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# Algebra Formulas

Geometry
Equation of a circle: (x h )2 + ( y k )2 = r 2 ,
Center = (h, k ) , Radius = r

Quadratic Function: y = ax 2 + bx + c ,

Quadratic Equation
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Quadratic Formula

b
b2
Vertex = , c
4a
2a

x=

b b 2 4ac
2a

d = ( x2 x1 ) + ( y 2 y1 )
Distance Formula:
y y1
1
, Parallel lines: m1 = m2 , Perpendicular lines: m1 =
Slope: m = 2
m2
x2 x1
Point-Slope Formula: y y1 = m(x x1 )
Slope-Intercept Form: y = mx + b , Horizontal Line: y = b, Vertical Line: x = a
(m = 0)
(m undefined)
Standard Form:
Ax + By = C
x + x y + y2
Midpoint Formula: 1 2 , 1

2
2
2

Factoring
Difference of Squares:
a 2 b 2 = (a b )(a + b )

## Perfect Square Binomials:

2
(1) (a + b ) = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

(2)

(a b )2 = a 2 2ab + b 2

Difference of Cubes
a 3 b 3 = (a b )(a 2 + ab + b 2 )

## Perfect Cube Binomials

Sum of Cubes

(1)

a 3 + b 3 = (a + b )(a 2 ab + b 2 )

(2)

Exponents/Radicals
b 0 = 1, (b 0)
b b n = b m+ n
m

(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab 2 + b 3
(a b )3 = a 3 3a 2b + 3ab 2 b 3
Imaginary Number
i = 1

i = 1

x, if x 0
x =
x, if x < 0

i 3 = i

a = a2

(b )

m n

= b mn

bm
= b mn
n
b
1
b n = n
b

1
= bn
n
b
n

b =b
n

(ab )

an
a
= n
b
b
a

b

= b

b
=
a

i4 = 1
n

ab = n a n b

a na
=
, (b 0)
b nb

1
n

= a nb n

Absolute Value

For a > 0,
x = a x = a or x = a
x < a (x > a and x < a )
( a < x < a )

## Area & Perimeter Formulas

Area (A) is the amount of square units of space an object occupies.
Perimeter (P) is the distance around a figure.
Square: A quadrilateral (4-sided figure)
2.
Triangle: A 3-sided figure
1.
with four 90o (right) angles and four equal sides.

s
A = s2

s1
h

P = 4s

Rectangle:

## A quadrilateral with four 90 (right) angles.

1
Bh
2

P = B + s1 + s2

(height)

s
3.

A=

s2

B
Right Triangle: triangle with a 90o (right)

4.

angle

A=LxW

C (Hypotenuse)

A
(Leg)

(width)

P = 2L + 2W

B (Leg)

## Parallelogram: A quadrilateral with equal opposite sides.

Pythagorean Theorem
2
2
2

A +B =C

A=Bxh
P = 2B + 2s

h (height)

1
A B
2

P = A +B +C

L (length)
5.

A=

B (base)
6.

## Trapezoid: A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides.

B1 (base)
s1

h
(height)

s2

1
h(B1 + B2 ) and
2
P = B1 + B2 + s1 + s2
A=

B2 (base)
7.

Circle: A set of points a constant distance (radius) from a given point (center).
Radius (r)

A = r

Diameter (d)
(distance across the
circle)

C = 2r
d = 2r or r =

d
2

center

(distance from
center to circle)

Circumference
(C)
(distance around
the circle)