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AVIATION MAINTENANCE TRAINING CENTRE

MT.147.02

M1 MATHEMATICS

EASA PART-66
CAT B1/B2
ISSUE: 1JAN2007

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M1

HAM US/F

MATHEMATICS

KrA
Feb 7, 2007
ATA DOC
Page 1

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

1.

IR PART 66
M1

ARITHMETIC

1.1 General
Just as studying a new language begins with learning basic words, the study of
mathematics begins with arithmetic, its most basic branch. Arithmetic uses real
and nonnegative numbers, which are also known as counting numbers, and
consist of only four operations, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
While you have been using arithmetic since childhood, a review of its terms and
operations will make learning the more difficult mathematical concepts much
easier.
Numbers are represented by symbols which are called digits. There are nine digits
which are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9. We also use the symbol 0 (ie zero) where no
digits exists. Digits and zero may be combined together to represent any number.

1.2 Addition
The process of finding the total of two or more numbers is called addition. This
operation is indicated by the plus (+) symbol. When numbers are combined by
addition, the resulting total is called the sum.
When adding whole numbers whose total is more than nine, it is necessary to
arrange the numbers in columns so that the last digit of each number is in the same
column. The ones column contains the values zero through nine, the tens column
contains multiples of ten, up to ninety, and the hundreds column consists of
multiples of one hundred.

To add the sum of the above, first add the ones column, 8 and 3 make 11 and 2
makes 13. Place the 3 in the ones column of the answer and carry the 1 forward
to the tens column. Adding this we have 1 and 7 is 8 and 4 is 12 and 6 is 18. Place
the 8 in the tens column of the answer and carry the 1 forward to the hundreds
column which we now add. 1 and 2 is 3 and 4 is 7. Place the 7 in the hundreds
column of the answer. We see that the answer (sum) to the addition is 783.
The process is identical if any of the numbers includes a decimal as long as the
decimal points are arranged in the same column. The number of digits after the
decimal point as no significance.

Example:
hundreds
2
+4
7

tens
7
4
6
8

.
.
.
.

ones
8
3
0
3

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Example:

hundreds
2
+ 4
7

tens
7
4
6
8

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

ones
8
3
2
3

01/Calculations/A/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

1.3 Subtraction
The process of finding the difference between two numbers is known as
subtraction and is indicated by the minus () sign. Subtraction is accomplished by
taking the quantity of one number away from another number. The number which
is being subtracted is known as the subtrahend (smaller number), and the
number from which the quantity is taken is known as the minuend (larger
number).
To find the difference of two numbers, arrange them in the same manner used for
addition. With the minuend on top and the subtrahend on the bottom, align the
vertical columns so the last digits are in the same column. Beginning at the right,
subtract the subtrahend from the minuend. Repeat this for each column.
Example:

hundreds
4
2
1

tens
4
6
8

ones
3 minuend
2 subtrahend
1

Place 262 under 443. 2 from 3 leaves 1. write 1 in the ones column of the answer.
6 from 4 is clearly impossible, so the 4 is increased in value to 14 by taking 1 from
the hundreds column leaving 3. 14 from 6 leaves 8. Write 8 in the tens column.
finally, 3 from 2 in the hundreds columns leaves 1.
To check a subtraction problem, you can add the difference to the subtrahend
to find the minuend.
There are two methods by which subtraction can be performed. Consider

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

15 8 = 7
1st method: take 8 from 15. We have 7 left.
2nd method: if to 7 we add 8 then we obtain 15. 7 is therefore the difference
between 15 and 8.
The process is identical if any of the numbers include a decimal as long as the
decimal points are arranged in the same column.

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

1.4 Multiplication
Multiplication is a special form of repetitive addition. When a given number is
added to itself a specified number of times, the process is called multiplication. The
sum of 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 is expressed by multiplication as 4 x 3 = 12. The numbers
4 and 3 are called factors and the answer, 12, represents the product. The
number multiplied (4) is called the multiplicand, and the multiplier represents
the number of times the multiplicand is added to itself. Multiplication is typically
indicated by an (x), (), or in certain equations, by the lack of any other operation
sign.
One important factor to remember when multiplying is that the order in which
numbers are multiplied does not change the product.
Example:

or

4
x3
12

Example:

532 Multiplicand
x 24 Multiplier
10640 First partial product
2128 Second partial product
12,768 Product

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

3
x4
12

Like addition and subtraction, when multiplying large numbers it is important they
be aligned vertically. Regardless of the number of digits in the multiplicand or the
multiplier, the multiplicand should be written on top, and the multiplier beneath it.
When multiplying numbers greater than nine, multiply each digit in the multiplicand
by each digit in the multiplier. Once all multiplicands are used as a multiplier, the
products of each multiplication operation are added to arrive at a total product.

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

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1.5 Division
Just as subtraction is the reverse of addition, division is the reverse of
multiplication. Division is a means of finding out how many times a number is
contained in another number. The number divided is called dividend, the number
you are dividing by is the divisor, and the result is the quotient. With some
division problems, the quotient may include a remainder. A remainder represents
that portion of the dividend that cannot be divided by the divisor.
Division is indicated by the use of the division sign (B) with the dividend to the left
and the divisor to the right of the sign, or with the dividend inside the sign and the
divisor to the left. Division also is indicated in fractional form.
For example, in the fraction 3 the 3 is the dividend and the 8 is the divisor. When
8
division is carried out, the quotient is 0.375.
The process of dividing large quantities is performed by breaking the problem
down into a series of operations, each resulting in a single digit quotient. This is
best illustrated by example.
Example:

dividend divisor
416

= 52

or
52

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

8 ) 416
40
16
16
To check a divsion problem for accuracy, multiply the quotient by the the divisor
and add the remainder (if any). If the operation is carried out properly, the
result equals the dividend.

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

Calculate the sum of the following examples:


Addition
1. 0.251 + 10.298

Multiplication
1. 5.05 x 13.8

2. 18.098 + 210.099

2. 1.27 x 0.871

3. 0.025 + 10.995

3. 1.01 x 0.89

4. 1.09 x 104 + 1.2 x 102

4. 27.3 x 9.31

5. 27.3 + 0.021 + 68.3

5. 1.09 x 104 x 1.2 x 102

Subtraction
1. 27.3 4.36

Division
1. 233.1 B 18.5

2. 21.76 18.51

2. 0.1254 B 0.057

3. 32.76 20.086

3. 0.6875 B 22

4. 10.75 19.999 21.100

4. 24.024 B 4.62

5. 1.09 x 104 B 12

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5. 1.09 x 104 1.2 x 102

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M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

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M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

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1.6 Signed Numbers


1.6.1 Adding Signed Numbers

1.6.3 Multiplying Signed Numbers

When adding two or more numbers with the same sign, ignore the sign and find
the sum of the values and then place the common sign in front of the answer. In
other words, adding two or more positive numbers always results in a positive sum,
where as adding two or more negative numbers results in a negative sum.
When adding a positive and negative number, find the difference between the two
numbers and apply (+ or ) of the larger number. In other words, adding negative
number is the same as subtracting a positive number. The result of adding or
subtracting signed numbers is called algebraic sum of those numbers.

Multiplication of signed numbers is accomplished in the same manner as


multiplication of any other number. However, after multiplying, the product must
be given a sign. There are three rules to follow when determining a products
sign.
1. The product of two positive numbers is always positive.
2. The product of two negative numbers is always positive.
3. The product of a positive and a negative number is always negative.
Example:
6 x 2 = 12
6 x 2 = 12
(6) x (2) = 12
(6) x 2 = 12

Add 25 + (15)
25
+ (15)
10

or

25
15
10

1.6.4 Dividing Signed Numbers


Like multiplying signed numbers, division of signed numbers is accomplished in
the same manner as dividing any other number. The sign of the quotient is
determined using the rules identical to those used in multiplication.

1.6.2 Subtracting Signed Numbers

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

When subtracting numbers with different signs, change the operation sign to plus
and change the sign of the subtrahend. Once this is done, proceed as you do in
addition. For example +3 4 is the same as +3 + +4. There is no difference if the
subtrahend is larger than the minuend, since the operation is done as though the
two quantities are added.
Example:
Subtract 48 from 216
Step 1: Set up the subtraction problem 216 48
Step 2: Change the operation sign to a plus sign and change the sign of the
subtrahend. Now add.
216 + 48 = 264

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Example:
12 B 3 = 4
12 B (3) = 4
(12) B ()3 = 4
(12) B 3 = 4

02/Signed Numbers/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

M1

Calculate the sum of the following examples:


1. 8 + 5

16.11 12 B 4 + 3 x (6 2)

2. 7 6 3

17.15 B (4 + 1) 9 x 3 + 7 (4 + 3)

3. 8 7 15

18.10 12 B 6 + 3 (8 3)

4. 3 + 5 + 7 4 2
5. 6 + 4 3 5 7 + 2
6. 8 x (3)
7. (2) x (5) x (6)
8. 4 x (3) x (2)
9. (3) x (4) x 5
10.16 B (2) x (4)
11. 15 x (3) x 2 B (5) x (6)
12.3 + 5 x 2
FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

IR PART 66

13. 7 x 5 2 + 4 x 6
14.7 x 5 12 B 4 + 3
15.11 9 B 3 + 7

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Question 1.
16 holes spaced 48mm apart are to be marked off on a sheet of metal. 17 mm
is to be allowed between the centres of the holes and the edge of the metal.
Calculate the total length of metal required.
Question 2.
In the first 2 hours of a shift an operator makes 32 soldered joints per hour. In
the next 3 hours the operator makes 29 joints per hour. In the final two hours
26 joints are made per hour. How many soldered joints are made in the 7
hours.
Question 3.
A machinist makes 3 parts in 15 minutes. How many parts can he produce in
an 8 hour shift allowing 20 minutes for starting and 10 minutes for finishing the
shift.
Question 4.
The length of a metal plate is 891 mm. Rivets are placed 45 mm apart and the
distance between the centres of the end rivets and the edge of the plate is
18mm. How many rivets are required.
Question 5.
32 pins each 61 mm long are to be turned in a lathe. If 2 mm is allowed on
each pin for parting off. what total length of material is required to make the
pins.

02/Signed Numbers/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

1.7 Common Fractions


1.7.1 Introduction

1.7.2 Lowest Terms

A common fraction represents a portion or part of a quantity. For example, if a


number is divided into three equal parts, each part is onethird ( 1 ) of the number.
3
A fraction consists of two numbers, one above and one below a line, or fraction
bar. The fraction bar indicates division of the top number, or numerator, by the
bottom number, or denominator. For example, the fraction 3 indicates that three
4
is divided by four to find the decimal equivalent of 0.75.
When a fractions numerator is smaller than the denominator, the fraction is called
a proper fraction. A proper fraction is always less than 1. If the numerator is larger
than the denominator, the fraction is called an improper fraction. In this situation
the fraction is greater than 1. If the numerator and the denominator are identical,
the fraction is equal to 1.
A mixed number is the combination of a whole number and a proper fraction.
Mixed numbers are expressed as 1 5 and 29 9 and are typically used in place of
8
16
improper fractions. The numerator and denominator of a fraction can be changed
without changing the fractions value. A mixed number can be converted into an
improper fraction and vice versa.

A fraction is said to be in its lowest terms when it is impossible to find a number


which will divide exactly into both its numerator and denominator. The fractions
5 and 11 are both in their lowest terms but the fraction 6 is not in its lowest terms
7
19
10
3
because it can be reduced to by dividing top and bottom numbers by 2.
5
Example:
Reduce 21 to its lowest terms
35
21 is equivalent to 21 B 7 and 35 B 7 + 3
35
5

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Example:
(8 3) ) 2
Convert 8 2 =
= 26
3
3
3
27
Express
as a mixed number
4
27 = 6 3 (since 27 B 4 = 6 remainder 3)
4
4

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following equations:


Convert the following mixed numbers to improper fractions:
1. 2 6
7
2. 3 4
9
3. 21 3
5
4. 5 21
25
5. 2 1
7
Convert the following improper fractions to mixed numbers:
1. 11
3

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

2. 21
5
3. 53
7
4. 210
4
5. 99
8

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1.7.3 Comparing the Size of Fractions

1.7.4 Adding & Subtracting Fractions

When the values of two or more fractions are to be compared, express each of
the fractions with the same denominator. This common denominator should be
the LCM of the denominator of the fractions to be compared. It is sometimes
called the lowest common denominator (LCM).
Example:
Arrange the fractions 5 , 8 and 7 in order of size beginning with the smallest.
6 9
8
The LCM of the denominators 6, 8, and 9 is 72, i.e. the lowest common
denominator is 72.
5 is equivalent to (5 12) + 60
6
72
(6 12)

Two fractions which have the same denominator can be added together by adding
their numerators. Thus

8 is equivalent to (8
9
(9

8)
+ 64
72
8)

7 is equivalent to (7
8
(8

9)
+ 63
72
9)
Because all the fractions have been expressed with the same denominator all
that we need to do is to compare the numerators. Therfore the order of size is
60 , 63 and 64 or 5 , 7 and 8
72 72
72 6 8
9

3 ) 5 + (3 ) 5) + 8
11 11
11
11
When two fractions have different denominators they cannot be added together
directly. However, if we express the fractions with the same denominator they can
be added.
Example:
Add 2 and 3
7
5
The lowest common denominator of 5 and 7 is 35
2 ) 3 + 14 ) 15
5 7
35 35
=

(14 ) 15)
35

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

= 29
35

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

When mixed numbers are to be added together, the whole numbers and the
fractions are added separately.

When mixed numbers are involved first subtract the whole numbers and then deal
with the fractional parts.
Example:

Example:
Add 4 2 and 2 3
3
5

Subtract 4 1 *6 3
4
3
3
1
3
6 *4 + 2 ) * 1
4
3
4 3
(9 * 4)
= 2)
12
= 2) 5
12
=2 5
12

42) 23 + 6 ) 2) 3
3
5
3 5
= 6 ) 10 ) 9
15 15
= 6 ) 19
15
= 6)1) 4
15
= 7 4
15

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Two fractions to be subtracted which do not do have the same denominator, a


method similar to that for addition is used.
Example:
Subtract 3 from 5
4
6
The lowest common denominator is 12
5 * 3 + 10 * 9
6 4
12 12
(10 * 9)
=
12
1
=
12

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M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

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M1

1.7.5 Multiplication of Fractions


Multiplication of fractions is performed by multiplication the numerators of each
fraction to form the product numerators, and multiplying the individual
denominators to form the product denominator. The resulting fraction is then
reduced to its lowest terms.
Example:
Multiply 3 by 5
8 7
3
8

5 + (3
7
(8

Mixed numbers must be converted into improper fractions before multiplying.


Example:
Multiply 1 3
8
13
8

5)
7)

= 15
56
If any factors are common to a numerator and a denominator they should be
cancelled before multiplying.

21
3

2 1 + 11 7
3
8
3
(11 7)
=
(8 3)
= 77
24
= 3 5
24

In problems with fractions the word of is frequently used. It should always be


taken as meaning multiply.

Example:
5
7

Find the value of 2


3
2
3

5
7

21 + (1
32
(1

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5
1

21
32
1)
16)

5
16

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M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

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M1

1.7.6 Division of Fractions


Division of common fractions is accomplished by inverting, or turning over, the
divisor and then multiplying. However, it is important that you invert the divisor only
and not the dividend. Once the divisor is inverted, multiply the numerators to obtain
a new numerator, multiply the denominators to obtain a new denominator, and
reduce the quotient to its lowest terms.
Example:
Divide 3 by 7
5 8
3B7 = 3
5 8
5
(3
=
(5
=

8
7
8)
7)
24
35

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Mixed numbers must be converted into improper fractions before multiplying.

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

M1

Solve the following equations:


Add the following fractions:

Multiply and simplify the following fractions:

1. 3 ) 3
4 8

1. 3
4

5
7

2. 1 ) 2 ) 5
8 3 12

2. 2
9

12
3

3. 7 2 ) 6 3
3
5

3. 7
5

31
2

4. 3 3 ) 5 2 ) 4 3
7
8
4

4. 3 3
4

5. 23 ) 14
10
6

5. 3 of 16
4

Subtract the following fractions:


1. 7 * 5
8 6
2. 3 3 * 1 1
8
4
FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

IR PART 66

3. 5 3 * 2 9
8
10
4. 21 * 3 2
5
5
5. 1 3 * 2 2
4
5

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

13
5

11
8

Divide and simplify the following fractions:


1. 4 B 1 1
5
3
2. 2 1 B 3 3
2
4
3. 5 B 5 1
5

4. 1 2 B 3 B 9
3
5 10

5. 2 8 B 1 2 ) 1
9
3 2

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M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

Arrange the following sets of fractions in order of size:


1. 1 AAA 5 AAA 2 AAA 7
2 6 3 12
2. 3 AAA 5 AAA 9 AAA 17
4 8 16 32

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

3. 3 AAA 5 AAA 2 AAA 5


8 9 6 18

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1.8 Decimals
Working with fractions is typically time consuming and complex. One way you can
eliminate fractions in complex equations is by replacing them with decimal
fractions or decimals. A common fraction is converted to a decimal fraction by
dividing the numerator by the denominator. For example, is converted to a
decimal by dividing the 3 by the 4.
The decimal equivalent of is 0.75. Improper fractions are converted to decimals
in the same manner. However, whole numbers appear to the left of the decimal
point.
In a decimal, each digit represents a multiple of ten. The first digit represents
tenths, the second hundredths, the third thousandths.
Example:
0.5 is read as five tenths
0.05 is read as five hundredths
0.005 is read as five thousandths
when writing decimals, the number of zeros to the right of the decimal does not
affect the value as long as no other number except zero appears. In other words,
numerically, 2.5, 2.50 and 2.500 are the same.
The number of digits after the decimal point are called decimal places

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Examples:

1.8.1 Adding Decimals


The addition of decimals is done in the same manner as the addition of whole
numbers. However, care must be taken to correctly align the decimal points
vertically.
Example:
Add the following 25.78 + 5.4 + 0.237
rewrite with the decimals aligned and add.
25.78
5.4
+ 0.237
31.417
Once everything is added, the decimal point in the answer is placed directly below
the other decimal points.

27.6 one decimal point


27.16 two decimal points
27.026
three decimal points and so on.

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1.8.2 Subtracting Decimals

1.8.4 Dividing Decimals

Like adding, subtracting decimals is done in the same manner as with whole
numbers. Again, it is important that you keep the decimal points aligned.

When dividing decimals, the operation is carried out in the same manner as
division of whole numbers. However, to ensure accurate placement of decimal
point in the quotient, two rules apply:

Example:
If you have 325.25 pounds of ballast on board and remove 30.75 pounds, how
much ballast remains?
325.25

1. When the divisor is a whole number, the decimal point in the quotient aligns
vertically with the decimal in the dividend when doing long division.
2. When the divisor is a decimal fraction, it should first be converted to a whole
number by moving the decimal point to the right. However, when the decimal in
the divisor is moved, the decimal in the dividend must also move in the same
direction and the same number of spaces.

30.75
294.50

1.8.3 Multiplying Decimals


When multiplying decimals, ignore the decimal points and multiply the resulting
whole numbers. Once the product is calculated, count the number of digits to the
right of the decimal point in both the multiplier and multiplicand. This number
represents the number of places from the left the decimal point is placed in the
product.

Example:
Divide 37.26 by 2.7
Move the decimal in the divisor to the right to convert it to a whole number.
27 ) 37.26

Example:

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

26.757

3 decimal
x 0.32 2 decimal
53514
80271
856224 count 5 decimal places to the left of the digit 4
8.56224

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Move the decimal in the dividend the same number of places to the right.
27 ) 372.6
13.8
Divide:

05/Decimals/A/B

27 ) 372.6
27
102
81
216

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1.9 Conversions
1.9.1 Converting Decimals to Fractions

1.9.2 Converting Fractions to Decimals

Although decimals are typically easier to work with, there are times when the use
of a fraction is more practical. For example, when measuring something, most
scales are fractional increments. For this reason it is important that you know how
to convert a decimal number into a fraction. For example, 0.125 is read as 125
thousandths, which is written as 125/1000. This fraction is then reduced to its
lowest terms.
Examples:
0.800 + 800 + 4
1000
5
6.250 + 6) 250 + 6 1
1000
4
0.037 + 37
1000

To convert a fraction into a decimal we divide the denominator into the numerator.
Convert 27 to decimals
32
27 + 27 B 32
32
= 0.84375
When we have mixed numbers to convert into decimals we need only deal with
the fractional part. Thus to convert 2 9 into decimals we only have to deal with 9
16
16
9 + 9 B 16
16
= 0.5625

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

The division shows that 9 + 0.5625 and hence 2 9 = 2.5625.


16
16
Sometimes a fraction will not divide out exactly. If the number is recurring the
answer can be given to 1 or 2 decimal places or that specified by the equation.

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IR PART 66
M1

1.9.3 Converting Fractions to Percentages

1.9.5 Converting Percentages to Decimals

To change a fraction to a percentage you must multiply by 100.


Example:
3 as a percentage = 3
5
5

100%=

4 3 as a percentage = 19
4
4

(3

100)
= 60%
5

100% 1900
=
= 475%
1
4

1.9.4 Converting Percentages to Fractions

To convert a percentage to a decimal, firstly, convert the percentage to a fraction,


then the fraction to a decimal.
Examples:
65% as a fraction = 65 , as a decimal = 0.65
100
32% as a fraction = 32.5, as a decimal = 0.325
100

To change a percentage to a fraction, divide by 100%.


Examples:
8% as a fraction =

8%
+ 8 + 2
100%
100
25
12.5%
+ 25
100%
2

1 + 25 + 1
100
200
8

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

12% (12.5) as a fraction =

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IR PART 66
M1

1.9.6 Converting Decimal to a Percentage


To convert a decimal to a percentage, firstly, convert the decimal to a fraction, then
convert the fraction to a percentage.

1.9.6.2

Example:

To express one quantity as a percentage of another, make a fraction of the two


quantities and multiply by 100.

0.021 as a fraction = 21 + 2.1 , as a decimal = 2.1%


1000
100

Expressing one Quantity as a Percentage

Example:

0.037 as a fraction = 37 + 3.7 , as a decimal = 3.7%


1000
100

12 as a percentage of 50 = 12
50

100 = 24%

0.43 as a fraction = 4.3 + 43 , as a decimal = 43%


1000
100

4 as a percentage of 60 = 4
60

100 = 6.67%

1.9.6.1

3.2 as a percentage of 2.4 = 3.2


2.4

Values of a Percentage of a Quantity

100 = 13.333% or 13 1%
3

To find the value of a percentage of a quantity, firstly, express the percentage as


a fraction and multiply by the quantity.
Examples:
4% of 60 = 4
100

60 = 240 = 12 = 2 2
100
5
5
1500 = 5250 + 525 + 105 + 52 1
100
10
2
2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

3% of 1500 = 3.5
100

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MATHEMATICS
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Solve the following equations:
Convert the following decimals to fractions in their lowest terms:
1. 0.2
2. 0.45
3. 0.3125
4. 2.55
5. 0.0075
6. 2.125
Find the difference between:
1. 19 and 0.295
64
2. 1 3 and 1.1632
16

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Convert the following fractions to decimals (3 decimal places):


1. 3
8
2. 11
16
3. 21
32
4. 1 5
8
5. 2 7
16
Place the following in ascending order of size:
1. 1 AAA 0.167AAA 3
6
20
7
2
2. AAA 0.44AAA
5
16
11
3.
AAA 0.3594AAA 0.3125
32

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IR PART 66
M1
Express the following as a percentage %:
1. 0.43
2. 0.025
3. 1.25
4. 3
8
5. 3
7
6. 1
12
7. 7
20
Express the following as fractions:
1. 25%
2. 13%
3. 4.5%
4. 16 1%
3
5. 33%
Express:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

30 as a percentage of 50
24 as a percentage of 16
0.5 as a percentage of 12.5
3.2 as a percentage of 2.4
0.08 as a percentage of 0.72

Calculate:
1. 4% of 30
2. 0.8% of 360
3. 1.5% of 60
4. 120% of 75
5. 80% of 90
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M1

1.10 Ratio & Proportion


1.10.1

Ratio

A ratio is a comparison between two similar quantities. If the length of an aircraft


is 75 m and a model of it is 1 m long then the length of the model is 1 of the length
75
of the aircraft. In making the model all the dimensions of the aircraft are reduced
in the ratio of 1 to 75.
The ratio 1 to 75 is usually written 1 : 75.
A ratio can also be written as a fraction, as indicated above, and a ratio of 1:75
means the same as the fraction 1 .
75
Before we can state a ratio the units must be the same. we can state a ratio
between 3 mm and 2 m provided we bring both lengths to the same units. Thus
if we convert 2 m to 2000 mm the ratio between lengths is 3:2000.
Example:
Express the following ratios as fractions reduced to their lowest terms:
i. 40 mm to 2.2 m
2.2 m = 2200
40 : 2200 = 40 = 1
55
2200

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

IR PART 66

A ratio provides a means of comparing one number to another. For example, if an


engine turns at 4,000 rpm and the propeller turns at 2,400 rpm, the ratio of the two
speeds is 4,000 to 2,400, or 5 to 3, when reduced to lowest terms. This relationship
can also be expressed as 5/3 or 5:3.
The use of ratios is common in aviation. One ratio you must be familiar with is
compression ratio, which is the ratio of cylinder displacement when the piston is
at bottom centre to the cylinder displacement when the piston is at top centre. For
example, if the volume of a cylinder with the piston at bottom centre is 96 cubic
inches and the volume with the piston at top centre is 12 cubic inches, the
compression ratio is 96 :12 or 8 :1 when simplified.
Another typical ratio is that of different gear sizes, for example, the gear ratio of
a drive gear with 15 teeth to a driven gear with 45 teeth is 15:45 or 1:3 when
reduced. This means that for every one tooth on the drive gear there are three
teeth on the driven gear. However, when working with gears, the ratio of teeth is
opposite the ratio of revolutions. In other words, since the drive gear has one third
as many teeth as the driven gear, the drive gear must complete three revolutions
to turn the driven gear one revolution. This results in a revolution ratio of 3:1, which
is opposite the ratio of teeth.
Before we can state a ratio the units must be the same. We state a ratio between
3 mm and 2 m provided we bring both lengths to the same units. If convert 2 m
to 2000 mm the ratio between the two lengths is 3:2000.

ii. 800 g to 1.66 kg


1.6 kg = 1600 g
800 : 1600 = 800 = 1
1600
2

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1.10.2

IR PART 66
M1

Proportion

1.10.2.1 General

1.10.2.2 Direct Proportion

A proportion is a statement of equality between two or more ratios and represents


a convenient way to solve problems involving ratios. For example, if an an engine
has a reduction gear ratio between the crankshaft and the propeller of 3:2 and the
engine is turning 2,700 rpm, what is the speed of the propeller? In this problem,
let X represent the unknown value, which in this case is the speed of the
propeller. Next set up a proportional statement using the fractional form 3 + 2700
x .
2
To solve this equatiuon, cross multiply to arrive at the equation 3x = 2 x 2,700, or
5,400. to solve for (x), divide 5,400 by 3. The speed of the propeller is 1,800 rpm.

If 5 litres of oil has a mass of 4 kg, then 10 litres of the same oil will have a mass
of 8 kg. That is, if we double the quantity of oil its mass is also doubled. Now 2
litres of oil will have a mass of 2 kg. That is if we halve the quantity of oil we halve
its mass. This is an example of direct proportion. As the quantity of oil increases
the mass increases in the same proportion. As the quantity of oil decreases the
mass decreases in the same proportion.

3 + (engine-speed)
2
(propeller-speed)
3 + 2700
x
2
3x + 5, 400
x + 1, 800rpm

Thus resistance of wire 1m long = 2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

1000 = 13.3 ohms


150

1.10.2.3 Inverse Proportion

This same proportion may also be expressed as 3:2 = 2,700 : X. The first and last
terms of the proportion are called extremes, and the second and third terms are
called the means. In any proportion, the product of the extremes is equal to the
product of the means. In this example, multiply the extremes to get 3x, and multiply
the means to get 2 x 2,700 or 5,400. This results in the identical derived earlier;
3x = 5,400.
3:2 = engine speed : propeller speed
3x = 2 : 2,700
3x = 5,400
x = 1,800 rpm.

Example:
The electrical resistance of a wire 150 mm long is 2 ohms. Find the resistance of
a similar wire which is 1 m long.
The lengths of the two wires are increased in the ratio of 1000 :150. The resistance
will aslo increase in the ratio 1000 :150.

3:2 = 2,700 : x

A motor car will travel 30 km in 1 hour if its speed is 30 km per hour. If its speed
is increased to 60 km per hour the time taken to travel 30 km will be hour. That
is when the speed is doubled the time taken is halved. This is an example of
inverse proportion. When we multiply the speed by 2 we divided the time taken by
2.
Example:
Two pulleys of 150 mm and 50 mm diameter are connected by a belt. If the larger
pulley revolves at 80 rev/min find the speed of the smaller pulley.
The smaller pulley must revolve faster than the larger pulley and hence the
quantities, speed and diameter, are in inverse proportion. The pulley diameters are
decreased in the 50 : 150, or 1 : 3. The speed will be increased in the ratio of 3 :1.
Therefore
Speed of smaller pulley = 80

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3 + 240 rev/min.
1

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1.10.2.4 Proportional Parts


The diagram below shows the line AB whose length represents 10 m divided into
two parts in the ratio 2:3. From the diagram the line has been divided into a total
og 5 parts. The length AC contains 2 parts and the length BC contains 3 parts.
Each part is 2m long, hence AC is 4m long and BC is 6m long.

Example:
A certain brass is made by alloying copper and zinc in the ratio of 7:3. How
much copper must be mixed with 30 g of zinc.
3 parts have a mass of 30 g
1 part has a mass of 10 g
7 parts have a mass of 70 g
Therefore,

Mass of copper needed = 70 g.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

We could tackle the problem as follows;


Total number of parts = 2 + 3 = 5
Length of each part = 10 = 2 m
5
Length of AC = 2 x 2 = 4 m
Length of BC = 3 x 2 = 6 m

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MATHEMATICS
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IR PART 66
M1
A gear wheel having 40 teeth revolves at 120 rev/min. It meshes with a wheel
having 25 teeth. Find the speed of the 25 tooth wheel.

Solve the following equations:


Express the following ratios as fractions reduced to their lowest terms:
1. 15 g to 2 kg
2. 30 p to 5
3. 20 cm to 100 mm
4. 400 m to 3 km
5. 21 ft to 9 inches

Two shafts are to rotate at 150 and 250 rev/min respectively. A 120 mm diameter
pulley is fitted to the slower shaft and by means of a belt it drives a pulley on the
faster shaft. What diameter pulley is required on the faster shaft.
A bar of metal 10.5 m long is to be cut into three parts in the ratio of 1 : 1 3 : 3.
2 4
Find the length of each part.

Find the missing value:


1. 3 : 4 = 6 : x
2. 20 : 1 = x : 3.2
3. 240 : 400 = x : 1
4. 1 : 2.6 = x : 13
5. 18 : x = 2 : 1
Five men build a wall take 20 days to complete it. How long would it take 4 men
to complete it.
4 people can clean an office in 6 hours. How many people would be needed to
clean the office in 4 hours.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

8 people take 5 hours to change an engine. How long would it take 4 people to do
this work.
An engineering company employ 12 men to fabricate a number of containers.
They take 9 days to complete the work. If the company had employed 8 men, how
long would it have taken.
A train travels 200 km in 4 hours. If it travels at the same rate, how long will it take
to complete a journey of 350 km.
A motor running at 400 rev/min has a pulley of 125 mm diameter attached to its
shaft. It drives a parallel shaft which has a 1000 mm diameter pulley attached to
it. Find the speed of this shaft.

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IR PART 66
M1

1.11 Power and Roots


When a number is multiplied by itself, it is said to be raised to a given power.
For example, 6 x 6 = 36; therefore, 6 2 = 36. The number of times a base
number is multiplied by itself is expressed as an exponent and is written to
right and slightly above the base number. A positive exponent indicates how
many times a number is multiplied by itself.
Example:
3 2 is read 3 squared or 3 to the second power. its value is found by multiplying
3 by itself 2 times.
3x3=9
2 3 is read 2 cubed or 2 to the third power. Its value is found by multiplying 2 by
itself 3 times.
2x2x2 =8

1 +1
23
2

1
2

1+1
2
8

Any number, except zero, that is raised to the zero power equals 1. When a
number is written without an exponent, the value of the exponent does not
have a SIGN (+ or ) preceding it, the exponent is assumed to be positive.
The root of a number is that value which, when multiplied by itself a certain
number of times, produces that number. For example, 4 is a root of 16 because
when multiplied by itself, the product is 16. However, 4 is also a root of 64
because 4 x 4 x 4 = 64. The symbol used to indicate a root is the radical sign
( x ) placed over the number. If only the radical sign appears over a number, it
indicates you are to extract the square root of the number under the sign. The
square root of a number is the root other than a square root, an index number
is placed outside the radical sign. for example the cube root is expressed as
3
64

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

A negative exponent implies division or fraction of a number. It indicates the


inverse, or reciprocal of the number with its exponent made positive.

Example:
23 is read 2 to the negative third power. the inverse, or reciprocal of 23 with
its exponent made positive is

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1.12 Indices
1.12.1

Base, Index & Power

The quantity 2 2 2 2 may be written as 2 4. Now 2 4 is called the fourth


power of the base 2.
The number 4, which gives the number of 2s to be multiplied together is called
the index (plural : Indices).
Similarly

a + a3

Find the values of the following:


1. 8 2
2. 2 4
3. 3 3
4. 2 5
5. 16
6. 144
7. 169
8. 38
9. 327
10. 3216

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Here a 3 is the third power of the base a, and the index is 3.


Thus in this expression
xn is called the nth power of x
xn
x is called the base, and
n is called the index.
Remember that, in algebra, letters such as a in the above expression merely
represent numbers.
Hence the laws of arithmetic apply strictly to algebraic terms as well as
numbers.The expression 1 is called the reciprocal of 2.
2
1
Similarly the expression p is called the reciprocal of p likewise the expression
1
2
x n is called the reciprocal of x

Solve the following equations:

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1.12.2

IR PART 66
M1

Laws of Indices

1.12.2.1 Multiplication

1.12.2.2 Division of Powers

Let us see what happens when we multiply powers of the same base together.
5 2 5 4 + (5 5) (5 5 5 5)
= 5 5 5 5 5 5 + 56
or

Now lets see what happens when we divide powers of the same base.
3 5 + (3 3 3 3 3) + 3 3 3 + 33
32
(3 3)
We see that the same result could have been obtained by subtracting the
indices.
3 5 + 35*2 + 3 3
32
The law is:

c) (c c c c c)
= c c c c c c c c + c8
In both the examples above we see that we could have obtained the result by
adding the indices together.
5 2 5 4 + 52)4 + 5 6
c 3 c 5 + c 3)5 + c 8
We may apply this idea when multiplying more than two powers of the same
base together.
c3

c 5 + (c

Thus 7 2 7 5
The law is:

7 9 + 72)5)9 + 716

When multiplying powers of the same base together, add the


indices.

When dividing powers of the same base subtract the index of the
denominator from the index of the numerator.
1.12.2.3 Powers of Powers
2

How do we simplify 5 3 ?
One way is to proceed as follows:
2

5 3 +53+3 = 5 6
We that the same result would have been obtained if we multiply the two
indices together.
2

5 3 +53x2 = 56
The law is:
FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

When raising the power of a base to a power, multiply the indices


together.

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M1
1.12.2.6 Fractional Indices

1.12.2.4 Zero Index


5
(2
Now 2 5 +
2
(2

2
2

2
2

2
2

The cube root of 5 (written as 35 ) is the number which, when multiplied by itself
three times, gives 5.
3
5 35 35 + 5

2)
+1
2)

But using the laws of indices

but we also know that


5 13
Comparing these expressions
3
5 + 5 13

2 + 25*5 + 2 0 Thus
20 + 1
25
4
(c c c c)
4
Also c 4 +
+ 1 or c 4 + c 4*4 + c 0 = 1
c
c
(c c c c)
The law is:
5

But we also know that

1.12.2.5 Negative Indices


Now 2 7 +
2
(2
laws of indices
it follows that
The law is:

(2
2

2
2

2)
2

2 3 + 23*7 + 2 *4
27
2 *4 + 14
2

2)

(2

5 13 + 513)13)13 + 5

Similarly the fourth root of base d ( written as 4d ) is the number which, when
multiplied by itself four times, gives d.
4
d 4d 46 4d + d

Any base raised to the index zero is equal to 1.

5 13

2)

+ 14but using the


2

d 14

Comparing these expressions


The law is:

d 14 d 14
4
d + d 14

d 14 + d 14)14)14)14 + d

A fractional index represents a root, the denominator of the index


denotes the root to be taken.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

The power of a base which has a negative index is the reciprocal


of the power of the base having the same, but positive, index.

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IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following equations:


Simplify the following, giving each answer as a power

Find the value of the following

1. 2 5

1. 811/4

26

2. a

a2

a5

3. 163/4

3. n 8 B n 5
4. 10 5

10 3 B 10 4

5. z 4

z2

6. 3 2

3 *3 B 3 3

7. 9 3

4. 92.5

z *3

8. t

t 3

71

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

9.

2. 82/3

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M1

1.13 Tranposition of Formulae


The formula y + ax ) b has y as its subject. By rearranging this formula we
could make x the subject. We are then said to have transposed the formula to
make x the subject.
The rules for transforming a formula are:
1. Remove square roots or other roots.
2. Get rid of fractions.
3. Clear brackets.
4. Collect together the terms containing the required subject.
5. Factorise if necessary.
6. Isolate the required subject.
These steps should be performed in the order given.
Examples:
i. Transpose the formula F = ma to make a the subject.
Step 1. Divide both sides by m. then,
ma
F
m+ m
F
F
or
m + a or a + m
y
to make b the subject
b
Step 1. Multiply both sides by b. then,
y
x b+
b
b
bx + y or y + bx

ii. Transpose x +

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

IR PART 66

iii. Transpose the formula V +

2R to make R the subject.


(R * r)

Step 1. Since there are no roots get rid of the fraction by multiplying both sides
of the equation by (R * r).
V(R * r) + 2R
Step 2. Clear the bracket.
VR * Vr + 2R
Step 3. Collect the terms containing R on the LHS.
VR * Vr + 2R
Step 4. Factorise the LHS.
R(V * 2) + Vr
Step 5. Isolate R by dividing both sides of the equation by (V * 2).
Vr
R+
(V * 2)
Although we used five steps to obtain the required subject, in very many cases
far fewer steps are needed. Nevertheless, you should work through the steps
in the order given.
iv. Tranpose d + 2hr to make h the subject.
Step 1. Remove the square root by squaring both sides.
d 2 + 2hr
Step 2. Since there are no fractions or brackets and factorisation is not needed
we can now isolate h by dividing both sides of the equation by 2r.
d 2 + h or h + d 2
2r
2r
Since it is usual to position the subject on the LHS.

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IR PART 66
M1

Transpose the following:


1. C + pd for d

15. C +

(N * n)
for N
2p

16. a +

3
(4t ) 5)

2. S + pdn for d
3. I + PRT

for R

for t

4. v 2 + 2gh for h
5. x + ay for y
6. P + RT for T
V
7. S + ts for t
T
8. M + E
I
R

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

9. GY + T
J
l

for R
for J

10. v + u ) at

for t

11. n + p ) cr

for r

12. y + ax ) b for x
13. y + x ) 17
5
14. C +

for x

E
for E
(R ) r)

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M1

1.14 Areas
The area of a plane figure is measured by seeing how many square units it
contains. 1 square metre is the area contained in a square metre is the area
contained in a square having a side of 1 metre; 1 square centimetre is the area
contained in a square having a side of 1 centimetre, etc. The standard
abbreviations are
1 square metre
1 m2
1 square centimetre
1 cm2
1 square millimetre
1 mm2
1 square inch
1 in2
1 square foot
1 ft2
1 square yard
1 yd2

Parallelogram

Area = b h
Perimeter = Sum of all 4 sides.

The following provides the formulae for areas and perimeters of simple
geometrical shapes.

Triangle

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Rectangle

Area = l

Area = 1
2

Perimeter = 2l

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2b

where s +

12/Areas/A/B

or Area = s (s * a)(s * b)(s * c),

(a ) b ) c)
2

Page 36

IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following problems:


1. Find the area and perimeter of a rectangle whose length is 12 inches and
width is 7 inches.
2. A rectangle lawn is 35 m long and 18 m wide. A path 1 m wide is made
round the lawn. Calculate the area of the path.
3. A carpet has an area of 36 m2. If it is square what length of side has the
carpet.
4. A triangle has a base of 7 cm amd an altitude of 3 cm. Calculate its area.
5. A triangle has sides which are 8 cm , 12 cm and 14 cm long. Determine the
area ofthe triangle.
6. The area of a triangle is 40 ft2. Its base is 8 ft long. Calculate its vertical
height.

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

Trapezium
Sector of a Circle

Area = 1
2

(a ) b)
Area = pr 2

q
360

Perimeter = 2r )

(prq)
180

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Circle

Area = pr 2
Circumference = 2pr + pd p + 3.142 or 22
7

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

13/Areas/B

Page 38

IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following problems:


7. Find the area of a trapezium whose parallel sides are 45 mm and 73 mm
long if the distance between them is 42 mm.
8. An annulus has an outer diameter of 10 cm and an inner diameter of 6 cm.
calculate its area.
9. Find the area and length of arc of the sector of a circle, with an angle of
150 and a radius of 21 mm.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

13/Areas/B

Page 39

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

1.15 Volumes
The volume of a solid figure is found by seeing how many cubic units it contains.
1 cubic metre is the volume contained inside a cube having an edge 1 metre long;
1 cubic centimetre is the volume contained inside a cube having an edge
1 centimetre long, etc. The standard abbreviations for units of volume are as
follows:
1 square metre
1 square centimetre
1 square millimetre
1 square inch
1 square foot
1 square yard

Cylinder

1 m3
1 cm3
1 mm3
1 in3
1 ft3
1 yd3

Volume = pr 2h
Surface Area = 2pr(h ) r)

The following figures give the formulae for the volumes and surface areas of
solid figures.
Any solid having a uniform crosssection;

Cone

Volume = Crosssectional area x Length of solid

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Surface Area = Lateral Surface + Ends i.e. (perimeter of crosssection x


Length of Solid) + (Total area of ends)

Volume = 1 pr 2h (h is the vertical height)


3
Surface Area = prl (l is the slant height)

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

14/Volumes/A/B

Page 40

IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following problems:


10.Calculate the volume of a metal pipe whose inside diameter is 6 cm and
whose outside diameter is 8 cm, if it 20 cm long.
11. A sphere has a diameter of 8 in. Calculate its volume and surface area.
12.Find the volume of a cone with a diameter of 7 cm and vertical height of 4
cm.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

14/Volumes/A/B

Page 41

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1
Surface Area = 4pr 2

Frustum of a Cone
Pyramid

Volume = 1 ph R 2 ) Rr ) r2
3
Curved Surface Area = pl(R ) r)

(h is the vertical height)

Total Surface Area = pl(R ) r) ) pR 2 ) pr 2 (l is the slant height)

Volume = 1 Ah
3
Surface Area = Sum of the areas of the triangles forming the
sides plus the area of the base
( A = Area of base)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Sphere

Volume = 4 pr 3
3
HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

15/Volumes/B

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IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following problems:


13.A pyramid has a square base of side 12 cm and an altitude of 15 cm.
Calculate its volume.
14. A rectangle tank is 2.7 m long, 1.8 mm wide and 3.2 high. How many litres
of water will it hold when full.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

15/Volumes/B

Page 43

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

1.16 Conversions
Length
1 in
1m
1 ft
12 in
3 ft
1 yd
1 km
1 mile

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Mass
2.54 cm
39.37 in or 3.281 ft
0.3048 m
1 ft
1 yd
0.9144 m
0.621 miles
1.61 km = 5,280 ft

1 amu
1000 kg
1000 g
1 slug

1
1 m2
1 ft2
1 in2

=
=
=
=

10.76 ft2
10.000 cm2
0.0929 m2 = 144 in2
6.452 cm2

Volume

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

m3

1
1 ft3
1 litre
1 ft3
1 gal
1 gal

=
=
=
=
=
=

1.000.000 cm3
1728 in3 = 0.0283 m3
1000 cm3 = 1.0576 qt
7.481 gal
8 pints
4.546 litres = (3.785 litres in American)

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

1.66 x 1027 kg
1t
1 kg
14.59 kg

Force & Weight


1N
1N

Area
m2

=
=
=
=

=
=

0.2248 lbf
3.5969 ozf

Velocity
1 mph
1 m/s
1 knot
1 knot
1 knot
1 mph

=
=
=
=
=
=

1.47 ft/s
3.281 ft/s
1.688 ft/s
1.151 mph
1.852 km/h
1.61 km/h

Energy
1J
1 cal
1 Btu

16/Conversions/A/B

=
=
=

0.738 ft lb
4.186 J
252 cal

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Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

Time
1 year
1 day

=
=

365 days
24 h = 1,440 min

Power
1 HP
1 HP
1W
1W
1 Btu/h

=
=
=
=
=

550 ft lb/s
746 W
1 J/s
0.738 ft lb/s
0.293 W

Pressure
1 atm
1 atm
1 atm
1 atm
1 Pa
1 bar

=
=
=
=
=
=

76.0 cmHg
760 mmHg
29.92 inHg
14.7 lb/in2
0.000145 lb/in2
14.5 lb/in2

1 bar

100,000 Pa

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Other Useful Data


1 litre water =
1 pint water =

1 kg
1 lb

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

16/Conversions/A/B

Page 45

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

Convert the following weights and measures:


1. Convert 6 m to feet.
2. What is 4 ft 6in to cm.
3. Convert 25 US gallons to litres.
4. Convert 254 inches to cm.
5. Convert 4.5 litre to US gallons
6. Convert 350 imperial gallons to litres.
7. What is 220 lb in kilos.
8. What is 220 kilos in litres.
9. How many pounds in 1 metric tonne.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

10.Convert the following to F


20C
5C
37C
88C
11. Convert the following to C
40F
16F
100F
215F

CWM US NbP July 2004

17/Conversions/B

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Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.1 ARITHMETIC

IR PART 66
M1

1.17 Test
Work out the value of the following:
1. 7 + 4 x 3 =

14.Remove the backets from the following


(2x + 5)(x + 3) =

2. 5 x 4 3 x 6 + 5 =

15.Solve the equation 7x + 3 = 5x + 17 for the value of x.

3. 10 12 B 6 + 3 (8 3) =

16.A triangle has length of sides 3 cm and 4 cm. Using pythagros theorem
calculate the missing length.

4. 53 =
5. 2 ) 3 =
5 7
6. 5 * 3 =
6 4
7. 3
8

5=
7

8. 3 B 7 =
5 8
9. divide 74.52 by 8.1 =

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

10.multiply 20.3 x 17.4 =


11. Convert 0.800 to a fraction =
12.convert 3 to a percentage =
5
13.Transpose the following formula to find (u)
v = u + at

CWM US NbP July 2004

17/Conversions/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

2.

IR PART 66
M1

ALGEBRA

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Use of Symbols

The methods of algebra are an extension of those used in arithmetic. In algebra


we use letters and symbols as well as numbers to represent quantities. When we
write that a sum of money is 50 we are making a particular statement but if we
write a sum of money is P we are making a general statement. This general
statement will cover any number we care to substitute for P.

A technician often has to indicate that certain quantities or measusrements have


to be added, subtracted, multiplied or divided. Frequently this has to be done
without using actual numbers.
The statement:
Area of a rectangle = length x breadth
is a perfectly general statement which applies to all rectangles. If we use symbols
we obtain a much shorter statement.
if
and

A = the area of the rectangle


l = the length of the rectangle
b = the breadth of the rectangle

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

then the statement becomes:


A=lxb
Knowing what the symbols A, l and b stand for, this statement conveys as much
information as the first statement. To find the area of a particular rectangle we
replace the symbols l and b by the actual dimensions of the rectangle, first making
sure that l and b have the same units. To find the area of a rectangle whose length
is 50mm and whose breadth is 30 mm we put l = 50 mm and b = 30 mm.
A = l x b = 50 x 30 = 1500 mm2
Many verbal statements can be translated into symbols as the following
statements show:
The difference of two numbers = x y
Two numbers multiplied together = a x b
One number divided by another = p B q

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

01/Symbols/A/B

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IR PART 66
M1

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

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M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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01/Symbols/A/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.3 Substitution
The process of finding the numerical value of an algebraic expression for given
values of the symbols that appear in it is called substitution.
Example:
If x = 3, y = 4 and z = 5 find the value of:
(3
(3y ) 2z)
=
(x ) z)

5)

= 22 = 2.75 or 2.
8

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

(12 ) 10)
8

4) ) (2
3)5

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

02/Substitution/B

Page 50

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following substitution equations:


If a = 2, b = 3 and c = 5.
Find the values of the following.
1. a +7
2. 9c
3. 3bc
4. 4c + 6b
5. a + 2b + 5c
6. 8c 4b
7. abc
6
5a ) 9b ) 8c a 2
a ) b ) c

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

8.

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02/Substitution/B

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Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.4 Addition & Substraction of Algebraic


Terms
Like terms are numerical multiples of the same algebraic quantity.
7x, 5x and 3x
are three like terms.
An expression consiting of like terms can be reduced to a single term by adding
or substracting the numerical coefficients.
7x 5x + 3x = (7 5 + 3) x = 5x

2.5 Multiplication & Division Signs


When using symbols multiplication signs are nearly always omitted and l x b
becomes lb. Of course the same scheme cannot apply to numbers and we cannot
write 9 x 6 as 96. The multiplication sign can, however, be omitted when a symbol
and a number are to be multiplied together. Thus 5 x m is written 5m. The system
may be extended to three or more quantities and hence P x L x A x N is written
PLAN. The symbols need not be written in any special order because the order
in which numbers are multiplied together is unimportant. Thus PLAN is the same
as LANP or NAPL. It is usual, however, to write numbers before symbols, that is,
it is better to write 8xy than xy8 or x8y. In algebraic expressions the number in front
of the symbols is called the coefficient. Thus in the expression 8x the coefficient
of x is 8.
The division sign B is seldom used in algebra and it is more convenient to write
p
P B q in the fractional form q

3b2 + 7b2 = (3 + 7) b2 = 10b2

Example:
(lp)
= lp B 2pR
(2pR)

3y 5y = (3 5) y = 8y
q 3q = (1 3) q = 2q

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Only like terms can be added or subtracted. Thus 7a + 3b 2c is an expression


containing three unlike terms and it cannot be simplified any further. Similarly with
8a2b + 7ab3 6a2b2 which are all unlike terms. It is possible to have several sets
of like terms in an expression and each set can then be simplified.
8x + 3y 4z 5x + 7z 2y + 2z
= (8 5)x + (3 2)y + (4 +7 + 2)z
= 3x + y + 5z

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

03/Addition & Subtraction/A/B

Page 52

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Simplify the following:


1. 7x + 11x

1. 2z x 5y

2. 7x 5x

2. 3a x 3b

3. 3x 6x

3. 3 x 4m

4. 2x 4x

4. q x 16p

5. 8x + 3x

5. z x (y)

6. 2x + 7x

6. a x a

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

7. 5m + 13m 6m

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

03/Addition & Subtraction/A/B

Page 53

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Simplify the following:


1. 6b2 4b2 + 3b2
2. 6ab 3ab 2ab
3. 14xy + 5xy 7xy + 2xy
4. 5x + 7x 3x 2x

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5. 3x 2y + 4z 2x 3y + 5z + 6x + 2y 3z

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

04/Addition & Subtraction/B

Page 54

IR PART 66
M1

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

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04/Addition & Subtraction/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.6 Muliplication & Division of Algebraic


Quantities
The rules are exactly the same as those used with directed numbers.
() x)() y) + ) (xy) + ) xy + xy
5x

3y + 5

y + 15xy

(x)(*y) + *(xy) + *xy


(2x)(*3y) + *(2x)(3y) + *6xy
(*4x)(2y) + *(4x)(2y) + *8xy
(*3x)(*2y) + ) (3x)(2y) + 6xy
() x)
+ ) xy + xy
() y)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

(*3x)
+ * 3x
2y
2y
(*5x)(*6y) + ) 5x + 5x
6y
6y
4x + * 4x
3y
(*3y)

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

05/Multiplication/A/B

Page 56

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Simplify the following:


1. (3a) x (2b)
2. 8m x (3n)
3. (4a) x 3b
4. 8p x (q) x (3r)
5. 3a x (4b) x (c) x 5d

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

6. 3m x (3m)

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05/Multiplication/A/B

Page 57

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

When multiplying expressions containing the same symbols, indices are used:
m

m+m

3m

5m + 3

2x 2)12x4*3x 4 B 3x 2*x 2 + 2x2 ) 9x4 B 3x2*x 2

m + 15m 2

Remember the word BODMAS which gives the initial letters of the correct
sequence i.e. Brackets, Of, Division, Multiply, Add, Subtract.
Thus
= 2x 2)3x2*x 2

(*m)

m 2 + (*m)

= 5x 2*x2

m + *m 3

= 4x 2
5m 2n

3mn 3 + 5

3mn

*2n 2 + 3

(*2)

n + 15m3n 4

n + *6mn 3

When dividing algebraic expressions, cancellation between numerator and


denominator is often possible, cancelling is equivalent to dividing both numerator
and denominator by the same quantity:
(p q)
pq
+q
p +
p
(3p 2q)
(3
+
(6pq 2)
(6

p
p

p
q
x
x

y
y

y
z)

z)

+ 3xy

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

(18x 2y 2z)
(18 x
+
(6xyz)
(6

q)
3p
p
+
+
6q
2q
q)

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

06/Multiplication/B

Page 58

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Simplify the following:


1. 4ab B 2a
2. 12x2yz2 B 4xz2
3. (12a2b) B 6a
4. 8a2bc2 B 4ac2
5. 7a2b2 B 3ab
6. 8mn x (3m2n3)
7. 7ab x (3a2)
8. m2n x (mn) x 5m2n2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

9. 5a2 x (3b) x 5ab

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06/Multiplication/B

Page 59

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.7 Brackets
Brackets are used for convenience in grouping terms together. When removing
brackets each term within the bracket is multiplied by the quantity outside the
bracket:
3(x)y) + 3x)3y
5(2x)3y) + 5
4(a*2b) + 4

When simplifying expressions containing brackets first remove the brackets and
then add the like terms together.
(3x)7y)*(4x)3y) + 3x)7y*4x*3y + *x)4y

2x)5
a*4

3y + 10x)15y
2b + 4a*8b

m(a)b) + ma)mb
2p)3x

4a(2a)b) + 4a

2a)4a

x(a)b)*x(a)3b) + ax)bx*ax*3bx + *2bx


2(5a)3b))3(a*2b) + 10a)6b)3a*6b + 13a

3q + 6px)9qx

b + 8a 2)4ab

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

3x(2p)3q) + 3x

3(2x)3y)*(x)5y) + 6x)9y*x*5y + 5x)4y

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

07/Brackets/A/B

Page 60

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Remove the brackets in the following:

Find the products of the following:

1. 3(x + 4)

1. (x + 4) (x + 5)

2. 2(a + b)

2. (2x + 5) (x + 3)

3. 3(3x 2y)

3. (5x + 1) (2x + 3)

4. (x 1)

4. (7x + 2) (3x + 2)

5. 5(2p 3q)

5. (x 4) (x 2)

6. 7(a 3m)

6. (2x 1) (x 4)

7. (a + b)

7. (2x 4) (3x 2)

8. (a 2b)

8. (x 2) (x + 7)

9. (3p 3q)

9. (2x + 5) (x 2)
10.(3x + 4y) (2x 3y)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

11. (2x + 3)2

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

07/Brackets/A/B

Page 61

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA
Remove the brackets in the following:
1. 4(x + 3)

IR PART 66
M1
Remove the brackets in the following:
When a bracket has a minus sign in front of it, the signs of all the terms inside the
bracket are changed when the bracket is removed. The reason for this rule may
be seen from the following examples:

2. 2(2x 5)
*3(2x*5y) + (*3)

3. 5(4 3x)
4. 2k(k 5)

*(m)n) + *m*n

5. 3y(3x + 4)

*2(p)3q) + *2p*6q

2x)(*3)

*5y + *6x)15y

*(p*q) + *p)q

6. 4xy(ab ac + d)
7. 3x2(x2 2xy + y2)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

8. 7p(2p2 p + 1)

HAMuS/F-4 KrA

02/2006

08/Brackets/B

Page 62

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Remove the brackets and simplify:


1. 3( x + 1) + 2(x + 4)
2. 5(2a + 4) 3(4a + 2)
3. 3(x + 4) (2x + 5)
4. 4(1 2x) 3(3x 4)
5. 5(2x y) 3(x + 2y)
6. (y 1) + (2y 3)
7. (4a + 5b 3c) 2(2a 3b 4c)
8. 2x(x 5) x(x 2) 3x(x 5)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

9. 3(a b) 2(2a 3b) + 4(a 3b)

HAMuS/F-4 KrA

02/2006

08/Brackets/B

Page 63

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.8 Factorisation
A factor is a common part of two or or more terms which make up an algebraic
expression. Thus the expression 3x)3y has two terms which have the number 3
common to both of them. Thus 3x)3y + 3(x)y). We say that 3 and (x)y) are the
factors of 3x)3y. To factorise algebraic expressions of this kind, we first find the
Highest Common Factor (HCF) of all the terms making up the expression. The
HCF then appears outside the bracket. To find the terms inside the bracket divide
each of the terms making up the expression by the HCF.

2.8.1 Factorising by Grouping


To factorise the expression ax + ay + bx + by first group the terms in pairs so
that each pair of terms has a common factor.
Thus;
Example:
ax + ay + bx + by = (ax + ay) + (bx + by)
= a(x + y) + b(x + y)
= (a + b) (x + y)

Example:
Find the factors of ax)bx
The HCF of ax and bx is x

Factorise mp + np mq nq

ax)bx + x(a)b)

mp + np mq nq = (mp + np) (mq nq)


= p(m + n) q(m + n)
= (p q) (m + n)

Find the factors of m 2n*2mn 2


The HCF of m 2n and 2mn 2 is mn
m 2n*2mn 2 + mn(m*2n)
Find the factors of 3x 4y)9x3y 2*6x2y 3

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

The HCF of 3x 4y, 9x 3y2 and 6x 2y3 is 3x 2y


3x 4y)9x3y 2*6x2y 3 = 3x 2y(x2)3xy*2y 2)
bc cd
Find the factors of ac
x ) x2 * x3
bc
cd c
The HCF of ac
x , x 2 and x3 is x
ac ) bc * cd = c a ) b * d
x
x
x2
x3 x
x2

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

09/Factorisation/B

Page 64

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Factorise each of the following:


1. 5x + 5y
2. 5p 5q
3. 6x + 18y
4. ax y
5. 4p 12q
6. 4x 6xy
7. 8x2 4x
8. ax2 bx
9. x(a b) + 2(a b)
10.m(p + q) n(p + q)
11. 5a 10b + 15c

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

12.ab + ac bd cd
13.2pr 4ps + qr 2qs
14.4ax + 6ay 4bx 6by
15.3mx + 2nx 3my 2yn
16.ab(p + q) cd(p + q)
17.K2l2 mnl k2l + mn

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09/Factorisation/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.8.2 Factors of Quadratic Expressions


An expression of the type ax 2 ) bx ) c is called a quadratic expression.

Example:

x * 5x ) 1 and 3p ) 12p * 5
are both quadratic expressions.

Factorise
8x 2 * 34x ) 21
Here a + 8, b + * 34 and c + 21.
ac + 168 and b + * 34
The two integers whose sum is 34 and whose product is 168 are 6 and 28.

In an expression like x 2 ) 7x ) 12, the factors will be of the type


(x ) m)(x ) n) where m and n are two numbers whose sum is 7 and whose
product is 12. These two numbers must be 3 and 4. So
x ) 7x ) 12 = (x ) 3)(x ) 4)
2

8x 2 * 34x ) 21 = 8x 2 * 6x * 28x ) 21
= 2x(4x * 3) * 7(4x * 3)

This techinque is also useful when factorising expressions such as


12x 2 ) 23x ) 10 in which a + 12, b + 23 and c + 10. We can factorise if we
can get two integers whose product is ac and whose sum is b.
Thus ac + 12

= (4x * 3)(2x * 7)

10 + 120 and b + 23.

Now 120 + 8 15. It can now be seen that the two integers are 8 and 15.
Since 23x + 15x ) 8x
12x 2 ) 23x ) 10 = 12x 2 ) 15x ) 8x ) 10= 3x(4x ) 5) ) 2(4x ) 5)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

= (4x ) 5)(3x ) 2)

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

09/Factorisation/B

Page 66

Lufthansa Technical Training

MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Factorise the following:


1. x2 + 5x + 6
2. x2 8x + 15
3. x2 5x 6
4. x2 5x + 6
5. 2x2 + 7x + 5
6. 2x2 + 13x + 15
7. 3x2 + x 6
8. 3x2 8x + 28
9. 10x2 + 19x 15
10. 6x2 + x 35
11. 5x2 11x + 2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

12.6x2 7x 5

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.8.3 Algebraic Fractions


Since algebraic expressions contain symbols (or letters) which represent numbers
all the rule of operations with numbers also apply to algebraic terms, including
fractions.
Thus
1
1

1
a+1Ba+ 1
and
aBc + a
b
b d

a + (1 a) + a
1
1

d + ad
c
bc

and
(x)y)
1

(x * y)

+ (x ) y) B

1
+ (x ) y)
(x * y)

(x * y)
+ (x ) y)(x * y)
1

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

You should note in the last example how we put brackets round x ) y and x * y
to remind us that they must be treated as single expressions, otherwise we may
have been tempted to handle the terms x and y on their own.

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

10/Fractions/A/B

Page 68

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Simplify the following:


1. x ) x ) x
3 4 5
2. 5a * 7a
12 18
3. 2q * 3
2q

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4. 3y * 5 ) 4
3y 5y

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA
2.8.3.1

IR PART 66
M1

Adding & Subtracting Algebraic Fractions

2.8.3.2

Consider the expression a ) c which is the addition of two fractional terms. These
b d
are called partial fractions.
If we wish to express the sum of these partial fractions as one single fraction then
we proceed as follows (similar method used when adding or subtracting number
fractions)
First find the lowest common denominator. This is the LCM of b and d which is bd.
each fraction is then expressed with bd as the denominator.
Example:
a + (a d) + ad and c + (c
b
bd
d
(b d)
(d

b)
+ cb
bd
b)

Multiplication & Division of Algebraic Fractions

As with ordinary arithmetic fractions, numerators can be multiplied together, as


can denominators, in order to form a single fraction.
Example;
a
b

c + (a
d
(b

c)
d)

3x
2y

or

p
4q

r 2 + (3x
s
(2y

p
4q

r 2)
s)

Factors which are common to both numerator and denominator may be cancelled.
it is important to realise that this cancelling means dividing the numerator and
denominator by the same quantity.
Example:
8ab
3mn

and adding these new fractions we have:

9mn 2 = (8
4ab 2
(3

a
m

b
n

9
4

n
a

n
b

m)
b)

= 6n
b

a ) c + ad ) cb + (ad ) cb)
b d
bd bd
bd

(5x 2y)
(5x 2y)
10xy
B
=
3
2
8ab
8ab 3
(4a b)

(4a 2b)
10xy

(5 x x y 4a a b)
(8 a b b b 10 x y)
= ax2
4b

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Simplify the following:


2
13. 6ab B 4a
5cd 7bd

1. 3 * 2
5p 3q
2. 3x *

4y
5z

14.

3pq
p2
B
5rs
15s 2

3. 1 * 2x ) x
5
8
4. 1x ) 1y
5. 3m *

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

6.

(2m ) n)
7

(a * b)
ab

7. 6a2
b

b
3a 2

2
8. 9x 2
6y

y3
x3

6pq
4rs

8s 2
3p

10. 6ab
c

ad
2b

9.

2
11. 2z 2
3ac

6a2
5zy 2

8cd 2
4bc
10c 3
3y 3

2
2
12. ab2 B a 3
bc
bc

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.9 Linear Equations


An arithmetical quantity has a definite value, such as 93, 3.73 or 3. An algebraic
4
quantity, however, given by algebraic expressions such as x * (* 3) or x 2,
represents many amounts depending on the value given to x.
In algebra there are two methods we use to show that two quantities are equivalent
to each other. One is called an identity and the other an equation.

2.9.1 Identities
A statement of the type x 2 5 x

x is called an identity

The sign 5 means is identical to. Any statement using this sign is true for all
values of the variable, the variable in this case being x.
Thus when x + 2 we have 2 2 5 2

and when

3 and so on.

x + 3 we have 3 2 5 3

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

In practise the 5 sign is often replaced by the = (equals) sign and the above
identities would be stated as
x
x km = 1000 x m

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

This means that the quantity on the lefthand side of the equation is equal to the
quantity on the righthand side. We can see that, unlike an identity, there is only
one value of x that will satisfy the equation, or make the lefthand side equal to
the righthand side. The process of finding x + 8 is called solving the equation,
and the value 8 is known as the solution or root of the equation.

2.9.2.1

Solving Linear Equations

Linear equations contain only the first power of the unkown quantity.
and

5x + (2x ) 5)
3
2

are both examples of linear equations.


In the process of solving an equation the appearances of the equation may be
considerable altered but the values on both sides must remain the same. We must
maintain this equality, and hence whatever we do to one side of the equation we
must do exactly the same to the other side.

x km 5 1000x m
Thus 7 km 5 7000 m
and 9 km 5 9000 m and so on.

and

A statement of the type x * 3 + 5 is called an equation.

7t * 5 + 4t ) 7

Another type of identity involves units as, for example, the relationship between
kilometres and metres. This may be stated as

x2 + x

2.9.2 Equations

After an equation is solved, the solution should be checked by substituting the


result in each side of the equation separately. If each side of the equation then has
the same value the solution is correct. In the detail which follows, LHS means
lefthand side and RHS means righthand side.

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2.9.2.2

Equation Requiring Multiplication & Division

Example:
Solve the equation x + 3
6
Multiply each side by 6, we get
x 6+3 6
6
x + 18
Check: when x + 18, LHS = 18 , RHS = 3
6

IR PART 66
M1
2.9.2.3

Equations Requiring Addition & Subtraction

Example:
Solve the equation x * 4 + 8
If we add 4 to each side, we get
x*4)4+ 8)4
x + 12
The operation of adding 4 to each side is the same as transferring 4 to the
RHS but in so doing the sign is changed from a minus to a plus.
x*4 + 8
x+8)4
x + 12

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Check: when x + 12, LHS = 12 4 = 8, RHS = 8

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA
2.9.2.4

IR PART 66
M1

Equations Containing the Unknown Quantity on


Both Sides

In equations of this kind, group all the terms containing the unknown quantity
on one side of the equation and the remaining terms on the other side.
Example;
Solve the equation 7x ) 3 + 5x ) 17
Subtracting 5 x and 3 from both sides,
7x * 5x + 17 * 3
2x + 14
x + 14
2
x+7
Solve the equation

(4 * x) (2x * 1)
*
+4
3
2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

In solving equations of this type remeber that the line separating the numerator
and denominator act as a bracket. The LCM of the denominators 3 and 2 is 6.
Multiplying each term of the equation by gives:
(4 * x)
(2x * 1)
6*
6+4
2
3
2(x * 4) * 3(2x * 1) + 24
2x * 8 * 6x ) 3 + 24
* 4x * 5 + 24
* 4x + 24 ) 5
* 4x + 29
x + 29
*4
x + * 29 + * 7.25
4
HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following equations:


1. x + 3 = 8
2. x 4 = 6

17.

(x ) 3)
(x * 3)
+
2
3

3. 2x = 8
4. 2x 7 = 9
5. 5x + 3 = 18
6. 3x 7 = x 5
7. 9 2x = 3x + 7
8. 4x 3 = 6x 9
9. 5x 8 = 3x + 2
10.2(x + 1) = 9
11. 5(x 3) = 12

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

12.3(2x 1) + 4(2x + 5) = 40
13.7(2 3x) = 3(5x 1)
14. x ) x + 10
2 3
15. 3x ) 3 + 2 ) 2x
8
3
16. 2x + x ) 1
5
8 2

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA
2.9.2.5

IR PART 66
M1

Simultaneous Linear Equations

To find the value of x we substitute for y in either of the original equations.


Substituting y + 3, in equation (1)

Consider the equations


3x ) 5y + 21
2x ) 3y + 13
each equation contains the unknown quantities x and y which satisfy both
equations simultaneously. Equations like these are called simultaneous
equations.

2.9.2.6

Therefore the solutions are y + 3 and x + 2. To check these values substitute


them in equation (2).

Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations

The method for solving simultaneous equations is illustrated by the following


example.
Example:
i. Solve the equations
5x ) 3y + 19
3x ) 2y + 12
(2)

(1)

15x ) 9y + 57
(3)
15x ) 10y + 60 (4)
We now eliminate x by subtracting equation (3) from equation (4) which gives
y+3

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

ii. Solve the equations


3x ) 4y + 29
8x * 2y + 14
(2)

(1)

In these equations it is easier to eliminate y because the same coefficient of y


can be obtained in both equations simply by multiplying equation (2) by 2.
16x * 4y + 28
(3)

If we multiply equation (1) by 3 and equation (2) by 5 the coefficient of x will be


same in both equations.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5x ) 3 3 + 19
5x ) 9 + 19
5x + 10
x+2

Adding equations (1) and (3) gives


19x + 57
x+3
Substituting x + 3 in equation (1) gives
3 3 ) 4y + 29
9)4y + 29
4y + 29 * 9
4y + 20
y+5

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Solve the following equations for x and y and check the solutions:
1. 2x 3y = 8
x + 3y = 14
2. 3x + 5y = 17
4x + 5y = 21
3. 3x + 4y = 26
x +y =7
4. 5x 7y = 1
2x + 5y = 16
y
5. x ) + 5
2 5

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

2x ) 3y + 19
3
2

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

12/Linear Expressions/B

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

2.10 Quadratic Equations


An equation which can be written in the form ax 2 ) bx ) c + 0 is called a
quadratic equation. The constants a, b and c can take any numerical value.
The following are all examples of equadratic equations:
x2 * 9 + 0
in which a + 1, b + 0 and c + * 9
3x 2 ) 8x ) 5 + 0
in which a + 3, b + 8 and c + 5
4x 2 * 7x + 0
in which a + 4, b + * 7 and c + 0

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

A quadratic equation has two solutions (often called the roots of the equation).
It is possible for one of the roots to be zero or for the two solutions to be the
same.

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

2.10.1

IR PART 66
M1

Solving Quadratic Equations

A quadratic equation can be solved by factorisation. We make use of the fact


that if the product of two factors is zero, then one of those factors must be
zero. Thus if mn + 0 then either m + 0 or n + 0. To solve a quadratic
equation by this method the expression ax 2 ) bx ) c is written as the product
of two factors.

Factorising
or

x +9

and factorising the LHS


5. Solve

(x ) 3)(x * 3) + 0
Either x ) 3 + 0, giving x + * 3 or x * 3 + 0, giving x + 3

Factorising
2

x ) 7x ) 12 + 0

x * 10 ) 9x + 0

(x * 9)(x * 1) + 0

Either (x * 9) + 0, giving x + 9 or x * 1 + 0, giving x + 1The roots are


x + 9 and x + 1.

(x ) 4)(x ) 3) + 0
Factorising,
Either x ) 4 + 0, giving x + * 4 or x ) 3 + 0, giving x + * 3
The roots are x + * 4 and x + * 3.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

(2x * 5) + 0

Multiply each term by x to clear the fraction,


x 2 * 10x ) 9 + 0

The roots are x + * 3 and x + 3, often written as x +" 3.

3. Solve

(2x * 5)(2x * 5) + 0

With this equation both roots are the same and we say that the equation
has equal roots. This always happens when the expression ax 2 ) bx ) c
forms a perfect square.

x2 * 9 + 0

2. Solve

4x 2 * 20x ) 25 + 0

For both factors, 2x * 5 + 0, giving x + 2.5

Example:
1. Solve
Writing the equation as

4. Solve

x 2 * 6x + 0

Factorising
x(x * 6) + 0
Either x + 0 or x * 6 + 0, giving x + 6.
The roots are x + 0 and x + 6
(Note that it is incorrect to say that the solution is x + 6. The solution
x + 0 must also be stated).

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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M 1.2 ALGEBRA

2.10.2

IR PART 66
M1

Equations which will not Factorise

2.10.3
Using the Formula to Solve Quadratic
Equations

Example:
i. Solve the equation

This equation is called the quadratic formula. Note that the whole of the
numerator, including * b, is divided by 2a. The formula is used when
factorisation is not possible, although it may be used to solve any quadratic
equation.

2x 2 * 12 + 0
2

2x + 12
x2 + 6
x +" 6
x +" 2.45

and

Example:
i. Solve the equation

(by using a calculator to find 6)


ii. Solve the equation

Comparing with ax 2 ) bx ) c + 0 we have a + 3, b + * 8 and c + 2.


Substituting these values in the formula gives:

2x ) 18 + 0
2

2x + * 18
x 2 + * 18 + * 9
2

x +" * 9

and

x+

x+

(* 3) + 9

x+

() 3) + 9
9 +" 3
FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

* b " b

* 4ac

2a

* (* 8) " (* 8) * 4
2

The square root of a negative quantity has no arithmetic meaning and it is


called an imaginary number. The reason is as follows:

Hence it is not possible to give a meaning to * 9. The equation 2x 2 ) 18 + 0


is said, therefore, to having imaginary roots.

x+

x+

(2

12/Linear Expressions/B

3)

8 " 64 * 24
6

8 " 40
6
(8 ) 6.325)
6

x + 2.39

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

3x 2 * 8x ) 2 + 0

or

or

x+

(8 * 6.325)
6

0.28

Page 80

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MATHEMATICS
M 1.2 ALGEBRA

IR PART 66
M1

Solve each of the following quadratic equations using factorisation:

Solve the following equations by using the quadratic formula:

i. x2 4 = 0

i. 4x2 3x 2 = 0

ii. x2 16 = 0

ii. x2 x 1 = 0

iii. 3x2 27 = 0

iii. 3x2 + 7x 5 = 0

iv. 5x2 125 = 0

iv. 7x2 + 8x 2 = 0

v. (x 7) ( x + 3) = 0

v. 5x2 4x 1 = 0

vi. x(x + 5) = 0

vi. 2x2 7x = 3

vii. (3x 5) (2x + 9) = 0


viii. x2 5x + 6 = 0
ix. x2 + 3x 10 = 0

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

x. 6x2 11x 35 = 0

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

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IR PART 66
M1

2.11 Logarithms
2.11.1

Why do we use Logs?

2.11.2

In the discussion of indices it was noted that whenever a number is raised to a


power then we write that in exponential notation and the meaning of it is that the
number appearing in the base is being multiplied by itself the number of times that
is indicated by the exponent. The notation used was such that if we write 5 3, what
we actually mean is 5 multiplied by itself 3 times.

Continuing on the above reasoning, let us take our simple example again, what
number raised to the power of 3 gives 1,000? if we invent an unknown variable,
call it x and try to write out our question in terms of the notation of algebraic powers
we have the following sistuation:
10 x + 1, 000

Logarithms are mathematical inventions in order to answer a slightly different,


question ( notice the word invention, logarithms make certain operations easier
to handle and that is all they do, so you should think of them as a definition). In order
to motivate why logarithms are introduced in the first place, let us invent a scenario.
Suppose someone asked you the following question:

The question is what is x in the above formula? How do we solve x? We invent


an operation called logarithm, abbreviated to Log and we apply this operation to
both sides of the above relation.

What number do I have to raise to the power of 3 in order to get 1,000? this might
seem pretty simple and obvious. If you multiply 10 x 10 you 100, and if you muliply
100 x 10 you get 1,000. So, you would say that 10 multiplied by itself 3 times or,
in our power notation, 10 3 is equal to 1,000.
Now, this is easy to answer by thinking about powers because the above example
is simple powers and simple numbers, and one can reason it out relatively quickly.
However, things can get more complicated. Suppose now that you were asked
what number do I have to raise 10 to in order to get 735. All of a sudden the answer
is not very obvious. What is so different about this question?
FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

What are Logs?

There is actually nothing different about this question. You still can try doing the
same process, but now the number is not that pretty and its not exactly obvious
how many times you should multiply 10 by itself to get 735. If you multiply it by itself
2 times you get 100, but 3 times gives 1,000 and you have already exceeded 735!
how do we get out this power that we need.
Logarithms are at the most basic level invented to answer the general question
of how does one extract the base or exponent of an algebraic power when one of
these is an unknown.

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

Log 10x = Log 1000


We then define this new logarithm function to be such that when it applies to a
number that is 10 raised to some power then it literally just gives us the power
and the base 10 disappears. To reiterate this, what we mean is the following:
Log10 x + X
So, what is the value of Log 1000? How do we know what the right hand side of
the equation is? How does this help us at all? Well, this will probably seem magic
to you at this point, but one option is to find the (Log) button on your calculator and
take the Log 1000 and you get 3. So, x + 3, and it is what we expected.
How does this help us with anything? It seems like we went in a big loop, and we
knew the answer to begin with anyway. But, now consider the slightly more
complicated question that we had above. What number do I raise 10 to in order
to get 735? Let us apply the logarithm process to this situation:
Log10 x + Log735
x + Log735
If you take the Log of 735 on your calculator you get 2.866. So, 10 raised to the
power of 2.866 gives you 735, and the question is answered. Recall that algebraic
powers need not be integers, and we have a clear example of a noninteger power.

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2.11.3

IR PART 66
M1

Common Logarithms

2.11.3.2 Natural Logarithms

There are two basic types of logarithms that are important to know. In the previous
section, where logarithms were defined, you already saw the difinition of one kind
of logarithms, that was the so called Log Base 10.
The logarithmic operation that we have introduced serves the maoin purpose of
extracting the exponents in an algebraic power. This is true of the operation of
taking the logarithm.

2.11.3.1 Logarithm Base 10


The logarithm of base 10 is most often useful when powers of 10 are involved, but
not necessarily. It can be used in many other situations. For instance, suppose you
were asked the following question: 3 raised to what power gives 16.8? Again,
applying our definition of logarithm of base 10 ass defined in the previous section
we can answer the question but, in order to do this we need to define some rules
of operation for logarithms.
You can think if Logarithm Base 10 as the logarithmic operation that when carried
out on 10 raised to some power ends up giving us the power. The log of base 10
is written as : Log 10 . Thus, Log 10(10x) + x. This is the basic definition of base 10
logs. abbreviated to lg.

There is another logarithm that is also useful (and in fact more common in natural
processes). Many natural phenonenon are seen to exhibit changes that are either
exponentially decaying (radioactive decay for instance) or exponentially
increasing (population growth for example). These exponentially changing
functions are written as ex, where x represents the rate of the exponential.
In such cases where exponential changes are involved we usually use another
kind of logarithm called natural logarithm. The natural log can be thought of a
logarithm basee. What this means is that it is a logarithmic operation that when
carried out on e raised to some power gives us the power itself. This logarithm is
labelled with Ln (for natural log) and its definition is: Ln(e x) + x.
Logarithms having a base of e (where e is a mathematical constant approximately
equal to 2.7183) are called hyperbolic or natural logarithms, and loge is often
abbreviated to ln.
The following values may be checked by using a calculator:
ln 4.73 = 1.5539, ln 278.4 = 5.6290 and ln 0.7642 = 0.2689

The following values may be checked using a calculator:

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

lg 15.4 = 1.1875, lg 378.2 = 2.577 and lg 0.0241 = 1.6179.

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2.11.4

IR PART 66
M1

Rules of Logarithms

There are three rules of logarithms, which apply to any base.


Rule 1. To multilply two numbers
log AB + LogA ) log B

Rule 3. To raise a number to a power


log A n + n log A
The following may be checked using a calculator
lg 5 2 = lg 25 = 1.39794

The following may be checked by using a calculator


lg10 = 1
Also lg 5 + lg 2 = 0.69897 + 0.301029
Hence lg (5 x 2) = lg 10 = lg 5 + lg 2.

Also 2 lg 5 = 2(0.69897) = 1.39794


hence lg 5 2 = 2 lg 5.

Rule 2. To divide two numbers


log A + log A * log B
B
The following may be checked using a calculator
ln 5 = ln 2.5 = 0.91629
2
Also ln 5 ln 2 = ln 2.5 = 1.60943 0.69314 = 0.91629

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Hence ln 5 = ln 5 ln 2.
2

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M1

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M1

2.12 Number Systems


2.12.1

Binary

2.12.1.1 Binary to Decimal Conversions

Every number that can be written in decimal can also be written in another
system called Binary. Binary as the main number systems used by computer
scientists.
The binary number system is a base 2 number system which uses only the
digits 0 and 1. It is also a place value system which means that each place
represents a power of 2, just as the place represents a power of 10 in the
decimal system.
Powers of 2: 2 5 2 4
Decimal No: 32 16
eg: 1010.01 2 0
0

23
8
1

22
4
0

21
2
1

2 0 . 2 *1
1 . 0.5
0 . 0

2 *2
0.25
1

Example:
Convert 1001001 to a Decimal
Write down the powers of 2, and the number to be converted below them, as
follows:
64
1

32
0

16
0

8
1

4
0

2
0

1
1

Then add all the numbers above the 1s


ie. 64 + 8 + 1 = 73

The number 1010.01 2 therefore means:


1x8=8
+1 x 2 = 2
+1 X 0.25 = 0.25
So

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

1010.01 2 = 10.25 10

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IR PART 66
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2.12.1.2 Decimal to Binary Conversions


Example:
Convert 271 to Binary
Write down the powers of two up to the next higher number (256 in this case)
than the number to be converted:
256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Next write in the first digit 1 under the highest number (256). Subtract the 256
from 271.
271 256 = 15
256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1
1 1 1 1
The decimal number 271 10 is therefore 100001111 2

2.12.1.3 Adding Binary Numbers


Add 1100010 to 1000111

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Line up the numbers as shown, and add each column starting from the left (as
you would when adding decimal numbers). When two 1s are added, this would
normally be 2. But 2 is not allowed in binary, so write 0 and carry 1 to the next
column to the left and include it in the addition of the next column.
1100010
+ 1000111
10101001

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2.12.2

IR PART 66
M1

Octal

Every number that can be written in decimal can also be written in another
system called octal. Like binary, octal is one of the three main number systems
used by computer scientists.
The octal number system is base 8 number system which uses only the eight
digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. It is also a place value system which means that
each place represents a power of 8, just as the place represents a power of 10
in the decimal system.
Powers of 8;
Decimal No: 4096
eg: 237 8

84
512

83
64
2

82
8
3

81
1
7

80
.
.

.
8 *1
8 *2
0.125 0.015625

Thus, an octal number such as:


82 ) 3

81 ) 7

80 + 128 ) 24 ) 7 + 159 10

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

237 8 = 2

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2.12.2.1 Converting Binary to Octal & Octal to Binary


To convert a binary number to an octal number, construct a 3bit binary / octal
lookup table like the one below. Starting at the binary decimal point of the
binary number, take the first 3 bits and find the corresponding octal value from
the table.
Repeat with next 3 bits and so on. If less than 3 bits remain, pad them with 0s
until there are 3 bits. Again use the table.
3bit binary
000 0
001 1
010 2
011 3
100 4
101 5
110 6
111 7

octal

so,

11010010 2 + 3228

To convert from octal to binary, write down the binary representation of each
octal digit. Note that each octal digit should take up 3 bits.
Example:
Convert 322 8 to binary
3 = 011
2 = 010
2 = 010
so,
322 8 + 0110100102

3bit binary / octal table

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Example:
Convert 11010010 to octal.
1. Take the 3 most right bits, 010 and find the corresponding octal value in the
above lookup table. The octal value is 2.
2. Take the next 3 bits, 010. The corresponding octal value from the lookup
table is 2 again.
3. Now only 2 bits, 11 of the binary number remain. Pad the left hand side with
a 0 to get 011. The corresponding octal from the lookup table is 3.

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2.12.3

IR PART 66
M1

Hexadecimal

Every number that can be written in decimal can also be written in another
system called hexadecimal. Hexadecimal is the last of the three main number
systems used by computer scientists.
The hexadecimal number system is a base 16 number system which uses the
sixteen digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, & F. Here, we need the
extra didgits A, B, C, D, E and F to represent the numbers 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
and 15, since there are no digits in the decimal numeral system to do this.
Decimal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Hexadecimal
0
1

Hexadecimal is also a place value system which means that each place
represents a power of 16, just as the place represents a power of 10 in the
decimal system:
Powers of 16:
16 3
16 2
16 1
Decimal No: 4096 256 16
1
eg.: 3AF 16
3
A

.
F

.
16 *1
0.0625

Thus, a hexadecimal number such as:


3AF 16 = 3

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F

16 0

16 2 ) 10

16 1 ) 15

160 + 768 ) 160 ) 15 + 943 10

Note: It is much more difficult to convert from decimal to hexadecimal than it is


to convert from hexadecimal to decimal. If you are asked in the exam to do the
latter, take each answer provided and convert to decimal, until you get the
number in the question.

Decimal / Hexadecimal Table

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2.12.3.1 Converting Hexadecimal to Binary & Binary to Hexadecimal


To convert a binary number to an hexadecimal number, construct a 4bit
binary/hexadecimal lookup table like the one below. Starting at the binary
decimal point of the binary number, take the first 4 bits and find the
corresponding hexadecimal value from the table. Repeat with the next 4 bits
and so on. If there is less than 4 bits remaining, pad them out to 4 bits.

4bit Binary

Hexadecimal

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

1010

1011

1100

1101

1110

1111

Example:
Convert 11010010 to Hexadecimal
1. Take the 4 most right bits, 0010 and find the corresponding hexadecimal
value in the lookup table. The hexadecimal value is 2.
2. The next 4 bits, 1101 and find the corresponding hexadecimal value in the
lookup table. The hexadecimal value is D.
so,
11010010 2 + D216
To convert from hexadecimal to binary, write down the binary representation of
each hexadecimal digit. Note that each hexadecimal digit should take up 4 bits.
Example:
Convert 2CF 16 to binary
2 = 0010
C = 1100
F = 1111
so,
2CF 16 + 0010110011112

4bit Binary / Hexadecimal Table

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2.12.4

IR PART 66
M1

Binary Coded Decimal

The BCD system is a 4bit system representing a decimal character for use
with digital display readouts. It can also be used for addressing to make it more
convenient for humans to use.
BCD number
1001
Decimal Equivalent

0010
9

0011
2

0000
3

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Thus, a BCD number such as 1001001000110000 is 4 sets of 4bit binary


numbers 9, 2, 3 and 0, which when decoded means decimal 9230.

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2.13 Test
Solve the following examples:
Binary
Convert the following Binary numbers to Decimals
1. 1101.1
2. 1001110.11
3. 100100.1

Hexadecimal
Convert the following Binary bits to Hexadecimal code
1. 11100001
2. 101110001111
3. 11111100

Convert the following Decimal numbers to Binary


1. 62
2. 1,204
3. 42.25
4. 51.125

Convert the following Hexadecimal codes to Binary bits


1. 4F
2. 1AC
3. 67
4. 2A8

Add the following Binary numbers


1. 111 and 100
2. 10010 and 1101
3. 10110001 and 11100010

Convert the folloing Hexadecimal codes to Decimal


1. 2D
2. 1AF
3. 21A
4. 1AE

Octal
Convert the following Binary numbers to Octal
1. 101010100
2. 011110100000
3. 111101001
Convert the following Octal numbers to Binary
1. 1263
2. 65217
3. 426
4. 5625

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

Convert the following Decimal numbers to Hexadecimal codes


1. 1632
2. 494
3. 5174
4. 67

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Binary Code Decimal


Convert the following Decimal numbers to BCD
1. 94
2. 429
3. 2947
4. 1736

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Convert the following BCD numbers to Decimal


1. 10000101
2. 011100001001
3. 001101100100

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3.

IR PART 66
M1

Geometry

3.1 Geometrical Constructions


3.1.1 Triangles
3.1.1.1

Pythagoras Theorem

In a right angled triangle, the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the
sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides.

Pythagoras Theorem is particularly useful to you when dealing with vectors in


aircraft theory.
Example:
A right angled triangle has smaller sides of length 5 cm and 12 cm. What is the
length of the hypotenuse.

c2
c

b2

5cm

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

a
a2

For the triangle shown:


c2 = a2 + b2
a2 = c2 b2
b2 = c2 a2

HAM US/F-4 KrA

12cm
By pythagoras c2 = 122 + 52
= 144 + 25
= 169
c = 169
= 13cm

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Pythagoras Theorem can be used to find the height of equilateral and isosceles
triangles (an equilateral triangle has all its sides of equal length and an isosceles
triangle has 2 sides of equal length).

As an example, we could tip the triangle onto its side and take a new height for it.

Example:
Find the height of an isosceles triangle which has sides of length 13 cm and base
of length 10 cm.

h2 =

132

13cm

52

= 169 25
h2 = 144
h = 12cm

10cm

13cm

13cm

13cm
Note now that the base is 13 cm long, whereas before 10 cm long. The height will
also be a different length, so there is not one height for one triangle, it all depends
on which side you use as your base.

5cm

5cm

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

10cm
Note: The height is always drawn at right angles to the base and goes to the
opposite apex. We can draw the height from any side providing it meets the above
requirement, i.e it cuts the chosen base at right angles and goes from the base to
the opposite apex.

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Area of a Triangle

3.1.1.3

To calculate the area of a triangle, we can use the following formula;


Area = x base x height
Any side can be chosen as base providing you use the corresponding height.

Area of a RightAngled Triangle

The height of a rightangled triangle is just one of its sides.


Example:

Example:
Using our first example, we had height = 12 cm and base = 10 cm
N Area = x base x height
= x 10 x 12
= 60 cm2

Height

In our second triangle, the lengths of all the sides are the same as our first triangle,
i.e it is the same triangle and therefore has the same area. We can use this fact
to calculate the new height that corresponds to have a base of 13 cm.
Area = x base x height
= x 3 x 4
= 6 cm2

Obviously, we could tip the triangle on its side. The 4 cm side now becomes the
base and the 3 cm side becomes the height. Note, no difference in size of area.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Area = 60 = x base x height


60 = x 13 x height
h = 60
6.5
h = 9.23 cm

Base

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Using Pythagoras Theorem find the length of the missing side:


1. In a right angled triangle, the length of the shorter sides are 8 cm and 15
cm. Calculate the length of the hypotenuse.
2. The hypotenuse of a right angled triangle has a length of 41 mm. One of
the other sides is 9 mm long. Calculate the length of the third side.
3. A right angled triangle has sides of 30 cm and 40 cm. If the third side is the
longest what is the length.
4. All the sides of a triangle are 6cm length. What is the vertical height of the
triangle.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5. A triangle has sides which are 12.5 cm, 30 cm and 32.5 cm in length. Is it a
right angled triangle.

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3.2 Trigonometry
3.2.1 Trigonometrical ratios
By using pythagoras, you are now able to partially solve rightangled triangles, i.e
you can find the third side of a rightangled triangle when given its other 2 sides.
This chapter is concerned with establishing the basic trigonometrical concepts
which will later enable you to completely solve rightangled triangles, i.e to find all
their 6 elements (angles and sides).
Similar triangles, are triangles which are the same shape, one is simply an
enlargement of the other. Two important properties of similar triangles are:
1. their corresponding angles are equal
2. their corresponding sides are proportional

Now consider the following similar triangles, In both cases side c is the
hypotenuse.

Consider the triangles:

Taking angle A as the reference:


1. Side a is the side opposite
2. Side b is the adjacent

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Taking angle B as the reference:

The above triangles are similar since they are equiangular and the ratios of their
corresponding sides are constant, i.e.
1. BC = 3 + EF + 6 + 3
DE
AB 5
10
5
AC
4
DF
8
2.
+ +
+
+4
DE
AB
5
10
5
BC
3
EF
6
3
3.
+ +
+ +
DF
AC
4
8
4

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

1. Side b is the side opposite


2. Side a is the adjacent side
Since the triangles are similar, the ratios of corresponding sides are constant,
i.e, the ratios ac , bc and a are the same for all similar rightangled triangles.
b

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In a rightangled triangle the ratio:


1.

opposite
+ ac
hypotenuse

SideadjacenttheAngle
is called the Cosine of the reference angle
Hypotenuse

N cos A =

3.

1. sine of angle B
2. cosine of angle B
3. tangent of angle B

SideoppositetheAngle
is callled the Sine of the reference angle
Hypotenuse

N sin A =

2.

For the triangle shown:

adjacent
+ bc
hypotenuse

SideoppositetheAngle
is called the Tangent of the angle
SideadjacenttheAngle

N tan A =

opposite
+a
adjacent
b

opp
+ 3 + 0.6
hyp
5

2. cos B =

ajd
+ 4 + 0.8
5
hyp

3. tan B =

opp
+ 3 + 0.75
adj
4

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

The above are the fundamental trigonometrical ratios for rightangled triangles
and must be remembered. A convenient method to help you to remember them
is SOHCAHTOA, where S = sin, C = cos and T = tan.

1. sin B =

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We will now calculate the values for 30 and 60. Consider the equilateral triangle
ABC of sides 2 units.

Thus in a right angled triangle ABD:


1. sin 60 =

3
opp
+
+ 1.7321 + 0.8660
2
hyp
2

2. cos 60 =

adj
+ 1 + 0.5000
2
hyp

3. tan 60 =

3
opp
+
+ 1.732
adj
1

4. sin 30 =

opp
+ 1 + 0.5000
hyp
2

5. cos 30 =

3
adj
+
+ 1.7321 + 0.8660
hyp
2
2

6. tan 30 =

opp
+ 1 + 0.5774
3
adj

Line BD bisects ABC and is perpendicular to AC

In triangle ABD, A = 60, B = 30 and D = 90

We can now collect all our information and show graphically how the basic
trigonometrical ratios change as the angle increases from zero to 90.
The functions all give graphs which are important. You should know how to sketch
them and know how to use them.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

side d = 2 (given)
Side b = 1 (half of AC)
Side a2 = 22 12
a2 = 3

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3.2.2 The Sine Curve


The Tangent Curve

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

The Cosine Curve

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Example:
The following example involves the use of trigonometry, or combinations of
trigonometry and pythagoras, to solve rightangled triangles.
In the rightangled triangle ABC, find angle A and side c.
Angle A

12

b
5
Since

opp
= tan, this is the ratio we use
adj

opp
adj
12
tan A =
5
tan A = 2.4

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

N tan A =

A = 67.23 (after using a calculator)


Side c
by pythagoras,
N c2 = a2 + b2
c = 12 2 ) 5 2
c = 169 = 13

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For triangle shown, find the sine, cosine and tangent of angles BAC and
ABC.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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3.3 Coordinates & Graphs


3.3.1 Coordinates
An equation involving two variables can be represented by a graph drawn on
coordinate axes. Coordinate axes (see below) consist of a horizontal line
(referred to as the x axis) and a vertical line (referred to as the y axis). The point
of intersection of these two lines is called the origin ( denoted by the letter O).

Example:
The point (3, 2) may be plotted on the coordinate axes as follows

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Along the x and y axes we can mark off units of measurement (not necessarily the
same on both axes). The origin takes the value zero on both axes. The x axis takes
positive values to the right of th origin and negative values to the left of the origin.
The y axis takes positive values above the origin and negative values below the
origin.
Any point on this diagram can be defined by its coordinates (consisting of two
numbers). The first, the x coordinate, is defined as the horizontal distance of the
point from the y axis, the second, the y coordinate, is defined as the vertical
distance of the point from the x axis.
In general, a point is defined by its coordinates which are written in the
form (a, b).

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3.3.2 Graphs
An equation involving two variables can be represented, on coordinate axes, by
means of a graph. For a given range of values of x, the corresponding y values
can be calculated from the equation being considered. The points obtained can
then be plotted and joined together to form the graph.
Before ploting the points on a graph, the axes must be drawn in a way that takes
into account the range of the xvalues and the range of the yvalues. If graph is
used (which is desireable) you should use a scale that involes a sensible number
of units per square i.e you should use steps of, for example, 1, 2, 5 or 10 etc. units
per square depending on the question. You should avoid using steps along the
axes of, for example 7 or 9 units per square as this can complicate the graph
unnecessarily.
Example:
Draw the graph of y = 2x + 1 between x = 0 and x = 5
By taking the x values 0, 1, 2, ........5, we can calculate the corresponding y values,
as shown below, by first evaluating the component parts of the equation.
x:
2x
+1
y:

0
0
1
1

1
2
1
3

2 3 4
4 6 8
1 1 1
5 7 9

5
10
1
11

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

We then plot the points obtained, each point being defined by its x coordinate and
its corresponding y coordinate. The points are then joined together to the graph.

The value of y therefore depends on the value allocated to x. We therefore call y


the dependent variable. Since we can give x any value, we call x the
independent variable. It is usual to mark the values of the independent variable
along the horizontal axis (x). The dependent variable values are marked off along
the vertical axis (y).
Equations of the type y = 2x + 1, where the highest powers of the variables, x and
y, are the first are called equations of the first degree. All equations of this type
give graphs which are straight lines and hence they are often called linear
equations. In order to draw graphs of linear equations we need only take two
points, however three points are adviseable.

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Draw graphs of the following functions taking values of x between 3 and 4.


1. y = 2x + 5
2. y = 3x 5
3. y = x2 6x + 5 (find the roots)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4. y = 4x3 16x2 16x + 64 (find the roots)

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3.3.2.1

IR PART 66
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The Straight Line Graph

A straight line is defined as the shortest distance between two points.

Example:

The equation of a straight line is given by:


y = mx + c
Where m represents the slope of the line and c is the point where the line crosses
the y axis (they intercept). The point where the line crosses the x axis is called the
x intercept.
m = Gradient of the line
c = Intercept on the y axis
In this example m = 3 and c = 6

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

As c = 6, we know that this line cuts the y axis at y = 6 (this can be verified by
substituting x = 0 into the equation of the line, as x = 0 along the y axis)
Similarly, as y = 0 along the x axis, we can substitute y = 0 into the equation of the
line to find where the intersects with the axis (the intercept).

Note: in this example m = 2 and c = 0, whenever c = 0 the line will pass through
the origin.

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

we have, when
y=0
6 3x = 0
3x = 6
x =2
Hence the line cuts the x axis at x = 2. We can now say that the y intercept = 6 and
the x intercept = 2.

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Example:
A striaght line parallel to the x axis takes the form y = constant. Similarly, a straight
line parallel to the y axis takes the form x = constant.
These case are illustrated below:

In this example, m = 4 and c = 2.


We know, immediately that the intercept is 2 (the value of c). To find the x
intercept, we substitute y = 0 into the equation of the line.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

0 = 2 + 4
4x = 2
x = 0.5
Hence the x intercept is x = 0.5.

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3.3.2.2

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M1

Derivation of the Equation of a Straight Line Graph

Given the coordinates of two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) say, we can calculate the
equation of the straight line that passes through these points.

Now (1) and (2) give us equations in two unkowns, m and c, ( simultaneous
equations) which we can solve.
We have
4 = m + c (1)
10 = 3m + c
(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2) to eliminate c we obtain 6 = 2m
m=3
Substituting this value of m back into (1) we obtain
4=m+c
4=3+c
c=43
c=1

There are two methods of calculating this equation.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Example:
The question is; Find the equation of the striaght line that passes through the
points (1, 4) and 3, 10).
Method 1:
The general equation of a straight line is given by y = mx + c and it is necessary
to find numerical values for m and c.
If the straight line in question passes through the two given points, then each of
these points must satisfy the equation of this straight line. That is, we can
substitute the coordinates of each point as follows:

If we now substitute these numerical values of m and c into the equation


y = mx + c, we obtain the equation of the straight line passing through the points
(1, 4) and (3, 10).
That is:
y = 3x + 1

y = mx + c
4 = m + c (1)
Likewise, substituting (3, 10) we have
10 = 3m + c (2)

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Method 2:
In general, we can consider any two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2). The straight line
passing through these points can be written as:
y y1 = m (x x1)
where m = (y1 y2)
(m is the gradient of the line)
(x2 x1)
Applying this points (1, 4) and (3, 10) we have x1 = 1, y1 = 4, x2 = 3, y2 = 10 and
we hence obtain:
m = 10 4 = 6 = 3
31
2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

and our line becomes:


y 4 = 3(x 1)
y 4 = 3x 3
y = 3x + 1

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M1

3.4 Geometry Angles


3.4.1 General

3.4.2 Degrees & Radians Measuring Angles

We can specify an angle by using a point on each ray and the vertex. The angle
below may be specified as angle ABC or as angle CBA; you may also see this
written as ABC or as CBA how the vertex point is always given in the middle.

We measure the size of angle using degrees. We can also use radians to measure
angles.
There are 2p radians in 360.
The radius of a circle fits around the circumference 6.26 (or 2p ) times.
1 radian = 57.3 degrees. To convert from degrees to radians, use:
n x 2p , where n is the number of degrees.
360
Example:
Here are some examples of angles and their degree measurements. Convert them
to radians.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Many different names exist for the same angle. For the angle below, PBC,
PBW, CBP and WBA are all names for the same angle.

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3.4.3 Acute Angles

3.4.4 Obtuse Angles

An acute angle is an angle measuring between 0 and 90.

An obtuse angle is an angle measuring between 90 and 180.

Example:
The following angles are all acute angles

Example:
The following angles are all obtuse

3.4.5 Reflex Angles


FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

A reflex angle is an angle measuring between 180 and 360 degrees.

3.4.6 Right Angles


A right angle is an angle measuring 90. Two lines or line segments that meet at
right angle are said to be perpendicular. Note that any two right angles are
supplementary angles (a right angle is its own angle supplement).

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3.4.7 Complementry Angles

3.4.8 Supplementary Angles

Two angles are called complementary angles if the sum of their degree
measurements equal 90. One of the complementary angles is said to be the
complement of the other.

Two angles are called supplementary angles if the sum of their degree
measurements equal 180. One of the supplementry angles is said to be the
supplementary of the other.

Example:
These two angles are complementary

Example:
These two angles are supplementry.

Note that these two angles can be pasted together to form a straight line.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Note that these two angles can be pasted together to form a right angle.

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3.4.9 Vertical Angles


For any two lines that meet, such as in the diagram below, angle AEB and angle
DEC are called vertical angles. Vertical angles have the same degree
measurement. Angle BEC and angle AED are also vertical angles.

3.4.11

Alternate Exterior Angles

For any pair of parallel lines 1 and 2, that are both intersected by a third line, such
as line 3 in the diagram below, angle A and angle D are called alternate angles.
Alternate angles have the same degree measurement. Angle B and angle C are
also alternate exterior angles.

3.4.10

Alternate Interior Angles

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

For any pair of parallel lines 1 and 2, that are both intersected by a third line, such
as line 3 in the diagram below, angle A and angle D are called alternate interior
angles. Alternate interior angles have the same degree measurement. Angle B
and angle C are also alternate interior angles.

3.4.12

Corresponding Angles

For any pair of parallel lines 1 and 2, that are both intersected by a third line, such
as line 3 in the diagram below, angle A and angle C are called corresponding

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angles. Corresponding angles have the same degree measurement. Angle B and
angle D are also corresponding angles.

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3.4.13

IR PART 66
M1

Angle Bisector

An angle bisector is a ray that divides an angle into two equal angles.
Example:
The central ray on the right is the angle bisector of the angle on the left.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

The centre ray on the right is the angle bisector of the angle on the left.

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3.5 Circles
3.5.1 Chords & Radii
All the parts of a circle, such as the radius, the diameter, etc, have a relationship
with the circle or another part that can always be expressed as a theorem. The
two theorems that deal with chords and radii (pulral raduis) are outlined below.
i. If a radius of a circle is perpendicular to a chord, then the radius bisects the chord.

ii. In a circle or in congruent circles, if two chords are the same distance from the
centre, then they are congruent.
Using these theorems in action is seen in the example below.
Find CD.

Heres a graphical representation of this theorem:

OC = radius
AB = chord

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Given: circle R is congruent to circle S.


chord AB = 8
RM = SN
Solution By theorem number ii above, segment AB is congruent to segment CD.
Therefore, CD equals 8.

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3.5.2 Tangents

3.5.3 Congruent Arcs

The tangent being discussed here is not the trigonometrical ratio. This kind of
tangent is a line or line segment that touches the perimeter of a circle at one point
only and is perpendicular to the radius that contains the point.

Congruent arcs are acrs that have the same degree measure and are in the same
circle or in congruent cirles. Arcs are very important and let us find out a lot about
circles. Two theorems involving arcs and their central angles are outlined below.

Example:
Find the value of x.
Given: segment AB is tangent to circle C at B.

1. For a circle or for congruent circles, if two minor arcs are congruent, then
their central angles are congruent.
2. For a circle or for congruent circles, if two central angles are congruent
then their arcs are congruent.
Example:

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Solution: x is a radius of the circle. Since x contains B, and AB is a tangent


segment, x must be perpendicular to AB (the definition of a tangent tells us that).
If it is perpendicular, the triangle formed by x, AB and CA is a right triangle.
Use Pythagoras Theorem to solve for x.
15 2 ) x 2 + 17
2

x + 64
x+8

HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2006

Arc PQ and arc QR are congruent. Angle POQ and angle QOR are congruent
(they are supplemental and since POQ = 90 ). Theorem i.
Angle POQ and angle QOR are congruent. Arc PQ and arc QR have to be
congruent by theorem ii.

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M1

3.5.4 Inscribed Angles


An inscribed angle is an angle with its vertex on a circle and with sides that contain
chords of the circle. The figure below shows an inscribed angle.

Example:
Find the measure of each arc or angle listed below.
Note; A right angled triangle fitted inside a semicircle, the other 2 angles must be
30 and 60. arc QSR; angle Q and angle R.

The most important theorem dealing with inscribed angles is stated below.
The inscribed angle is equal to its intercepted arc.

Solution:
Arc QSR is 180 because it is twice its inscribed angle( angle QPR, which is 90)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Angle Q is 60 because it is half of its intercepted arc, which is 120.


Angle R is 30 by the triangle Sum Theorem which says a triangle has three angles
that equal 180 when added together.
In the last problem, you noticed that angle P is inscribed in semicircle QPR and
angle P = 90. This leads to our next theorem, which is stated below.
Any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle.

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The one last theorem dealing with inscribed angles is a bit more complicated
because it deals with quadrilaterals too.
If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, then both pairs of opposite angle are
supplementary.
Example
Find the measure of arc GDE.

Solution:
By the theorem stated above, angle D and angle F are supplementary. Therefore,
angle F equals 95. The first theorem discussed in this section tells us the arc is
twice that of its inscribed angle. With that theorem, arc GDE is 190.

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3.5.5 Circumference & Arc Length


When dealing with circles the circumference, or the distance around a circle. The
circumference of a circle equals 2 times p times the radius. This is usually
represented by the following equation (where C represents circumference and r
stands for radius):

Solution:

C = 2pr
For example, if a circle has a radius of 3, the circumference of the circle is 6p.
Also, you can find the length of any arc when you know its angle and the radius
with the following formula.
L = length, n = degree measure of arc, r = radius,

L = n 2pr
360
= 24 2p5
360
= 240 p
360
the length of the arc is 2 p cm, or 2.1 cm
3

L = n 2pr
360

Example:

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

find the length of a 24 arc of a circle with a 5 cm radius.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
M1

MATHEMATICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.1

Converting Decimals to Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.9.2

Converting Fractions to Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.

ARITHMETIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.3

Converting Fractions to Percentages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

1.9.4

Converting Percentages to Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

1.1

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.5

Converting Percentages to Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

1.2

Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9.6
1.9.6.1
1.9.6.2

Converting Decimal to a Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Values of a Percentage of a Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expressing one Quantity as a Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . .

22
22
22

1.4

Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10

Ratio & Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

1.5

Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10.1

Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

1.6

Signed Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6.1

Adding Signed Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6.2

Subtracting Signed Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6.3

Multiplying Signed Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10.2
1.10.2.1
1.10.2.2
1.10.2.3
1.10.2.4

Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direct Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverse Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proportional Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25
25
25
25
26

1.6.4

Dividing Signed Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.11

Power and Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

1.7

Common Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.7.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.12

Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

1.7.2

Lowest Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.12.1

Base, Index & Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

1.7.3

Comparing the Size of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.7.4

Adding & Subtracting Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.7.5

Multiplication of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.7.6

Division of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.8

Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.12.2
1.12.2.1
1.12.2.2
1.12.2.3
1.12.2.4
1.12.2.5
1.12.2.6

Laws of Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Division of Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Powers of Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zero Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Negative Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fractional Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30
30
30
30
31
31
31

1.8.1

Adding Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

1.13

Tranposition of Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

1.8.2

Subtracting Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.8.3

Multiplying Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.14

Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

1.8.4

Dividing Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.15

Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

1.9

Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

1.16

Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.17

Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

2.

ALGEBRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

2.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

2.2

Use of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

2.3

Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

2.4

Addition & Substraction of Algebraic Terms

52

2.5

Multiplication & Division Signs . . . . . . . . . . .

52

2.6

Muliplication & Division of


Algebraic Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

2.7

Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

2.8

Factorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

2.8.1

Factorising by Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

2.8.2

Factors of Quadratic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

2.8.3
2.8.3.1
2.8.3.2

Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding & Subtracting Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiplication & Division of Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . .

68
70
70

2.9

Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.9.1

Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.9.2
2.9.2.1
2.9.2.2
2.9.2.3
2.9.2.5
2.9.2.6

Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
Solving Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
Equation Requiring Multiplication & Division . . . . . . . . . . .
73
Equations Requiring Addition & Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . .
73
2.9.2.4
Equations Containing the Unknown
Quantity on Both Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
Simultaneous Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . .
76

2.10

Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.10.1

Solving Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.10.2

Equations which will not Factorise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

2.10.3

Using the Formula to Solve Quadratic Equations . . .

80

2.11

Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

2.11.1

Why do we use Logs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

2.11.2

What are Logs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

2.11.3
2.11.3.1
2.11.3.2

Common Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logarithm Base 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83
83
83

2.11.4

Rules of Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

2.12

Number Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

2.12.1
2.12.1.1
2.12.1.2
2.12.1.3

Binary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Binary to Decimal Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decimal to Binary Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Binary Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86
86
87
87

2.12.2
2.12.2.1

Octal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting Binary to Octal & Octal to Binary . . . . . . . . . .

88
89

2.12.3

72

Hexadecimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
2.12.3.1 Converting Hexadecimal to Binary &
Binary to Hexadecimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91

2.12.4

Binary Coded Decimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

72

2.13

Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

3.

Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

3.1

Geometrical Constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

3.1.1
3.1.1.1
3.1.1.2
3.1.1.3

Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pythagoras Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Area of a Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Area of a RightAngled Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96
96
98
98

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3.2

Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

3.2.1

Trigonometrical ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

3.2.2

The Sine Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

103

3.3

Coordinates & Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106

3.3.1

Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106

3.3.2
3.3.2.1
3.3.2.2

Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Straight Line Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Derivation of the Equation of a Straight Line Graph . . . .

107
110
112

3.4

Geometry Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

3.4.1

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

3.4.2

Degrees & Radians Measuring Angles . . . . . . . . . . .

114

3.4.3

Acute Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

3.4.4

Obtuse Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

3.4.5

Reflex Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

3.4.6

Right Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

3.4.7

Complementry Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116

3.4.8

Supplementary Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116

3.4.9

Vertical Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

3.4.10

Alternate Interior Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

3.4.11

Alternate Exterior Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

3.4.12

Corresponding Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

3.4.13

Angle Bisector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119

3.5

Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121

3.5.1

Chords & Radii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121

3.5.2

Tangents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

122

3.5.3

Congruent Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

122

3.5.4

Inscribed Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

123

3.5.5

Circumference & Arc Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

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