of it, the signs of all the terms inside the

bracket are changed when the bracket is removed. The reason for this rule may

be seen from the following examples:

2. 2(2x 5)

*3(2x*5y) + (*3)

3. 5(4 3x)

4. 2k(k 5)

*(m)n) + *m*n

5. 3y(3x + 4)

*2(p)3q) + *2p*6q

2x)(*3)

*5y + *6x)15y

*(p*q) + *p)q

6. 4xy(ab ac + d)

7. 3x2(x2 2xy + y2)

8. 7p(2p2 p + 1)

HAMuS/F-4 KrA

02/2006

08/Brackets/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. 3( x + 1) + 2(x + 4)

2. 5(2a + 4) 3(4a + 2)

3. 3(x + 4) (2x + 5)

4. 4(1 2x) 3(3x 4)

5. 5(2x y) 3(x + 2y)

6. (y 1) + (2y 3)

7. (4a + 5b 3c) 2(2a 3b 4c)

8. 2x(x 5) x(x 2) 3x(x 5)

HAMuS/F-4 KrA

02/2006

08/Brackets/B

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MATHEMATICS

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2.8 Factorisation

A factor is a common part of two or or more terms which make up an algebraic

expression. Thus the expression 3x)3y has two terms which have the number 3

common to both of them. Thus 3x)3y + 3(x)y). We say that 3 and (x)y) are the

factors of 3x)3y. To factorise algebraic expressions of this kind, we first find the

Highest Common Factor (HCF) of all the terms making up the expression. The

HCF then appears outside the bracket. To find the terms inside the bracket divide

each of the terms making up the expression by the HCF.

To factorise the expression ax + ay + bx + by first group the terms in pairs so

that each pair of terms has a common factor.

Thus;

Example:

ax + ay + bx + by = (ax + ay) + (bx + by)

= a(x + y) + b(x + y)

= (a + b) (x + y)

Example:

Find the factors of ax)bx

The HCF of ax and bx is x

Factorise mp + np mq nq

ax)bx + x(a)b)

= p(m + n) q(m + n)

= (p q) (m + n)

The HCF of m 2n and 2mn 2 is mn

m 2n*2mn 2 + mn(m*2n)

Find the factors of 3x 4y)9x3y 2*6x2y 3

3x 4y)9x3y 2*6x2y 3 = 3x 2y(x2)3xy*2y 2)

bc cd

Find the factors of ac

x ) x2 * x3

bc

cd c

The HCF of ac

x , x 2 and x3 is x

ac ) bc * cd = c a ) b * d

x

x

x2

x3 x

x2

09/Factorisation/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. 5x + 5y

2. 5p 5q

3. 6x + 18y

4. ax y

5. 4p 12q

6. 4x 6xy

7. 8x2 4x

8. ax2 bx

9. x(a b) + 2(a b)

10.m(p + q) n(p + q)

11. 5a 10b + 15c

12.ab + ac bd cd

13.2pr 4ps + qr 2qs

14.4ax + 6ay 4bx 6by

15.3mx + 2nx 3my 2yn

16.ab(p + q) cd(p + q)

17.K2l2 mnl k2l + mn

09/Factorisation/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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M1

An expression of the type ax 2 ) bx ) c is called a quadratic expression.

Example:

x * 5x ) 1 and 3p ) 12p * 5

are both quadratic expressions.

Factorise

8x 2 * 34x ) 21

Here a + 8, b + * 34 and c + 21.

ac + 168 and b + * 34

The two integers whose sum is 34 and whose product is 168 are 6 and 28.

(x ) m)(x ) n) where m and n are two numbers whose sum is 7 and whose

product is 12. These two numbers must be 3 and 4. So

x ) 7x ) 12 = (x ) 3)(x ) 4)

2

8x 2 * 34x ) 21 = 8x 2 * 6x * 28x ) 21

= 2x(4x * 3) * 7(4x * 3)

12x 2 ) 23x ) 10 in which a + 12, b + 23 and c + 10. We can factorise if we

can get two integers whose product is ac and whose sum is b.

Thus ac + 12

= (4x * 3)(2x * 7)

Now 120 + 8 15. It can now be seen that the two integers are 8 and 15.

Since 23x + 15x ) 8x

12x 2 ) 23x ) 10 = 12x 2 ) 15x ) 8x ) 10= 3x(4x ) 5) ) 2(4x ) 5)

= (4x ) 5)(3x ) 2)

09/Factorisation/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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M1

1. x2 + 5x + 6

2. x2 8x + 15

3. x2 5x 6

4. x2 5x + 6

5. 2x2 + 7x + 5

6. 2x2 + 13x + 15

7. 3x2 + x 6

8. 3x2 8x + 28

9. 10x2 + 19x 15

10. 6x2 + x 35

11. 5x2 11x + 2

12.6x2 7x 5

09/Factorisation/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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M1

Since algebraic expressions contain symbols (or letters) which represent numbers

all the rule of operations with numbers also apply to algebraic terms, including

fractions.

Thus

1

1

1

a+1Ba+ 1

and

aBc + a

b

b d

a + (1 a) + a

1

1

d + ad

c

bc

and

(x)y)

1

(x * y)

+ (x ) y) B

1

+ (x ) y)

(x * y)

(x * y)

+ (x ) y)(x * y)

1

You should note in the last example how we put brackets round x ) y and x * y

to remind us that they must be treated as single expressions, otherwise we may

have been tempted to handle the terms x and y on their own.

10/Fractions/A/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. x ) x ) x

3 4 5

2. 5a * 7a

12 18

3. 2q * 3

2q

4. 3y * 5 ) 4

3y 5y

10/Fractions/A/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

2.8.3.1

IR PART 66

M1

2.8.3.2

Consider the expression a ) c which is the addition of two fractional terms. These

b d

are called partial fractions.

If we wish to express the sum of these partial fractions as one single fraction then

we proceed as follows (similar method used when adding or subtracting number

fractions)

First find the lowest common denominator. This is the LCM of b and d which is bd.

each fraction is then expressed with bd as the denominator.

Example:

a + (a d) + ad and c + (c

b

bd

d

(b d)

(d

b)

+ cb

bd

b)

can denominators, in order to form a single fraction.

Example;

a

b

c + (a

d

(b

c)

d)

3x

2y

or

p

4q

r 2 + (3x

s

(2y

p

4q

r 2)

s)

Factors which are common to both numerator and denominator may be cancelled.

it is important to realise that this cancelling means dividing the numerator and

denominator by the same quantity.

Example:

8ab

3mn

9mn 2 = (8

4ab 2

(3

a

m

b

n

9

4

n

a

n

b

m)

b)

= 6n

b

a ) c + ad ) cb + (ad ) cb)

b d

bd bd

bd

(5x 2y)

(5x 2y)

10xy

B

=

3

2

8ab

8ab 3

(4a b)

(4a 2b)

10xy

(5 x x y 4a a b)

(8 a b b b 10 x y)

= ax2

4b

11/Fractions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

2

13. 6ab B 4a

5cd 7bd

1. 3 * 2

5p 3q

2. 3x *

4y

5z

14.

3pq

p2

B

5rs

15s 2

3. 1 * 2x ) x

5

8

4. 1x ) 1y

5. 3m *

6.

(2m ) n)

7

(a * b)

ab

7. 6a2

b

b

3a 2

2

8. 9x 2

6y

y3

x3

6pq

4rs

8s 2

3p

10. 6ab

c

ad

2b

9.

2

11. 2z 2

3ac

6a2

5zy 2

8cd 2

4bc

10c 3

3y 3

2

2

12. ab2 B a 3

bc

bc

11/Fractions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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M1

An arithmetical quantity has a definite value, such as 93, 3.73 or 3. An algebraic

4

quantity, however, given by algebraic expressions such as x * (* 3) or x 2,

represents many amounts depending on the value given to x.

In algebra there are two methods we use to show that two quantities are equivalent

to each other. One is called an identity and the other an equation.

2.9.1 Identities

A statement of the type x 2 5 x

x is called an identity

The sign 5 means is identical to. Any statement using this sign is true for all

values of the variable, the variable in this case being x.

Thus when x + 2 we have 2 2 5 2

and when

3 and so on.

x + 3 we have 3 2 5 3

In practise the 5 sign is often replaced by the = (equals) sign and the above

identities would be stated as

x

x km = 1000 x m

This means that the quantity on the lefthand side of the equation is equal to the

quantity on the righthand side. We can see that, unlike an identity, there is only

one value of x that will satisfy the equation, or make the lefthand side equal to

the righthand side. The process of finding x + 8 is called solving the equation,

and the value 8 is known as the solution or root of the equation.

2.9.2.1

Linear equations contain only the first power of the unkown quantity.

and

5x + (2x ) 5)

3

2

In the process of solving an equation the appearances of the equation may be

considerable altered but the values on both sides must remain the same. We must

maintain this equality, and hence whatever we do to one side of the equation we

must do exactly the same to the other side.

x km 5 1000x m

Thus 7 km 5 7000 m

and 9 km 5 9000 m and so on.

and

7t * 5 + 4t ) 7

Another type of identity involves units as, for example, the relationship between

kilometres and metres. This may be stated as

x2 + x

2.9.2 Equations

result in each side of the equation separately. If each side of the equation then has

the same value the solution is correct. In the detail which follows, LHS means

lefthand side and RHS means righthand side.

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

2.9.2.2

Example:

Solve the equation x + 3

6

Multiply each side by 6, we get

x 6+3 6

6

x + 18

Check: when x + 18, LHS = 18 , RHS = 3

6

IR PART 66

M1

2.9.2.3

Example:

Solve the equation x * 4 + 8

If we add 4 to each side, we get

x*4)4+ 8)4

x + 12

The operation of adding 4 to each side is the same as transferring 4 to the

RHS but in so doing the sign is changed from a minus to a plus.

x*4 + 8

x+8)4

x + 12

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

2.9.2.4

IR PART 66

M1

Both Sides

In equations of this kind, group all the terms containing the unknown quantity

on one side of the equation and the remaining terms on the other side.

Example;

Solve the equation 7x ) 3 + 5x ) 17

Subtracting 5 x and 3 from both sides,

7x * 5x + 17 * 3

2x + 14

x + 14

2

x+7

Solve the equation

(4 * x) (2x * 1)

*

+4

3

2

In solving equations of this type remeber that the line separating the numerator

and denominator act as a bracket. The LCM of the denominators 3 and 2 is 6.

Multiplying each term of the equation by gives:

(4 * x)

(2x * 1)

6*

6+4

2

3

2(x * 4) * 3(2x * 1) + 24

2x * 8 * 6x ) 3 + 24

* 4x * 5 + 24

* 4x + 24 ) 5

* 4x + 29

x + 29

*4

x + * 29 + * 7.25

4

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

1. x + 3 = 8

2. x 4 = 6

17.

(x ) 3)

(x * 3)

+

2

3

3. 2x = 8

4. 2x 7 = 9

5. 5x + 3 = 18

6. 3x 7 = x 5

7. 9 2x = 3x + 7

8. 4x 3 = 6x 9

9. 5x 8 = 3x + 2

10.2(x + 1) = 9

11. 5(x 3) = 12

12.3(2x 1) + 4(2x + 5) = 40

13.7(2 3x) = 3(5x 1)

14. x ) x + 10

2 3

15. 3x ) 3 + 2 ) 2x

8

3

16. 2x + x ) 1

5

8 2

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

2.9.2.5

IR PART 66

M1

Substituting y + 3, in equation (1)

3x ) 5y + 21

2x ) 3y + 13

each equation contains the unknown quantities x and y which satisfy both

equations simultaneously. Equations like these are called simultaneous

equations.

2.9.2.6

them in equation (2).

example.

Example:

i. Solve the equations

5x ) 3y + 19

3x ) 2y + 12

(2)

(1)

15x ) 9y + 57

(3)

15x ) 10y + 60 (4)

We now eliminate x by subtracting equation (3) from equation (4) which gives

y+3

3x ) 4y + 29

8x * 2y + 14

(2)

(1)

can be obtained in both equations simply by multiplying equation (2) by 2.

16x * 4y + 28

(3)

same in both equations.

5x ) 3 3 + 19

5x ) 9 + 19

5x + 10

x+2

19x + 57

x+3

Substituting x + 3 in equation (1) gives

3 3 ) 4y + 29

9)4y + 29

4y + 29 * 9

4y + 20

y+5

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

Solve the following equations for x and y and check the solutions:

1. 2x 3y = 8

x + 3y = 14

2. 3x + 5y = 17

4x + 5y = 21

3. 3x + 4y = 26

x +y =7

4. 5x 7y = 1

2x + 5y = 16

y

5. x ) + 5

2 5

2x ) 3y + 19

3

2

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS

M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66

M1

An equation which can be written in the form ax 2 ) bx ) c + 0 is called a

quadratic equation. The constants a, b and c can take any numerical value.

The following are all examples of equadratic equations:

x2 * 9 + 0

in which a + 1, b + 0 and c + * 9

3x 2 ) 8x ) 5 + 0

in which a + 3, b + 8 and c + 5

4x 2 * 7x + 0

in which a + 4, b + * 7 and c + 0

A quadratic equation has two solutions (often called the roots of the equation).

It is possible for one of the roots to be zero or for the two solutions to be the

same.

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that if the product of two factors is zero, then one of those factors must be

zero. Thus if mn + 0 then either m + 0 or n + 0. To solve a quadratic

equation by this method the expression ax 2 ) bx ) c is written as the product

of two factors.

Factorising

or

x +9

5. Solve

(x ) 3)(x * 3) + 0

Either x ) 3 + 0, giving x + * 3 or x * 3 + 0, giving x + 3

Factorising

2

x ) 7x ) 12 + 0

x * 10 ) 9x + 0

(x * 9)(x * 1) + 0

x + 9 and x + 1.

(x ) 4)(x ) 3) + 0

Factorising,

Either x ) 4 + 0, giving x + * 4 or x ) 3 + 0, giving x + * 3

The roots are x + * 4 and x + * 3.

(2x * 5) + 0

x 2 * 10x ) 9 + 0

3. Solve

(2x * 5)(2x * 5) + 0

With this equation both roots are the same and we say that the equation

has equal roots. This always happens when the expression ax 2 ) bx ) c

forms a perfect square.

x2 * 9 + 0

2. Solve

4x 2 * 20x ) 25 + 0

Example:

1. Solve

Writing the equation as

4. Solve

x 2 * 6x + 0

Factorising

x(x * 6) + 0

Either x + 0 or x * 6 + 0, giving x + 6.

The roots are x + 0 and x + 6

(Note that it is incorrect to say that the solution is x + 6. The solution

x + 0 must also be stated).

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2.10.3

Using the Formula to Solve Quadratic

Equations

Example:

i. Solve the equation

This equation is called the quadratic formula. Note that the whole of the

numerator, including * b, is divided by 2a. The formula is used when

factorisation is not possible, although it may be used to solve any quadratic

equation.

2x 2 * 12 + 0

2

2x + 12

x2 + 6

x +" 6

x +" 2.45

and

Example:

i. Solve the equation

ii. Solve the equation

Substituting these values in the formula gives:

2x ) 18 + 0

2

2x + * 18

x 2 + * 18 + * 9

2

x +" * 9

and

x+

x+

(* 3) + 9

x+

() 3) + 9

9 +" 3

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

* b " b

* 4ac

2a

* (* 8) " (* 8) * 4

2

called an imaginary number. The reason is as follows:

is said, therefore, to having imaginary roots.

x+

x+

(2

12/Linear Expressions/B

3)

8 " 64 * 24

6

8 " 40

6

(8 ) 6.325)

6

x + 2.39

3x 2 * 8x ) 2 + 0

or

or

x+

(8 * 6.325)

6

0.28

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i. x2 4 = 0

i. 4x2 3x 2 = 0

ii. x2 16 = 0

ii. x2 x 1 = 0

iii. 3x2 27 = 0

iii. 3x2 + 7x 5 = 0

iv. 7x2 + 8x 2 = 0

v. (x 7) ( x + 3) = 0

v. 5x2 4x 1 = 0

vi. x(x + 5) = 0

vi. 2x2 7x = 3

viii. x2 5x + 6 = 0

ix. x2 + 3x 10 = 0

x. 6x2 11x 35 = 0

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2.11 Logarithms

2.11.1

2.11.2

power then we write that in exponential notation and the meaning of it is that the

number appearing in the base is being multiplied by itself the number of times that

is indicated by the exponent. The notation used was such that if we write 5 3, what

we actually mean is 5 multiplied by itself 3 times.

Continuing on the above reasoning, let us take our simple example again, what

number raised to the power of 3 gives 1,000? if we invent an unknown variable,

call it x and try to write out our question in terms of the notation of algebraic powers

we have the following sistuation:

10 x + 1, 000

question ( notice the word invention, logarithms make certain operations easier

to handle and that is all they do, so you should think of them as a definition). In order

to motivate why logarithms are introduced in the first place, let us invent a scenario.

Suppose someone asked you the following question:

an operation called logarithm, abbreviated to Log and we apply this operation to

both sides of the above relation.

What number do I have to raise to the power of 3 in order to get 1,000? this might

seem pretty simple and obvious. If you multiply 10 x 10 you 100, and if you muliply

100 x 10 you get 1,000. So, you would say that 10 multiplied by itself 3 times or,

in our power notation, 10 3 is equal to 1,000.

Now, this is easy to answer by thinking about powers because the above example

is simple powers and simple numbers, and one can reason it out relatively quickly.

However, things can get more complicated. Suppose now that you were asked

what number do I have to raise 10 to in order to get 735. All of a sudden the answer

is not very obvious. What is so different about this question?

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

There is actually nothing different about this question. You still can try doing the

same process, but now the number is not that pretty and its not exactly obvious

how many times you should multiply 10 by itself to get 735. If you multiply it by itself

2 times you get 100, but 3 times gives 1,000 and you have already exceeded 735!

how do we get out this power that we need.

Logarithms are at the most basic level invented to answer the general question

of how does one extract the base or exponent of an algebraic power when one of

these is an unknown.

We then define this new logarithm function to be such that when it applies to a

number that is 10 raised to some power then it literally just gives us the power

and the base 10 disappears. To reiterate this, what we mean is the following:

Log10 x + X

So, what is the value of Log 1000? How do we know what the right hand side of

the equation is? How does this help us at all? Well, this will probably seem magic

to you at this point, but one option is to find the (Log) button on your calculator and

take the Log 1000 and you get 3. So, x + 3, and it is what we expected.

How does this help us with anything? It seems like we went in a big loop, and we

knew the answer to begin with anyway. But, now consider the slightly more

complicated question that we had above. What number do I raise 10 to in order

to get 735? Let us apply the logarithm process to this situation:

Log10 x + Log735

x + Log735

If you take the Log of 735 on your calculator you get 2.866. So, 10 raised to the

power of 2.866 gives you 735, and the question is answered. Recall that algebraic

powers need not be integers, and we have a clear example of a noninteger power.

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Common Logarithms

There are two basic types of logarithms that are important to know. In the previous

section, where logarithms were defined, you already saw the difinition of one kind

of logarithms, that was the so called Log Base 10.

The logarithmic operation that we have introduced serves the maoin purpose of

extracting the exponents in an algebraic power. This is true of the operation of

taking the logarithm.

The logarithm of base 10 is most often useful when powers of 10 are involved, but

not necessarily. It can be used in many other situations. For instance, suppose you

were asked the following question: 3 raised to what power gives 16.8? Again,

applying our definition of logarithm of base 10 ass defined in the previous section

we can answer the question but, in order to do this we need to define some rules

of operation for logarithms.

You can think if Logarithm Base 10 as the logarithmic operation that when carried

out on 10 raised to some power ends up giving us the power. The log of base 10

is written as : Log 10 . Thus, Log 10(10x) + x. This is the basic definition of base 10

logs. abbreviated to lg.

There is another logarithm that is also useful (and in fact more common in natural

processes). Many natural phenonenon are seen to exhibit changes that are either

exponentially decaying (radioactive decay for instance) or exponentially

increasing (population growth for example). These exponentially changing

functions are written as ex, where x represents the rate of the exponential.

In such cases where exponential changes are involved we usually use another

kind of logarithm called natural logarithm. The natural log can be thought of a

logarithm basee. What this means is that it is a logarithmic operation that when

carried out on e raised to some power gives us the power itself. This logarithm is

labelled with Ln (for natural log) and its definition is: Ln(e x) + x.

Logarithms having a base of e (where e is a mathematical constant approximately

equal to 2.7183) are called hyperbolic or natural logarithms, and loge is often

abbreviated to ln.

The following values may be checked by using a calculator:

ln 4.73 = 1.5539, ln 278.4 = 5.6290 and ln 0.7642 = 0.2689

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Rules of Logarithms

Rule 1. To multilply two numbers

log AB + LogA ) log B

log A n + n log A

The following may be checked using a calculator

lg 5 2 = lg 25 = 1.39794

lg10 = 1

Also lg 5 + lg 2 = 0.69897 + 0.301029

Hence lg (5 x 2) = lg 10 = lg 5 + lg 2.

hence lg 5 2 = 2 lg 5.

log A + log A * log B

B

The following may be checked using a calculator

ln 5 = ln 2.5 = 0.91629

2

Also ln 5 ln 2 = ln 2.5 = 1.60943 0.69314 = 0.91629

Hence ln 5 = ln 5 ln 2.

2

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2.12.1

Binary

Every number that can be written in decimal can also be written in another

system called Binary. Binary as the main number systems used by computer

scientists.

The binary number system is a base 2 number system which uses only the

digits 0 and 1. It is also a place value system which means that each place

represents a power of 2, just as the place represents a power of 10 in the

decimal system.

Powers of 2: 2 5 2 4

Decimal No: 32 16

eg: 1010.01 2 0

0

23

8

1

22

4

0

21

2

1

2 0 . 2 *1

1 . 0.5

0 . 0

2 *2

0.25

1

Example:

Convert 1001001 to a Decimal

Write down the powers of 2, and the number to be converted below them, as

follows:

64

1

32

0

16

0

8

1

4

0

2

0

1

1

ie. 64 + 8 + 1 = 73

1x8=8

+1 x 2 = 2

+1 X 0.25 = 0.25

So

1010.01 2 = 10.25 10

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Example:

Convert 271 to Binary

Write down the powers of two up to the next higher number (256 in this case)

than the number to be converted:

256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

Next write in the first digit 1 under the highest number (256). Subtract the 256

from 271.

271 256 = 15

256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1

1 1 1 1

The decimal number 271 10 is therefore 100001111 2

Add 1100010 to 1000111

Line up the numbers as shown, and add each column starting from the left (as

you would when adding decimal numbers). When two 1s are added, this would

normally be 2. But 2 is not allowed in binary, so write 0 and carry 1 to the next

column to the left and include it in the addition of the next column.

1100010

+ 1000111

10101001

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Octal

Every number that can be written in decimal can also be written in another

system called octal. Like binary, octal is one of the three main number systems

used by computer scientists.

The octal number system is base 8 number system which uses only the eight

digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. It is also a place value system which means that

each place represents a power of 8, just as the place represents a power of 10

in the decimal system.

Powers of 8;

Decimal No: 4096

eg: 237 8

84

512

83

64

2

82

8

3

81

1

7

80

.

.

.

8 *1

8 *2

0.125 0.015625

82 ) 3

81 ) 7

80 + 128 ) 24 ) 7 + 159 10

237 8 = 2

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To convert a binary number to an octal number, construct a 3bit binary / octal

lookup table like the one below. Starting at the binary decimal point of the

binary number, take the first 3 bits and find the corresponding octal value from

the table.

Repeat with next 3 bits and so on. If less than 3 bits remain, pad them with 0s

until there are 3 bits. Again use the table.

3bit binary

000 0

001 1

010 2

011 3

100 4

101 5

110 6

111 7

octal

so,

11010010 2 + 3228

To convert from octal to binary, write down the binary representation of each

octal digit. Note that each octal digit should take up 3 bits.

Example:

Convert 322 8 to binary

3 = 011

2 = 010

2 = 010

so,

322 8 + 0110100102

Example:

Convert 11010010 to octal.

1. Take the 3 most right bits, 010 and find the corresponding octal value in the

above lookup table. The octal value is 2.

2. Take the next 3 bits, 010. The corresponding octal value from the lookup

table is 2 again.

3. Now only 2 bits, 11 of the binary number remain. Pad the left hand side with

a 0 to get 011. The corresponding octal from the lookup table is 3.

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Hexadecimal

Every number that can be written in decimal can also be written in another

system called hexadecimal. Hexadecimal is the last of the three main number

systems used by computer scientists.

The hexadecimal number system is a base 16 number system which uses the

sixteen digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, & F. Here, we need the

extra didgits A, B, C, D, E and F to represent the numbers 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,

and 15, since there are no digits in the decimal numeral system to do this.

Decimal

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Hexadecimal

0

1

Hexadecimal is also a place value system which means that each place

represents a power of 16, just as the place represents a power of 10 in the

decimal system:

Powers of 16:

16 3

16 2

16 1

Decimal No: 4096 256 16

1

eg.: 3AF 16

3

A

.

F

.

16 *1

0.0625

3AF 16 = 3

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

A

B

C

D

E

F

16 0

16 2 ) 10

16 1 ) 15

to convert from hexadecimal to decimal. If you are asked in the exam to do the

latter, take each answer provided and convert to decimal, until you get the

number in the question.

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FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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To convert a binary number to an hexadecimal number, construct a 4bit

binary/hexadecimal lookup table like the one below. Starting at the binary

decimal point of the binary number, take the first 4 bits and find the

corresponding hexadecimal value from the table. Repeat with the next 4 bits

and so on. If there is less than 4 bits remaining, pad them out to 4 bits.

4bit Binary

Hexadecimal

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

1010

1011

1100

1101

1110

1111

Example:

Convert 11010010 to Hexadecimal

1. Take the 4 most right bits, 0010 and find the corresponding hexadecimal

value in the lookup table. The hexadecimal value is 2.

2. The next 4 bits, 1101 and find the corresponding hexadecimal value in the

lookup table. The hexadecimal value is D.

so,

11010010 2 + D216

To convert from hexadecimal to binary, write down the binary representation of

each hexadecimal digit. Note that each hexadecimal digit should take up 4 bits.

Example:

Convert 2CF 16 to binary

2 = 0010

C = 1100

F = 1111

so,

2CF 16 + 0010110011112

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The BCD system is a 4bit system representing a decimal character for use

with digital display readouts. It can also be used for addressing to make it more

convenient for humans to use.

BCD number

1001

Decimal Equivalent

0010

9

0011

2

0000

3

numbers 9, 2, 3 and 0, which when decoded means decimal 9230.

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FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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2.13 Test

Solve the following examples:

Binary

Convert the following Binary numbers to Decimals

1. 1101.1

2. 1001110.11

3. 100100.1

Hexadecimal

Convert the following Binary bits to Hexadecimal code

1. 11100001

2. 101110001111

3. 11111100

1. 62

2. 1,204

3. 42.25

4. 51.125

1. 4F

2. 1AC

3. 67

4. 2A8

1. 111 and 100

2. 10010 and 1101

3. 10110001 and 11100010

1. 2D

2. 1AF

3. 21A

4. 1AE

Octal

Convert the following Binary numbers to Octal

1. 101010100

2. 011110100000

3. 111101001

Convert the following Octal numbers to Binary

1. 1263

2. 65217

3. 426

4. 5625

1. 1632

2. 494

3. 5174

4. 67

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Convert the following Decimal numbers to BCD

1. 94

2. 429

3. 2947

4. 1736

1. 10000101

2. 011100001001

3. 001101100100

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Geometry

3.1.1 Triangles

3.1.1.1

Pythagoras Theorem

In a right angled triangle, the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the

sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides.

aircraft theory.

Example:

A right angled triangle has smaller sides of length 5 cm and 12 cm. What is the

length of the hypotenuse.

c2

c

b2

5cm

a

a2

c2 = a2 + b2

a2 = c2 b2

b2 = c2 a2

12cm

By pythagoras c2 = 122 + 52

= 144 + 25

= 169

c = 169

= 13cm

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Pythagoras Theorem can be used to find the height of equilateral and isosceles

triangles (an equilateral triangle has all its sides of equal length and an isosceles

triangle has 2 sides of equal length).

As an example, we could tip the triangle onto its side and take a new height for it.

Example:

Find the height of an isosceles triangle which has sides of length 13 cm and base

of length 10 cm.

h2 =

132

13cm

52

= 169 25

h2 = 144

h = 12cm

10cm

13cm

13cm

13cm

Note now that the base is 13 cm long, whereas before 10 cm long. The height will

also be a different length, so there is not one height for one triangle, it all depends

on which side you use as your base.

5cm

5cm

10cm

Note: The height is always drawn at right angles to the base and goes to the

opposite apex. We can draw the height from any side providing it meets the above

requirement, i.e it cuts the chosen base at right angles and goes from the base to

the opposite apex.

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Area of a Triangle

3.1.1.3

Area = x base x height

Any side can be chosen as base providing you use the corresponding height.

Example:

Example:

Using our first example, we had height = 12 cm and base = 10 cm

N Area = x base x height

= x 10 x 12

= 60 cm2

Height

In our second triangle, the lengths of all the sides are the same as our first triangle,

i.e it is the same triangle and therefore has the same area. We can use this fact

to calculate the new height that corresponds to have a base of 13 cm.

Area = x base x height

= x 3 x 4

= 6 cm2

Obviously, we could tip the triangle on its side. The 4 cm side now becomes the

base and the 3 cm side becomes the height. Note, no difference in size of area.

60 = x 13 x height

h = 60

6.5

h = 9.23 cm

Base

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1. In a right angled triangle, the length of the shorter sides are 8 cm and 15

cm. Calculate the length of the hypotenuse.

2. The hypotenuse of a right angled triangle has a length of 41 mm. One of

the other sides is 9 mm long. Calculate the length of the third side.

3. A right angled triangle has sides of 30 cm and 40 cm. If the third side is the

longest what is the length.

4. All the sides of a triangle are 6cm length. What is the vertical height of the

triangle.

5. A triangle has sides which are 12.5 cm, 30 cm and 32.5 cm in length. Is it a

right angled triangle.

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3.2 Trigonometry

3.2.1 Trigonometrical ratios

By using pythagoras, you are now able to partially solve rightangled triangles, i.e

you can find the third side of a rightangled triangle when given its other 2 sides.

This chapter is concerned with establishing the basic trigonometrical concepts

which will later enable you to completely solve rightangled triangles, i.e to find all

their 6 elements (angles and sides).

Similar triangles, are triangles which are the same shape, one is simply an

enlargement of the other. Two important properties of similar triangles are:

1. their corresponding angles are equal

2. their corresponding sides are proportional

Now consider the following similar triangles, In both cases side c is the

hypotenuse.

1. Side a is the side opposite

2. Side b is the adjacent

The above triangles are similar since they are equiangular and the ratios of their

corresponding sides are constant, i.e.

1. BC = 3 + EF + 6 + 3

DE

AB 5

10

5

AC

4

DF

8

2.

+ +

+

+4

DE

AB

5

10

5

BC

3

EF

6

3

3.

+ +

+ +

DF

AC

4

8

4

2. Side a is the adjacent side

Since the triangles are similar, the ratios of corresponding sides are constant,

i.e, the ratios ac , bc and a are the same for all similar rightangled triangles.

b

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1.

opposite

+ ac

hypotenuse

SideadjacenttheAngle

is called the Cosine of the reference angle

Hypotenuse

N cos A =

3.

1. sine of angle B

2. cosine of angle B

3. tangent of angle B

SideoppositetheAngle

is callled the Sine of the reference angle

Hypotenuse

N sin A =

2.

adjacent

+ bc

hypotenuse

SideoppositetheAngle

is called the Tangent of the angle

SideadjacenttheAngle

N tan A =

opposite

+a

adjacent

b

opp

+ 3 + 0.6

hyp

5

2. cos B =

ajd

+ 4 + 0.8

5

hyp

3. tan B =

opp

+ 3 + 0.75

adj

4

The above are the fundamental trigonometrical ratios for rightangled triangles

and must be remembered. A convenient method to help you to remember them

is SOHCAHTOA, where S = sin, C = cos and T = tan.

1. sin B =

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We will now calculate the values for 30 and 60. Consider the equilateral triangle

ABC of sides 2 units.

1. sin 60 =

3

opp

+

+ 1.7321 + 0.8660

2

hyp

2

2. cos 60 =

adj

+ 1 + 0.5000

2

hyp

3. tan 60 =

3

opp

+

+ 1.732

adj

1

4. sin 30 =

opp

+ 1 + 0.5000

hyp

2

5. cos 30 =

3

adj

+

+ 1.7321 + 0.8660

hyp

2

2

6. tan 30 =

opp

+ 1 + 0.5774

3

adj

We can now collect all our information and show graphically how the basic

trigonometrical ratios change as the angle increases from zero to 90.

The functions all give graphs which are important. You should know how to sketch

them and know how to use them.

side d = 2 (given)

Side b = 1 (half of AC)

Side a2 = 22 12

a2 = 3

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The Tangent Curve

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Example:

The following example involves the use of trigonometry, or combinations of

trigonometry and pythagoras, to solve rightangled triangles.

In the rightangled triangle ABC, find angle A and side c.

Angle A

12

b

5

Since

opp

= tan, this is the ratio we use

adj

opp

adj

12

tan A =

5

tan A = 2.4

N tan A =

Side c

by pythagoras,

N c2 = a2 + b2

c = 12 2 ) 5 2

c = 169 = 13

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For triangle shown, find the sine, cosine and tangent of angles BAC and

ABC.

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3.3.1 Coordinates

An equation involving two variables can be represented by a graph drawn on

coordinate axes. Coordinate axes (see below) consist of a horizontal line

(referred to as the x axis) and a vertical line (referred to as the y axis). The point

of intersection of these two lines is called the origin ( denoted by the letter O).

Example:

The point (3, 2) may be plotted on the coordinate axes as follows

Along the x and y axes we can mark off units of measurement (not necessarily the

same on both axes). The origin takes the value zero on both axes. The x axis takes

positive values to the right of th origin and negative values to the left of the origin.

The y axis takes positive values above the origin and negative values below the

origin.

Any point on this diagram can be defined by its coordinates (consisting of two

numbers). The first, the x coordinate, is defined as the horizontal distance of the

point from the y axis, the second, the y coordinate, is defined as the vertical

distance of the point from the x axis.

In general, a point is defined by its coordinates which are written in the

form (a, b).

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3.3.2 Graphs

An equation involving two variables can be represented, on coordinate axes, by

means of a graph. For a given range of values of x, the corresponding y values

can be calculated from the equation being considered. The points obtained can

then be plotted and joined together to form the graph.

Before ploting the points on a graph, the axes must be drawn in a way that takes

into account the range of the xvalues and the range of the yvalues. If graph is

used (which is desireable) you should use a scale that involes a sensible number

of units per square i.e you should use steps of, for example, 1, 2, 5 or 10 etc. units

per square depending on the question. You should avoid using steps along the

axes of, for example 7 or 9 units per square as this can complicate the graph

unnecessarily.

Example:

Draw the graph of y = 2x + 1 between x = 0 and x = 5

By taking the x values 0, 1, 2, ........5, we can calculate the corresponding y values,

as shown below, by first evaluating the component parts of the equation.

x:

2x

+1

y:

0

0

1

1

1

2

1

3

2 3 4

4 6 8

1 1 1

5 7 9

5

10

1

11

We then plot the points obtained, each point being defined by its x coordinate and

its corresponding y coordinate. The points are then joined together to the graph.

the dependent variable. Since we can give x any value, we call x the

independent variable. It is usual to mark the values of the independent variable

along the horizontal axis (x). The dependent variable values are marked off along

the vertical axis (y).

Equations of the type y = 2x + 1, where the highest powers of the variables, x and

y, are the first are called equations of the first degree. All equations of this type

give graphs which are straight lines and hence they are often called linear

equations. In order to draw graphs of linear equations we need only take two

points, however three points are adviseable.

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1. y = 2x + 5

2. y = 3x 5

3. y = x2 6x + 5 (find the roots)

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Example:

y = mx + c

Where m represents the slope of the line and c is the point where the line crosses

the y axis (they intercept). The point where the line crosses the x axis is called the

x intercept.

m = Gradient of the line

c = Intercept on the y axis

In this example m = 3 and c = 6

As c = 6, we know that this line cuts the y axis at y = 6 (this can be verified by

substituting x = 0 into the equation of the line, as x = 0 along the y axis)

Similarly, as y = 0 along the x axis, we can substitute y = 0 into the equation of the

line to find where the intersects with the axis (the intercept).

Note: in this example m = 2 and c = 0, whenever c = 0 the line will pass through

the origin.

we have, when

y=0

6 3x = 0

3x = 6

x =2

Hence the line cuts the x axis at x = 2. We can now say that the y intercept = 6 and

the x intercept = 2.

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Example:

A striaght line parallel to the x axis takes the form y = constant. Similarly, a straight

line parallel to the y axis takes the form x = constant.

These case are illustrated below:

We know, immediately that the intercept is 2 (the value of c). To find the x

intercept, we substitute y = 0 into the equation of the line.

0 = 2 + 4

4x = 2

x = 0.5

Hence the x intercept is x = 0.5.

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Given the coordinates of two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) say, we can calculate the

equation of the straight line that passes through these points.

Now (1) and (2) give us equations in two unkowns, m and c, ( simultaneous

equations) which we can solve.

We have

4 = m + c (1)

10 = 3m + c

(2)

Subtracting (1) from (2) to eliminate c we obtain 6 = 2m

m=3

Substituting this value of m back into (1) we obtain

4=m+c

4=3+c

c=43

c=1

Example:

The question is; Find the equation of the striaght line that passes through the

points (1, 4) and 3, 10).

Method 1:

The general equation of a straight line is given by y = mx + c and it is necessary

to find numerical values for m and c.

If the straight line in question passes through the two given points, then each of

these points must satisfy the equation of this straight line. That is, we can

substitute the coordinates of each point as follows:

y = mx + c, we obtain the equation of the straight line passing through the points

(1, 4) and (3, 10).

That is:

y = 3x + 1

y = mx + c

4 = m + c (1)

Likewise, substituting (3, 10) we have

10 = 3m + c (2)

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Method 2:

In general, we can consider any two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2). The straight line

passing through these points can be written as:

y y1 = m (x x1)

where m = (y1 y2)

(m is the gradient of the line)

(x2 x1)

Applying this points (1, 4) and (3, 10) we have x1 = 1, y1 = 4, x2 = 3, y2 = 10 and

we hence obtain:

m = 10 4 = 6 = 3

31

2

y 4 = 3(x 1)

y 4 = 3x 3

y = 3x + 1

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3.4.1 General

We can specify an angle by using a point on each ray and the vertex. The angle

below may be specified as angle ABC or as angle CBA; you may also see this

written as ABC or as CBA how the vertex point is always given in the middle.

We measure the size of angle using degrees. We can also use radians to measure

angles.

There are 2p radians in 360.

The radius of a circle fits around the circumference 6.26 (or 2p ) times.

1 radian = 57.3 degrees. To convert from degrees to radians, use:

n x 2p , where n is the number of degrees.

360

Example:

Here are some examples of angles and their degree measurements. Convert them

to radians.

Many different names exist for the same angle. For the angle below, PBC,

PBW, CBP and WBA are all names for the same angle.

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Example:

The following angles are all acute angles

Example:

The following angles are all obtuse

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

A right angle is an angle measuring 90. Two lines or line segments that meet at

right angle are said to be perpendicular. Note that any two right angles are

supplementary angles (a right angle is its own angle supplement).

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Two angles are called complementary angles if the sum of their degree

measurements equal 90. One of the complementary angles is said to be the

complement of the other.

Two angles are called supplementary angles if the sum of their degree

measurements equal 180. One of the supplementry angles is said to be the

supplementary of the other.

Example:

These two angles are complementary

Example:

These two angles are supplementry.

Note that these two angles can be pasted together to form a straight line.

Note that these two angles can be pasted together to form a right angle.

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For any two lines that meet, such as in the diagram below, angle AEB and angle

DEC are called vertical angles. Vertical angles have the same degree

measurement. Angle BEC and angle AED are also vertical angles.

3.4.11

For any pair of parallel lines 1 and 2, that are both intersected by a third line, such

as line 3 in the diagram below, angle A and angle D are called alternate angles.

Alternate angles have the same degree measurement. Angle B and angle C are

also alternate exterior angles.

3.4.10

For any pair of parallel lines 1 and 2, that are both intersected by a third line, such

as line 3 in the diagram below, angle A and angle D are called alternate interior

angles. Alternate interior angles have the same degree measurement. Angle B

and angle C are also alternate interior angles.

3.4.12

Corresponding Angles

For any pair of parallel lines 1 and 2, that are both intersected by a third line, such

as line 3 in the diagram below, angle A and angle C are called corresponding

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angles. Corresponding angles have the same degree measurement. Angle B and

angle D are also corresponding angles.

MATHEMATICS

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Angle Bisector

An angle bisector is a ray that divides an angle into two equal angles.

Example:

The central ray on the right is the angle bisector of the angle on the left.

The centre ray on the right is the angle bisector of the angle on the left.

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3.5 Circles

3.5.1 Chords & Radii

All the parts of a circle, such as the radius, the diameter, etc, have a relationship

with the circle or another part that can always be expressed as a theorem. The

two theorems that deal with chords and radii (pulral raduis) are outlined below.

i. If a radius of a circle is perpendicular to a chord, then the radius bisects the chord.

ii. In a circle or in congruent circles, if two chords are the same distance from the

centre, then they are congruent.

Using these theorems in action is seen in the example below.

Find CD.

OC = radius

AB = chord

chord AB = 8

RM = SN

Solution By theorem number ii above, segment AB is congruent to segment CD.

Therefore, CD equals 8.

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3.5.2 Tangents

The tangent being discussed here is not the trigonometrical ratio. This kind of

tangent is a line or line segment that touches the perimeter of a circle at one point

only and is perpendicular to the radius that contains the point.

Congruent arcs are acrs that have the same degree measure and are in the same

circle or in congruent cirles. Arcs are very important and let us find out a lot about

circles. Two theorems involving arcs and their central angles are outlined below.

Example:

Find the value of x.

Given: segment AB is tangent to circle C at B.

1. For a circle or for congruent circles, if two minor arcs are congruent, then

their central angles are congruent.

2. For a circle or for congruent circles, if two central angles are congruent

then their arcs are congruent.

Example:

segment, x must be perpendicular to AB (the definition of a tangent tells us that).

If it is perpendicular, the triangle formed by x, AB and CA is a right triangle.

Use Pythagoras Theorem to solve for x.

15 2 ) x 2 + 17

2

x + 64

x+8

Arc PQ and arc QR are congruent. Angle POQ and angle QOR are congruent

(they are supplemental and since POQ = 90 ). Theorem i.

Angle POQ and angle QOR are congruent. Arc PQ and arc QR have to be

congruent by theorem ii.

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An inscribed angle is an angle with its vertex on a circle and with sides that contain

chords of the circle. The figure below shows an inscribed angle.

Example:

Find the measure of each arc or angle listed below.

Note; A right angled triangle fitted inside a semicircle, the other 2 angles must be

30 and 60. arc QSR; angle Q and angle R.

The most important theorem dealing with inscribed angles is stated below.

The inscribed angle is equal to its intercepted arc.

Solution:

Arc QSR is 180 because it is twice its inscribed angle( angle QPR, which is 90)

Angle R is 30 by the triangle Sum Theorem which says a triangle has three angles

that equal 180 when added together.

In the last problem, you noticed that angle P is inscribed in semicircle QPR and

angle P = 90. This leads to our next theorem, which is stated below.

Any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle.

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The one last theorem dealing with inscribed angles is a bit more complicated

because it deals with quadrilaterals too.

If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, then both pairs of opposite angle are

supplementary.

Example

Find the measure of arc GDE.

Solution:

By the theorem stated above, angle D and angle F are supplementary. Therefore,

angle F equals 95. The first theorem discussed in this section tells us the arc is

twice that of its inscribed angle. With that theorem, arc GDE is 190.

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When dealing with circles the circumference, or the distance around a circle. The

circumference of a circle equals 2 times p times the radius. This is usually

represented by the following equation (where C represents circumference and r

stands for radius):

Solution:

C = 2pr

For example, if a circle has a radius of 3, the circumference of the circle is 6p.

Also, you can find the length of any arc when you know its angle and the radius

with the following formula.

L = length, n = degree measure of arc, r = radius,

L = n 2pr

360

= 24 2p5

360

= 240 p

360

the length of the arc is 2 p cm, or 2.1 cm

3

L = n 2pr

360

Example:

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P66 B12 M1 E

TABLE OF CONTENTS

M1

MATHEMATICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.1

20

1.9.2

20

1.

ARITHMETIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.3

21

1.9.4

21

1.1

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.5

21

1.2

Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.6

1.9.6.1

1.9.6.2

Values of a Percentage of a Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Expressing one Quantity as a Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

22

22

1.4

Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10

24

1.5

Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10.1

Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

1.6

Signed Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6.1

1.6.2

1.6.3

1.10.2

1.10.2.1

1.10.2.2

1.10.2.3

1.10.2.4

Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Direct Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Inverse Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Proportional Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

25

25

25

26

1.6.4

1.11

28

1.7

Common Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.7.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.12

Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

1.7.2

Lowest Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.12.1

29

1.7.3

12

1.7.4

12

1.7.5

Multiplication of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.7.6

Division of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.8

Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.12.2

1.12.2.1

1.12.2.2

1.12.2.3

1.12.2.4

1.12.2.5

1.12.2.6

Laws of Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Division of Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Powers of Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Zero Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Negative Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fractional Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

30

30

30

31

31

31

1.8.1

Adding Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.13

Tranposition of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

1.8.2

Subtracting Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.8.3

Multiplying Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.14

Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

1.8.4

Dividing Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.15

Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

1.9

Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.16

Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.17

Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

2.

ALGEBRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

2.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

2.2

Use of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

2.3

Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

2.4

52

2.5

52

2.6

Algebraic Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

2.7

Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

2.8

Factorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

2.8.1

Factorising by Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

2.8.2

66

2.8.3

2.8.3.1

2.8.3.2

Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Adding & Subtracting Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Multiplication & Division of Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . .

68

70

70

2.9

Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.9.1

Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.9.2

2.9.2.1

2.9.2.2

2.9.2.3

2.9.2.5

2.9.2.6

Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Solving Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Equation Requiring Multiplication & Division . . . . . . . . . . .

73

Equations Requiring Addition & Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . .

73

2.9.2.4

Equations Containing the Unknown

Quantity on Both Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

Simultaneous Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . .

76

2.10

Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.10.1

79

2.10.2

80

2.10.3

80

2.11

Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

2.11.1

82

2.11.2

82

2.11.3

2.11.3.1

2.11.3.2

Common Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Logarithm Base 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Natural Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

83

83

2.11.4

Rules of Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

2.12

Number Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

2.12.1

2.12.1.1

2.12.1.2

2.12.1.3

Binary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Binary to Decimal Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Decimal to Binary Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Adding Binary Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

86

87

87

2.12.2

2.12.2.1

Octal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Converting Binary to Octal & Octal to Binary . . . . . . . . . .

88

89

2.12.3

72

Hexadecimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

2.12.3.1 Converting Hexadecimal to Binary &

Binary to Hexadecimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

2.12.4

92

72

2.13

Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

3.

Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

3.1

Geometrical Constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

3.1.1

3.1.1.1

3.1.1.2

3.1.1.3

Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pythagoras Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Area of a Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Area of a RightAngled Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

96

98

98

78

Page ii

P66 B12 M1 E

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.2

Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

3.2.1

Trigonometrical ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

3.2.2

103

3.3

106

3.3.1

Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106

3.3.2

3.3.2.1

3.3.2.2

Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Straight Line Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Derivation of the Equation of a Straight Line Graph . . . .

107

110

112

3.4

Geometry Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

3.4.1

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

3.4.2

114

3.4.3

Acute Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

3.4.4

Obtuse Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

3.4.5

Reflex Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

3.4.6

Right Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

3.4.7

Complementry Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116

3.4.8

Supplementary Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116

3.4.9

Vertical Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

3.4.10

117

3.4.11

117

3.4.12

Corresponding Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

3.4.13

Angle Bisector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119

3.5

Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121

3.5.1

121

3.5.2

Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

122

3.5.3

Congruent Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

122

3.5.4

Inscribed Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

123

3.5.5

125

Page iii

P66 B12 M1 E

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page iv

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