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Geometry

Equation of a circle: (x h )2 + ( y k )2 = r 2 ,

Center = (h, k ) , Radius = r

Quadratic Function: y = ax 2 + bx + c ,

Quadratic Equation

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

Quadratic Formula

b

b2

Vertex = , c

4a

2a

x=

b b 2 4ac

2a

d = ( x2 x1 ) + ( y 2 y1 )

Distance Formula:

y y1

1

, Parallel lines: m1 = m2 , Perpendicular lines: m1 =

Slope: m = 2

m2

x2 x1

Point-Slope Formula: y y1 = m(x x1 )

Slope-Intercept Form: y = mx + b , Horizontal Line: y = b, Vertical Line: x = a

(m = 0)

(m undefined)

Standard Form:

Ax + By = C

x + x y + y2

Midpoint Formula: 1 2 , 1

2

2

2

Factoring

Difference of Squares:

a 2 b 2 = (a b )(a + b )

2

(1) (a + b ) = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

(2)

(a b )2 = a 2 2ab + b 2

Difference of Cubes

a 3 b 3 = (a b )(a 2 + ab + b 2 )

Sum of Cubes

(1)

a 3 + b 3 = (a + b )(a 2 ab + b 2 )

(2)

Exponents/Radicals

b 0 = 1, (b 0)

b b n = b m+ n

m

(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab 2 + b 3

(a b )3 = a 3 3a 2b + 3ab 2 b 3

Imaginary Number

i = 1

i = 1

x, if x 0

x =

x, if x < 0

i 3 = i

a = a2

(b )

m n

= b mn

bm

= b mn

n

b

1

b n = n

b

1

= bn

n

b

n

b =b

n

(ab )

an

a

= n

b

b

a

b

= b

b

=

a

i4 = 1

n

ab = n a n b

a na

=

, (b 0)

b nb

1

n

= a nb n

Absolute Value

For a > 0,

x = a x = a or x = a

x < a (x > a and x < a )

( a < x < a )

Area (A) is the amount of square units of space an object occupies.

Perimeter (P) is the distance around a figure.

Square: A quadrilateral (4-sided figure)

2.

Triangle: A 3-sided figure

1.

with four 90o (right) angles and four equal sides.

s

A = s2

s1

h

P = 4s

Rectangle:

1

Bh

2

P = B + s1 + s2

(height)

s

3.

A=

s2

B

Right Triangle: triangle with a 90o (right)

4.

angle

A=LxW

C (Hypotenuse)

A

(Leg)

(width)

P = 2L + 2W

B (Leg)

Pythagorean Theorem

2

2

2

A +B =C

A=Bxh

P = 2B + 2s

h (height)

1

A B

2

P = A +B +C

L (length)

5.

A=

B (base)

6.

B1 (base)

s1

h

(height)

s2

1

h(B1 + B2 ) and

2

P = B1 + B2 + s1 + s2

A=

B2 (base)

7.

Circle: A set of points a constant distance (radius) from a given point (center).

Radius (r)

A = r

Diameter (d)

(distance across the

circle)

C = 2r

d = 2r or r =

d

2

center

(distance from

center to circle)

Circumference

(C)

(distance around

the circle)

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