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myF 1 : fy;tp cstpaypd; jd;ikAk;> tuk;Gk;


UNIT I : NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
cstpay; my;yJ kdtpay; tiuaiw!
tiuaiw!(Definition of Psychology)
Psychology

irf;fp
(Psyche)

caph;> Md;kh (cs;sk;)> Rak;

Nyhf];
(Longus)

mwptpay; (Muha;jy; my;yJ gbj;jy;)

 Psychology Greek Words (fpNuf;f thh;ji


; j)
 cstpay;  Md;kh  kdk;  elj;ij  cl;nthh;j;
 cstpay; - elj;ijfisg; gw;wp mwpAk; mwptpay;
gpNsl;Nlh
tpy;ypak; N[k;]>;
fhd;l;


mhp];lhby;
tpy;nfy;kT
; z;l;
Md;kh
 kdk;
 fdT epiy

 cl;nthh;j;
 elj;ij

cstpay;

 gpNsl;Nlh> mhp];lhl;by; - cstpay; xU Md;kh mwptpay;.


 xU E}w;whz;Lf; fhyj;jpy; jhd; jj;Jt Qhdpfs;
Qhdpfs; cstpaiy kdmwptpay; vd;wdh;.
 tpy;ypak; N[k;]>; tpy;nfy;k; cz;l; (1879 Kjy; cstpay; Ma;tfk; - yPyr
; pf;> n[h;kdp) edT epiy mwptpay;
mwptpay (19-k; E}w;whz;L)
 edT epiy (Consious) - njhpe;J nfhs;Sjy;
jy (m) tpopg;G.
 xU kdpjdpd; xl;Lnkhj;j elj;ijNa cstpayhFk;.
 cl;nthh;j; - Md;
Md;kh - kdk; - edT epiy> elj;ij
j (gpwg;G Kjy; ,wg;G tiu) nra;af; $ba
nray;ghl;ilf; Fwpf;Fk;.
cstpaypd; tiuaiwfs;
tiuaiwfs :
 tpy;
tpy;ypak; kf;^fy;
fy (England) (,ay;G+f;ff; nfhs;ifapd; je;ij) - cstpay; vd;gJ
kdpjdpd; elj;ij> elj;ijapd; fhuzq;fs;> epge;jidfs; Mfpatw;iwg; gw;wpg; gbg;gjhFk;
 ny];lh; FNuh & Myp];FNuh cstpay; vd;gJ kdpjdpd; elj;ij> kdpj cwTKiwfisg;
gw;wpg; gbg;gjhFk;.
 ghud; (2001) - (elj;ijfs; + mwpTg;Gyr; nray;ghLfs;) cstpay; vd;gJ elj;ijiaAk;
jiaAk
mwptpg;Gyr; nray;ghLfisAk;
hLfisAk tpsf;Fk; mwptpay;.
 cstpaypd; ,yf;Ffs;
fs : (4) Scope of Psychology
(i) kdpj elj;ijia tpthpj;jy;
(ii) tpsf;Fjy;
(iii) Kd;$l;bNa fzpj;jy;
(iv) fl;Lg;gLj;Jjy; (m) khw;wpaikj;jy;.

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 kdk; 3 epiyfspy; ,aq;FfpwJ :


(i) rpe;jpj;jy;
(ii) czh;jy;
(iii) Gwr; nray;fisj; J}z;Ljy;
cstpaypy; Fwpg;gpljf;fth;fs; tUkhW :
 `hh;kpf; nfhs;if - tpy;ypak; kf;^fy; (,q;fpyhe;J) (,ay;G+f;ff; nfhs;if)
 `hh;kpf; nfhs;if :
kdpjNdh>

tpyq;Nfh>

jdJ

elj;ijia

ntspg;gLj;Jk;

NghJ

cs;Nehf;fq;fs;

Gyg;gLfpd;wd.
 tbtikg;Gf; Nfhl;ghL - bl;rdh :
kdk; mwpTrhh; ,af;fKilaJ.
 cstpaiy elj;ijapay; vd;W $wpath;fs; :
i) J.B.thl;rd; (America)
iv) fj;jNu

ii) Nlhy;kd;

iii) `g;

v) ];fpd;dh; (America)
vi) jhh;zi
; lf;
(fUtp rhh; Mf;f epiyAWj;jy; Nfhl;ghL)

 rpe;jid vd;gJ cs;sj;jpd;


d (mnkhpf;fh)
pd; nray; vd;gij kWj;jth; - thl;rd;
 kuGf; nfhs;ifia Vw;Wf; nfhs;shjth; - thl;rd;.
 #o;epiyNa kdpjid cUthf;FfpwJ - thl;rd;
d.
 kf;^fypd; ,ay;G+f;ff; nfhs;ifia kWj;jth;fs; - elj;ijthjpfs; (i, ii, iii, iv, v)
 #o;epiyNa xUtDila elj;ij khw;wj;jpw;Fg; ngUk; fhuzk; - gh;dhh;l; (#o;epiy thjp)
 elj;ij Nfhl;ghl;bw;F vjph;gG
; j; njhptpf;Fk; Nfhl;ghL - KOikf;
KOikf; fhl;rpf; Nfhl;ghL (1912)
nf];lhy;l; Nfhl;ghL
 nf];lhy;l; - n[h;khdpar; nrhy;
nrhy.
nghUs; - KOik> cUtk;> tbtk;> Njhw;wk;.
 csg;gFg;Gf; Nfhl;ghL - rpf;kz;l; gpuha;L (M];jphpah)
 g;uha;blk; ,Ue;J gphpe;J
i) Ml;yh;
ii) A+q;
iii) fhh;y; Nuh[h;]; -

nrd;wth;fs; ::jdp egh; cstpay;


gFg;G cstpay;
kdpj Nea cstpay;

kh];Nyh  Njitg;gbepiyf; Nfhl;ghL (mnkhpf;fh)


 cstpay; - caph; r%ftpay;
 kdpj elj;ijapd; $Wfs; :- (2)
i)

edT mDgtq;fs;
s :-

(v.fh) grp> typ> fhakiljy;> nghUs; thq;Fjy;> gzk; nfhLj;jy; Nghd;wit.


ii) ed
edtpyp
tpyp mDgtq;fs;
s :(v.fh) rpyhplk; fhuzkpd;wp Nfhgg;gLjy;> rpyhplk; clNd el;Gf; nfhs;Sjy;.
 E.H.ntgh
.ntgh;
.ntgh :cstpay; ghpNrhjidfSf;F tpj;jpl;lth;
ntgh; tpjp - Gyd; Efh;Tfis mstpLk; Kiwfis Muha;jy;.
tbtikg;Gf; Nfhl;ghL - bl;
; dh;
blr
dh.

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 G.T.ngr;
.ngr;dh; :- (1860)
cs
cs ,aw;gpay;
pay vd;w E}y; vOjpdhh;.
ntghpd; Ma;it nrk;ikg;gLj;jpath;.
 tpy;nfy;k; cz;l; :- (1879)
Kjy; cstpay; Ma;tfk; - yPgr
; pf; vd;w ,lk; n[h;kdp.
dp
cstpay; vd;gJ edT epiy mwptapy; vd;W $wpath; - tpy;nfy;kT
; z;l.;
 rh;
rh.; gpuhd;rp]; fhy;ld;
d :- (,q;fpyhe;J)
Gs;spapay; mbg;gilapy; jdpegh; NtWghLfis mstpl;lth;.
 fhl;ly;
y :- (America)
cstpay; ghpNrhjidfs; mbg;gilapy; jdpegh; NtWghLfis mstpl;lth;.
 nk];kh;
h :- kUj;Jt cstpay; Kiwfs;.
 gpahN[ :- (Rtpl;rh;yhe;J) mwpT rhh;e;j cstpay; Nfhl;ghL.
 rpf;kz;l; gpuha;L :- csg;gFg;gha;Tf; Nfhl;ghL. (M];jphpah - 20-k; E}w;whz;bd; njhlf;fk;)
 My;gpul; gpNd :- Ez;zwpTr; Nrhjidapd; je;ij.
France

Ez;zwpTr; Nrhjidfs;.

 ];fpd;dh; :- (mnkhpf;fh)
fUtprhh; Mf;f epiyapWj;jk; (G+id)
 ntf;]y
; h; :- taJ te;NjhUf;fhd Ez;zwpT.
cstpay; Kiwfs;!(METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY)
i)

mfNehf;FKiw :- (jw;Nrhjid Kiw (m) Ra cw;W Nehf;Fjy; Kiw)


kpfTk; gz;ila Kiw.
 gpugykhf;fpath;  E.B.bl;rd
; h;  tbtikg;Gf; Nfhl;ghL  Ma;Tf;fsk; (1887 - 1927)
Intro cs;Ns
Spection Muha;jy;

Lakin Word

 cz;l; $w;W - xUth; jdJ mDgtq;fisj; jhNd cs;Nehf;fpg; ghh;j;J tpthpj;jYk;>


mt;thW tpthpf;fg;gl;ltw;iwg; gFj;jha;e;J tifg;gLj;JjYk; mfNehf;FKiw.
 Foe;ijfs; kdeyk; Fd;wpath;fs;> tpyq;Ffs;> ,e;j mfNehf;FKiw %yk; gad;ngw
,ayhJ.
 kdr; nray;ghLfs; gw;wp mwpaTk;> tpjpfis cUthf;fTk; rpwe;j Kiw mfNehf;FKiw.
ii) cw;WNehf;fy; Kiw :- (GwNehf;FKiw)
 ve;jtpjf; fUtpAkpd;wp gpwuJ elj;ijiaf; $h;e;J ftdpf;Fk; Kiw.
 cw;W Nehf;fy; Kiwapd; nray;epiyfs;
piyfs :- (4)
 Gyd;fhl;rp (elj;ijia czh;jy;)
 elj;ijiaf; Fwpj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;.
 Nrfhpf;fg;gl;l elj;ijf; $W tptuq;fisg; gFj;J Muha;jy;.
 nghJ cz;ikfisg; ngWjy;.
 tiffs; : fl;Lg;ghLs;s - fl;Lg;ghlw;w cw;WNehf;fy;.
 gq;Nfw;Fk;

gq;Nfw;fh cw;WNehf;fy;

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 ,aw;ifahd -

(fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l) nraw;ifahd cw;WNehf;fy;.

 jpl;lkplg;gl;l -

vNjr;irahd cw;WNehf;fy;

 cw;WNehf;fy; -

Gyd;fs; %yk; Rw;Wg;Gwj;ij mwptJ.

cw;W Nehf;fy; :- GwNehf;F Kiw.


 ve;jtpjf; fUtpAkpd;wp gpwuJ elj;ijiaf; $h;e;J ftdpf;Fk; Kiw.
1) fl;Lg;ghlw;w cw;W Nehf;fy; (fsj;jpy; cw;WNehf;fy;)
2) fl;Lg;ghLs;s cw;W Nehf;fy;.
gz;Gfs;
fs : jug;gLj;jg;gl;l jd;ik
 kiwf;fg;gl;l jd;ik
 Fwpg;gpl;l elj;ij.
cw;W Nehf;fspy; cs;s gpiofs; :1) elj;ijf; $Wfspy; gpio.
2) cw;WNehf;Fgthpd; gpio.
rpwe;j cw;WNehf;fypd; 5 gbfs;
gbfs :(S-R-Learning) - J}z;ly; - Jyq;fy; ,izg;Gf; fw;wy;
 jhh;zi
; lf;> N`fd;
N`fd
1) Fwpg;gpl;l elj;ijiaj; Njh;en
; jLj;jy;.
2) elj;ijia tiuaWj;jy;.
3) cw;WNehf;fp mwpgth;fSf;Fg; gapw;rp.
4) cw;W Nehf;Fk; elj;ijia mspj;jy;.
5) cw;W Nehf;fpajijg; gjpT nra;jy;.
iii) tho;fi
; fj; JZf;F Kiw : cw;WNehf;fy; KiwAld; njhlh;GilaJ.
 tho;fi
; f epfo;rr
; pfis njhFj;J itf;Fk; Kiw.
 FLk;g tuyhW ,Uf;fhJ.
tpdh thpir :
i)

cstpaYk;>

ii) r%ftpaYk; gad;gLk;.


iv) fs Ma;T Kiw : xU epfo;rr
; pia> mJ epfOk; ,aw;ifahd #o;epiyapy; cw;WNehf;fp MuhAk; Kiw.
 r%f cstpaYk;> fy;tp cstpaYk; nghpJk; gad;gLfpwJ.
 tpdh thpirfs;> ju msTNfhy;fs;> FwpaPL gl;bay;fs; Nghd;wit gad;gLk;.
v) ghpNrhjid Kiw : ghpNrhjid = fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fl;gl;l cw;WNehf;fy; (Controled group)
 Kjy; cstpay; Ma;Tf;$lk; :- n[h;kdp.
 tpy;nfy;k; cz;l; - yPgr
; pf; efh; - 1879.
 cstpay; vd;gJ edT epiymwptpay; vd;W $wpath;.

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vi) tsh;rr
; p Ma;T Kiw : tsh;rr
; p Kiw ,Utifg;gLk;.
i)

ePs; Ma;T Kiw :- `hh;thh;l; Muha;rr


; p> gpahN[ Muha;rr
; p.

ii) FWf;F Ma;TKiw :- \ph;yp> yhd; My;];Dld;.


 ePs; Ma;T Kiw :xU tsh;rr
; pg; gbepiyapYs;s gy FOe;ijfisj; njhlh;e;J gy Mz;Lfs; cw;WNehf;Fk; Kiw.
(v.fh)
i)

`hh;thh;l; tsh;rr
; p Muha;rr
; p - 3500 Foe;ijfs; + 12 Mz;Lfs; Nrhjid.

ii) gpahN[ Muha;rr


; p (Switzerland)
mwpT rhh;e;j cstpay; Nfhl;ghL.
 FWf;
; Ma;T Kiw :FWfF
gy tsh;rr
; p epiyfspy; cs;NshuJ elj;ijiaf; ftdpj;J xg;G Nehf;Fk;Kiw.
 jdpahs; Ma;T Kiw :xU Foe;ij> xU FLk;gk;> xU thypgf;FO> xU kd;wk;> xU ,dk;> xU rKjhak;> xU ehL.
(v.fh)
\ph;yp> yhd; My;]i
; ld; Nghd;NwhuJ Foe;ijfspd; tpisahl;Lfs; gw;wpa Ma;Tfs;.
vii) jdpahs; Ma;T Kiw :- (kUj;Jt cstpay; Kiw yk];kh;)
 ,J kUj;Jt Kiw> jdpayF Ma;T Kiw> ePzl
; jpus; gjpNtl;L Ma;TKiw vd;Wk;
miof;fg;gLfpwJ.
 xU Foe;ijiag; gw;wp> xU rKjhaj;ijg; gw;wp> xU ,dj;ijg; gw;wp.
gbepiyfs; : gpur;rpidf;Fhpa myifj; njhpT nra;jy;.
 Njh;en
; jLj;j myF Fwpj;j jfty;fisg; gy;NtW topfspYk; jpul;Ljy;.
 gpur;rpidf;fhd fhuzq;fis Cfpj;jy;.
 gpur;rpidia rPhn
; ra;Ak; Kiwfis tFj;jy;.
xU ehl;ilg; gw;wp> xU FLk;gj;ijg; gw;wp.
 njhlh;gzp
xU kd;wj;ijg; gw;wp> xU thypgf; FOitg; gw;wpa Ma;Nt jdpahs; Ma;T.
viii) tpdh thpir Kiw : fs Ma;T Kiw  cstpaypYk;> r%ftpaypYk; ngUksT gad;gLfpwJ.
(fs Ma;T Kiw = fy;tp cstpay; + r%f cstpay;)
 fy;tp cstpay;
 r%f cstpay;
tpdh thpir Kiwia Kjd; Kjypy; cstpay; Muha;rr
; pf;Fg; gad;gLj;jpath; gpuhd;rp]; (England)
 fhy;ld;
d : Gs;spapay; mbg;gilapy; jdpegh; NtWghLfis mstpl;lth;.
 thf;nfLg;G xU tifahd tpdh thpir Kiw.
ix) Ntw;Wik Kiw : Muhag;gLk; gpur;rpidapy; ekJ FWf;fb
P d;wp ,aw;ifahfNt fhzg;gLk; ,U khWgl;l
(m) NtWgl;l epiyfis xg;gpl;L Nehf;fp KbntLf;Fk; Kiw.

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x) Ngl;b Kiw : jpl;lkpl;l Ngl;b> jpl;lkplhj Ngl;b.


 NeUf;F Neh; njhlh;G.
xi) ghpNrhjid Kiw : ,J tpQ;Qhdg; G+h;tkhd Kiw.
 cstpay; Nrhjidfs; vg;nghOJNk caphpdq;fs; kPJ elj;jg;gLk;.
 3 tif khwpfs;
khwpfs :(v.fh) :
i)

Njh;Tr; rhjidapy; Ez;zwptpd; gq;F.

jdpj;jpaq;Fk; khwp - Ez;zwpT. (Independent Variable)

ii) rhh;e;jpaq;Fk; khwp - Njh;Tr; Nrhjid. (Dependent Variable) Only Nos.


iii) FWf;fL
P khwp - gbf;Fk; gof;fk;> ngw;Nwhh;fspd; fy;tp.
 Nrhjid
Nrhjid Kiwfs;
Kiwfs :i)

xU FO ghpNrhjid Kiw.

ii) ,U FO ghpNrhjid Kiw.


FO ::- 1

fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l FO (Control Group)

FO ::- 2

Nrhjidf; FO (Experimental Group)

xii) jpus; gjpNtL Kiw : xU khzthpd; fy;tp tuyhw;iwg; gw;wpaJ.


 ,J ml;ilahfNth my;yJ ciwahfNth my;yJ rpW Gj;jf tbtpNyh ,Uf;fyhk;.
 cstpaypd; gphpTfs; (Branches of Psychology)
i) nghJ cstpay;
cstpay
Kjph;rr
; paile;j rhjhuz kdpjdpd; elj;ijia tpthpf;Fk;.
,g;gphptpy; Gyd;fhl;rp> kdntOr;rp czh;T> Cf;Ftpj;jy;> fw;wy;> rpe;jpj;jy; Nghd;wit
mlq;Fk;.
jdpahs; Ntw;WikAk; mlq;Fk;.
ii) Foe;ij cstpay;
cstpay
kuGf; nfhs;ifia Vw;Wf; nfhs;shjth; - thl;rd;.
Foe;ijapd; tsh;rr
; p> kuG epiy> #o;epiy.
Fotp cstpay;> Fkug;gUt cstpay;.
iii) newpgpwo; cstpay;
cstpay  kdkUj;Jt ,aYld; ,ize;jJ.
euk;G Neha;fs;> csj;jF khw;wq;fs; Nghd;w kdpjh;fspd; mrhjhuz elj;ijfis
tpthpf;Fk; gphpT.
 ,y; gphpT kd kUj;Jt ,aYld; ,ize;jJ.
 gpuha;bd; csg;gFg;gha;T Kiw nghpJk; gad;gLk;. (M];jphpah)
iv) clw;$W cstpay;
cstpay :euk;G kz;lyk;> Gyd;fs;> Rug;gpfs; Nghd;wtw;wpd; mikg;G>nray;ghL.
ehsKs;s Rug;gpfs;

nehjp

ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfs;

`hh;Nkhd;

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v) xg;gl
P L
; cstpay;
cstpay
kdpjdpd; elj;ijAld; gpw tpyq;fpdq;fspd; elj;ijfis xg;gpl;L ,tw;wpDs;
fhzg;gLk; njhlh;GfisAk;> NtWghLfisAk; mwpAk; gphpT.
kdpjd; Vs gpw tpyq;Ffs;
fs Ma;T Kiw gad;gLk; ,lq;fs;  i) fy;tp cstpay;> ii) r%f cstpay;
vi) r%f cstpay;
cstpay
FOf;fspy; gutpAs;s kdg;ghd;ikfs;> rhh;ngz;zfpfs;.
vii) eilKiw cstpay;
cstpay
njhopy; cstpay; - ikah;];
tpsk;gu cstpay;
fy;tp cstpay;
ikah;]; - njhopy; cstpaypd; tsh;rr
; pf;F cjtpath;.
viii) khdpl cstpay;
stpay
kdpj elj;ijfis tpthpf;Fk; ghlg; gphpT.
 NkYk; rpy cstpay; Kiwfs;
Kiwfs :- (5)
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

kUj;Jt cstpay; - nk];kh;


Fw;wtpay; cstpay;
njhopy;Jiw cstpay; - ikah;];
kdpjg; nghwpapay; (2-k; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpwF)
fy;tp cstpay;
fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jy; epfo;tpy; khzth;fspd; fw;wiy Nkk;gLj;Jk; Kiw.

 fy;tp cstpaypd; tiuaiw :- (Definion of Educational Psychology)


Nfhny];dpf; - (,u\;ah) ght;Nyh cstpaypd; - Xh; cl;gphpthd fy;tp cstpay; vd;gJ>
fy;tpapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; nray;KiwfspYk;> gpd;gw;wg;gLk; topKiwfspYk;> cstpay;
Nfhl;ghLfisAk;> tpjpfisAk; GFj;jp> fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jiy Nkk;gLj;Jk; KiwNa fy;tp
cstpay;.
 g;Nsh;> N[hd;]>; rpk;gr
; d; - fy;tp jj;Jt ,ay; vijf; fw;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gijr; Rl;bf;
fhl;l> fy;tp cstpay; mij vg;gbf; fw;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,ak;GfpwJ
 fy;tp cstpaypd; tiuaiwfs; :
FNuh & FNuh - cstpay; vd;gJ kdpjdpd; elj;ij> kdpj cwT Kiwfisg; gw;wp gbg;gJ.
 FNuh kw;Wk; FNuh - 'gpwg;gpypUe;J KJik tiuf;Fk; xUtuJ fw;wy; mDgtq;fis
tpthpg;gJ jhd; fy;tp cstpay; MFk;.
 fUtp rhh; Mf;f epiyapWj;jk; (mnkhpf;fh)
 ];fpd;dh; fy;tp cstpay; fy;tpAld; rk;ge;jg;gl;l elj;ij kw;Wk; MSikj; jpwdpd; KO
msitAk; cs;slf;fpaJ.
 E.A..gPy; :
fw;wypd; jd;ik> kdpj MSik tsh;rr
; p> jdpahs; Ntw;Wikfs;> kdpj elj;ij> fy;tp
cstpay; vd;gJ fy;tpiag; gw;wp gbf;Fk; mwptpay; MFk;.
 S.re;jhdk; - nghJ cstpaypd; fUj;Jf;fisAk;> fz;Lgpbg;GfisAk; fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jypy;
vLj;jhs;tJ fy;tp cstpay;.
 vijf; fw;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W $WtJ. (g;Nsh;> N[hd;]>; rpk;gr
; d;)
 jj;Jt ,aypy; ,Ue;J Njhd;wpaJ - cstpay;  vg;gbf; fw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W $WtJ.
 cstpay; = kdapay;
 cstpay; vd;w thh;ji
; jia Kjd;Kjypy; gad;gLj;jpath; - Ulhy;/g; Nfhf;fpy; (1590)
 etPd cstpaypd; ngw;Nwhh;fs; :i) jj;Jtk; jj;Jt ,aypy; ,Ue;J Njhd;wpaJ - cstpay;.
ii) clw;$W ,ay;.

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 fy;tp cstpaypd;
cstpaypd; tuk;G :- (Nature & Scope Of Educational Psychology)
Nfhny];dpf; : (u\;ah)
fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jiy Nkk;gLj;Jk; KiwNa - fy;tp cstpay;.
i) khzhf;fhpilNa fhzg;gLk; jdpahs; NtWghLfs;
ii) Cf;fk;
iii) fw;gpj;jy; Kiwfs;
iv) kjpg;gpLk; KiwfSk; mtw;wpd; epiw - FiwfSk;
v) tFg;giw Nkyhz;ik
vi) kdeyk;
vii) xOf;fj;ij cUthf;Fjy;.
 H.C.ypz;
.ypz;l; fpNud;
fpNud : (5)
i) fw;gth; (khzth;)
ii) fw;Fk; Kiwfs;
iii) fw;Fk; mDgtq;fs;
iv) fw;Fk; #o;epiyfs;
v) fw;gpg;gth; (Mrphpah;)
 fhhprhDk; mtuJ rfhf;fSk;
Sk : (4)
i) Foe;ijAk; mjd; tsh;rr
; pAk;
ii) fw;Fk; - fw;gpf;Fk; Kiwfs;
iii) khzhf;fuJ tsh;rr
; pia kjpg;gpLjy;
iv) Foe;ijf;F topfhl;Ljy;.
 E.A..gPy; :
fy;tp cstpay; vd;gJ fw;wypd; jd;ik> kdpj MSik tsh;rr
; p> jdpahs; Ntw;Wikfs;>
kdpj elj;ijiar; r%f #oypd; mbg;gilapy; Muha;jy;
 cstpay; Nfhl;ghLfs;
hLfs : (1800 to 1930) (Theories of Psychology)
i) mikg;gpay; Nfhl;ghL (tpy;ypak; N[k;]>; tpy;nfy;k; cz;l); - N[k;]>; cz;l;
cstpay; vd;W edT epiy mwptpay; vd;W $wpath;.
ii) elj;ijapay; Nfhl;ghL : [hd; gp.thl;rd; (1930) - mnkhpf;fh. (elj;ij thjp)
 xUthpd; elj;ijia mth; ,Uf;Fk; #oiyf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjhy; khw;w KbAk;.
eha; - u\;ah
vyp - mnkhpf;fh
ght;Nyh> ];fpd;dh; (fUtprhh; Mf;f epiyapWj;jk;)
iii) KOikf; fhl;rpf; Nfhl;ghL : khf;]; nth;jpkh; (1912) - n[h;kdp
 jj;Jtk; :nf];lhy;l; - German Word.
KOik> tbtk;> Njhw;wk;.
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Whole > Parts.
 cstpay; Nehf;Ffs; :- (7)
i) elj;ij rhh;e;j Nehf;F
ii) GydwpT Nehf;F
iii) caphpay; Nehf;F
iv) ghpzhk tsh;rr
; p Nehf;F
v) tsh;rr
; p rhh;e;j Nehf;F
vi) Mo;kd Nehf;F
vii) r%f> gz;ghl;L Nehf;F.
 cstpay; gphpTfs;
gphpTfs : mnkhpf;f ehl;L cstpay; fofk; (1999) $w;W. cyfk; KOtJk; 5 yl;rk; cstpay;
mwpQh;fs; cs;sdh;.
 cstpay; vd;gJ elj;ijiaAk; mwptpg;Gyr; nray;ghLfisAk; tpthpf;Fk; mwptpay;.

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 uhgh;l; A.ghud; (2001) - 9 cstpay; gphpTfs;.


i) kUj;Jt kdg; gpwo;T cstpay;. (kUj;Jt cstpay; - nk];kh;)
ii) mwpTiu gfh;jy; cstpay;
iii) tsh;rr
; p rhh; cstpay;
iv) fy;tp cstpay;
v) ghpNrhjid cstpay;
vi) mwpjd;ik cstpay;
vii) epWtd cstpay;
viii) ghpzhk tsh;rr
; p cstpay;
ix) r%f cstpay;
 fy;tp cstpaypd; gFjpfs;
gFjpfs :- (6)
tsh;jYk; tsh;rr
; pAk;
fw;wy;
Cf;Fik
jdpahs; Ntw;Wikfs;
(mwpthz;ik> MSik> Mh;tk; Nghd;wit)
v) ,zf;fkhd elj;ij.
vi) FO rhh;e;j elj;ij.

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

 fy;tp cstpaypd; Fwpf;Nfhs;fs; :- (3)


Nf[;> ngh;ypdh; (1975)
i) elj;ijfisg; Ghpe;J nfhs;Sjy;
ii) elj;ijiaf; fzpj;jy;.
iii) elj;ijiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jjy;.
 fy;tp cstpaypd; 3 Kf;fpaf; $Wfs; :i) khzth;
ii) fw;gpf;Fk; Kiwfs;
iii) fw;Fk; #oy;.
 fy;tp cstpay;
cstpay; MrphpaUf;F cjTk; topfs; :- (Significance of Educational Psychology to the
Teachers)
i) tsh;rr
; p gw;wpa cstpaywpT.
ii) fw;wy; gw;wpa cstpaywpT.
iii) Cf;Fik gw;wpa cstpaywpT.
iv) jdpahs; Ntw;Wik gw;wpa cstpaywpT.
v) ,zf;fkhd elj;ij gw;wpa cstpaywpT.
vi) FO elj;ij gw;wpa cstpaywpT.
EXTRA POINTS (NkYk; rpy)
 r%f mstpay;
1) xU FOtpy; cs;s cWg;gpdh;fSf;F ,ilNa epyTk; nghJthd r%f cwTfspd;
jd;ikia mse;jwpa cjTk; fUtp - r%f mstpay; mstPlL
; f; Nfs;tpfs;.
 r%f tiuglk; tiujy; ::i) khzth;fs; (rJuk;)
ii) khztpfs;

(Kf;Nfhzk;)

iii) xU khzth; / khztpapd; tpUg;gk;


iv) xUtiu xUth; tpUk;gpdhy; A
B
C
D

(mk;Gf;Fwp)
(,UKidf;NfhL)

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 xU ez;gh;fs; tl;lk; : C, D,
xUtiu xUth; tpUk;Gth; (,UKidf;NfhL)
 xw;iwah; - B  ahUk; tpUk;g khl;lhh;fs;.
 el;rj;jpuk; - C
 ,ul;ilah; - D, E
jdpahs; tif Ma;T :
 tifj; jd;ikAila xUtiu Mokhf Muha;e;jwpjYf;Fj; jdpahs; tif Ma;T vdg; ngah;.
 kd Nehahspfspd; MSikg; gpur;rpidfis jdpahs; tif Ma;tpd; %yk; jPh;j;jth; gpuha;L. M];jphpah (csg;gFg;Gf; Nfhl;ghL)
 rpW Foe;ijfspd; mwpTg; Gy tsh;rr
; pia jdpahs; tif Ma;tpd; %yk; jPh;j;jth; - gpahN[.
 tifj; jd;ik :xUthplk; fhzg;gLk; nghJg; gz;Gfisg; NghyNt ,d;Dk; gyhplKk; XusthtJ
fhzg;gl;lhy; mth; tifj; jd;ik cilath; Mthh;.
xU FO ghpNrhjid Kiw
 ghpNrhjid Kiw :
,U FO ghpNrhjid Kiw
jdpj;jpaq;Fk; khwpfshy; rhh;e;jpaq;Fk; khwpapd; Nky; Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fs; (m) tpisTfis
mse;jwpag; gad;gLj;Jk; Kiw - ghpNrhjid Kiw.
(Indepent Variable  depandent variable)
1) jdpj;jpaq;Fk; khwpfs;
khwpfs :- Independent variables (Quality)
 Muha;rr
; pahsuhy; ifahsf;$ba (m) khw;wpaikf;ff; $ba khwp.
(v.fh)
Mrphpah; gad;gLj;Jk; fw;gpj;jy; Kiwfs;.
2) rhh;e;jpaq;Fk; khwpfs; :-

(Dependent Variables) Quality

 Muha;rr
; pahsuhy; mse;jwpaf; $ba khwp.
(v.fh)
khzthpd; kjpg;ngz;fs;. (Only Numbers)
3) FWf;fl
P L
; khwpfs; : Muha;rr
; pahsuhy; fl;Lg;gLj;j Kbahj Mdhy;> rhh;e;jpaq;F khwpapd; gz;Gfisg;
ghjpf;ff;$ba khwpfs;.
(v.fh)

ghypdk;> mwpthz;ik> FLk;gg; nghUshjhuk;> ngw;Nwhh;fspd; fy;tp.

ghpNrhjid Kiwapd; gz;Gfs; :i) fl;Lg;ghL


ii) ifahSjy;
iii) cw;WNehf;Fjy; (GwNehf;FKiw)
jpl;lkpl;l Ngl;b
Neh;Kfk;
fk :-  Ngl;b
jpl;lkplhj Ngl;b
 thahy; Nfl;fg;gLk; tpdhj; njhFg;G
 Nfs;tp Nfl;gth; - Neh;Kfk; fhz;gth;
 gjpy; mspg;gth; - Neh;Kfk; fhzg;gLgth;
tiffs; :i) tiuaWj;j Neh;Kfk; :- jpl;lkpl;l Ngl;b
 %ba Nfs;tpaikg;Gfs;
(v.fh) :- 1) cdf;Ff; fzf;Fg; ghlk; gpbf;Fkh? Mk; / ,y;iy
2) cdf;Fg; gpbf;fhj ghlk; vJ?
m) fzf;F
M) Mq;fpyk;
,) mwptpay;
ii) tiuapyh Neh;Kfk;
jpl;lkplhj Ngl;b (In-definite & Open)
fk; : jpwe;j Nfs;tpaikg;G.
(v.fh) :- 1) cdf;Fg; gpbf;fhj ghlk; vJ? Vd;?
2) eP Xa;T Neuj;jpy; vd;d nra;a tpUk;Gtha;?

<) jkpo;