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Class Case Study: (Please note: student name has been changed to respect student privacy)

Establishing expectations
Giving Instructions

Language of Expectation

Scenario one: Riley, a year nine history student at times refuses to complete se tasks and subsequently disrupts
classmates around him. Riley has experienced a growth spurt and is a taller and larger in comparison to his peers. When
Riley refuses to participate and complete class tasks he often gets out of his chair, he can become aggressive in his
mannerisms as he uses his physical presence to intimidate surrounding students.
Essenti Example Response to Scenario
Link to A&P: Sense of Comfort & Order
al Skill
Reinforce the rule for Riley at each phase of the lesson. Prior to class
questions and engaging in discussions explicitly repeat and explain
purpose of class rule to the entire class without drawing specific
attention to Riley.
Rule: One person talking at a time
Purpose: so we respect and listen to all class contributions
Rule: Students remain in your chair unless otherwise instructed
Purpose: To avoid disrupting other students learning and to avoid
invading the personal space of others
If Riley does not remain seated ask questions which require Riley to
refer to the rules:
Riley, what is the rule in regards to remaining in your chair?
Riley, have you requested permission to leave your seat?
Riley, take a seat & raise your hand to request permission to leave your
chair thank you.
Ensure you have all students attention
Attention class, stop what you are doing, all eyes on the projector
screen, thank you.
Stand at the front and make brief eye contact with Riley and pause if
he is not following instructions
Present class with clear & concise instructions & expectations for
given task
Advise students of purpose and the learning outcomes that are
addressed through completing the task
Explicitly explain and model instructions and expectations for class

The Essential Skills for Classroom Management


are likely to help students experience a s sense
of comfort and order as they foster the teachers
ability to manage and implement responsible
behaviour management within the classroom. A
classroom that has clear expectations and
procedures, appropriate acknowledgement and
appropriate correction methods, creates a safe
and consistent positive learning environment for
students (Education Queensland, 2007). Having
a positive learning environment enhances the
opportunity for effective learning to take place
(Marzano& Pickering 1997).

Using the DOL strategy13: collaboratively


forming and discussing the rules and
expectations of classroom behaviour enables all
students to actively contribute to the formation
of their learning environment therefore
acknowledging and conveying what makes them
feel comfortable or uncomfortable. It also
enables the class to collectively take
responsibility in their choice of attitude,
perception and behaviour. Thus if Riley breaks
the rules and does not follow procedures he is

Descriptive Body Language


encouraging
Giving a encouragemen
Selective
choice
attending
t
Following

Language of Encouragement
Language of Correction

Walk around room and interact non verbally with students through
body language
If Riley is not remaining on task, walk slowly next to desk keeping an
appropriate distance and use presence to prompt him to regain
focus
Walking slowly and using the appropriate distance is modelling to
Riley appropriate
social
interaction
behaviour
When
Riley is on task
and
behavingand
well,
acknowledge his good

behaviour through specific - descriptive praise:


Well done Riley, your answer is well structured
Riley, it is great to see you have remained in your chair this lesson ,
well done
Riley you are behaving in an excellent manner today- keep it up

If Riley is being disruptive or making silly remarks in attempt to


distract the class:
Do not respond in an obvious manner
Make brief eye contact using the Vaseline eye strategy, make a
very brief pause to signify to the class that you have acknowledged
the bad behaviour however, refuse to become disrupted and put off
If Riley continues to be disruptive or will not participate in class
activities clarify the rules and logical consequences of the bad
behaviour through calmly and privately acknowledging Rileys
responsibility and choice of behaviour :

Riley what are you currently doing?


Riley, what should you be doing?
If Riley persists with disruptive despite advising him of his choices twice
calmly ask him to go to the Responsible Thinking Centre.
If Riley does not remain in his seat and appears to be standing over the
desk of a student despite a warning calmly however, promptly ask him

The Essential Skills Management creates a


framework for the LM to effectively implement
the DOL strategy: enforcing rules and
procedures quickly, fairly and consistently thus
effectively creates a feeling of comfort & order
within the classroom. Clear communication and
establishment of classroom rules is an effective
way of articulating a sense of order to students
within the classroom (Marzano& Pickering,
1997).
Furthermore, the rules explicitly prevent the
acceptance and tolerance of any threatening
and harmful behaviour to ensure the students
experience a sense of comfort and order
(Marzano& Pickering, 1997).
Rileys aggressive displays of behaviour such as
standing over the desks of class mates could
make other students feel threatened and
intimidated. Therefore, this negative atmosphere
can prevent optimal learning as students could
become distressed and worried for their safety.
The Essential Skills Management enables the LM
to manage this behaviour and reduce the
potential risks of Riley having an aggressive
outburst. It enables the teacher to effectively
model how to deal with disruptive behaviour

Attitudes & Perceptions Classroom Climate: Sense of Comfort and Order


Scenario one: James, a year ten English student constantly calls out inappropriate remarks in an attempt to get the
attention of the class. James behaviour becomes significantly disruptive as he calls out during crucial instruction and
explanation phases of the class.

Essential
Skill

Example Response to Scenario

Link to A & P: Sense of Comfort & Order

Establishing
expectation
s

Reinforce the rule for James at each phase of the lesson. Prior to
class questions and engaging in discussions explicitly repeat and
explain purpose of class rule to the entire class.
Rule: One person talking at a time

Language of Expectation

Purpose: so we respect the learning of our classmates and listen


to all class contributions
If James call comments ask questions which require James to
refer to the rules:
James, what is the rule in regards to calling out whilst I am
speaking?
James, why do we have this rule?
Cuing with
parallel
acknowledg
e
-ment

Scan the classroom regularly and acknowledge through verbal


praise such as:
Katie is doing an outstanding job at following my instructions;
sitting quietly and reading independently

Language of

Descriptive
encouragem
ent

non -verbal praise students or groups that are focused and


engaged on the given task such as smiling
Select a student who is close to James signifying you are only
choosing to pay attention to good behaviour thus James will
understand that his calling out is not disrupting the LMs
focus.
This will model to other students how to respond to James
disruptive remarks.

When James is listening, on task and behaving well, acknowledge


his good behaviour through specific - descriptive praise:
Well done James, your answer is well structured
James you listened well to the instructions today
James thank you for that excellent response

The Essential Skills for Classroom Management


are likely to help students experience a s sense
of comfort as the guidelines enable the teacher
to manage and implement responsible behaviour
management within the classroom (Education
Queensland, 2007).
Optimal learning takes place in a positive
environment (Marzano & Pickering, 1997). A
classroom that has clear expectations and
procedures, appropriate acknowledgement and
appropriate correction methods, creates a
consistent positive learning environment for
students (Education Queensland, 2007).
Using the DOL strategy of communicating rules
and procedures by discussing their rationale
enhances students understanding of Why these
particular rules are enforced. Requesting James
to refer to the no calling out rule and asking
him to explain the logic of the rule allows him in
this moment to acknowledge and reflect on its
purpose. Explaining the logic that underpins the
rule enable James to not feel as though he is
being forced to behave a way for no particular
reason (Marzano& Pickering, 1997).
In addition having these established rules
ensures that students learning are not
significantly disrupted and assurance that the
teacher has control of the classroom therefore,
the student can focus all of their thoughts on the
given task at hand and not potentially become

Encouragement
Language of Correction

Body
Language
encouragem
ent

Selective
attending

When James is listening, on task and behaving well, acknowledge


his good behaviour through encouraging body language.
Smile when he is sitting attentively
Nod politely when he is offering a contribution to class
discussions
Touch his work if he is actively completing it
If James is becoming of task slowly walk towards his desk
using your presence to prompt him to get back on task
If James is being disruptive or making silly remarks in attempt to
distract the class:
Do not respond in an obvious manner
Make brief eye contact using the Vaseline eye strategy,
make a very brief pause to signify to the class that you have
acknowledged the bad behaviour however, refuse to become
disrupted and put off task thus modelling the ability to remain
focussed despite surrounding disruptions.
Alternatively selectively attend James good behaviour through
verbal or nonverbal encouragement
If the behaviour persists then it is important to outline the
choices and consequences of persisting with disruptive
behaviour.

Giving
a choice

If James continues to be disruptive clarify the rules and logical


consequences of the bad behaviour through calmly and privately
acknowledging James responsibility and choice of behaviour :
James what are you currently doing?
James, what should you be doing?
James, what will happen if you continue to display this
behaviour?
James, you can choose to either modify your behaviour
accordingly or participate in the lesson with your class mates, or
face the consequences of being sent to the Responsible Thinking
Centre if you continue to follow this line of behaviour the choice
is yours James. I would like to see you chose the first option
positive reinforcement

distressed if they feel as though they have


missed information or misunderstood
explanations due to other students disrupting
their and the teachers attention ((Marzano&
Pickering, 1997).

Using varying positive reinforcement whilst


cuing with parallel acknowledgement enables
James to visualise what is acceptable behaviour
in order to guide his own without specifically and
consistently pinpointing his incorrect behaviour.
This creates a sense of comfort in the classroom
as it is focusing on positive rather than negative
behaviour
(Marzano& Pickering, 1997).

Following
through

If James persists on calling out constant disruptions taking the


students focus away from the instructions and their given tasks
and refuses to modify his behaviour when given two
opportunities to review his choice, James is to be sent to the
Responsible Thinking Centre

References
Marzano, R. J. & Pickering, D. J. (1997). Dimensions of learning: Teachers manual.
Colorado, USA: McREL.

ODonnell, Dobozy, Bartett, Bryer, Reeve and Smith. (2012) Educational Psychology 1st
edition.
QLD: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Queensland Government Education Queensland. (2007). Better Behaviour Better


Learning Essential
Skills for Classroom Management: Core Learning Component. Retrieved from
http://moodle.cqu.edu.au/pluginfile.php/261410/course/section/39447/corelearningessen
tialskills.pdf

Queensland Government Education Queensland Studies Authority. (2013). Australian


Curriculum: English
Year 10 content descriptor. Retrieved from http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/yr10-englishcurriculum.html