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Tesla Model S

The Tesla Model S is a full-sized plug-in electric vedoor, luxury liftback, produced by Tesla Motors. Since
its introduction in June 2012[10] it has achieved rapidly
growing sales, particularly in Norway and California.
It scored a perfect 5.0 NHTSA automobile safety rating. The United States Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) ocial range for the Model S Performance model
equipped with an 85 kWh battery pack is 265 miles (426
km), topping the Tesla Roadster to lead the electric car
market.[11][12][13] EPA rates its energy consumption at
237.5 Wh per kilometer (38 kWh/100 mi) for a combined fuel economy of 89 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (2.64 L/100 km).[11][14]

previously worked for Mazda North American Operations.[22] The car was codenamed WhiteStar during research and preliminary development.[1][2][3]
The Model S was announced in a press release on June
30, 2008.[23][24] The prototype vehicle was displayed at a
press conference on March 26, 2009.[25]

The Model S became the rst electric car to top the

monthly new car sales ranking in any country, twice leading in Norway, in September and again in December
2013.[15][16][17][18] The Model S ranked as the worlds second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Nissan
Leaf in 2014.[19] Global cumulative sales passed the
75,000 unit milestone in June 2015.[20] During the rst The rst production Tesla Model S (with owner Tesla Board
half of 2015, the Model S ranked as the top selling plug- member Steve Jurvetson) in June 2015, three years after the cars
in electric car in the U.S. with about 11,900 units sold.[21] market release.
The Tesla Model S won awards such as the 2013 World
Green Car of the Year, 2013 Motor Trend Car of the
Year, Automobile Magazine's 2013 Car of the Year,
Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012
award and Consumer Reports' top-scoring car ever.

In February 2008 it was reported that Tesla Motors was

planning to oer a range-extended version of its Model
S. This version would have included a gasoline engine to
extend the driving range of the vehicle,[26] but it was removed in later revisions. At the GoingGreen conference
in September 2008 Teslas CEO, Elon Musk, announced
that Tesla was developing only electric cars.[27]


Construction of an assembly factory in Albuquerque,

New Mexico (a central location for shipping) was supposed to begin in April 2007, but was cancelled.[28]
A factory to be built in San Jose, California was also
announced.[29][30][31] In May 2010 Tesla announced it
would produce the Model S at the former NUMMI assembly plant in Fremont, California,[32] now known as
the Tesla Factory. This third plan was implemented. In
June 2015, three years after the Model S introduction and
with almost 75,000 Model S sedans delivered worldwide,
Tesla announced that Model S owners have accumulated
over 1 billion electric miles (1.6 billion km) traveled,
and saved more than half a million tons of CO2 .[33][34]
The Tesla Model S is the rst plug-in electric vehicle
to reach that milestone. In October 2014 General Motors reported that Volt owners had accumulated a total
of 629 million all-electric miles (over 1 billion kilomeTesla Model S prototype at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show
ters) out of a total of 1 billion miles (1.6 billion km)
traveled; while Nissan reported in December 2014 that
The Model S was styled by Franz von Holzhausen, who Leaf owners had traveled 625 million miles (1 billion


kilometers).[34] Tesla also reported that 68% of Model S

travel took place in North America, 25% in Europe and
7% in Asia-Pacic.[34]


Main article: Tesla Model S manufacturing process

Tesla manufactures the Model S at the 5.4 million

Model S chassis, on display at Santana Row in San Jose, California

A Tesla Model S being manufactured at the Tesla Factory

square foot[35] Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. For

the European market, Tesla assembles and distributes
from its European Distribution Center in Tilburg, the
Netherlands.[36] Cars are built and tested in Fremont,
California. The battery pack, the electric motor and Cutaway view of a Tesla Model S drive motor
parts are disassembled and shipped separately to Tilburg,
where the cars are reassembled.[37] The center occupies
a 203,000 sq ft (18,900 m2 ) industrial building that also
serves as a workshop and spare parts warehouse.
The rst ten customers received their cars at the Fremont factory on June 22, 2012 at the ocial launch.[38]
The rst car o of the production line was sold to Jason
Calacanis due to a sale prior to the announcement of
the vehicle.[39] Production grew from 1520 cars completed/week in August 2012[38] to about 1,000 cars per
week in 2015.[40]
Musk expects the Model S to pay back the energy that
went into producing the car in fewer than 10,000 miles
(16,000 km).[41]



The 2012 Tesla Model S Performance model has a 416

hp (310 kW) and 443 ftlb (600 Nm) rear-mounted electric motor. The base model uses a 362 hp (270 kW) and
325 ftlb (440 Nm) motor. The company claimed a drag
coecient of C d=0.24,[42] lower than any car when released. Models of Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class (released

A Tesla Model S P85+ using regenerative braking power in excess

of 60 kW. During regenerative braking the power indicator is

later) appeared to surpass the Model S[4][43] however, independent measurement by Car And Driver Magazine in
May 2014 bore out Teslas claim by exactly conrming a
drag coecient of C d=0.24, but in the same test, measured the Mercedes CLA at C d=0.30, putting Mercedes
claim into question.[44]



Under its ve-cycle testing protocol, the EPA rated the

85 kWh Model S model with a combined fuel economy
equivalent of 89 MPGe (2.64 L/100 km), with an equivalent 88 mpg-US (2.7 L/100 km; 106 mpg- ) in city
driving and 90 mpg-US (2.6 L/100 km; 110 mpg- ) on

crease in acceleration and top speed. The 85 kWh version
rose from US$81,070 to US$86,070, while the P85 (now
the P85D) jumped from US$94,570 to US$105,670. Deliveries of the P85D started in December 2014, with the
85D models starting in February 2015, and the 70D models starting in April 2015.[51]

The following table shows the EPAs ocial ratings for

fuel economy in miles per gallon gasoline equivalent 3.3 Battery
(MPGe) and EPAs estimated out-of-pocket fuel costs for
the variants of the Model S rated by January 2015 as dis- The 60 kWh electric vehicle battery was rated to deliver
played in the Monroney label.
230 miles (370 km), while an 85 kWh battery was rated
The discontinued Model S P85 top speed is 130 mph (210 at 320 miles (510 km), assuming a constant speed of 55
km/h) and it accelerates from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 mph (89 km/h).[48] The EPA range for the 60 kWh batto 97 km/h) in 4.2 seconds due to instant torque provided tery pack model is 208 mi (335 km)[56] and the 85 kWh
by the electric motor. The replacement Model S 85D has battery is 265 miles (426 km).[11][57]
a top speed of 140 mph (230 km/h) and it accelerates
from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 to 97 km/h) in 3.9 seconds, despite the lower total motor power, in part due to
the improved traction of the all-wheel drive powertrain.
The Model S P85D (P90D), a dual motor all-wheel drive
vehicle has a top speed of 155 mph (249 km/h) and it accelerates from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 to 97 km/h) in 3.1
seconds. The P85D has an optional Ludicrous Mode
hardware package which improves the 0 to 60 miles per
hour (0 to 97 km/h) acceleration to 2.8 seconds, making
it the 13th fastest accelerating vehicle in the world. [48]
The powertrain also provides regenerative braking power
of more than 60 kW which reduces both energy consumption and improves brake lifetime.
In July 2015 Tesla announced its goal to make the Model
S powertrain last for one million miles.[49]


Dual-motor all-wheel-drive versions

Tesla Model S showing the front trunk where the engine would
be in a typical car. Tesla Motors calls this a 'frunk'.[58]

On October 9, 2014, Tesla announced the introduction

of All Wheel Drive (AWD) versions of the Model S' 60, The energy-saving sleep state powers o the display and
85, and P85 models, designated by a D at the end of the other vehicle electronics, after the car goes to sleep. This
increases the time it takes the touchscreen and instrument
model number.[50][51][52]
panel to become usable. This mode can decrease the loss
On April 8, 2015, Tesla introduced the Model S 70D as
when not being used (currently 8 mi (13
its new US$75,000 entry-level car, with all-wheel drive of the cars range
km) per day).[59]
and an improved range of 240 miles (385 km). The 70D
replaced the 60 and 60D in the Model S lineup, with the The 85 kWh battery pack weighs 1,200 lb (540
latter two models no longer being available for purchase. kg)[60] and contains 7,104 lithium-ion battery cells in
16 modules[61] wired in series (14 in the at secThe P85 option was also dropped.[53][54]
on the front).[62] Each module
In the 85D, the rear drive unit is replaced by a smaller one tion and two stacked
of 74 cells[64] wired in parto save cost and weight, while a second motor of similar contains six groups
groups are then wired in series within
size is added to the front wheels. This results in an AWD allel; the six
As of June 2012 the battery
car with comparable power and acceleration to the RWD
cells with nickel-cobaltversion while keeping the price increase to US$5,000.
is of the 18650 form facaluminum
Additionally, the 85D reports a 2% (5 mile) range intor
mm height cylinder),
crease and 11% increase in top speed over the 85 (presimilar
cell that has an ensumably due to incremental improvements in hardware
and software). In the P85D, the high-power rear drive
unit is retained, while a new front drive motor boosts the The battery is guaranteed for eight years or 125,000 miles
total power by about 50%. This results in a signicant in- (200,000 km in metric countries) for the base model with

the 60 kWh battery pack. The 85 kWh battery pack is 3.5
guaranteed for eight years and unlimited miles.[69]



A separate battery replacement guarantee takes eect after the eighth year at a cost of US$10,000 for the 60 kWh
battery and US$12,000 for the 85 kWh battery.[70]
In 2013, Tesla canceled a 40 kWh version of the car due
to lack of demand, stating that only 4% of pre-orders
were for the 40 kWh battery option. Customers who
ordered this option instead received the 60 kWh pack,
with charge software-limited to 40 kWh (142 miles). It
has the improved acceleration and top speed of the bigger pack and can be upgraded to use the full 60 kWh for
In 2015, Tesla introduced a 70kWh battery to replace the
existing 60kWh batteries and base 60kWh Model S ve- The Model S charge port is located in front of the left taillight.
hicles, as the 60 was low margin and not suciently welcomed by customers.[72][73] All 70kWh cars use all-wheel
drive to further improve range.[74]
In July 2015, Tesla introduced its 90 and P90D, a range
upgrade of the 85 variants with a 90kWh battery and
explained the 6% energy increase with improved cell
chemistry[49] and with the introduction of silicon into
the graphite cell anode.[75] Tesla additionally announced
its expectation of an annual improvement in battery capacity of about 5%. Tesla also explained that apart from
the P90D the Model S has its main battery conductor
protected by a fuse rated for 1300A and that this rating is somewhat conservative given the uncertainty of the
exact conditions under which a fuse melts. To reduce
this uncertainty Tesla has for the P90D introduced an
electronically controlled pyro-activated fuse, which mon- Model S charging connectors at the Tesla store in Austin, Texas.
itors the current at the millisecond level, cuts the power
with extreme precision and certainty and has a rating of The standard onboard charger accepts 120 or 240-volt
sources at a rate of up to 10 kW. An optional US$2,000
upgrade for a second 10 kW onboard charger supports a
total of up to 20 kW charging from an 80 amp available
US$750 Tesla Wall Connector.[4] The charge port is in
front of the left taillight. During charging, the charge port
pulses green. The frequency at which the charge ports
3.4 Battery Placement
light pulses slows down as the charge level approaches
full. When charging is complete, the light stops pulsing
In contrast to other BEVs such as the Roadster, the Model and is solid green.[78]
S has its battery pack forming the bottom of the vehicle
between the axles providing the vehicle with several ad- The socket is smaller than the SAE J1772 North Amerivantages. Most notably, since the battery pack is the sin- can standard, but adapters are provided for 120 and 240
and for public charging stations. Tesla built
gle most heavy component of the vehicle, the Model S has volt outlets
Supercharger stations to allow travel be120
a center of gravity height of only 18 inches (46 cm),
cities.[80] A Supercharger can add up to 200
helping it to achieve a lateral acceleration of 0.9g and
an outstanding protection against rollover. Secondly, to- miles (320 km) of range in 20 minutes and a full charge
one hour assuming a nearly empty 85
gether with the absence of a heavy engine that would need in approximately
to be placed near the front or rear axle, the Model S battery placement concentrates the mass between the axles, Charging times vary depending on the battery packs
both helping it to distribute its mass equally on its axles[76] state-of-charge, its overall capacity, the available voltand lowering its rotational inertia thereby allowing it to age, and the available circuit breaker amperage. From
turn more quickly. Thirdly, the placement of the battery a 120 volt/15 amp household outlet, the range increases
pack increases the rigidity of the passenger compartment, by 3.75 miles (6 km) for every hour of charging. From a
improving the passive safety of the car.[77]
10 kW, NEMA 1450 240 V/50 A outlet (like those used


Instrument panel

by RVs), the charge rate is 28.75 miles (46 km) per hour.
Using Teslas 20 kW, 240 V High Power Wall Connector increases the rate to 57 miles (92 km) per hour if the
car is congured with twin chargers (20 kW).[81] Supercharging hardware is included in the 85 kWh, 70 kWh,
and 60 kWh battery packs; in both the 85 kWh models
and 70 kWh models,[82] the payment for the car includes
supercharging by default, but in the 60 kWh, supercharging is software-controlled and one must pay an extra fee
to enable supercharging.[69][81][83][84]



The Model S has independent coil spring suspension on all

four wheels front control arm and rear multilink. As an
extra-cost option, the car is available with self-leveling,
height-adjustable air suspension. This is accomplished
via adjustable Bilstein shock absorbers controlled by the
driver. The car is meant to lower itself at highway speed
and raise itself to traverse steep driveways and rough terrain, despite the low 6-inch ground clearance and rather
long 116-inch wheelbase.[85]
Because, in the Tesla, electronic systems can be upgraded
by on-the-air download, rather than recall, the suspension system has been changed retroactively on several occasions. During the 2013 're investigation', NHTSA
asked Tesla to disable the cars ability to lower itself at
speed on the theory that a ground clearance below 6
inches might cause the batteries underneath the car to
contact road debris.[86] In September 2014, Tesla upgraded the height adjustment feature for Model S cars
equipped with air suspension to remember locations that
require higher clearance such as those with potholes
and steep driveways, and automatically adjusts to avoid



Beginning with vehicles manufactured in late September

2014, all new Model Ss come equipped with a camera
mounted at the top of the windshield, forward looking
radar in the lower grill, and ultrasonic acoustic location
sensors in the front and rear bumpers that provide a 360degree buer zone around the car. This equipment allows
Model S to detect road signs, lane markings, obstacles,
and other vehicles. In addition to adaptive cruise control
and lane departure warning, a US$4,250 Tech Package
option will allow this system to enable semi-autonomous
drive and parking capabilities.[88][89][90] New models sold
since October 9, 2014 have the option to have AutoPilot, which allows hands-free driving in many situations.
AutoPilot-enabled cars receive software updates for the
AutoPilot software wirelessly, just as all other Model S
cars receive general software updates wirelessly.

ing feature that will basically allow the cars to drive themselves on either open highways or on private property.
Soon the car is also expected be able to automatically pull
itself in or out of a garage using just its sensors summoned
via an app by smartphone. The latter feature will not be
enabled initially due to concerns about safety in suburban
environments.[91][92] As of March 2015, Tesla has been
testing the autopilot system on the highway between San
Francisco and Seattle, with a driver, but allowing the car
to drive itself almost unassisted.[93]
Some industry experts have raised questions about the legal status of autonomous driving in the U.S. and whether
Model S owner would violate current state regulations
when using the autopilot function. The few states that
have passed laws allowing autonomous cars on the road
limit their use for testing purposes, not the use by the general public. Also, there are questions about the liability
for autonomous cars in case there is a mistake.[93] A Tesla
spokesman said there is nothing in our autopilot system
that is in conict with current regulations. We are not
getting rid of the pilot. This is about releasing the driver
from tedious tasks so they can focus and provide better
input. Google's director of self-driving cars at the company said he does not think there is a regulatory block
as far as the self-driving vehicle met crash-test and other
safety standards. A spokesman for the National Highway
Trac Safety Administration (NHTSA) said that any
autonomous vehicle would need to meet applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards and the NHTSA will
have the appropriate policies and regulations in place to
ensure the safety of this type of vehicles.[93]
According to Elon Musk, the Model S was designed to be
a computer on wheels: ""We really designed the Model S
to be a very sophisticated computer on wheels. Tesla is a
software company as much as it is a hardware company.
A huge part of what Tesla is, is a Silicon Valley software
company. We view this the same as updating your phone
or your laptop.""[94]
As of July 17, 2015, the autopilot software is still under
development. Engineers are working to improve performance in certain challenging driving conditions, such as
faded lane markings and lanes with variable width.[95]

3.8 Instrument panel

The instrument panel is a 12.3-inch (31 cm) liquid-crystal

display electronic instrument cluster that indicates speed,
power usage, charge level, estimated range and active
gear, as well as Nav directions (driven by Garmin). The
gearbox can be set to Drive, Neutral, Reverse and Park.
The infotainment control touchscreen is a 17-inch (43
cm) multi-touch panel divided into four areas. A top
line displays status symbols and provides shortcuts to
Charging, HomeLink, Driver Proles, vehicle informaBy mid-2015, commercially available Model S cars in the tion (software version and the Vehicle identication numU.S. will receive an update to enable an automatic steer- ber) and Bluetooth. The second line provides access to

dashboard/navigation screen also is connected to the internal network, together with a third computer of unknown type with an unknown function.[103]

3.9 Features

Production dashboard with main dashboard digital display (left)

and central 17-inch (430 mm) touchscreen control panel (right)

several apps including Media, Nav (driven by Google

Maps, and thus is separate from the Nav on instrument
panel), Energy, Web, Camera and Phone. The central The Model S has an optional folding third row with rear-facing
main viewing area displays the (two) active apps, sub- seats for two children secured with a racing-style ve-point hardivided into upper and lower areas. (Most apps can be ness.
expanded to take up the entire area). At the bottom is access to various controls and settings for the vehicle such
as doors, locks and lights as well as temperature controls
and a secondary volume control.
The instrument cluster and the infotainment panel are
driven by separate Nvidia Tegra 3 3D Visual Computing
Modules.[96] Tesla was the rst company to ship this technology. (Audi later delivered this technology in its 2013
model year in Europe, and in North America in 2014.)[97]
The Tegra system on a chip (SoC) integrates eight specialized processors, including a multi-core ARM CPU, a
GPU, and dedicated audio, video and image processors.
Nvidia claimed that it consumes 2% of the energy of a
typical CPU.[98]
The navigation system uses GPS and a mix of Garmin and
Google Maps route guidance. The map display on the
17-inch screen requires a constant Internet connection,
so navigation is limited in areas without mobile network
coverage. The Nav on the instrument panel is loaded on
the car and does not need Internet access to function.[99]
Update 6.2 features automatic nav guidance to charging
stations if range is insucient.[100]
Enthusiasts have developed the Open Vehicle Monitoring
System (OVMS) which allows the owner to remotely observe a variety of dierent vehicle operating parameters,
such as battery state of charge, typically using a mobile
device such as an iPhone.
According to Elon Musk, the Model S runs on the opensource Linux operating system.[101] In 2014 Autoblog reported that Tesla Models S owners had determined via
the cars combined diagnostics and Ethernet port that a
Ubuntu system controlling the central touchscreen is connected to the cars internal Ethernet.[102] The same users
determined that another Ubuntu system controlling the

The Model S key.

All versions of the Model S have the same body and normally seat ve passengers. An optional folding third row
for US$2,500 becomes a rear-facing two-place child seat.
The option includes a stronger rear bumper. Each third
row seat has a racing-style ve-point harness for passengers over 37 in (0.94 m) tall and weighing between 35 to
77 lb (16 to 35 kg). Cargo space is available under the
front hood (which Tesla called a frunk, a portmanteau
of front trunk.) The optional third row gives the greatest
passenger capacity of any electric vehicle.[106] In October 2014 the upgraded Model S P85D, D for dual, was
introduced.[107] The upgraded version features not one
but two electric motors, one driving the rear wheels as
in prior versions, and one the front wheels. Safety features are enhanced also, for example with partial autopilot functions. The dual motor version will be available
also for the basic 85 kWh versions for around US$4,000
more in price. The rear wheel drive version of the P85


Environmental footprint

was removed, and the dual motor option is not available 3.11 Environmental footprint
for the 60 kWh version.[53]
In February 2014, the Automotive Science Group (ASG)
Initially Tesla oered a 40 kWh version of the Modelpublished the result of a study conducted to assess the lifeS but removed it from their lineup due to poor demand.
cycle of over 1,300 automobiles across nine categories
Tesla still delivered 40 kWh Model-S cars to customers
sold in North America. The study ranked the Model S
who pre-ordered them, but they were actually the 60 kWh
as the best environmental performer in the 2014 full-size
version of the car with a software limited range. Other
cars category.[117] Based on the assessment of life-cycle
performance specications were the same as the 60 kWh
environmental footprint, the study concluded that the inversion. Users could purchase a software upgrade to
creased environmental impacts of manufacturing the veget the full range of the 60 kWh version of the car for
hicle are more than oset with increased environmental
the price dierence between the 40 kWh and 60 kWh
performance during operation. For the assessment, the
study used the average electricity mix of the U.S. grid in
On April 8, 2015, Tesla Motors discontinued the Model- 2014. The Nissan Leaf had the smallest life-cycle enviS 60, and replaced the base model with the Model-S ronmental footprint of any model year 2014 automobile
available in the North American market.[118]
electromechanical brakes.[110]



In July 2015, Tesla introduced its 70, 90, 90D and P90D
variants along with a ludicrous mode for the performance model. The P90D combines a front axle power
of 259 horsepower (193 kW) and rear axle power of 503
horsepower (375 kW) to a total of 762 horsepower (568
kW), for a 060 mph time of 2.8 sec. The acceleration
of the P90D can reach 1.1g, described by Tesla as faster
than falling.[49]

4 Tesla stations

3.10 Vehicle warranty and maintenance

Tesla Model S charging at the Supercharger network station in
Delaware, United States.

The Model S is covered by a 4-year, 50,000 mi (80,000

km) limited warranty,[111] that includes all standard
equipment, the transmission and the complete powertrain
(excluding tires).[112] The warranty can be extended an
additional 4 years or 50,000 miles (80,000 km) beyond
the original terms for US$4,000.[112] Warranty coverage
includes a complementary loaner cara Performance
85 or Tesla Roadsterwhen service is required.[113] In
April 2013, Tesla announced that a previously mandatory US$600 annual vehicle inspection and maintenance
fee would be made optional, and would not be required
to maintain warranty coverage.[113] If chosen, the fee covers a complete inspection, tire alignment, new brake pads,
hardware upgrades and miscellaneous other maintenance
items as needed.
Tesla Model S charging at a public charging station in
The battery and drive unit are covered for eight years
or 125,000 miles (200,000 km in metric countries) for
the 60 kWh base model, or eight years and unlimited
miles for all 70 and 85 kWh models.[69][114] The unconditional battery warranty covers everything except deliberate damage, even including user error.[115] However, loss
of battery capacity over time or usage is not covered under warranty.[114][116]

Zoutelande, the Netherlands.

Main article: Tesla station

In 2012, Tesla began building a network of 480-volt
charging stations to facilitate long-distance travel. In June
2013 Tesla announced that existing and future stations
would become Tesla stations, with facilities to support

under-two-minute battery pack swaps. As of early October 2014, 115 stations were operating in the United
States, 71 in Europe and 23 in Asia.[119][120] The Tesla
network is usable only by Tesla vehicles, which are engineered for compatibility.
The rst Supercharger corridor opened in October 2012
with six stations placed along routes connecting San Francisco, Lake Tahoe, Los Angeles and Las Vegas.[121][122]
A second corridor opened in December 2012 connecting Washington, D.C., New York City, and Boston; it
includes three stations located in highway rest areas in
Delaware and Connecticut.[123]
The rst Tesla stations in Europe opened in Norway in
August 2013.[124] Tesla next focused on Germany and the
Netherlands, with plans to cover both countries by mid2014. Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Denmark and Luxembourg were to be covered by the end of 2014. Stations
were to be within 200 mi (320 km) for about 90% of the
population in France, England, Wales and Sweden by the
end of 2014.[125]




Battery swapping was to be deployed along Interstate 5
in California to allow travel from San Francisco to Los
Angeles. These were to be followed by the Washington, DC to Boston corridor. Each swapping station costs
US$500,000 and stocks about 50 batteries. The service
would be oered for the price of about 15 US gallons (57
l; 12 imp gal) of gasoline at the current local rate, around
US$60 to US$80 at June 2013 prices. Owners can pick
up their original battery pack fully charged on the return
trip, which is included in the swap fee. Tesla would also
oer the option to keep the swapped battery for a fee or
to receive the original pack from Tesla for a fee. Pricing
has not been determined.[128]
Teslas rst battery swap station is located at Harris
Ranch, California, and will be operational the week of
December 22, 2014.[130] As of 2015, Tesla says they have
hundreds of cars in the battery swap program, although
few owners are interested.[131]

5 Editions

Tesla allocated the rst 1,000 units to its Signature and

Signature Performance limited edition congurations,
equipped with the 85 kWh battery pack, and priced in
the U.S. at US$95,400 and US$105,400 respectively, not
including any applicable U.S. federal and local government tax credits and incentives.[132][133] As of July 2015
the base Model S starts at US$75,000 with a 70 kWh
battery pack and goes up to US$105,000 for the performance model with the 85 kWh pack before any governSupercharging hardware is standard on 85 kWh vehicles ment subsidies.[134]
and optional on 60 kWh vehicles. The Roadster is not
compatible.[121][122][123] In early November 2013, Tesla
reported that 90% of its customers had opted for super6 Sales and markets
charging capability.[125]
The Supercharger is a proprietary DC rapid-charging station that provides up to 135 kW of power, giving 85
kWh vehicles an additional 180 mi (290 km) of range
in about 30 minutes. In the West Coast corridor the Superchargerss grid access is assisted by a solar carport system (some including a battery of a few hundred kWh)[126]
provided by SolarCity. Eventually, all Tesla stations will
be assisted by solar power.


Battery swapping

6.1 Global

Panoramic view of Tesla Supercharger rapid charging station in

Tejon Ranch, California.

Tesla designed its Model S to allow fast battery swapping,

which also facilitates vehicle assembly.[127] In June 2013,
Tesla announced their goal to deploy a battery swap- Model S rst retail deliveries ceremony at the Tesla Factory in
ping station in Tesla stations. At a demonstration Tesla Fremont, California, held on June 22, 2012.
showed a battery swap operation taking just over 90 seconds, about half the time it takes to rell an empty gas Tesla Motors reported 520 reservations for the Model S



during the rst week they were available[135] and as of

31 December 2012 over 15,000 net reservations (after
deliveries and cancellations) had been received by yearend.[136] The special edition Model S Signature model
was sold out before deliveries began in June 2012, and
according to Tesla Motors all models were sold out for
that year shortly after. A car ordered in May 2012 would
be delivered in early to mid-2013.[137][138]

Retail deliveries in China began in April 2014.[147] The
right-hand-drive model was released in the UK in June
2014,[148] followed by Hong Kong in July 2014,[149] and
Japan in September 2014.[150] Deliveries in Australia began in December 2014.[151]
Global cumulative sales of the Model S passed the 50,000
unit mark in October 2014.[20] A total of 31,655 units
were sold worldwide in 2014, allowing the Model S to
rank as the worlds second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Nissan Leaf that year.[19] In 2014 about
55% of Model S deliveries took place in North America (~17,410), 30% in Europe (~9,497), and 15% in the
Asia-Pacic market (~4,748).[152]

Initially Tesla expected to reach global sales of 35,000

units in 2014, but in November 2014 reduced its sales
target to 33,000 units due to a decit in production of
2,000 units during the third quarter of 2014. The company expects its annual production to increase by over
50% in 2014 to 35,000 units, another increase of 50%
in 2015.[139]
US deliveries began June 2012.[10] Deliveries of the 60
kWh model were rescheduled from November 2012 to
January/February 2013.[140] A total of 2,650 cars were
delivered in North America in 2012.[141]

A total of 21,552 units were sold worldwide during the

rst half of 2015, of which, 11,507 were delivered during the second quarter alone, up about 52% over the same
quarter the previous year, and setting a new record for
the most cars delivered in a quarter.[153][154] As of June
2015, global Model S sales totaled 78,334 units since
its introduction in June 2012.[21] The United States is
the leading market with over 50,000 units sold by early
July 2015.[155] Norway is the Model S largest overseas
market,[156] with 8,697 new units registered through June
2015[157][158][159] followed by China with 4,064 units registered through May 2015.[160][161][162][163] Global cumulative sales passed the 75,000 unit milestone in June
2015,[20] and, sales are expected to pass 100,000 units
globally before the end of December 2015.[21]

During the rst six months of 2013, 10,050 were

delivered.[142] The Model S was released in Europe in
early August 2013, and the rst deliveries took place
in Norway, Switzerland and the Netherlands,[143] and
by November 2013, the Model S was on sale in 20
The following table shows sales by year for the top selling
Sales totaled about 22,477 units in North America and countries through June 2015:
Europe,[144] surpassing Teslas annual sales target of
21,500 units.[145] Global cumulative sales passed the
25,000 unit milestone in December 2013.[145] By the 6.2 Asia/Pacic
end of 2013, according to Elon Musk, Norway and
Switzerland became the companys largest per capita
sales markets.[146]
The rst nine units were delivered in Sydney on December 9, 2014. Tesla Motors also opened its rst store and
service centre in St Leonards, and its rst Supercharger
station at Pyrmont in December 2014. Initially, only two
versions were available, the S60 starting at A$91,400, and
the S85 starting at A$103,400 before any options, stamp
duty and the Australian luxury car tax (LCT). The Model
S P85D, starting at A$133,500, had deliveries scheduled
to begin in June 2015.[190][191]

Model S global sales by quarter (3Q 2012 - 2Q 2015)


As of December 2014, a total of 65 Model S cars

were registered in New South Wales and only four in
Victoria.[192] At the end of March 2015, registrations totaled 119 in New South Wales and 54 in Victoria. Although there were no sales gures reported for Tesla in
other states, the combined sales of these two states alone
were enough for the Model S to rank as the top selling
all-electric car in the country for the rst quarter of 2015,
ahead of the BMW i3 (46) and the Nissan Leaf (31).[192]


The rst deliveries took place on April 22, 2014.[147]
The Model S has the same standard equipment as the
continental European version, but was adapted to provide larger back seats because the car was expected to
be driven by a chaueur.[193] Only two versions with
an 85 kWh battery pack are available in the Chinese
market, standard and performance.[194] Pricing starts
at CN734,000 (~US$121,200),[194] similar to the US,
adding only taxes and transportation costs. Comparable
luxury cars cost more than US$180,000 in the Chinese
Chinese sales up to June 2014 were estimated between
1,000 to 1,300 units.[197][198] JLWarren Capital, an equity rm, estimated that about 2,800 Tesla Model S cars
have been imported to China by mid September 2014,
but only 432 had received the license plates.[199] According to a Tesla spokesman, the major reasons for the
discrepancy could be that registration rules were holding deliveries in Shanghai, and Tesla only recently was
able to start delivering the electric cars to customers who
bought them in Shanghai. Secondly, many Chinese customers have delayed taking possession of their Model S
car while waiting for the government to add the Tesla to
the list of electric vehicles exempt from its 8% to 10%
purchase tax.[199][200] As of December 2014, Tesla had
imported 4,800 Model S cars, but only 2,499 of those vehicles were registered for road use in China.[160] Teslas
CEO expressed disappointment with the Chinese sales,
as stock continued to be high by early 2015.[201] Cumulative registrations totaled 4,064 units through May




During the rst quarter of 2014, with about 3,000 sold,

the Model S ranked as the second top selling electric
car after the Leaf.[204][205] Accounting for sales during
the rst nine months of 2014, the Model S outsold the
Audi A8, BMW 7 Series and Jaguar XJ, ranking second in the European full-size luxury vehicle segment
after the Mercedes-Benz S-Class.[206] A total of 8,734
Model S cars were sold in 2014, representing a market
share of 15.5% of new all-electric passenger car sales in
Europe.[207] The Model S ranked as the third best selling
all-electric car in Europe after the Nissan Leaf and the
Renault Zoe.[207] The two biggest markets for the Model
S in Europe are Norway and the Netherlands.[208]
American and European standard equipment and options
packages are the same. European prices are higher, due
to exchange rates, the value-added tax (VAT), plus transport costs, import duties and other country-specic costs.
In most countries where the Model S is sold base prices
for the 60 kWh start at 72,600, and 83,150 for the
85 kWh battery car. The 85 kWh Performance, Signature, and Signature Performance trim levels are listed at
97,550, 101,400, and 110,950 respectively. Tesla
oered a deduction of 1,700 to buyers who held a reservation by the end of December 2012.[209][210]
Sales by country
Czech Republic
A total of 23 units were sold during 2014.[211]
During its rst full month in the Danish market, the
Model S was the top selling electric vehicle with 42 units
sold.[212] Sales were 112 units in 2013 and 460 in 2014,
and 511 units during the rst half of 2015.[179] Cumulative sales reached 1,083 units through June 2015,[179]
constituting 35% of the sales of luxury cars.[213] A Model
S was tested as a taxi,[214] but high price and low range
made the project uneconomic.[215] When the AWD model
was announced in Autumn 2014, used Model S were sold
fast at high price.[216]

The rst European deliveries took place at Teslas store in Oslo

in August 2013.

Retail deliveries began in Europe in early August 2013,

in Norway, Switzerland and the Netherlands.[143] The
Model S ended 2013 as the third-best selling all-electric
car in Europe after the Nissan Leaf and the Renault Zoe,
at about 3,900 units.[202][203]

Model S customers in Germany are oered a free optional high speed tuning for Autobahn driving. The company announced that by November 2013 the rst Tesla
stations would open between Munich and Stuttgart, Munich and Zurich, Switzerland, and Cologne and Frankfurt. Tesla Motors planned to cover more than 50% of
Germany by the end of March 2014, and 100% by the


North America

end of 2014. Germany would then have the most Superchargers per capita of any country. German stations
would support 135 kW charging.[217] By late 2013 Tesla
announced a goal to sell 10,000 Model S in Germany in
A total of 183 units were registered in the country during 2013.[171] Registrations totaled 815 units in 2014,
representing 2.7% of the luxury segment sales in the
country.[172] As of June 2015, cumulative registrations
totaled 1,702 units.[171][172][173]
The rst deliveries in the country occurred on August
22, 2013, at Teslas European Distribution Center in
Tilburg.[37] A total of 1,194 units were sold in 2013.[167]
After the end of the registration tax exemption, sales fell
signicantly, and only 262 units were sold during the rst
four months of 2014.[219] As of May 2015, the Model S
was the Dutch market leader in the all-electric segment
with 3,249 cars registered.[220]

ve months of sales, the Model S ranked 20th for the year
with a market share of 1.4% of Norwegian new car sales,
Teslas largest in Europe.[228][229]
The Model S topped the monthly sales ranking for a third
time in March 2014, with 1,493 units sold, breaking the
28 year-old monthly sales record, surpassing the Ford
Sierra, which sold 1,454 units in May 1986.[230][231] Sales
totaled 2,056 Model S cars during the rst quarter of
2014, making the Model S the best selling new car in
Norway during this period. The Model S captured a 5.6%
market share of new car sales and 38.8% of the new plugin electric car segment during this quarter.[230][232][233] By
the end of 2014, the Model S ranked as the fth best selling new car in the Norwegian market, with 4,040 units
registered and a market share of 2.8% of new car sales in
the country that year.[158]

As of July 2014, Norway ranked as Teslas largest overseas market, with an average of 436 Model S sedans sold
per month since August 2013. In comparison, the average in the United States is about 1,630 units delivered
per month since the electric car went on sales in 2012.[156]
Since its introduction, a total of 8,697 Model S new cars
have sold in Norway through June 2015,[157][158][159] and
with about 16% of the total registered plug-in electric veThe rst delivery of a Model S in Europe took place hicle stock, the Model S ranks as Norways all-time best
in Oslo on August 7, 2013.[221] By the end of Au- selling electric car after the Nissan Leaf.
gust 2013, Europes rst six charging stations were
opened, in Lyngdal, Aurland, Dombs, Gol, Sundebru Switzerland
and Lillehammer.[124] That month 186 units were delivered, ranking second among all-electric cars behind the Retail deliveries began in August 2013,[143] and a total
Nissan Leaf (448 units).[222] Sales surged in September of 213 units were registered in 2013.[174] The Model S,
totaling 616 units, beating the Leaf and achieving an over- with 496 units registered, ranked as the top selling plug-in
all new car market share of 5.1%.[15][16][17]
electric car in the country in 2014.[234] Cumulative sales
totaled 1,347 units up until June 2015, which includes
units sold in Liechtenstein.[174]
United Kingdom
Deliveries began in June 2014,[148] and a total of 698 units
were registered in the UK by the end of 2014.[180] Pricing starts at 54,380 before the 5,000 Plug-in Car Grant.
Model S owners are also exempted from the London Congestion Charge.[235] Cumulative registrations totaled 902
units up until March 2015.[180]

The Model S is Norways all-time second best selling electric

car.[223] Shown in Trollstigen, Norway.

In 2013 a ve-month waiting list emerged creating a

used market, with US$10,000 to US$20,000 premiums
for a used model.[224][225] Sales dropped to 98 units in
October,[226] before jumping back to 527 units in November, ranking it number two in new car registrations after the Volkswagen Golf.[227] In December sales of 553
units made it the top-selling new car again and capturing
a 4.9% market share of new car sales.[18] With less than

6.4 North America

Cumulative sales of the Model S reached 2,322 units as of
May 2015. The Model S is the all-time third top selling
plug-in car in the country after the Chevrolet Volt (4,377)
and the Nissan Leaf (2,453), and it was the top selling
PEV in Canada for the rst ve months of 2015.[170]
United States



11.9%, and Portola Valley with 11.2%. During this period the Model S had the highest number of new passenger car registrations in 8 of the 25 most expensive American ZIP codes.[243] With 8,347 units sold in 2013, it was
the third-best selling luxury car in California (after the
Mercedes-Benz E-Class and BMW 5 Series sedans),[244]
with a 9.8% share of the Californian luxury and sports
segment.[245] As of November 2013, the Model S was
available nationwide with California leading sales with a
48% share of national sales.[242]
Personalized delivery of a Tesla Model S in the U.S.

The rst delivery took place on June 1, 2012.[236] Deliveries for retail customers in the United States started on
June 22, at a special event held at the Tesla Factory in
Fremont, California.[10] The rst 1,000 production units
were Signature and Signature Performance limited editions equipped with an 85 kWh battery pack. A total
of about 2,650 units were sold during 2012 in North
California is the largest American regional market for the
Model S.[208] In March 2013, Tesla reported the delivery of the 3,000th Model S in California, representing
around 50% of US sales to that date.[237][238] During the
rst quarter of 2013 the Model S ranked as the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the U.S. with about 4,900
units delivered, followed by the Chevrolet Volt with 4,244
units.[142][239][240] During 2013, the Model S was listed as
the least stolen car in the United States, with a theft rating
of just 0.15 per 1,000 units produced. By comparison,
the U.S. average is 3.51 cars stolen per 1,000 produced.
The Honda Accord was the most stolen car in the U.S.
in 2013, with about 54,000 units, mostly models built in
2007 or before.[241]

American sales totaled about 18,000 units in 2013,[119]

placing the Model S as the third selling plug-in electric car after the Chevrolet Volt (23,094) and the Nissan
Leaf (22,610).[246] Also in 2013, the Model S was the
top seller in the full-size luxury sedan category, ahead of
the Mercedes-Benz S-Class at 13,303.[119] During 2014
about 16,550 Model S sedans were delivered, down 8.1%
from 2013, but the electric sedan ranked again as the third
best selling plug-in car in the U.S.[164] During the rst half
of 2015, sales of the Model S surpassed both the Leaf
(9,816) and the Volt (5,622), to become the top selling
plug-in electric car in the U.S. during this time period,
with about 11,900 units sold.[21] Cumulative sales passed
the 50,000 unit milestone in early July 2015.[155]
Retail sales model
Tesla Motors sells its cars directly to consumers without
creating a dealer network, as other manufacturers have
done and as many states require by legislation. In support of its approach, the company has fought legal and
legislative battles in Ohio, New Jersey, New York and
other states.[247][248] With law changes in recent years in
New Jersey, New York, Maryland, Ohio, and Pennsylvania the Tesla direct sales model is permitted in 22 states
as of March 2015.[249][250] As of May 2015 the sales procedure in other states such as Texas is somewhat dierent with the Tesla salesperson being prevented from discussing prices, the actual sale having to be made online
and the sales tax having to be paid up front. Delivery of a
Tesla car to a Texas address is no dierent than in other
states.[251] Consequently, while Tesla showcases and sells
its cars directly to the consumer in Tesla Stores abroad, it
operates a mix of Tesla Stores and Tesla Galleries in the

California is the top selling regional market of the Model S.

Shown in San Francisco.[242]

According to, between January and August 2013 the Model S achieved a high market share of
new car sales among the U.S. most expensive ZIP codes,
as rated by Forbes, led by California. Atherton ranked
rst with a 15.4% share, followed by Los Altos Hills with

In June 2012, the Model S Signature model was priced

at US$95,400 and the Signature Performance model at
US$105,400.[132] On November 29, 2012, Tesla announced an all model price increase of US$2,500 for
new reservations, starting January 1, 2013. The price of
a pre-paid 60 kWh replacement pack was US$10,000,
while the 85 kWh pack was priced at US$12,000, in
2013.[253] As of June 2014, the model with the 60 kWh
pack begins at US$69,900, the base model with the 85


First crash with battery re

kWh pack starts at US$79,900, and the P85 performance model at US$93,400. As of April 2015, the
Model S begins at US$75,000 for the 70 kWh dual-motor
edition, US$80,000 for the 85 kWh single motor edition, US$85,000 for the 85 kWh dual-motor edition, and
US$105,000 for the 85 kWh dual-motor performance
edition. These prices do not reect U.S. federal and local
government tax credits or purchase incentives.[69]


2014 Model S frontal view

while exiting the HOV lane.[257][259][260] Tesla stated that
the re was caused by the direct impact of a large metallic object to one of the 16 battery modules. and that by
design, the modules were separated by rewalls, limiting
the re to a small section in the front of the vehicle.[257]
The module was evidently punctured by a curved section that fell o a truck and was recovered near the accident. Tesla stated that the debris punched a 3-inch (76
mm) diameter hole through the .25-inch (6.4 mm) armor plate under the vehicle, applying force of some 25
tons. Built-in vents directed the ames away from the
vehicle so that the re did not enter the passenger compartment. According to Tesla, the reghters followed
standard procedure; using large amounts of water to extinguish the re was correct,[261] however, puncturing the
metal rewall to gain access to the re also allowed the
ames to spread to the front trunk.[258] Tesla also stated
that because the battery pack contains only about 10%
of the energy contained in a gasoline tank, the eective
combustion potential of a single module is only about 1%
that of a conventional vehicle.[258]
7.1.1 Notable subsequent crashes with battery res
On November 6, 2013 another re broke out after a
Model S struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle.[262] The incidents led Tesla to
extend its vehicle warranty to cover re damage and to apply a software update to increase ground clearance when
operating at highway speed.[263][264]

2014 Model S rear view

Another re incident took place in Toronto, Canada, in

early February 2014. The Model S was parked in a garage
and was not charging when the re started. The origin of
the re is undetermined.[265] According to Tesla in this
particular case, we dont yet know the precise cause, but
have denitively determined that it did not originate in the
battery, the charging system, the adapter or the electrical
receptacle, as these components were untouched by the

The Model S is one of just a few cars to have ever

achieved a 5-star safety rating from both Euro NCAP and
the U.S. National Highway Trac Safety Administration
(NHTSA). Additionally, the Model S is the only car this
year to have achieved both a 5-star Euro NCAP rating and
5 stars in every NHTSA subcategory. Only two other cars
have earned the same recognition since 2011 (when the Starting with vehicle bodies manufactured as of 6 March
2014, all units were outtted with a triple underbody
NHTSA introduced its latest rating scheme).[254]
shield. Existing cars were retrotted upon request or as
part of a normally scheduled service.[267][268]


First crash with battery re

See also: Tesla Model S re incidents

7.1.2 National Highway Trac Safety Administration evaluation

The rst widely reported Model S re occurred several minutes after the vehicle hit metal debris on the
Washington State Route 167 highway in Kent, Washington on October 1, 2013.[257] The driver was able to
exit the highway as instructed by the onboard alert system, bring the car to a stop and depart the vehicle without injury.[258] He then contacted authorities and, while
awaiting their arrival, smoke began coming out the front
of the vehicle. The driver stated that he hit something

On October 24, 2013, the U.S. National Highway Trafc Safety Administration (NHTSA) announced, After
reviewing all available data, the National Highway Trafc Safety Administration has not found evidence at this
time that would indicate the recent battery re involving
a Tesla Model S was the result of a vehicle safety defect or noncompliance with federal safety standards.[269]
But the following month, the NHTSA opened a preliminary evaluation to determine the potential risks associ-



ated with undercarriage strikes on model year 2013 Tesla

Model S vehicles.[264][270] On March 28, 2014, NHTSA
closed its investigation, claiming that the new titanium
underbody shield and aluminum deector plates, along
with increased ground clearance, should reduce both
the frequency of underbody strikes and the resultant re

The Telegraph included the Model S in its list of the

top 10 cars that changed the world published in December 2014, and also named the electric sedan the
most important car of the last 20 years.[285][286]
Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012
Yahoo! Autos 2013 Car of the Year.[288]




American Automobile Association Green Car

Guide 2015, top spot (P85D).[289] The Model S also
won the 2014 AAA Green Car Guide.[290]

2013 Readers Choice Car of the

2013 World Green Car of the Year.[273]
Automobile Magazine's 2013 Car of the Year, a
unanimous decision.[274]
CNET Tech Car of the Year for 2012[275]
Consumer Reports gave the Model S a score of 99 out
of 100, its highest ever. The score would have been
higher except that it does need to stop to recharge
during long-distance drives. If it could recharge in
any gas station in three minutes, this car would score
about 110, said Jake Fisher, head of auto testing for
Consumer Reports. Fisher called the cars performance in the magazines performance tests o the
Consumer Reports 2013 survey of owner satisfaction produced a score of 99 out of 100, the highest the magazine has seen in years.[278] In 2014 the
Model S topped for the second year in a row Consumer Reports survey of owner satisfaction. This
time the Model S had a score of 98 out of 100.[279]

Distance records

425.8 miles (685.3 km) is the distance record in a Model

S on a single charge. It was completed overnight on
February 14, 2013 by Bruno Bowden.[291][292][293] The
rst record of 423.5 miles (681.6 km) was set during
November 2012 by David and Adam Metcalf.[294][295]
These attempts were inspired by a blog written by Elon
Musk about the planned range and eciency of the Tesla
Model S, oering a prize for anyone exceeding 400 miles
(640 km) on a single charge, where it was estimated the
85 kwh model could do it by driving at a constant 36 mph
(58 km/h) under ideal conditions.[296]

9 Controversies
9.1 Range limitation
On February 8, 2013, The New York Times published a
review by John M. Broder about a trip between Washington, D.C., and Boston using Teslas Supercharger network. At the time it included only two stations on the East
Coast. Broder made a variety of critical claims about the
batterys performance in cold weather and the distance
between charging stations. The trip ended with the Model
S carried by a atbed truck to the Milford, Connecticut,

Consumer Reports found the Model S to be 'Best

Overall for 2014 across all 10 categories of cars,
light trucks and SUVs, chosen from more than
260 vehicles the organization has recently tested.
The magazine considers the Model S a technolog- Tesla responded by publishing logs of the vehicles charge
ical tour de force, while pricey, is brimming with levels and driving speed that contradicted Broders acinnovation.[280]
count on several factual details.[298] Tesla implied that
Broders behavior forced the car to fail. Broder replied to
Green Car Reports Best Car To Buy 2013[281]
the criticism in a blog post and suggested that the speed
discrepancies may have been because the car had been
Motor Trend 2013 Car of the Year, also a unaniequipped with 19 inch wheels rather than the specied
mous decision and the rst winner in the awards
21 inch wheels.[299] In the midst of the controversy, a
history to not be powered by an internal combustion
CNN reporter recreated Broders trip without exhausting
the battery. However, two key dierences distinguished
Natural Resources Canada 2013 EcoENERGY for the two journeys. The weather was about 10 F (6 C)
warmer and CNN did the trip in one day; the Times let the
Vehicles Awards in the full-size category[283]
car sit overnight without being plugged in.[300] A reporter
Popular Science's Auto Grand Award Winner Best from CNBC also recreated the trip in one day without
of Whats New list 2012.[284]
incidents.[301] One week later, a group of Tesla owners

recreated Broders trip without problems. One owner was
delayed because his car failed to charge and required two
rmware updates.[302][303]

List of production battery electric vehicles

On February 18, 2013, New York Times Public Editor Margaret Sullivan published an editorial stating that
Broder took casual and imprecise notes of his test
drive and did not use good judgment, but she maintained that the article was done in good faith. She also
claimed that Broders vehicle logs were sometimes quite

Tesla Model X

Revenge of the Electric Car

Tesla Roadster

11 References

In July and September 2014 tests performed by an independent German car magazine in cooperation with the
TV (German Association for Technical Inspection) and
Tesla owners seemed to reveal issues with the batterys
performance. According to the magazine Tesla did not
take up the invitation to repeat the test, and also seemed
to refuse to oer vehicles for a second test.[307][308] A test
performed by another German publication (Die Welt)
supported the ndings.[309]

[1] Brian Lam (2007-02-19). Tesla Whitestar Electric

Sedan: 4 Doors, Half the Price of the Roadster. Retrieved 2012-05-06.


[4] Frank Markus (2012-06-22). 2012 Tesla Model S First

Drive. Motor Trend. Retrieved 2012-06-22.

NHTSA safest car

On August 19, 2013, based on NHTSA safety ratings, a

Tesla press release claimed that the Model S had achieved
the best safety rating of any car ever tested. Tesla stated,
NHTSA does not publish a star rating above 5, however
safety levels better than 5 stars are captured in the overall
Vehicle Safety Score (VSS) provided to manufacturers,
where the Model S achieved a new combined record of
5.4 stars.[310][311][312][313][314] However, a few days later
NHTSA rebutted Teslas claim, explaining that the rating
for the Model S was equal to any other car receiving 5stars, and claiming that the carmaker did not follow its
advertising guidelines.[315][316][317]


Power dissipation when not in use

[2] Merritt Johnson (2008-02-04). Tesla Whitestar to be offered as both an EV and a REV. CNET News. Retrieved
[3] Samuel Abuelsamid (2008-06-12). Super-secret photo
of Tesla Whitestar leaks out of San Carlos. Autoblog
Green. Retrieved 2013-10-08.

[5] Model S Specs and Standard features. Tesla Motors.

Retrieved 2013-08-08.
[6] Model S Optionen und Preis [Model S options and
Price] (in German). Germany: Tesla Motors. Retrieved
[7] Sabatini, Je (November 2014). 2014 Tesla Model S 60
Full Test Review. Car and Driver. Retrieved 2015-0507.
[8] Cantle, Chriss (2014-10-09). Tesla Model S P85D: Dual
motors, AWD, 691 hp, 3.2 to 60. Road and Track. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
[9] Sherman, Don (May 2015). 2015 Tesla Model S 70D.
Car and Driver. Retrieved 2015-05-12.

System software v5.8 (v1.49.30), released December 12,

2013, reduced overnight energy loss substantially, to 1.1 [10] John Boudreau (2012-06-22). In a Silicon Valley milestone, Tesla Motors begins delivering Model S electric
kWh per night, or around 3 miles.[318] In January 2014,
cars. San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
Bjrn Nyland, a Model S owner in Norway, recorded
a range loss of approximately 20% during a 27-day ex[11] EPA rating for 85 kWh Tesla Model S: 89 MPGe, 265tended vacation, an indicated range loss of 63 miles (101
mile range. Green Car Congress. 2012-06-21. Rekm), or 2.3 miles (3.7 km) per day, while stored in frigid
trieved 2012-06-21.
temperatures without any charging cable attached.[319]


See also

Electric car use by country

Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
List of electric cars currently available
List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles

[12] John Voelcker (2012-06-20). 2012 Tesla Model S: EPA

Range Of 265 Miles, 89 MPGe Eciency. Green Car
Reports. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
[13] Sebastian Blanco (2012-06-20). Tesla Model S ocially
rated at 89 MPGe with 265-mile range. Autoblog Green.
Retrieved 2012-06-21.
[14] U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2012-06-21). Compare side-by-side:
2012 Tesla Model S. Retrieved 201206-21.



[15] Grnn bil (2013-10-01). Norges mest solgte bil i september er en elbil [Norways best selling car in September is
an electric vehicle] (in Norwegian). Grnn bil. Retrieved
[16] Mat Gasnier (2013-10-02). Norway September 2013:
Tesla Model S in pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog.
Retrieved 2013-10-02.
[17] John Voelcker (2013-10-01). Tesla Model S Was BestSelling Car In Norway For September. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
[18] Mark Kane (2014-01-04). Tesla Model S Again #1 in
Overall Sales in Norway in December!".
Retrieved 2014-01-04.
[19] Je Cobb (2015-02-11). 2014s Top-10 Global BestSelling Plug-in Cars. Retrieved 201502-11. A total of 31,655 units were sold worldwide in
2014. Global cumulative sales since June 2012 totaled
56,782 Model S cars by the end of 2014.
[20] Je Cobb (2015-06-16). Tesla Due To Sell 75,000th
Model S This Month. Retrieved 201506-17.
[21] Je Cobb (2015-07-02). Tesla Model S Is Top-Selling
Plug-in Car For First Half of 2015.
Retrieved 2015-07-02. An estimated 11,900 Model S
sedans were sold in the U.S. during the rst half of 2015,
and as of June 2015, global cumulative Model S sales totaled 78,334 units sold through June 2015.
[22] Wert, Ray (2007-02-20). Darryl Siry responds to rumor
on Jalopnik forum. Retrieved 2010-1127.
[23] Michael Graham Richard (2008-06-30). Teslas Next
Electric Car to be Called Model S, New Factory to Open
in North California. Retrieved 201205-06.
[24] Monticello, Mike (2008-10-23). Tesla Builds a 4-Door
New and Future Cars. Road & Track (Hachette Filipacchi Media, U.S., Inc.). Retrieved 2011-05-04.
[25] Tesla debuts electric car for the masses. CBC News.
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12 Further reading
van Gilluwe, Frank (2013). Tesla Model S - Best Car
Ever! (1st. ed.). FAQware. ISBN 978-0-98606890-4. See book review: Tesla Model S Best Car
Ever!" is the Book All Model S Owners Should Own
(Book Review), InsideEVs, December 13, 2013.
Howe, Nick J. (2014). Owning Model S: The Denitive Guide to Buying and Owning the Tesla Model
S (1st. ed.). See book review: Owning A Tesla
Model S: New Book Oers Tips, Tricks, Inside Info
(Book Review), Green Car Reports, May 27, 2014.

13 External links
Ocial website
2012 Tesla Model S test and range verication
Comparison of the Model S against other PEVs
available in the U.S., Business Insider
Should Battery Fires Drive Electric Cars O the
Road?, Scientic American, November 12, 2013.
Road test, Total Car Magazine
Track test, Teslarati
Tesla Model S EV Safety Training for Emergency
Responders, YouTube. Production: Ron Moore and
Brock Archer, with collaboration of Tesla Motors,
October 2013.





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