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KEY CONCEPT

Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties.

Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms.

Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures.

straight chain branched chain ring

Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. • Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other

Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together.

Monomers are the individual subunits. Polymers are made of many monomers.

• Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together. – Monomers are the

There are four main types of biological molecules

1. carbohydrates

2. lipids 3. proteins

4. nucleic acids

Carbohydrates

made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Carbohydrates made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates Examples: – Monomer: monosaccharides – Glucose, galactose, fructose in fruit – Disaccharides: two monomers –

Examples:

Monomer: monosaccharides Glucose, galactose, fructose in fruit Disaccharides: two monomers

Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar)

Polymers: polysaccharides

Starches (in veggies), cellulose (plants), and glycogen.

Carbohydrates Examples: – Monomer: monosaccharides – Glucose, galactose, fructose in fruit – Disaccharides: two monomers –

Identify two of each:

monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide.

Function:

quick energy and main source of energy some carbohydrates are part of cell structure.

Polymer (starch)

Function : • quick energy and main source of energy • some carbohydrates are part of

Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure.

Polymer (cellulose) monomer
Polymer (cellulose)
monomer

Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structure

Choose the correct pair:

A.Monosaccharide- starch B.Polysaccharide- table sugar C.Disaccharide- fruit D.Polysaccharide- veggies

Lipids

Examples:

nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, waxes and hormones

Lipids Examples: • nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, waxes and hormones

Lipids

Many contain carbon chains called fatty acids. Fats and oils contain fatty acids bonded to glycerol.

Draw a triglyceride. How is it different than a carbohydrate?

Triglyceride

Lipids – Many contain carbon chains called fatty acids. – Fats and oils contain fatty acids

Function:

broken down as a source of energy make up cell membranes used to make hormones insulate the body

Fats and oils have different types of fatty acids.

saturated fatty acids unsaturated fatty acids

What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fat?

• Fats and oils have different types of fatty acids. – saturated fatty acids – unsaturated

Phospholipids make up all cell membranes.

Polar phosphate “head” Nonpolar fatty acid “tails”

Phospholipid

• Phospholipids make up all cell membranes. – Polar phosphate “head” – Nonpolar fatty acid “tails”

Give the correct function of lipids:

A.Quick energy B.Insulate the body C.Store genetic information D.Body structures

Proteins

Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

Monomers- amino acids 20 different types Polymers- amino acids chains (proteins)

Proteins – Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen – Monomers - amino acids – 20

Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers.

Twenty different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms. Amino acids differ in side groups, or R groups. Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds.

• Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers. – Twenty different amino acids are used to

Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids.

– Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape. Hemoglobin hydrogen bond
– Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape.
Hemoglobin
hydrogen bond

Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function.

Proteins

Examples

Forms skin, muscle, hair and bone collagen and keratin Enzymes Meat, cheese, beans, nuts, seeds

Proteins Examples – Forms skin, muscle, hair and bone – collagen and keratin – Enzymes –

Functions

Do the “work” in cells Structure of the body (hair, skin, nails) Energy

Functions – Do the “work” in cells – Structure of the body (hair, skin, nails) –

Choose the correct pair for proteins:

A. monomer- amino acids….polymer- fatty acid

  • B. monomer- monosaccharide….polymer- protein

C. monomer- amino acids….polymer-

polypeptide chain

  • D. monmer- nucleotide… polymer-

..

polysaccharide

Nucleic Acids

Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and

phosphorus

Monomers- nucleotide Made of phosphate, sugar and nitrogen base 5 bases- adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine and uracil

Nucleic Acids – Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus – Monomers - nucleotide –
Nucleic Acids – Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus – Monomers - nucleotide –

Nucleic Acids

Polymers-nucleic acid chain DNA RNA

Nucleic Acids – Polymers -nucleic acid chain – DNA – RNA

Functions

DNA-stores genetic information RNA- makes proteins

DNA RNA
DNA
RNA

What is a nucleotide made of?

A.Sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base B.Sugar, phosphate and fatty acid tail C.Chains of amino acids D.Chains of carbon based rings

Life depends on chemical reactions.

Life depends on chemical reactions.

Bonds break and form during chemical reactions.

Chemical reactions change substances into different ones by breaking and forming chemical bonds.

Reactants are changed during a chemical reaction.

Products are made by a chemical reaction.

CO 2 + H 2 O

H 2 CO 3

Bond energy is the amount of energy that breaks a bond.

Energy is added to break bonds. Energy is released when bonds form.

• Bond energy is the amount of energy that breaks a bond. – Energy is added

Chemical reactions release or absorb energy.

Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed to start a chemical reaction.

Chemical reactions release or absorb energy. • Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs
Chemical reactions release or absorb energy. • Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs

A catalyst lowers activation energy.

Catalysts are substances that speed up chemical reactions. decrease activation energy increase reaction rate

A catalyst lowers activation energy. • Catalysts are substances that speed up chemical reactions. • decrease

PAC MAN VIDEO QUESTIONS

Why does PAC MAN remind us of enzymes?

What does the enzyme do to the substrate?

What are enzymes made of?

What do enzymes have the ability to do?

What two things affect enzymes?

What is an example of an enzyme?

PAC MAN VIDEO QUESTIONS

Why does PAC MAN remind us of enzymes?

It fits the substrate

hat does the enzyme do to the substrate?

Breaks it down or builds it up

hat are enzymes made of?

Proteins

at do enzymes have the ability to do?

Speed up reactions

What two things affect enzymes?

pH and temperature

What is an example of an enzyme?

Lactase

Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions.

Enzymes are catalysts in living things.

Enzymes are needed for almost all processes. Most enzymes are proteins.

Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions. • Enzymes are catalysts in living

An enzyme’s structure allows only certain reactants to bind to the enzyme.

substrates active site

substrates (reactants) enzyme
substrates
(reactants)
enzyme

Substrates bind to an enzyme at certain places called active sites.

The lock-and-key model helps illustrate how enzymes function.

substrates brought together bonds in substrates weakened

• The lock-and-key model helps illustrate how enzymes function. – substrates brought together – bonds in

Substrates bind to an enzyme at certain places called active sites.

The enzyme brings substrates together and weakens their bonds.

The catalyzed reaction forms a product that is released from the enzyme.

An enzyme will no longer work if conditions change

Each enzyme has a specific temperature and pH that it works at

Example- lactase works at pH of 6 and 37 degrees C

If you change the optimal temperature and pH the enzyme will denature or fall apart

These break hydrogen bonds and the structure of the enzyme changes so that it will no longer work

• An enzyme will no longer work if conditions change • Each enzyme has a specific

Naming Enzymes

Enzymes have –ase at the end of their name

The beginning of the enzyme tells you what

it breaks down

Ex- lactASE breaks down LACTose

GlucASE breaks down GLUcose