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Problem 13 (Core: DSP-ECE2025) Code Number:. ‘This problem has two parts (a) The following Fourier transform pair states that the Fourier transform of a Gaussian is another Gaussian: : at) ‘The Fourier transiorm of the following differentiated Gaussian — Oliu) 2 x(t) = —100t e725" is found to be A X(jw) = jwVO.16r e—0-0le" Explain how Xj) is obtained. Inchide explicit mention of all Fourier transform properties that, would have to be used, State your reasons in complete sentences, (b) The diagram in Fig, B depicts a cascade connection of two linear time-invariant systems, ie, the output of the first system is the input to the second system, and the overall output is the output of the second system, Li fn] Lt system #1 LEED) system 2 ul Jalal fafn) Figure B: Cascade connection of two diserete-time LTT systems. System #1 is a causal IR filter whose impulse response hi [1] i u(r), the unit step signal. Determine the impulse response of System #2 so that the impulse response of the overall system is h{n] = fn] ~ d[p 4). The signals ufn] and d[n] are plotted below: ufr] Stn] tts : i B34 oop 4 Problem 14 (Core: DSP-ECE3075) Code Number: Let X € {0, 1} be a discrete random variable satisfying Pr[X p, Pr[X = 0] = 1-p. Let U be an independent random variable that is uniformly distributed over the interval (0, 1) Let ¥ = exp{U*}. (@) Find an equation for the probability density function fy{y) of ¥: Sketch it. (b) Find the correlation Z| XY] 15 Problem 15 (Core: S&C-ECE3085) Code Number:. = a Gs) Consider the feedback control system shown in the diagram above, where G(s) = ot and G(s) = % for some @ > 0 and an integer k. u(t) is the reference input, and y(¢) is the system's, response. The problem concems tracking of the reference input u by the response y. 1) Suppose that u(t) is the step fimetion, namely u(#) = 1 for all t > 0. Let a = 1.3. Compute the smallest value of / such that, Jim e(t) = 0 (hint: first, derive the transfer function from u to «), 2) Suppose that u(t) is the step function, and let k= 1, Compute the range of values of a, a> 0, such that Jim le(| < 0.1. 3) Suppose that «(f) is the ramp function, namely u(t) = ¢ for all t > 0, and let k = 2. Does there exist a > 0 such that im [e(| << 0.12 If “no”, explain why; and if “yes”, find the range of a, a > 0, for which the above asymptotic bound is satisfied. 16 Problem 16 (Core: S&C-ECE3085) Code Number:. Figure 1: Feedback control system Consider the feedback system of Figure 1. The model of the physical system is given by a second order transfer function G(s) = qoytargy- The block denoted by C(s) represents the transfer function of a controller which you must design in order to guarantee: Analysis of the response is done for # > 0 with the initial conditions assumed to be zero. Also, the contoller needs to be a first order system at most (and strictly proper). 1, zero steady state tracking error when the input 7(é) is a step func- tion (assuming that the disturbance d(t) is also a step function) , i Timyoo e(t) = 2. Purther, i he feedback control does not oscillate at all, and 3. your design should achieve the minimal possible tracking error at state when the input is a unit ramp function, i.e., when r(t) Problem 13 (Core: DSP-ECE2025) {a) The following Fourier transform pair states that the Fourier transform of a Gaussian is another Gaussian: a . o(t}=et ve 4 ‘The Fourier transform of the following differentiated Gaussian + GUiw) 52 100 e~ 254 a(t)= is found to be X (ju) = je VO-Tos e~0-0Le? Explain how X (jw) is obtained. Include explicit mention of all Fouvier transform properties that would have to be used. State your reasons in complete sentences. ANSWER: Tho sigual 2(#) is a time-sealed version of g(t) that is also differentiated and then multiplied by a constant. If we use the derivative we can write a(t) as as st? a(t) = on 251? — 9(_95)(2t) e-25" = —100t ‘Therefore, we got :e(f) in terms of g(t) as at) -g(5t) which means that we time-scale by 5, then take a derivative and then multiply by 2. In the Fourier domain; therefore, we must frequeuey seale G(jis) by 1/5 (and multiply by 1/5), then multiply by jw and also multiply by 2. The result is X (ie) = Aju) (1/5)G ju 5) = (2/9) jee) Ve W/V — (0.4) jen) Ve HL 100 ‘The Ginal result is obtained by moving 0.4 under the square root and writing 1/100 as 0.01. 15 Problem 13 (Continued) (b) The diagram in Fig, B depicts a cascade connection of two linear time-invariant systems, ie., the output of the first system is the inpnt to the second system, and the overall output is the output of the second system. Held sytem gt LLL sytem 42 vil fala] Fala] Figure B: Caseade connection of two discrete-time LTI systems. System #1 is a causal IIR filter whose impulse response hy{n] is e{n], the unit step signal. Determine the impulse response of System 42 so that the impulse response of the overall system is h(n] = 4[n] = Sf ~ 4]. The signals u(r} and é[n} are plotted below: un} Sin] 1 Ailes to 3 4 n 3° 10 12 3 4 ANSWER: If the problem is converted to the z-transform domain, then the condition that the cascade system has an overall impulse response of h{n] = 4[n] - é{n — 2}. Taf] «hg 4{n} — 6m 4} is equivalent to, which implies that ‘Tims the z-transform H(z) is and the inverse z-transform gives: haln] = S|] ~ dfn — 1] — dfn — 4] + fn — 5] 16 Problem 14 (Core: DSP-ECE3075) SoueTioN Let X € {0, 1} be a binary random variable satisfying Pr[X = 1] =p, Pr[X = 0) = 1~p. Let U be an independent random variable that is uniformly distributed over the interval (0, 1). Let ¥ = exp{U%}, Yis a mived continuous-discrete candom variable, taking on values in the interval (1, e}. Ttachieves its maximal vaine with a nonzeso probability. namely Pr[Y= e] = Pr] (Find an equation for the probability density function fyly) of ¥ The cdf for y in the open interval (1, ¢) can be found: Fly) = Prl¥ Sy] = Prlexp{U} < y] = PHU* stog(y)] = PriU¥ s log(y)|X = OPr|[X = 0] + Px{U* He | : d : d= £ Hee &1t*GW)6o + oe Gt sth & setisny 7% se (say er) ae check pet sta Gib, : ae Gir ast BS See to4 a * oer, se Ha spoten a 5 ole ae» SK 5 oO Problem 15 (Continued) 2. H, > = (sr) wry t& Stab Loby : SF ASH] Te \ {ra ee ta stab WY &>O- A As " Aa caale H.© eo lt gol pro Peo Fore 0.4 CON a>4 20 Problem 15 (Continued) cig= SN os sisnyer® s (st) stu ye tas pe sph Qe shold, Pate Met - Jim & BIS £ ge a \ = dim St * - = sg Gre AZO far ie eH EOL, 4 «ot { tan Bad for stb dhy, SA Ler sre : 4 . ya >? O*D rob. - Problem 16 (Core: S&C-ECE3085) Solution: For zero steady state error to a step command input we need an integrator in the loop, i.e., type 1 system. For the system step response not to oscillate we need that the system is either critically damped or overdamped. The last requirement [iii] tells us that we need to have the largest possible gain which allows [ii], hence the system has to be critically damped. Since the controller needs to be first order, assuming that it is to be strictly proper, the only option we have is to set K Cs and moreover, that K S414 100) has two identical real roots. Therefore, 1+ s(s+1)(3+100)+K = (5+a)(s +b)? = 2° + (a+ 2b)s? + (0? + 2ab)s + 0d? 3 +101s? + 1008+ K and hence #4 2(101 — 2b) = 100 and b = 66.8 or b= 0.5, Then a = 101 — 2b takes values —32.7 and 100 re- spectively. Also K = ab? takes values —145, 930 and 25 respectively. Clearly, the choice K = —145, 930 leads to an unstable system and is not acceptable. Thus, K needs to be selected as 25 and the controller is os